Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518

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Experimental thermal performance of a solar source heat-pump system
for residential heating in cold climate region
Kadir Bakirci a, *, Bedri Yuksel b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, 10569 Balikesir, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Solar source heat pump systems present tremendous environmental benefits when compared to the
Received 21 September 2010 conventional systems for residential applications. In addition to not exhausting natural resources, their main
Accepted 20 January 2011 advantage is, in most cases, total absence of almost any air emissions or waste products. In order to inves-
Available online 1 February 2011
tigate the performance of a solar source and energy stored heat-pump system in the province of Erzurum, an
experimental set-up was constructed, which consisted of twelve flat-plate solar collector, a sensible heat
energy storage tank, a water-to-water plate heat exchanger, a liquid-to-liquid vapor compression heat pump,
Solar energy
water circulating pumps and other measurement equipments. The experiments were carried out from
Experimental thermal performance
Heat pump
January to June of 2004 and, the collector efficiency (hc), the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and
Cold climate the system performance (COPS) were calculated. In these months performed of the experiments, the outdoor
Turkey temperature range varies from 10.8  C to 14.6  C. This study shows that the system could be used for
residential heating in the province of Erzurum having the coldest climate of Turkey.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Solar energy systems and heat pumps are two promising means
of reducing the consumption of fossil energy resources (coal,
In the future the world’s energy supply must become more petroleum etc.), and hopefully, the cost of delivered energy for
sustainable. This means that it must meet the basic needs of the residential heating. An intelligent extension is to try to combine the
poor worldwide without using up in this process the limited two to further reduce the cost of delivered energy. In general, it is
natural resources to the detriment of future generations. This can widely believed that combined systems will save energy, but what
be achieved by a more efficient use of energy and relying on is not often known is the magnitude of the possible energy saving
renewable sources of energy, particularly wind, hydropower, solar and the value of those savings relative to the additional expense [5].
and geothermal energy [1]. Although solar space heat is a mature technology and reliable
Solar energy arriving on earth is the most fundamental renew- design methods exist, the size and cost of an active solar heating
able energy source in nature. Solar energy occupies one of the most system, which depend not only on the heat collected but also on the
important places among various alternative energy sources [2]. storage facilities, affect its successful utilization on a large scale.
Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable and domestic One attractive way to reduce the collection and storage require-
energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable ments is to utilize a solar source heat-pump system for heat supply,
energy future [3]. including domestic hot water and space heating. The low temper-
Costing of energy resources remains inequitable, as it does not ature thermal requirement of a heat pump makes it an excellent
include subsidies, or environmental and other consequences. match for the use of low temperature solar energy and, as such,
Development of renewable energy, and of all energy systems for that adds the benefit of a smaller solar energy system, with its lower
matter, is dominated by the highly controlled, cost-unrelated, highly associated cost [6]. The idea of combining the heat pump and solar
fluctuating and unpredictable conventional energy prices. Fuel and energy has been proposed and the performance of these systems
energy consumption in general must be significantly constrained, has been experimentally analyzed by several researchers in the
with due attention to prevention of the rebound effects [4]. literature [7e12].
Chaturvedi et al. [13] analyzed two-stage direct expansion solar-
assisted heat pump for high temperature applications. Compari-
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ90 442 2314846; fax: þ90 442 2360957.
sons between the two-stage and the single-stage direct expansion
E-mail address: (K. Bakirci). solar-assisted heat pump systems were performed and presented.

