AMERICANS believe in the right to criticize . We defend
our right to "beef '' or "gripe" or "sound off". We insist
upon the right to express our own opinions .
But we also believe in the right of others to express thei r
opinions. For the right to speak involves the duty to listen .
The right to criticize involves the responsibility of givin g
"the other side" a fair chance to make its point . We kno w
that the truth can only be found through open and hones t
discussion, and that the common good is served throug h
common attempts to reach common understanding, In on e
way, Democracy is the long and sometimes difficult effort
which free men make to understand each other .
This booklet tries to help some of us understand an ally -
the French . It is not meant either to "defend'' the Frenc h
or to chastise those Americans who do not like the French . It

is intended simply to bringtoreasbl
tations , dissatisfactions reasonable e thos ocus f and
_ rri°
because zt z~ often hard for the s~~n_de.r~ta.t ~ .
p which c~rzs e
tawd the people of p co ple
a-iaotla e - of one cou7atry to aziclers = 1 THE "FRENCH 41'D
The booklet zrses the Qz ,.estzon
the cr2tic~sms zr~iseo 7z~ E t
, ~z f,.
pt2o~2s It lists :i3 TH E FRENCH
Saolrcazz C192c1 o.rtanart
troops i3a
Lzsro e er~~ 9'`apes 2~~hiclZ i
they ta7l' abc,?t T pre.,s 20 a. Characteris tics
is ~dlo,red by anthegn, .French, .Eac h cmast freg2ae~?tl~ uliezi
o ;nment; 31 G. Customs and manners .
~ or 04"crt, or gUestzori'ers
a,c 2 -rt e short ~r siG~a ,,9,j -n
Lnz2"ale . ~,Gme
1 becrczrse the : estz . '50me of t3?;'
o1 the Ur2,2ce a a e ;, ~ :oi~ 2s dh'6ct an s9 a. Work a ndLazies
questions are atE lon q . becaI_e thd Q. Morals
contain CG~r pl"GCCZ-tr'C~ "e9t""
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ccts a :?r~ ntt . N re err 1;,,bl2e„ tr ~a
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tend to oz e~lcok . t1 r9r c77_ ~ rF ~2tio~z-ecl Jcr y
There M..ay be ti;ose t~ ~ 6 PRICES
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2v ;a t~ i-,c~r2plL - 2~'J?.0 S2 THOSE FRE\'CH SOLDIER S
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j? .1Co)tc e92-CE those iL'~2p We hoz)
~3i'8~ 1LhC rj~ ~2rt ZZ 1iZa ?lGt 96 THEY GOT OTT PRE171 E-I,S y rV THIS WA R
by th esa~z?e lr z,z~ ? o kerb otlie,s ekSSl1~
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the French gave us everything wine : . France guarded we had . cheese. America were threatened by a Ve came to Europe twice .after the Germans declared war on us . rocke t bombs. We came to Europe because we in went to war in 1917 .in Europe than in America . HT. American security and American foreign policy hav e always rested on this hard fact we cannot permit a hos- We didn't come to Europe to save the French . crashing into our homes Would it have been .smar t Th-ey're .atomic bombs had mad e . We came to Europe. eithe r tile power on the Atlantic Ocean . u'IiEi2. When France fell. We cannot be secur e in 1917 or in 1944 . instead of the Englis h kissed us every time we turned.ches€ . mans. andthen int o it have been smarter to fight the Battle of the Bulge i n Pam's." We 'the stock they had hidden in their cellars from the Ger- were a part of that world . We didn 't even think control of the "French Volunteer Forces (the Free Trench ) of "saving the French" through military action until after is vital to the defense of the United States : " Peary Harbor -. and . it was •. our cities ? Even the kids u Germany sang cognac to pass out free . . in twenty-fee years to save the Atlantic.perhaps . in order to get at an enemy sending rocket bomb s the biggest welcome you . T7?ey thew 'their arms around vs an d a hop across the Atlantic Ocean. fruit an d shambles of .we came into Normandy. a soon forgotten how much we cave them from . as a matter of common sense and th e dangerous power . ever ssaw .what little bulwark against German aggression .Perhaps the French ran out of wine. Perhaps the French depleted this song : "Today Germany. They gave u s Channel . President Roosevelt declared (Novem- In this war. that ' s why we had to fight in 1944 . "Axe the Americans so ungrateful ? Have they s o land from the Mediterranean to the North Sea . We didn't come to Europe to do if we are threatened on the Atlantic . because it was better to fight our enemy. tomorrow the world . " to wait in America until V bombs. around. was gone . and the bases the Germans needed on th e the French . We didn' t ber 11 . our last defense on the Continen t Could not a French than who read the question above . 1941) : "The defense of any territory under th e invade Europe until June of 1944 . France was the "keystone of freedom " on ask. in two wars. ' Atlantic for submarine and air warfare . We were marked for conquest . But they ' ve forgotten . Ohio? Would it have been smarter if D-Davhad mean t j rm. Would fit first. ungr•atetul. everything . That's why w e anyone any favors . buzz bombs. national interest. . aggressive and ver y And that's wh y. France fell in June of 1940.

