Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065

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The performance of a solar assisted heat pump water heating
system
M.N.A. Hawlader *, S.K. Chou, M.Z. Ullah
Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent,
Singapore 119260, Singapore
Received 4 May 2000; accepted 10 October 2000

Abstract
Analytical and experimental studies were performed on a solar assisted heat pump water heating system,
where unglazed, ¯at plate solar collectors acted as an evaporator for the refrigerant R-134a. The system was
designed and fabricated locally, and operated under meteorological conditions of Singapore. The results
obtained from simulation are used for the optimum design of the system and enable determination of
compressor work, solar fraction and auxiliary energy required for a particular application. To ensure
proper matching between the collector/evaporator load and compressor capacity, a variable speed com-
pressor was used. Due to high ambient temperature in Singapore, evaporator can be operated at a higher
temperature, without exceeding the desired design pressure limit of the compressor, resulting in an im-
proved thermal performance of the system. Results show that, when water temperature in the condenser
tank increases with time, the condensing temperature, also, increases, and the corresponding COP and
collector eciency values decline. Average values of COP ranged from about 4 to 9 and solar collector
eciency was found to vary between 40% and 75% for water temperatures in the condenser tank varying
between 30°C and 50°C. A simulation model has been developed to analyse the thermal performance of the
system. A series of numerical experiments have been performed to identify important variables. These
results are compared with experimental values and a good agreement between predicted and experimental
results has been found. Results indicate that the performance of the system is in¯uenced signi®cantly by
collector area, speed of the compressor, and solar irradiation. An economic analysis indicates a minimum
payback period of about two years for the system. Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Heat pump; Optimum design; Meteorological conditions; Performance; Solar fraction

*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +65-874-6411; fax: +65-779-1459.
E-mail address: mpehawla@nus.edu.sg (M.N.A. Hawlader).

1359-4311/01/$ - see front matter Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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tank. Qeva heat gain by the refrigerant in the Wm 2K 1 evaporator. W m 2 single-phase vapour region in the J dimensional constant evaporator. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 Nomenclature Capital letters T1 refrigerant temperature at compres- Ac collector area. denser tank. (19) P2 condensing pressure.1050 M. m G mass ¯ux. SF solar fraction Wm 2K 1 Ta ambient temperature. m s 1 Di inner diameter of tube. N m 2 a1 second constant in Eq. (19) P1 evaporation pressure. Hawlader et al. °C vg speci®c volume of gas. W hc convective heat loss coecient. W hfg latent heat of vaporization. J kg 1 S absorbed solar radiation. °C Dh change in enthalpy at the collector/ Tc condensing temperature. vf speci®c volume of ¯uid. m3 kg 1 phase vapour region starts. °C m_ mass ¯ow rate of refrigerant. m2 Ub back loss coecient. W m 2 K 1 Cb bond conductance. m L length of the tube in the collector. J kg 1 Tf refrigerant temperature in the col.A. kg s 1 Tsky clear sky temperature. (19) P pressure in the evaporator. k thermal conductivity of the plate. W m 2 K 1 C clearance volumetric ratio Ul overall heat loss coecient of the COP coecient of performance collector. rev/min 1 a0 ®rst constant in Eq. m W distance between tubes. kg Lowercase letters N speed of the compressor. N m 2 f frictional pressure drop coecient Qc heat rejected at the condenser. m3 kg 1 . °C Wm 1K 1 Tp plate temperature. m F ®n eciency Wc compressor work.N. m3 D outer diameter of tube. m M mass of water in condenser tank. s collector/evaporator at which single. q0u heat gain per unit length of collector. lector. Wm 2K 1 J kg 1 K 1 Vd displacement volume. °C Wm 1 T10 temperature of refrigerant in the t time. W Wm 2K 1 Qu useful heat gain of the collector. W m 2 K 1 J kg 1 K 1 Ut top loss coecient of the collector. W hfi tube internal heat transfer coecient. °C Ast surface area of condenser tank. kg m 2 s 1 Z0 length at which refrigerant enters I instantaneous solar radiation. °C evaporator. Cpw speci®c heat of cooling water. m2 sor inlet. K n polytropic index Tw temperature of water in the con. m Vw wind velocity. N m 2 a2 third constant in Eq. W m 2 hr radiation heat loss coecient. W 0 F collector eciency factor X distance. Ql load. W m 1 K 1 Ult overall heat loss coecient condenser Cpv speci®c heat of refrigerant vapour.