1359-4311/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

the collector efficiency.64 m2 effective absorber areas. Kaygusuz et al. systems in the open literature [25. the temperature variation of the energy gate the performance of a solar source heat pump system with storage tank and the temperatures of the heat transfer fluid in the energy storage for residential heating in the Black Sea region of solar collectors and energy storage tank for the heat pump system Turkey. The solar source heat pump system linked to a sensible heat imental results have been obtained on the efficiency and drying energy storage tank was installed in the Energy Laboratory quality of a solar-assisted heat pump drying prototype system. They overview of the system installed is given in Fig.7  C). 2. The heat pump COP et al.26]. A schematic system and energy storage for domestic heating in Turkey. 1. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 1509 Nomenclature Subscripts aw heat transfer fluid (ethylene glycolewater mixture in Acol solar collector area (m2) 50% by volume) COP heat-pump coefficient of performance col collector COPS all system’s coefficient of performance com compressor C specific heat (kJ/kg. K.00 m and 2. The copper plate had 1. Bakirci. determine the performance of a heat pump system with solar tigated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. Atatürk University. maximum and mean . The solar-assisted heat pump with a traditional flat-plate solar panel for solar collectors were installed at an angle of 50 from the horizontal low temperature water heating applications. mance. Gortari and Reyes [20] performed the experiments on made of a pipe and fin type. [19] investigated the solar-assisted heat pump Erzurum placed on the East Anatolian Region of Turkey. a number of studies have been carried out by various researches in order to analyze the performance of solar 2. sheet. The heat storage tank was insulated entirely by literature [31e35]. both are water-cooled shall-tube type heat exchanger. [14] examined the solar-assisted heat-pump dryer In the present study. while the studies related to the region with cold climate and with sensible heat energy storage are few in The experimental solar source heat pump system was estab- numbers. [22] investigated the experimental performance analysis and a 4 mm thick glass cover. Therefore. (approximately having an area of 175 m2). Sozen et al. Scarpa et al. The mass flow rate of the heater. Also. the performances of the solar. pump system was a hermetic-scroll type which was driven by tion heat pump system operated by solar energy. the objective of this study is to experimentally lished and tested in Erzurum province having an altitude of 1869 m analyze the performance of a solar source heat pump system with and the coldest climate in Turkey (yearly average lowest temper- sensible heat energy storage in Erzurum. The climatic conditions of Erzurum for long-term climate for space heating. average values (monthly average minimum. The performance of the system has been inves. [15] constructed an experimental set-up in order to investi. Best et al.50 m long. Ozgener and Hepbasli [17] investigated experimental performance analysis of a solar source ground-source heat pump 2. Comakli collectors and a sensible energy storage tank.180 kg/s. an experimental study was performed to and water heater. Li sides with glass wool.1. [18] carried out an experimental study of a solar-assisted heat pump system for rice drying. B. The heat storage tank was several researchers [27e30]. and investigated its thermal perfor. Weather data source heat pump systems. Yumrutas and Kaska [16] designed and constructed an were investigated. Turkey having a cold ature is 4. The thermodynamic analysis The storage tank was vertically made of sheet iron. Exper. experimentally investigated and compared the solar-assisted series The solar collectors used in this system were constructed by heat pump system with storage and parallel heat pump system modifying flat-plate water-cooled collectors.K) con condenser Ii Incident solar radiation (W/m2) cwo condenser water outlet m_ mass flow rate of water in the system (kg/s) ewi plate heat exchanger water inlet Q_ heat extracted (kW) i incident surface T temperature ( C) p circulation pump V_ volumetric flow rate (l/s) st storage tank W _ compressor power (kW) stt top region temperature of storage tank wV_ total uncertainty in the volumetric flow rate of the stu under region temperature of storage tank water w water hcol collector efficiency r density (kg/m3) Hawlader et al. a 1491 W electrical motor. the absorber unit consists of nine a solar-assisted heat pump with direct expansion of the refrigerant copper tubes fitted longitudinally at 0. The compressor used for the solar source heat studied on the development and testing of a prototype of absorp. Description of the experimental set-up for greenhouse heating. Each collector was with storage. linked to the heat pump by means of an evaporator for using as assisted heat pump systems have been theoretically analyzed in the a heat source. and had of the solar-assisted heat pump systems has been carried out by a diameter of 1. Also. The heat pump had an evaporator and The studies related to the design of the solar-assisted heat pump condenser. The top of the metal box was glazed with et al. pump system from January to June in 2004 were calculated. The Huang and Lee [21] examined the solar-assisted heat pump water plate was painted with black board paint and placed inside a metal heater and derived a simple linear correlation for the performance box made of aluminum sheet and insulated at the bottom and all evaluation of different solar-assisted heat pump water heater. all experimental solar source heat pump space heating system with system’s COPS and energy consumption of the solar source heat a daily energy storage tank. and all system COPS. heat pump COP. As mentioned above. [24] and faced due south. [23] compared a direct expansion integrated heat transferring fluid through the collectors was 0. Twelve collectors were connected in optimization of a direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water a parallel combination as shown in Fig.1 m pitch across copper within the solar collector and an exergy analysis of the system. a 120 mm thick glass wool [36].