They crossed the Atlantic Ocean in small . (See question § 6'9 . and the French are as proud of that name 'as w e ''I hate :the French :"' are. your own .French out of a. (The Germans took it .and score us over S3. City people often rub country tion" or was against us. ) you to the fact that they Were and . 3 "< sae French dontine. It's hard to extend hospitality under those conditions . 45. Washington s `army had no military engineers . " You don't have..000 more ." . Who fights against us ?" . French. were in 1917. Ask those soldiers who have been invited into a Frenc h The most important questionnny people can . They helped us out of one of the greates t jams •e were ever in . "Who fights with us 2. . France loaned the thirteen state s New Orleans . 4 .400. ask itself home what it was like .) Washin ton. They did . The name. toe .000. is this . are our ~a itito'tlzeir 3icritEs . g "Unless you bear with the faults of a friend you betray . it was French engineers who designed and built our 'fortifications . They They don't ' speak English and we don't speak .000 . boats that took two months to make the voyage . to love the French .Texan on Fifth Avenue . of Lafayette is one that Americans will neve r 5 " 1 ' i1 never lore the Feeheh . How many American homes were you invited 'int o ' when you were stationed near a "soldier town" in th e State s " TT re a?ways pining the e' .000 Frenchmen volunteered in the array of Georg e tion . it was France who was our greates t folk the wrong «ay the same goes for a Pittsburgher in ally and benefactor. The more important point is not to let your feeling blin d They don't have the food. ) :basic political beliefs and goals rest on a common founda. During the American revolution.z r was a lot more money in those days than it is now . 56 . (That We Americans believe in the value of differences ---. Di d they !ire?jtl?i)ig o r Ft'Er'°do 4 : 'he ea L'-1'i." . forget. or +. jam. You might try to understand them . 7`%! me the wrong way . It was inevitable that some Frenchmen would rub som e when almost the entire world stood by m "non interven- Americans the wrong ray= . You don't hav e to hate them either .

two are without medicines and our sick without nutrition _ cents in". and . trucks. " pas rnae er Tue d'etre co-nramev ("I don't ask much .. you are in the French. eeerythin . now or has a basic right to pint his two cents in" . They're co-operative . ("I only believe what I see . they've gat to be "co-operative" . We don't quarrel with our enemies -. " we say. ourselves. . the." ) That depends on what you mean by "rely" . If yo u There is a saying that in France everything is permitte d expect the French to react like Americans. you will b e that is not strictly forbidden . e "W E'ee had more beEd n i from the French than from th e Which is better a critical ally or a fawning enemy ? Germans . 1781 to our military envoy . we are at the end of our tether. supplies . criticize.but in Germany ever y disappointed .. " 9 "We gave the French. our hospitals have been taught to think for. will be disappointed the French don't hurry ---neithe r Yes. Jthinguniforms. to he convinced. . thing is verboten. They have no choice . You can judge the measure and meaning of French ai d to our Revolution from the letter George Washington sen t Two men working together are more likely to tell . We quarre l But we were able to rely on the French for the most with our allies. . Democracy is based on the -idea that everyone in a word. " ) Or "Je 7zE demard e 7 T'Ve can't rely on these French . family argue pretty freely inside the home . I just want. They have to put gent taro cents in . in Paris. As for the Germans. "Je aie crois q'ee cep qu e hois " . of course we argue "We are at this hour suspended in the balance no t with them . The y Flatterers are the worst land of enemies. troops are fast approaching nakedness .' am-munition 6 7 . deliverance must cone . They are not Americans they are French . 1'. We are always quarreling with them .tench aren't . twice in the past two decades . not the German . not against us . . we quarrel with the French. .Tacitus . to "put our . "I'm from Missouri" or "Sez who ?" The Frenc h It was France that came to our aid in our darkest hour .they / fist ddo wlmt you tel l them to . We If you expect the French to hurry the way we do . . In Americ a never our . Because we.g .. tradition .'' . each on April 9. Bat the Germans . Why ? Because we have a common goa l from choice but from hard and absolute necessity . have the'same attitude they say. like the French. for help from Franc e Of course we differ with the French .- important thing France fought with is. we fight them . Theyre under military law . Our and face common problems . that is not strictly permitted. jeeps. The members of a do most of the people i t the world outside of America . askin g other oil than a prisoner is to tell off the warden .