m r Stephan Boltzman coecient. as shown in Fig. therefore. for the meteorological conditions of Singapore. Adequate insulations were provided at the back of the collector but no glass cover was used on the top surface i. for the ambient temperature of above 25°C. the unglazed solar collectors can act as an evaporator to increase the thermal performance. A photograph of the experimental set-up is shown in Fig. A thermostatic expansion valve is used for the system. and nonpolluting which can be used in domestic or industrial low temperature thermal applications. The in¯uence of various operating parameters on the thermal performance has been examined and the important variables are identi®ed. readily available. 2. unglazed collector. Chaturvedi et al. m3 kg 1 m3 kg 1 qg density of gas. the evaporator could be operated at an elevated temperature. were connected in series. Solar energy systems and heat pumps are. fabrication and experimental facilities A solar assisted heat pump water heating system was designed. The simulation model can predict thermal performance under various meteorological conditions and these results are compared with those obtained from experiment. A copper tube of 9.e. Wm K ep plate emissivity pressor 1.52 mm diameter was soldered at the back of the absorber plate. qf density of ¯uid. solar energy is considered cheap. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1051 v1 speci®c volume at compressor inlet.A. This paper represents an analysis of a solar assisted heat pump water heating system in which unglazed ¯at plate solar collectors act as an evaporator for the heat pump. promising means of reducing the con- sumption of nonrenewable energy sources. d plate thickness. which act as an evaporator.N. Refrigerant 134a is used as a working ¯uid both in simulation and experiment. m3 kg 1 x dryness fraction qm mean density of the ¯uid. which remains closed or open depending on the solar irradiation and speed of the compressor. [1. Hawlader et al. m3 kg 1 Greek symbols s transmittance of the collector a absorptance of the collector gcoll eciency of the collector gc compression eciency of the com. which maintains constant superheat at the inlet of the compressor by regulating the mass ¯ow rate of refrigerant with the help of a feeler . Two serpentine solar collectors. Design. pressor 2 4 gv volumetric eciency of the com. 1. M. There is a bypass line from the exit of the ®rst collector/evaporator to the exit of second collector/evaporator. To increase the evaporation temperature. Many authors [3±6] reported that. The ambient air also acts as a heat source depending on the op- erating temperature of the evaporator/collector. 2.2] found a variation of the evaporator temperature from 0°C to 10°C above the ambient temperature under favourable solar conditions. Introduction Among the alternative energy sources.

2. The condenser is installed inside a tank made of ®bre glass to store water for heating purposes. A pressure switch is used to protect the compressor/motor from overloading. An open type-reciprocating compressor is used for the system. Fig. 1.8]. The tank was insulated to prevent heat loss from the hot water to the surroundings (Table 1). Photograph of the experimental set-up. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 Fig. Hawlader et al. . A frequency inverter is used to control the speed of the motor. Actually. Schematic diagram of a solar assisted heat pump water heating system. the feeler bulb is a remote bulb of the thermostatic expansion device that controls the degree of superheat by controlling the pressure [7.1052 M.N. bulb.A. which is directly coupled to a three-phase induction motor.