a heat 4870 [37]. This situation supply that the region has a cold climate.1510 K. 1. 3. pump with water-to-refrigerant heat exchanger. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 Fig. a water-cooled As seen in Table 1. this system. solar radiation. Bakirci. b) Outside view of the system. the hot water which comes from the collectors. while it is minimum in June for the months of the cold a water circulating pump and other conventional equipments. a) schematic representation of the system. in January. a sensible energy storage tank. sunshine durations and heating degree days for the cold season) are given in Table 1. 1. the system consists of conventional flat-plate heating degree days for Erzurum with a base temperature of 18  C is water cooled solar collectors. The annual As shown in Fig. the energy requirement for heating is maximum evaporator and condenser. outdoor temperature. first . the monthly averages of relative humidity. a water-to-water plate heat exchanger. Solar source heat pump system with storage wind velocity. In season (from January to June). B.

6 8. a) Connection schematic of the solar collector group.1 2.3 2.1 3.2 Average sunshine duration (h) 6.9 16.4 3. Bakirci.2 4. the heat transfer fluid is sent to the solar collectors hcol ¼ (3) Acol Ii by a water-circulating pump.6 16.7 10.0 19. However.4 3.8 10. Uncertainty analysis _ con Cw ðTcwo  Tewi Þ m Experimental errors and uncertainties can result from instru- COPS ¼ (2) W_ com þ W _ Sp ment selection. Calculation of the experimental results where T1 is the temperature of the collector inlet and T2 is the temperature of the collector outlet of heat transfer fluid.4 5.0 56. The useful The COP of the heat pump is calculated as: heat obtained from the condenser Q_ con is also calculated as: _ con Cw ðTcwo  Tewi Þ m Q_ con ¼ m _ con Cw ðTcwo  Tewi Þ (5) COP ¼ (1) W _ com The COPS of the whole system are given by 5. K.1 3.8 0.3 Average relative humidity (%) 64. and flows to the evaporator for using as a heat source. May Jun.6 77.8 4.0 Average solar radiation(MJ/m2.3 3.9 23.6 11.8 3.9 7. and thus is used as a heat source by the water-source evaporator in the Q_ col daytime. Q_ col ¼ m _ col Caw ðT2  T1 Þ (4) 4.0 17.5 Maximum outdoor temperature ( C) 12. Uncertainty Table 1 Climatic condition of Erzurum for long-term average values. it is passed from the plate-heat exchanger. condition and calibration of the instrument as well as environmental conditions and reading errors.6 Minimum outdoor temperature ( C) 2. Feb.9 2. 2. The cold water extracts energy from the energy storage 50% by volume) and can be calculated as: tank.7 60.7 5.8 17.7 54. Average outdoor temperature ( C) 4.55  N.) 4870 889 784 674 385 236 103 .9 12.9 Average degree days (for 18  C base temp.3 15. at nights and cloudy days. Mar. Finally.4 2.7 5.16  E Climatic values Yearly Jan.9 Average wind velocity (m/s) 2.5 73.6 9. Latitude: 39. b) Outside view of a solar collection group. goes to the energy storage tank where it releases some energy to Also the instantaneous collector efficiency is given as follows: the storage.1 75. water with lower temperature that comes from the evaporator of where Q_ col is the useful heat received from the collector and the heat pump is sent to the energy storage tank instead of the solar transferred to heat transfer fluid (ethylene glycolewater mixture in collectors.0 3. longitude: 41.8 16. B. then. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 1511 Fig.3 22.2 10.7 9.7 2. Apr.