ghee the ~ `rcatclc 'b t. from ingredients shipped from the United States .Stars and Stripes. dollars worth of.000.0010. 000 . to Americans .000 signs and posters for road markers duffng i1 "'The: Frcach are 2tsi72g car gals. Where else could the French have gotten uniforms . Under reverse Lend-Lease. Army Talks . etc . 131. soldiers. railwa y guns. and the . stationed.000 back in the sam way that they got it from us -. Overs- eas Woman. in France. rubber tires.000 French workmen and civilians . They'll never pay it back . l and E pamphlets . Act to Promote the Defense of the United States" . working for th e lent military equipment and supplies to our ally . us . Billets . ammunition. the Olympia. in offices.stuff . gravel for construction purposes .French islands in the South Pacific. . mechanics to typists. ports. They range from ste- A Frenchman armed with.000 . vedores to nurses .0-1. the French have alread y Restaurants . selves . material s Beer . You can ' t get gas in the. troops.all through France.000 snow capes for the winter campaign of 1944 700 tons of . f 2. labor. . supplies From the German s yards. docks. suc h n arm the Trench than to turn out additional America as New: Caledonia.lhloaas off .almost half of the amoun Food . t paid back about 5150. the Empire. These French men and women work at airfields. bet A-6y won 't give i t Military campai g n . th e Marignan in Paris . an 03 rifle could kill Germans . French vines o/ OCCapation 4. North It was wiser for us to turn out weapons and uniforms t o Africa. services . The French supply us with such fresh fruit an d e vegetables as can be spared . . by the French. under Lend-Leaser a law passed by our Congress as "A n Millions of jerricans . Ws.with supplies. 02CF d-h2 i-ii g through . from Brest to Strasbourg . from Paris to Nice or Biarritz .though the French are very short of it them - we lent them ua the way of military supplies . Under Lend-Lease we provided military supplies an d -Theaters such as the.000.made in France.for American mess halls . Here are some of the things the French have provide d Printing . Weileaat them . for America n food. All French telephone and telegraph services were pia- eed at our disposal . Yank. The French paid this 450. made izr France . Unite UStates Army and paid by the French government . We d 150. equipment to France worth S1. We didn't give the French these things ." . cement. Lumber. the 260. where Americana troops are.

. The French are given gasoline b U . use it for themselves . under Lend-Lease laws . It is the only gasoline they get . They are compelled to the President of the French Committee. Every meal we might eat . "A buck and half for a Scotch and soda That place i s and thousands of anonymous Frenchmen contributed a aclip joint l The sane G .) In 1883 . . army army car which is not specifically authorized to obtai n gasoline from an American pump '? If you were on duty messes . for the statue -. employee. comes out of a ni ght club in the States and says . Can an American gas pump give gasoline to a Frenc h Why should we be '% We are supposed to eat in . Bartholdi recommended the sit e or Los Angeles . A . Hone do non like that ?" 14 time we go into a 7 igu t chd. Were you never soaked in a night club at home ? sioned a French sculptor. by anyone not an officer.Bedloe's Island in New York harbor . told me the French practically gave - vs the Statue of Liberty. transfer any articles provided the French. F comes out of a night clu b {quarter of a million dollars {not francs) to7ards the in Paris and says.they re all robbers ! ' . ss 12 O ne Frenchman . Chicag o 18 . ~~~e get soaked b tiaese F"en~chnwn . without the consent of the President of the U . "Ninety francs for a shot of cognac ! That's the French for you . S . In . restauran t would use up just that much food. de Lesseps . S . (The United States raised $280. The Statue of Liberty began as the idea of a group o f Frenchmen. G .000 . The Reciprocal Aid Agreement. officially presented the statue to the American people . Mr . shortly after the Civil \Var . France. A committee of Frenchmen was formed i n night clubs youve visited in Miami or New York.4 to raise funds . in a French . t o Compare the prices in Paris night clubs to those in th e do the work . 180 French cities.t . They commis. . I. or permit thei r V1'' 6 care not Welcome in French Rata?zrcrr . > : use.. states (Artic=le III) that the Government of France will not. Army authority : statue. forty general councils . or agent of th e French government . Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. from the Frenchmen' s would you give gasoline to unauthorized persons limited supply. You are not supposed to .

Mediterranean landings to the arrival of our troops at.° now they want v s against us. Perhaps we have short memories . in the house for a year . equivalent. to t1aem . 18 " The. had two Nazi division s stymied they kept those two divisions from fightin g 6 "The French welcomed ns at first . - we've stave.. -when the fighting got tough . to get out.fro m you don't hear any Americans passing out bouquet s Normandy to Munich. to four full divisions . They keep moo . if yo u were a Frenchman . e gazettes. commander of the TF1. house guest that long . soap. "We re like people wh o in the _annals of heroism. the Frenc h The French are terrible scroungers . But Perhaps some of us don't like to pass out bouquets . (See question ~ 10 . General Patch estimated that from the time of the Some of the French are scroungers . took past in the invasion of Europe an d 17 " The Frericlt brag a lot about tke fighting they did.' ' to anyone but ourselves . french: let-us down . " sible without the fighting aid of the FF1 . The hiaquis who defended the Massif Central. (So would you. General Patton cabled General Koenig. fought in Italy. What di' they do . Hungry people lose their pride .as fighters .-i .. we Impos e an added strain on the already overtaxed French eco.) As long as we are here.) Here are a few of the things the French did The French fought in Africa. No one wants a . will he long remembered An American kI recently said. " The magnificent fight the Free French put up at Bi r Hakeim. were given a wonderful reception for a week-end . Of course the French would prefer that American troop s 1' leave France as soon as possible . but fought through the battles of France and Germany . food from the GI's . They hav e his (Patton's) army across France would have been impos- no sell-respect . that the spectacular advance o f clang help us out ? " nomy . Dijon.-in Sicily. in the Libyan campaign. the help given to our operations by the FYI wa s An empty stomach does not worry about losing face . liberated Corsica . in th e south-central part of France. " . The French need the billets and food andsupplie s and cervices which they are now supplying to us .