plate temperature on each solar collector at several locations were measured. 3. thickness. Insulation Material. number of cylinder.   Qu ˆ Ac F 0 I…sa† Ul …T f Ta † …1† For an unglazed solar collector. Mathematical model A mathematical model has been developed to predict the thermal performance of the system. Tube Material. total.A.026 mm. as it is properly insulated. polyurethane. M. 0. A pyranometer was mounted near the collector to measure the instantaneous solar radiation. Top loss coecient. Convective heat loss coecient is de®ned by the following equation (Due and Beckman [9]): . spacing. 1. the overall heat loss coecient Ul has a signi®cant importance on the collector performance.1. Ul ˆ Ut ‡ Ub …2† Back loss coecient. Instrumentation The temperature and pressure of the refrigerant were measured at various locations of the system. polyurethane. Absorber plate Material. 1. copper. 1 3. For the acquisition of the data. 0.035 mm. Surface treatment Black paint coating. Pressures were measured with pressure transducers. 100 mm e. It has two components. an automatic data logging system was used.5 m2 . Collectors a. 90%. The ambient temperatures. Collector/evaporator model For modelling the collector/evaporator.0 mm c. thickness. 50 mm f.N. inner diameter. The ¯ow rate of refrigerant was also measured by means of magnetic ¯ow meter. The model for each component has been described brie¯y in this section. normal ¯at plate collector equation was chosen. Size 250 l b. 3 m2 b. 0. absorptivity. thickness. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1053 Table 1 Components speci®cation and characteristics of the system parameters 1. outer diameter. 9.52 mm. copper.9 d. Ut is a function of radiation and convection heat loss coecient. Ub is assumed negligible. 8 mm. Condenser/water tank a. Insulation Material. The power con- sumption of the system was also measured by a Wattmeter. Hawlader et al. The useful energy gain by the absorber is given by. stroke. All quantities were monitored continuously and stored at 5 min interval in the data logger. incident solar radiation. 3. emissivity.1. Compressor Bore. Case material Aluminium sheet 2. Area Each collector. 50 mm 2.

after simpli®cation. [9] is used. after energy balance. momentum and energy balance [2. Ta . is expressed in the following form. By taking a small element on this ®n and. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 hc ˆ 2:8 ‡ 3:0Vw …3† Radiation heat loss coecient can be written as. 1 0 UL F ˆ h i …7† 1 W Ul ‰ …W D†F ‡DŠ ‡ pD1i hfi ‡ C1b The pressure drop inside the collector tube is determined by treating the two-phase mixture as homogeneous and applying a mass. Tsky and Ta are both in degree Kelvin. 1 x 1 x ˆ ‡ …11† qm qg qf .   T1 Ta US ln T 0 Ta S  mC L _ pv 1 UL Z0 ˆ L ‡ …10† WF 0 UL Mean density of the two-phase mixture is given by. the following expression developed by Hottel±Whilliar Bliss in Ref.10]. Tsky to ambient temperature. the plate between two tubes can be treated as a ®n.   d 2 T p UL S ˆ Tp T a …6† dX 2 kd Ul For the determination of the collector eciency factor. [9].1054 M. it gives. 2fG2   dp vf ‡ xvfg ‡ G2 vfg dZ dx ˆn D h io …8† dZ dv 1 ‡ G2 x dpg ‡ …1 x† dv f dp and dx 1   m_ ˆ WF 0 I …sa† UL T f Ta …9† dZ hfg The length of the collector tube at which single-phase vapour region starts is given by the following expression. The equation.N. which relates.A. Hawlader et al. Tp . F 0 .   r Tp4 Tsky 4 hr ˆ ep …4† Tp Ta An empirical equation has been developed by Swinbank in Ref. For the evaluation of plate temperature. as shown below: Tsky ˆ 0:0552Ta1:5 …5† where.

as shown by the following equation: Q c ˆ Q u ‡ Wc …17† For modelling the condenser. a mix tank model. i.N. vfg . Tc is calculated by a empirical equation obtained from manufacturer of condenser. hfg can be expressed as a function of saturation temperature in the collector.2. Compressor model Mass ¯ow rate through the compressor given by. as shown h i 2 Qc ˆ a0 ‡ a1 …Tc Tw † ‡ a2 …Tc Tw †  1000 …19† . is given by. which represents temperature variation within the tank. Volumetric eciency of the compressor is expressed as. vfg . hg . M. From this tank. vf .  1=n P2 gv ˆ 1 ‡ C C …15† P1 and the compressor work is obtained from. "  n 1 # P1 v1 n P2 n Wc ˆ m_ 1 …16† gc n 1 P1 3. Vd N gv m_ ˆ …14† v1  60 The speci®c volume at the inlet of the compressor is calculated by using the correlation de- veloped by Cleland [11].A. Hawlader et al. it is assumed that the temperature of water within the tank is uniform at any instance of time. Condenser model Heat dissipated to the cooling medium at the condenser includes energy gain at the evaporator and the energy consumed by the compressor. hfg ˆ f …Tsat † …12† Heat received by the refrigerant in the evaporator is given by.3. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1055 The properties of the refrigerant vf . hg . _ Qeva ˆ mDh …13† 3.e. hot water is supplied to the load when it is necessary. dTw MCpw ˆ Qc Ult Ast …Tw Ta † Ql …18† dt Condensing temperature. The mixed tank model.