the temperature of the condenser water outlet.5 3. The experiments were performed under Daily average values of 57 measurements from 9.00%) given in the catalog of the rotameter used in the experimental system. the uncertainties in the other priate for floor heating.00 clear sky conditions so that a quasi-steady state could be realized. The condenser outlet The total uncertainty in the measurement of the volumetric flow temperature is about 32e58  C. Therefore. In this case. the mean The total uncertainty in the measurement of the volumetric flow value of the heat pump COP. Turkey experimentally. the COPS of the whole system and the rate of the water wV_ may be calculated as follows [39e41]: average collector efficiencies have been deduced from the experi-  1=2 mental data...4 3. which was noon. pressure drops. B. Taking into account an uncertainty value of 0.54 0. wm_ ¼ wr þ wV_ 2 (10) vr vV_  Measurement of the electrical power input to the circulating pump by a wattmeter. . [38] as " 2  2  2 #1=2 vR vR vR WR ¼ w þ w2 þ/ þ wn (8) vx1 1 vx2 vxn where the result R is a given function of the independent variables x1. and given in Table 2. in the heating mode over the period from January to June 2004.m. x2. xn and w1. m_ neering Faculty of Atatürk University. . "   2 #1=2  Measurement of the outdoor air temperatures and humidity by _ 2 2 vm vm_ Meteorological Station. Besides. Fig. Mar.48 0. floor heating should be rate of the water in the radiators by using a rotameter and the preferred to radiator since it is more suitable than radiator for uncertainty arising in calculating the mass flow rate of the water supply temperatures of 40e45  C.8 3.  Measurement of the instantaneous power consumptions of the 6. COPS (average) 2. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 analysis is needed to prove the accuracy of the experiments [17]. wsl is the uncertainty associated with the system leakages (%) which is the value of the accuracy (5. Apr. As shown in where wro is the uncertainty in the rotameter reading (%). The temperatures For most runs. wn are the uncertainties in the inde- pendent variables.  Measurement of the condenser and evaporator pressures by _ ¼ rV_ m (9) Bourdon-type manometers. We have analyzed the performance of the solar source heat The tests were conducted on the solar source heat pump system pump system with a sensible heat energy storage in Erzurum.40 0.60 liquid phase by a flowmeter. measured and calculated parameters are determined in a similar In the experimental study performed from January to June of fashion. Results and discussions compressor by an electronic counter.40] and inserting the numerical temperature from heating unit by copper-constantan values of uncertainty yields as follow: thermocouples.3 mixture (approximately 50% by volume) by a rotameter.  Measurement of the temperature of the watereethylene glycol solution entering and leaving the solar collector by copper. proposed by Holman [38]. .6 2. of the collector from 300 to 1050 W/m2. p. Feb. appropriate instruments explained below: Temperature of condenser 32e43 35e48 42e51 42e53 42e53 43e58 water outlet ( C)  Measurement of mass flow rates of the ethylene glycolewater COP (average) 3. w2. Table 2 The uncertainty analysis can be performed using a method Results obtained in the experimental study (from January to June). with an interval of 15 min were taken. wtd is the uncertainty associated with the temperature differences (density differences) (%) given as:  1=2 wV_ ¼ 1:252 þ 5:002 þ 0:752 ¼ 5:208% (7) The uncertainties arising in the calculating results (such as wR) due to several independent variables are given in Ref.7 2.7 3.8 3. 2004.9 2.20% in the  Measurement of the inlet water temperature to and exit water thermophysical properties [39. voltages and currents were measured by Jan. Calculated values Months in cold season flow rates.00 a. h i1=2  Measurement of the solar flux by a pyranometer in the mete. the temperatures. In the present study. to 23.m. May Jun.8 2. Bakirci. Fig.1512 K.38 0. 