For others. they held many town s Some Frenchmen are other Frenchmen are not . blocked the German s of Sicily. In Paris . and occupied the main buildings and ad- 500 strategic places. north of the Loire Rive r The F. by our government . part in convoying operations on the Atlantic and Mt . Normandy and South France . .erich artn pie/telly . up against the Germans . ministrative offices of Paris .: !50. the Mexicans . tween Dijon and Troyes from the west. resistance d'ynami'ted railroads in more tha n Nazi garrison . resistance fought and beat the clifnen of the .German troops . -Italy. as we Americans are. and French men and women rose .000 armed men of the . -know their trips are not on official business ? Dirk n o they conducted extensive •guerrilla operations behind th e _Americans waste gas on pleasure trips ? German lines .7. over 5. and cities under orders from our command . according-to our-niilitaryexperts .000 FFI troops protected the south flank of . They delayed strategic German troop movements fo r These are some of the things the French did .944 the day° before D-Darr. . Neither are the British. from making a stand and prevented. several hundred thous - inansk routes . Those 48 . '-. 25.the Third Army in its daring dash across France the EFT ' wiped-out -Germanbridgeheads . " they guarded vital lines of communication .. The French as a whole are not as "hail fellow well met" When our Third Army was approaching the area be. in southern France and delayed one of the Wehrmacht' s crack units Was Reich Panzer Division) for tae .a mass retirement o f Units of the French navy and merchant marine too k .000 Wren . in our deeps and waste our gas .day s They ride in the jeeps which are officially loaned to them in getting from Bordeaux to Normandy . it was the FFI who stubbornly . and while the the Greeks. About 30. Units from the French navy participated iri'tl the invasion s South.000 FFI troups supported the Third Army' s How do you know they are wasting gas ? How do yo u VIII Corps in-Brittany : they seized and held key spots . see question § 104 . French resistance groups hew up a series of bridges "They ride.7ze. June 5 1. hours were tact-lea-11y priceless ° they saved a n untold number of American lives . the Swedes . -- Seventh Army was approaching this sector from the Frenchmen don't get personal or confidential quickly . an average of 48 hours. as our armies drew close. they wipe d out pockets of German resistance .

said a wise Man.organization . outburst of g ratitude. another person 's privacy. And Uncle Sam was same things and to reject the same things . which wa s Do we then say that all Americans are unfriendly foundering in the water Uncle g am sat m the other end . friendly .the Ameri- cans who came into Normandy. ) nation of 40 million allies . And in thn aye of the atomic bomb. European nations war e at one end of the boat.seriously concerne d." On this saying . People from our South often complain tha t David Low. The French are very polite they are also more formal tha n it is poor politics and worse diplomacy to "--rite off " a we are. cold. 21 " Why bother about the . " Apart from reasons of honor and simple decency Amer - 76 . high and dry and out of the water .'r world .-n) . about " France . .2 It is not our job to "bothe r the French displayed toward us . Th e Vermont 'finds New Englanders.cold" and " snobbish''' . Or who came into Pari s of a country may be no index of her strong h. and have gone throug h tegic areas 'fi the world structure of peace . will still be stra- e friendly 'when you're hungry. tialities . once drew a famou s the . still talk about the astonishing . Yet.reach ? They cavil thro w any weight fit the post-cat . many of our troops complained tha t about the peace and the political problems of the world the people in the towns near the training camps were no t France is very much a part of that world . and they some daz like to have their own privacy respected too . and poten - fight after the liberation. open up" as quickly as we do in the States . about personal relationships . people in the North are not friendly . a better frien d of the boat !" We have paid a terrible price for believin than France : (See question § 69 . A Texan in cartoon showing the nations in a larg e rowboat . .as the French have . France will stil l nation are note as friendly as' his own people . the United States has never hid . Back in the States. Yeti may need their hel p The French respect . France still stands as a bastion on ±1 A lautie . . and her colonies. lies in this : "To desire the . generosity and friendliness whic h Why bother about France . Th e to be friendly in a foreign language . They don'tc` . fro m It is natur ri tor anyone to think the people of anothe r the IN'Ieditcrrznean to the North Sea . Friendship. (So are the Chinese . leans are not in the habit of letting their friends (Io g. the English . It's hard to 'be island bases of France.)' that a leak "at the other end of the boat " does not' affec t our destiny . the physical size and populatio six years of war . "Why should I worry i The leak isn't in my en dg basis. cartoonist. But it is our job to be . It's har d he a strong factor in world political.