For the purpose of validation of the simulation model.A. As seen from Fig. 5. 5. predicted collector eciency and COP for the month of July were plotted against time. Thermal energy rejected by the condenser. COP shows a declining trend with time. . as condensing temperature increases. It shows that predicted COP is always close to experimental COP and predicted collector eciency has a reasonably good agreement with experimental values. 4. 3 shows the ¯ow chart of the simulation program. Flow chart of simulation program To determine the thermal performance of the system. Comparison between experimental and simulated results In Fig. Wc The instantaneous eciency of the collector/evaporator is de®ned as follows: Useful energy gain by the collector. This program is run with the meteorological data of Singapore [12] for a given load. 4.N. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 3.1. due to climatic constraints. Hawlader et al. compressor was operated at 1080 rpm and the ambient temperature varied between 28°C and 36°C. It is important to note that. The simulation model enabled parametric study and identi®cation of important variables.9°C from the experi- mental values of water temperature during the course of the experiment. the predicted and experimental values of water temperature were plotted as a function of time. Qc COP ˆ …20† Electrical energy input to the compressor. System model The COP of heat pump is expressed by the following equation. a comparison between experimental and simulated results was made. 5. Here. Fig.1056 M.4. few experiments were performed for 4 h in July and comparison or analysis has been shown below. a simulation program has been devel- oped. In Fig. resulting in an increase of the compressor work. The predicted water temperature deviates no more than 0. Results and discussion A series of experiments were conducted under the meteorological conditions of Singapore and these results are presented in this section. SF obtained by the following equation: R Qu dt SF ˆ R …22† Ql dt 4. Ac I The performance of the system may be described in terms of solar fraction. Qu gcoll ˆ …21† Solar energy available on collector plate.

/ Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1057 Fig. Flow diagram of simulation model. 6 shows collector eciency as a function of time for di€erent speeds of the compressor considering solar radiation 800 W m 2 .2. the eciency of the collector/evaporator increases. 5. In¯uence of di€erent operating parameters on simulated results Fig. It can be attributed to the fact that.A. 3. Hawlader et al. M. if the speed of the .N. If the speed of the compressor increases.

E€ect of speed of the compressor on collector eciency with time. Fig. 6. Hawlader et al.N. 4. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 Fig. Comparison between predicted and experimental temperature of water.1058 M.A. Fig. Comparison between predicted and experimental COP and collector eciency. 5. .

The COP has been evaluated from simulation and considered prediction after 2 h of operation from the beginning of the experiment. Due to high solar radiation. as shown in Fig. and ambient . Fig. a2 ˆ 0:024 compressor increases. In this case. 7. For a particular speed of the compressor. which results in a lower temperature lift across the compressor.A. wind speed. there is a reduction in evaporation temperature in the collector/evaporator. 9 shows the variation of COP as a function of speed of the compressor with collector area as a parameter.N.36 W m 2 K 1 Coecients a0 ˆ 0:2225. If the speed of the compressor is higher. 8. if the collector area is smaller. a1 ˆ 0:4838. 10 shows the variation of collector eciency and evaporation temperature as a function of compressor speed for a particular set of solar irradiation. evaporation temperature increases. wind speed (Table 2) and ambient temperature were chosen to be 3 m2 . Fig. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1059 Fig. Hawlader et al. Table 2 Useful parameters for the system Latitude 1°220 N Collector azimuth 0° Collector tilt angle 10° Ambient temperature 32°C Initial water temperature in the tank 30°C Speci®c heat of water 4130 J kg 1 K 1 Wind speed 3 ms 1 Time step 5. M. which results in higher compressor work and lower COP. which results in a reduction of heat loss from the collector to the surroundings. COP increases. E€ect of solar radiation on COP. collector area. where solar radiation is used as a parameter. refrigerant evaporates in the collector/evaporator at a lower temperature resulting in an increase in com- pressor work leading to a lower COP. collector area. 3 m s 1 and 30°C. respectively. As solar radiation increases. 7 shows the variation of COP with the speed of the compressor. 60 min Heat loss coecient of the tank 0. Fig. mass ¯ow rate of refrigerant through the collector/ evaporator is higher.