3.7 2. the system is appro- are given in the following.5  Measurement of the mass flow rates of the refrigeration in hcol (average) 0.44 0. wm_ ¼ ð0:2Þ2 þð5:208Þ2 ¼ 5:212% (11) orological station installed in the Energy Laboratory of Engi. The data were obtained for global solar radiation on the plane later used for analysis. The uncertainty in calculating the mass flow rate wm_ may be constantan thermocouples (by assisted data acquisition card) found as follows: mounted on the unit of water inlet and outlet lines. the system was started well ahead of solar noon and measured by the thermocouples were monitored in a computer the quasi-steady state of the operation was usually achieved around and recorded by data acquisition card in every second. Solar radiation Ii (W/m2) versus time of day. 3 shows the variation of total wV_ ¼ w2ro þ w2sl þ w2td (6) solar radiation on the tilted-surface with time of day.

Fig. the evaporator has maximum energy storage temperature versus months during the received energy from the storage. Measuring range (W/m2) 0 to 1800 ported fluid (watereethylene glycol) versus time of day. Maximum energy storage tank temperature versus months. 4 varies from 33 to 47 orator inlet is at a maximum value for a local time of 16:00 because percent around the day. steadily between 35 and 48  C. solar radiation Fig. In this study.64 loop was closed. As shown Resolution and units (W/m2) 1 in Fig. Energy storage tank information Fig. 7.47 Compressor displacement (m3/h) 5. Thus. But the temperature of the evap- The collector efficiency shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. . T2 and T3) are maximum at around Collector information solar noon. temperature is increasing steadily from January to June due to the total solar radiation increased over this period (from January to June). Bakirci. Also. Pyranometer information collector outlet (T2) and heat exchanger inlet (T3) of heat-trans. 3. The temperature change in the energy storage tank versus time of day. so again T4 increased at the local experiments. As shown in Volume of water in store (l) 2000 Wall thickness (mm) 7 Diameter (mm) 1000 Surface area of serpentine (m2) 4 Flowmeters Measuring range (watereethylene glycol) (l/h) 150e1500 Measuring range (refrigerant) (l/h) 25e250 Measuring range (water in condenser 535 and evaporator) (l/min) Circulation pump(watereethylene glycol and water circuit) Type (three-stage variable speed. which is approximately 1050 W/m2. the solar energy charging period has been mass flow rate in collectors (l/h) completed. Fig. 220e240 V/1e50 Hz) Heat pump information Compressor type (power supply: 220e240 V/1e50 Hz) Hermetic-scroll Evaporator type Shall-and-tube Condenser type Shall-and-tube Compressor power input (kW) 1. Daily average values of 57 measurements taken from 9. 8. the maximum energy storage time of 17:00. 6 also shows the collector loop was closed. 5.m. 4. the temperature of T2 is equal to T3 at local time of Type (copper tube and fin) Flat-plate 16:00 when the sun set and the circulating pump for the collector Glass number Single Collector area (m2) 1. 6. all the temperatures (T1. 5 illustrates the temperature change the sun set between the local times of 15:00 and 16:00 and the in the energy storage tank versus time of day. Table 4. the Capacity (l) 3. Collector efficiency versus time of day.00 p. Main element Technical specification Fig. the total solar radiation is maximum at around solar noon. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 1513 Fig. 7 demonstrates the temperatures of the collector inlet (T1). the temperature of condenser outlet (Tcwo) is varying incident on the collector aperture is measured with a pyranometer.34 Compressor rotation speed (rpm) 2900 Water mass flow rate in evaporator (l/h) 450 Water mass flow rate in condenser (l/h) 600 Refrigerant type R-134a Fig.00 Table 3 a. The technical details of the experimental set-up are given in Table 3. B. TOPe S30/10 power supply. with an interval of 15 min are also given in Technical specification of the experimental set-up. to 23. K.5 storage outlet temperature becomes higher than the storage inlet Watereethylene glycol 600 temperature. Fig. 8 shows the temperatures of the evaporator inlet (T4) and Type Cylindrical condenser outlet (Tcwo) of water versus time of day.m. After this local time. Fig. This means that the incident solar energy on the Collector number 12 collector surface has decreased very fast. After that time. 6.