soap or candy on the black market at fantasti c 22 The . We forge t the number of tinges we were not . in the United States no less tha n They'll . While some of their leaders in the Vichy governmen t The cynical comments which many of us have heard i n played ball with the Germans . The French and British declared war-o n have a right to be . . ' Were you never "gypped" back home -in towns nea r army camps ? (See question 4 83) . CHARACTERISTIC S The French think that the American soldier who sell s cigarettes. The French 26 "The Fretrch are. " we love to tell "the inside story ' . Fraternity" . Lair UiJ ! the ror nei . Frcint arc too CIarieard rr ~Cije l . persecution. So are we. despair . invasion. when it . . They didn 't in 1939. Poland with . We Americans love to give the "low. the French have surdered for the past six years .down ° . They out a protest . But the French are not cynical about certain things . They . Some Frenchmen have certainly gypped some Americans . occupation . We remember the times we were gypped . They 25 " Th e Fi .?'rag fo r in France . The French a_re independent. Cynical talk. They have been humiliated before the eyes of the world . t . They are hitter . honest y°' ? a . most disastrous years of history . about ideas like "Liberty. . .~ ito a nJth. cyraicrl .ics . andy "sophisticated " -. the vast majority of th e France are a reflection of the profound shock and confusion people refined to they resisted in whatever Way they could .are mercenary.atreri rrai. Where do you draw the line between a "smart business . They have experience d Most of the French didn ' t play the winner in 1940 either . a couple at h~r. are proud . Equality . Some Americans will "do anythin g for a couple of hundred francs'" . .-tic7 are glippni g are individualists . They have always fought" for it . When it looked even More that Germany was unbeatable . They have gone through six of th e Germany. So do the Freneli. defeat. The French are disillusioned . How many times were 23 " The French cue Cid ?` d nlvit they they ca They von treated fairly. by the was is often considered "smart " 24 " The Freecib.That's One reason ther e is friction between us . 20 . hunge r. looked to aII the world a s " though the Germans were sure winners . A. They man" and a "mercenary Frenchman I ' mean it. . and-British could have let the Germans rape . " prices is mercenary .

music. the Breech-loading shotgun French are conservative .. Metallic cartridge The World _Almanac for 1945 concludes that as far a s Pasteurizatio n social legislation is concerned. Laminated glas s dard you use . design. silk manufacture. "France is iif the vanguard" . They' re . however. compulsory insurance against illness. textiles. maternity insurance. " France ) Braille system of reading for the blin d Change comes slowly in France ." Steam pressure gaug e Stethoscop e Here are some of the inventions and discoveries whic h Synthesis of campho r have come from France . Television 1000 line scree n . Flying balloo n The French are certainly not highly industrialized a s Gyroscope we are. and They re ha:mg . but to retire on a "little" fortune so that he Electric stee l can have a "little" home and a "little" garden and rea d Electric storage batter y his paper . etc . literature. His dream is not to becom e Commercial gas engin e a millionaire. If the average Frenchman ha s Cellophan e a secure living. and so on . Trcnch are "n-ct up-to-date . Compared to some other nations. he is satisfied . Phosphorus match The French were certainly up-to-date in establishing old Photography age pensions. Screw propelle r Sewin g machin e " The French w'on't accept Smokeless powde r 28 72ew ideas . they Iron galvanizing proces s are considered very up-to-date . Rayon bility and death . On the whole . S . disa. Tt depends on what stan. Aluminium (discovered simultaneously in U . It Rayon nitrocellulos e was France that introduced the forty-hour work week . in the past . The French are as far advanced as an y Machine for making pape r -nation in the world today in some fields : art.27 "The. 9w t Steam automobil e incentive .