A.N. Variation of collector eciency and collector ¯uid temperature with compressor speed. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 Fig. 10. . 8. Hawlader et al. E€ect of compressor speed on COP with collector area as a parameter. Fig. Variation of COP with time for di€erent speed of the compressor (solar radiation 600 W m 2 ).1060 M. Fig. 9.

M. for a particular collector area. 12 shows the thermal performance of the system with solar irradiation for di€erent col- lector area. A decrease in condensing temperature. Variation of COP with solar radiation for di€erent collector area. This mismatch has been overcome by using a variable speed compressor for a range of climatic conditions. E€ect of storage volume on thermal energy output by the collector and condenser. higher collector area increases the ¯uid temperature in the collector and lowers the collector eciency. As seen from this ®gure. Hawlader et al. but relatively smaller decrease in evaporating temperature causes a reduction in compression work leading to a higher performance of the system. . Fig.A. leading to a lower heat loss from the collector and increase in collector eciency. As seen from ®gure. 12. an increase in speed of the com- pressor causes a higher mass ¯ow rate through the collector/evaporator resulting in a lower temperature of the collector ¯uid. condensing and evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. water temperature at the condenser/storage tank as a function of storage volume. 11.N. if solar radiation increases. But for a particular speed of the compressor. COP Fig. if storage size increases condensing temperature decreases leading to a slight decrease in evaporating temperature causing an increased energy gain by the collector. Fig. For a particular size of the collector/evaporator. Fig. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1061 temperature. 11 shows the variation of energy output.

wind speed. collector area. 14. respectively. 3 m s 1 and 26°C. for a particular size of the com- pressor and speci®c solar radiation. solar irradiation. In cases. It can be attributed to the fact that. and the compressor was operated at a speed of 900 rpm. both collector eciency and COP increases. . for a particular size of the collector/evaporator and compressor. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 increases. for the same reason. if storage size increases condensing temperature decreases with corresponding de- crease in ¯uid temperature in the collector causing a lower heat loss from the absorber and higher collector eciency and COP. 13. Variation of collector eciency with time for di€erent storage volume. Again. It may happen as ¯uid temperature in the collector increases due to high solar radiation and reduces the compressor work. ambient temperature were chosen 3 m2 . Figs. But increase in size after a certain range of storage volume (ap- Fig. Hawlader et al. condenser tank itself acts as a storage tank for the hot water. If the size of the storage volume increases.A. Fig. 800 W m 2 .1062 M. here. It is important to note that. 13 and 14 show the variation of collector eciency and COP with time for di€erent sizes of the storage volume. Variation of COP with time for di€erent storage volume. COP of the system increases with increasing collector area.N.

which is shown in Fig. it can be concluded that. In this case. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1063 proximately 100 l m 2 ) both collector eciency and COP do not change so rapidly. Hawlader et al. 15 shows variation of the SF as a function of storage volume for di€erent collector area.A. But. if the size of the storage tank increases. there is no signi®cant change of the thermal performance of the system. For a particular value of solar irradiation. Fig. Fig. but system is operated 6 h a day and condenser tank is considered as a storage sub-system for hot water. For a particular value of the collector area. 15. E€ect of collector area on the performance of the system. if the collector area increases. for a ®xed size of the storage volume. the SF increases due to collection of more energy at the absorber plate. it lowers the water temperature in the storage. for a storage volume greater than 100 l m 2 . 10. load is considered continuous for 24 h a day at a temperature of 60°C. 16 shows the e€ect of the di€erence between ¯uid temperature in the collector/evaporator and ambient temperature on the eciency of the Fig. As seen from Figs. E€ect of collector ¯uid temperature on the performance of the system. 13 and 14.N. M. Fig. although. . 16. SF increases rapidly at the beginning and slowly after certain range of the storage volume.