10. 2004.5 to 3.98 Mpa 2.32 solar collectors.129 kW 3.93 C 1. [42] reported that the COP in the cold Fig. Bakirci.2 for Current of circulating pump at solar 0. For a comparison.32 February. B.8 to 4.01  Temperature of heat transfer 37.73 for the solar energy-source heat-pump (Q_ con ) and given to compressor (W _ com ) versus time of day.5 for a lower source temperature at the end of the cloudy versus time of day for two different days of the year.39 supplied from the solar panels to the storage tank and the evapo- rator of the heat pump ranges from 1. the amount of heat Heating COPS of the whole system 2. Conse-  Temperature of water at evaporator inlet 24.03 C 1. Amounts of energy received from condenser (Q_ con ) and given to compressor inlet (T3) of heat transported fluid versus time of day. 11 versus time of day.68 A 2.30 C 1. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 Table 4 Measured parameters and experimental results in average.75 about 2.00 outlet (Tcwo) of water as well as the values of the COP and COPS increase because of increasing of solar radiation during the day.801 kW 5.01  Return water temperature of heating unit 39.00 day are graphically shown in Fig.05 Condensation pressure 1. However. Bi et al.125 kg s1 5. the temperatures of the evaporator inlet (T4) and condenser Temperature of water at evaporator outlet 20. while it is 1.968 kW 1.129 kW 3.41 from the heat exchanger.17 Outdoor air temperature 10.01 fluid at energy storage tank inlet  Temperature of heat transfer 30.1514 K. 9.01 fluid at energy storage tank outlet  Temperature of energy storage tank 30. 10 illustrates the heat pump’s COP and all system’s COPS about 2.78 solution in solar collector Flow rate of water in evaporator 0.5 to 4. Fig.5 for a higher supply temperature at the end of Fig.805 e 5. In the experiments carried out on the 17th of Cooling load of evaporatör 2.18 C 1.4 with time of an experimental solar source heat pump space heating system with day while the W _ com is approximately kept constant.00 of the heat pump is sent to the energy storage tank instead of the Heating load of condenser 3. 8.191 kW 5.46 Mpa 2.00 Evaporation pressure 0.21 Fig.26 C 1.016 kg s1 2.180 kg s1 1.4 for March 16.0 V 2.01 system (COPS) as expected. Item Value Unit Total uncertainty (%) Measured parameters Solar radiation 696 W m2 4.21 versus time of day. fluid circulating pump water with the lower temperature that comes from the evaporator Power input to the water circulating pumps 0.01 Power input to the compressor 0. . 9.15 C 1.167 kg s1 5. Yumrutas and Kaska [16] demonstrated the COP values for in Fig. (W_ com ) versus time of day.4 and 4.97 heat pump COP is observed to be higher than that of the whole  Indoor air temperature 18. The COP varies between 3.49 C 1. The water unit side outlet temperatures in the energy storage tank versus time of the Two-phase voltage 220.22 C 1. 9 shows the amount of energy received from the condenser season was found to be 2.905 kW per hour in average Heating COP of the heat pump 3.3 for February 17 and 2. the amount of the heat supplied by the store is Useful heat received from solar collectors 6.38 e 4.3 for March 16 while the COPSvary between Current of circulating pump at heating 0. or condenser Flow rate of refrigerant in heat pump unit 0. collector outlet (T2) and heat exchanger Fig.23 C 1.860 e 5. the value of the Q_ con is varying from 2.70 A 2.01 Flow rate of watereethylene glycol 0. at night.234 kW. As shown system.05  Condensing temperature 67. Also during the day. the days and is about 3.01  Evaporating temperature 12.00 collector February 17 and 3.00 The energy storage tank is used for night. 7.86  C 0.76 kW 2. On the other a daily energy storage tank as follows: the COP of a heat pump is hand.01  Supply water temperature of heating unit 43. Calculated parameters Power input to the heat transfer 0. In Fig. Temperatures of collector inlet (T1). Temperatures of evaporator inlet (T4) and condenser outlet (Tcwo) of water Flow rate of water in heating unit 0.365 kW per hour.04 C 1.01  quently.461 to 9.00 2.07 Instantaneous collector efficiency 0.2 and 3.