never satisfied . th-ihr.k. As people in a democracy. take_ that. too . As a . . shaving a good time" habit than _we do .David and asked "Why don't rllerleans shav e The only person who has ever been awarded the Nobe l Paris is not France . you are making the same mis- won 2S ..French reputation for gaiety was built on the fam e That sounds as though the French are like us .the. tourist who visited . the French have much 1'-e•ss of th e t : T/7P F1 _ rich. /nag c!'i'co j ?C th It. eY s h as 0 77 butions in Physics. The United States wen 25 . Chemistry-. than we do on a week-end . race or creed . W e of Paris as a gay city and on. world. 2:5 INFANTRY JOURNAL L b Ary .matter of fact. r1i'~ ri2b'dItGE1 r_ his C1ri.the.the French way of doin g Americans are always griping abort something . at any time. The prizes are awarded irrespective of nationality.. Olsont t pce Y Literature and the Advancement of Peace . our politicians.I' . The Nobel Prize has been awarded since 1901 for contri- 3d " A the. you see on the Champ s 2.2C2th criticize whatever we want. our business leaders . House of . any urine than 52nd Street is Ameri- Prize twice was Hine Marie Curie .' -~C S P7 i r ~~ + t French family ordinarily spends less on pleasure in a mont h ererythcag hots $01''n.proud of our right to criticize . are very . The. etc . Paris has for several hlmdred years been one of th e great tourist attractions of the world . etc . we demand tine right t o 3 1 The F"r"er'iCj?. The French. averag e 29 Gsr . The entire body Beware the country where men obey like sheep .iir. Paris" cabarets and music-halls were famed throughout th e our army. We do not live in Paris . a goo . ca .03 individuals . Beware the people who do no t There are no "inborn trans" which account for the socia l criticize . democratic tradition . ‘?J !. Beware the country where criticism is arboinn. the French h those. i']cbFJr fc teCl-if. our taxes. our schools . Medicine and Physiology . The French Elysees or In Montmartre. was made by the . theater was always bright anet varied . Nobel Prize has been awarded to It you judg e. our police . From 1901 to 1939. characteristics or customs of a people . Wei criticize our allies. of scientific anthropology proves this . our government . a. on any issue . The French. Were things . The . But there are about 35 million Frenchmen who our union leaders . . have a very strong individualistic .

" 33 E just does not jibe with fact. the patience. of French descent. T-hey'r' e r hat did these frogs ever contribute to the 'world 34 any - even .ing . Yorl Times at. human rights. tough. t! [Yfsdecadle`st. then compare the proportions l~azi occupation the Republic will survive. than to say that Bostonians have an "inborn trait" fo r the time France fel l baked beans. may in the long run be the force which will help including the Papuans . color or creed . To talk about. 26 .interference or protection . of laissez-faire ." is the name for a philosophy of econo. to fashion the Fourth Republic . or free enterprise . to the courage . for throwing pop bottles at the umpire . They all agree that the peasan t intelligently is to define insincerity. . got a phrase for it -. other nationality. ters and thinkers of the period called the Enlightenment .7ccr er-tame .about "good" or "bad" blood . will react like an mental.fay the laws of supply and demand. "` :inborn traits" is talk just as the Nazi s did when they talked .. " 32 "Th_e French. the dauntless spirit of the Are the French : :insincere " ? The way to answer thi s people on the roads. will be rein- to a similar anils-sis of the "insincerity" of otheai nations . independent and brave . It means "let alone" -. but don't care about anyh. compar e faith in himself and his country . To say that the French are insincere is no more sensibl e From the editorial columns of the Xeu . dom. or that Brooklc-nites have an "inborn trait " The reporters of the exodus of the French pay tribute. without govern . American if that child is raised in an-American home i n The whole system we call capitalism. get the relative proportion s knows the grass roots of France can doubt that even unde r between the two `groups. . . this number to the number of Frenchmen who do no t steady. A French child. That mean s t• cry P " why bother ? Just let everything a l one Apart from the fact that the basic conceptions of free- `'Laissez-faire. an American town . It T e french haau no /tits . carnated. or science . The peasant Is France. analyze the numbe r refugee preserves under a terrible ordeal his characteristic of Frenchmen who show these characteristics.let the economy run by ple received their greatest impetus from the French wri- itself. and government by the peo- rnies. Nobody who show these characteristics. liberty. The same goes for a child of and rests on the idea.

"these frogs" have made contributions to history. Here are some of the.At records in the civilization of mankind .nec Toucanta . Moliere Daude t Bufto n Braille Henault Racin e P amour Rollan d Beaethelot .abov e any other nation . Montgoltier Le Blano Balza c Mane de Stae l Victor Hu o Stendhal Dumas Gautie r Georges San d de Goncourt de Masser La marlin e Merrmee Sue Prevost Lot i Ronsar d _Mme de Sevi g ne Sarc . art. The record of France can stand beside that of any othe r nation in the world.] m e Anatole Franc e Curi e Levasso r Chardonnet. science. Haller Sauvag e Voltaire Rostan d Ampere Lavoisie r Sauri a Roussea u Jules Vern e Daguerr°e. lite- rature. which any literate person re-yards with respec t T Ale n Flauber t Rabelais Zol a Pascal Laen. and in many fields stands u-ell . Corneill e de Maupassan t Pasteur Cuvier Bourdon La Font . French names . philosophy and political ideas whic h Mahe one of the proudest and most briilia.ou Proust .

That doesn't make sense". Calvin Pasca l mean "worse" . wa s Roussea u the answer . P ouaul t Houdo n Touionse-Lautre c . P . There is more than one way of skinnin g Mont esciule u Comt e a cat . w e what I don ' t bike . . T. But what Char-m u . "When do you expect the dead to eat the ric e Ptenan "When your dead return to smell your flowers".m a res Seurat Lebru n _Matisse ' The. "different " does not . " It is always something of a shock when you ran int o Chateaubrian d Descartes different ways of talking. doing things . eating.Mozitaigrie is different is not always inferior . Cezann e 1[eissen e r Coro t Mille t Dega s Ponssi n Delaerols Prudhon Davi d Renoi r Dore Rodin Foram Rousseau. Abelard Bergso n The story is told of an American soldier who saw som e La Btiryei'e Naritai n Chinese putting rice on the graves in a Chungking ceme- Diderot Poincar e tery . French do things different than. CerOmne. said the American wit h Condoree t R ochefoucatrlcl Cousin a smile . E .