Again.A. Hawlader et al. with the increase in collector area. Fig. . This is advantageous for the meteorological condition of Singapore. Variation of payback period as a function of collector area for di€erent in¯ation rate (fuel price escalation rate ˆ 0:03). 5. with the increase of collector area. due to collector area dependent cost increase. 17. payback period fall sharply.5% Fuel cost $0:03711/MJ Life cycle 20 years Fig. an increase in ambient temperature makes a small di€erence between ¯uid and ambient temperature causing a lower heat loss and higher collector eciency. payback period reaches a minimum value and then rises with increase in collector area. as ambient tempera- ture during the day in Singapore is always higher and more than 23°C. it can be shown that. In this analysis. the increase of auxiliary fuel savings increases more rapidly compare to the cost of the system. Table 3 Economical parameters Fuel escalation rate 3% Discount rate 7% General in¯ation rate 2. This phenomenon may be explained by the fact that.1064 M. Economical studies Table 3 shows the economical parameters for the present system. 17 shows the variation of payback period with collector area.3. For a par- ticular range of operating condition. minimum payback period of about two years is obtained corresponding to a collector area of about 4 m2 . From the ®gure. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 collector.N. If di€erence between the ¯uid temperature and ambient temperature increases collector eciency decreases due to large amount of heat loss from the collector/evaporator. which lowers this dif- ference.

28±143. [12] M. Some frequently used meteorological data for Singapore.F. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 102 (1980) 203±210. Morrison. if compressor speed is higher.L. for the meteorological condition of Singa- pore. [11] A. [7] W.K. [6] M. International Journal of Solar Energy 8 (1990) 1±11. Chiang. experiments were conducted under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. Gilliaert. the compressor would run at a particular speed and improved thermal performance could be found. a minimum payback period of about two years was found. Kush. Y. it leads to a lower temperature of the refrigerant in the collector/evaporator resulting in lower COP and higher collector eciency. W. D. Shen.A.G. It is also found that storage volume of 100 l m 2 gives an optimum performance for such a system and. [2] S. the system was designed in such a way that. [5] G.N. [8] P. Polynomial curve ®t for refrigerant thermodynamic properties: extension to include R134a. [10] G. Performance of heat pumps at elevated evaporating temperatures with application to solar input. Unglazed solar collector performance characteristics. / Applied Thermal Engineering 21 (2001) 1049±1065 1065 6.F. Design method and performance of heat pumps with refrigerant ®lled collectors. International Journal of Refrigeration 17 (4) (1994) 245±249. McGraw-Hill. second ed.A. [4] R.N. Chaturvedi. References [1] S.K. J. Morgan. Due.A.. [9] J.Y. J. For a particular solar irradiation. Thermal performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump. It is also important to ensure proper matching between the collector/evaporator load and speed of the compressor. One Dimensional Two-phase Flow. McGraw-Hill.Y. Cleland.P. 1982. New York. [3] E. pp. The values of COP as high as about 9 and average collector eciency of 75% was obtained. T. Transactions of the ASHRAE 89 (1) (1983) 519±525. Chaturvedi. A. Beckman.S. W. Hawlader et al. 205±280. Wallis. solar irradiation.W. Analysis of two phase ¯ow collectors with application to heat pumps.A. Refrigeration and Air-conditioning. Bong. pp. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 114 (1992) 194±200. M. 417±429. Balleny. . Hawlader. Refrigeration and Airconditioning. collector area and storage volume. Jones. for a particular range of solar radiation. 1980. To validate the model. 17±42. 1997.L. Conclusions A simulation model has been developed to study the thermal performance of a solar assisted heat pump water heating system.A. Stoecker. W. 1969.W. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. Solar assisted heat pump. Solar Energy 28 (2) (1982) 129±135. New York. OÕDell. Mitchell.B. J. pp. To minimize this con¯icting trend. It is found that the thermal performance of the system is a€ected signi®cantly by speed of the compressor. Solar Energy 33 (2) (1984) 155±162. From the economical analysis. Beckman.A. Transactions of the ASME 104 (1982) 358±365. Roberts. Mahmood.C. pp.