the sunny days. oil or electric heating units. 2004. 10. It may be concluded that the COP values obtained from the present study are fairly close to those reported by Bi et al. Environmental and economical benefits Solar source heat pumps work with the environment to provide clean. pollution free and do not damage the surrounding landscape. Solar source heat pumps may be expensive to install when compared to some Fig. The COPS of the whole system is approximately 15e20% lower than the COP of heat pump [16]. and energy saving heating and cooling year round. They use less energy than alternative heating and cooling systems. 2004 COPS 4 COP 3 2 1 09:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 Time of day b 5 M arch 16. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 1515 a 5 COP February 17. B. Performance of coefficient of heat pump (COP) and whole system (COPS) versus time of day (a) February 17. Yumrutas and Kaska [16] and Huang and Chyng [43]. natural gas. 11. but they are very . Bakirci. The water outlet temperature in the energy storage tank versus time of day. Huang and Chyng [43] also derived that the COP for a solar source heat pump built in their study lies in the range of 2. K.1.7. helping to conserve our natural resources. 2004 (b) March 16. 2004 COP COPS 4 COP 3 2 1 09:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 Time of day Fig. 6.5e3. They are quiet. efficient. [42].

960 €/kg 0. this supplies the heat pump (COP ¼ 2.92 2.0) Fig.4 34.70 0. the energy-saving ratio is (Aoc) and a system (such as system with LPG.48].7) Heat pump 5050 486. The calculations performed for the payback period of other systems are 6. The solar of 18 900 kWh/year are calculated and given in Fig.93 0. Payback periods For this reason.1287 Heat pump 5050 3601 kJ/kWh 2. As seen from source heat pump (SSHP) systems will be more cost effective than Fig. payback period of the heat pump system (for COPS ¼ 2. B.5 2. periods of the heat pump system according to the LPG. System Investment Lower heating Efficiency Unit price Unit price of cost (€) value or COP of fuel energy (€/kWh) Natural gas 1148 34541 kJ/m3 0.9 2.2. when solar source respectively.9 7. if the investment cost of SSHP system released to environment the CO2 emission in the values of 9779. Besides. almost four times of the natural gas and five times of coal Table 5 Data for various heating systems. the heating season is seven months (from 15 October to 15 May) and. Aic and Bic are the investment cost of the heat pump (Aic) The heating required in the seven months is hourly 3780 h and a system (such as system with LPG.2 Electric 682 2431. 4961 and 5051 kg/year.3 3. payback period ¼ (5050-1148)/(3751.8 N/A 19.8 Fuel oil 905 1974. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 Table 6 Calculations for the payback period of systems.1045 LPG 1148 46473 kJ/kg 0. efficiency or performance. Aoc and Boc are the operating cost of the heat pump the 50% of this value. Residential fossil fuel heating systems produced due to relatively low price of natural gas. where.6 Coal 905 1019. and unit price of fuels for various systems [45]. CO2-reduction ratio given in Table 6.6) ¼ 1. the CO2 provided. competitive with any type of combination heating/cooling system.00 0. LPG and natural gas are the all other heating systems.7) and system with LPG can be given as to decreasing of the CO2 emission increasing in heating season.1985 Electric 682 3601 kJ/kWh 0. Energy-saving ratio Payback period ¼ ðAic  Bic Þ=ðBoc  Aoc Þ (12) The 180 days of the year in Erzurum. 