Some of the Frenchmen who look so well dressed ar e If you understood the . No nation could exist for a week if all it did was talk . on the Boulevard Haussrnan that . it .when you want him to listen . 39 "TV 7 F"rETtcl1'iit-Gm . " y0ca uu" ee cD ittCtrcy well-do We don't prize "good conversation" as much as th e French do . 36 as the average American . idichigan Boulevard.every time. too. . said . a lot less money than the average American . " who profit from the inflation and the black market . American writer. It is there. New cloths axe for th e most part reserved for repatriated French PWs an d deportees . (ACC-U. charm and imagination of Frenc h The places we frequent in Paris are comparable to the talk that contributed niuich to the reputation of Paris as rich or "touristy " neighborhoods of any big America n a world center of gaiety ." cloth .CiL. 1)Eaaude . Frenchmen emoy conversation . They have . Ambrose Bierce. city -. They have more holidays .Fifth Avenue. The average Frenchman_had- A11 the French do is talk . most patched-u p An . that you see thos e never heard people gab so iii-`rJ. Under a goo d and not just "gale ' collar and cu$s.32 33 . They consider it an /wit amazes mm is how . They . it was the brilliance . places you see . 't that are five and six years old . there may be the oldest. They don ' t parade all the time . Underwear is made of anything a person can la y his hands on. They do parad e The average Frenchman haver looked as well dresse d more than \ e do . yoia tur n Because they are wearing pre-war clothes -clothe s around there is a. around l'Opera and . Socks are made of pieces of ol d I a person who talks . are on the whole . gab. ah-th all their stoises about art . Wilshire Bou- levard. you see those Frenchme n 37 who are well-dressed . 38 " TA iqj do Fi'encknteit look so 8iza5b y 40 "Why do the French parade all the the time ? Tak e the Champs Elysees . "A bore i s shirt you ever saw . It is on the Champs Elysees. gab . tor example . skillful at . language it might be interestin g well dressed only in the .

Frenchmen always tip ushers at movie They are certainly dirtier today than they were before l. frail' a much longer and more complicated history. They are .007. 9. the Opera. e'en th e Incidentally. Most French buildings are very old : its harder and more expensive to install plumbing in an old house than in ' new one . do not have rtshter. France has had two empires. zru ny people in France don't have it . Masons . symphony halls . In some theaters in France. to commemorate their resistance .) which hold annual meetings or conven- tions or parades . Al '' At the Polies . 80 of. In France. as in any counti]. and people iii our own United States don't have decent plumb - It desire to celebrate liberation. etc . cities are filtlry. isn 't a racket. In most theaters th e ushers get little or no salary and depend for their live 43 "re r€:axclr. the ushers pay for their jo b (Ail>e our cheek-room concessions) . waitresses or red caps is a "racket ". The ushe r the war . That's why s o titter being under the heel of a conqueror for four years . serves a dozen Americans who do not tip has lost the In some cities and districts. toilet facilities are disgraceful I " The tsdcl Fellows. there are a great many orga.13crgere or the Casino de Paris. to honor theirmartyr s either . The French haven't had paint for a long time . In France. The Germans have much better plumbing than th e French .400.oirses.000 homes in the US. racket! " electricity .the Germans could afford it .girls demand tips! What a. Sinc e CLEA TLINESS AND SANITATIO N 1769. VF Ws. What should the French do about it ? It. as in America. and three republics . wh. . That's wily so marr y there is an understandable upsurge of patriotism =.72 homes d o lt. gasoline prevents refuse trucks from making daily rounds . We don't think that tipping tax i not have private flushing toilets. About 3. two monarchies. of the farmhouses do not have bath - rooms and running rater . theaters. liheod on tips . the acute shortage o f nioiiey which a dozen Frenchmen would have given ilea' . 42 Why isn't there decent plumbing 211 French hollers .v which has been liberate d takes money to have decent plumbing . nizations (like our American Legion. ([fivers.