12.0 0. Also.0 0.7) is absent cial buildings. However. when the green electricity is used. with series productions is decreased and. Turkey.047 €/kWh 0. Bic) compared to it.127 €/kWh 0. Moreover the payback anywhere from 1. The natural gas heating is widely used heating system in other big The CO2 ratios of various heating systems for residential heating cities of Turkey due to relatively low price of natural gas. 6. 12. 18 900 kWh/year for heating load of 10 kWh.025 €/kWh 0. An example for the calculation of payback period in heat pump system is used in Erzurum.9 year. a low price for electricity is 6338. use of HPS [46]. The main disadvantage of SSHP is the high initial invest- emission of the electric resistance and heat pump system is zero ment cost.1516 K.2 Heat pump 5050 900. the system with coal.7) (COP ¼ 5. Furthermore. Bakirci.4.4 1.0257 .0 are also Significant emission reductions are available through the appli. the solar source heat pump system can be used in respectively.8 LPG 1148 3751. 2.9 and 3.336 €/kg 0.0 (COP ¼ 5. The payback periods of the heating systems can be computed as follow: 6. electric and CO2 emission reductions from 15% to 77% were achieved through the fuel oil are 1. It is rather high for the system with coal while the cation of heat pump system (HPS) in both residential and commer. respectively.0) Payback Payback periods (year) periods (year) Natural gas 1148 685. the payback periods for the commercial systems which the COP of the heat pump is about 5. In this situation.3 0.285 €/kg 0. The chemical formulas of the fuels used in the study are received from the literature [47. Boc) compared to it.6 0.9 2. fuel oil. respectively.7e900.0539 Fuel oil 905 41345 kJ/kg 0.4 year.80 0. their annual The required data including investment cost.4.99 0. Turkey are clearly sky.0 (COP ¼ 2. average heating operating costs are lower than other conventional heating/cooling value.0476 Heat pump 5050 3601 kJ/kWh 5. heat pumps are most attractive for applications requiring both heating and cooling [44]. Here. heating systems are given in Table 5.2 to 36 times the equivalent CO2 emissions of HPS.0363 Coal 905 29308 kJ/kg 0. (7  30  18) and. the residential heating duration in a day is approximately 18 h. Systems Investment Operating cost Heat pump Heat pump cost (€) (€/year) (COP ¼ 2.7 1.65 0.372 €/m3 0. calculated. CO2 ratios for various heating systems. 12.3.

Performance analysis of a solar-assisted ground- source heat pump system for greenhouse heating: an experimental study. Ozgener.Z. total absence of almost any air [26] M. the SSHP systems are an important economic alternative [3] K. A design criterion for a solar- emissions or waste products. C. Wang. of bright sunshine in Turkey. N. Integrated solar-assisted heat pumps for across the world. Conclusions [8] Y. T. The exergy analysis of the system. and environmental pollution for sustainable assisted heat pump system with energy storage. in most cases. A. Yuksel / Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 1508e1518 1517 heating systems. storage for residential heating.W. Experiments on a solar-assisted heat pump and an 5.G.G. Applied Thermal ronmental benefits when compared to the conventional Engineering 22 (16) (2002) 1847e1859. but they have [21] B. Jahangeer. R. K. [27] K. Abdel-Salam. S. Lee. 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