old cities axed old houses smell more than ne w of the name since 1940 . Garlic. perfumes and eau de cologne were used to giv e a pleasant scent. tho i nited States. you 46 out. we i n too that used to be carried V on buses . " You.and perrz:me 1" . You smell perfume because French women would rathe r France is not as prosperous as . French cities and houses are a• great deal older tha n They don't. dislike as much as you do .sweat. the Yugoslavs . war is over. in the United_ States as in other 45 The French don't bathe . th e cooks . not.and don 't get enough of that . untidy . we are .got .- But before the war . Hindus . the Chinese. and most of the other peoples of th e You smell sweat because the French must use a ver y world . the Mexicans.dc' ' _€hc s? . ones . France does not hav e be obtained on the black market. have real soap . . th e You smell garlic because the French . where an unpleasant one might otherwise The French don't bathe often enough . 36 . When you have no soap . It is not chea p smell of perfume than of an unwashedness-which the y to install modern ph . where it costs aroun d the untidy back yards .nited States . the Turks .. perfume comes in mighty handy . health and toilet regulation s The ration for Frenchman today . r2. ) poor ersatz soap . rn to see French honie . . 44 L Je french are uns.uzaoing . the Russians. French public sanitation.rrymg all the traffi c The . is two cakes of poor ersatz soap per month . tway and the 8a I'll almost knocks. Most real soap can onl y sidewalks more often than we do . for four years . The Germans took the seal) . and smell had . " countries. They can't . They have had no soap worth y ours . (So do the Poles. who are super b Greeks. the French washed their streets an d 20 grams every two months . French have a lower living standard than. The subways are ca.a tory. the tin cans and refuse in public parks that are commo n in the .. the trash dumps in empty lots . four months after th e are certainly not on the same level as ours . '' French subways today are overcrowded. That 's a-long time . In the eighteenth an d nineteenth centuries. Sanitary standards rise as the standard of living rises . But few of us eves. use more of it than we do . French ~j omen were always scrupulous house-keepers . 125 francs for 31+) grams .

for his lunch . the high cost of restaurant meals . too . that only a few factories run messes make s it necessary for the average Frenchman today to go hom e That's perfectly understandable .e Preheh vilideies are . there's no point in keeping a store open if the shelves ar e bate.(for example. French. they are a Iot older . is unpleasant to the Chinese .shortage of food. The long lunch hour is a custom which is not confine d They do.ting . The. WORK AND LAZINESS . loot' much dirtier than our smal l towns . " and the fact . if you'r e D . They i fist sit around drinking instead of work . a friend. It is a custom we find annoyin g The malodorous custom of piling manure in court . on the whole . 48 "I'd like the. because it interferes with our comfort (as tourists) and yards or in front of houses is practiced in many village s because it differs from our way of doing things . that the scent of white people. throughout Europe. the Chinese will confess to you. It is found in It-aly= . at leisure is a lot better than a chicken-salad-on-toas t gobbled down at a drugstore counter . rag-. including many German villages i n south and central Garman. Change the food 49 "Why do they knock! of tcoric for two to three home ever y people eat and you change the way they smell . etc . Body odor is closely related to diet . " than we do . Geislingen .) . The average Frenchman maintains that a lunch eate n Waadorff. to France . "‘I e take time t o live as well as work. day 47 . " . ) Some French villages are pig-sties ." 1ii. no matter ho w well scrubbed they are. (They did when there were things to sell . Incidentally. " one Frenchman said . Spain. the Balkans an d many parts of Germany .sties To i pile thei r They keep their stores open two to three hours late r Yr at2 rl 1e right in front of the hoc yes or in the eoait-yards . Others are not .a lot better if they were cleaner . '50 " The French spend all their three at_ these sates .

mechanization . deals are concluded there . beer. 53 "They're pn's2it ve . It 'epends on where you drive and where you look . write letters.aai 'e lazy . don't approve of a . Its more like a club . France has far less Indus- them come and go . by the we. It isn't• a saloon . after they leave . and many busines s world. more out of life than we do . where did you get the gas and time t o most of the drinking at the cafes was coffee thinking . We They say they have better music. ' The landscape of 40 41 . ' papers . the cafe is a place to relax . Freheh tarmu's wear woode n 51 "They . leisurely. To the French . drive all through Paris " There is no coffee now .to have coffee 52 " Yon can . of money-. On the whole leather can .o one works longer hours . means coffee . " shoes . " Some are some are not . Its the place a man tames his girl or wife and family -. unhurried pace than we do . Before the wa r Incidentally. The French farmer wears wooden shoes because the y On the whole. Blame the Germans for that . poetry. and labor-saving devices tha n and they gy to wail. is that the French custom is different from ours . the output of an average French worker is less than tha t France does not have the very hot summer days and :1 nights we get in the Middle West . All this mean s literature .e (when they used to have coffee! . philosophy . play checkers . . Watch of an average American worker . It's the place he call meet his friends . art. The same people don't sit at the cafes all day . works harder or is more thrifty than the French farmer . "Cafe". leisurely lunch tour. It's the place a man can get away from a erorcded home . It isn't a . wine to read the uorhtiuj . That is also true of nearly all other nations in th e negotiations are carried on at a cafe . not a place to get drunk . rdin's all i1uon. They say they take time to enjoy living . Paris a?td aasic'r' see cralcu. The French farmer is more sensible than you think . bar. Many business we do . They say they do not kill themselves iii the endless pursui t The cafe is something we just don't have in the States . The French claim they get .j)). They worked before they sat clow n trialization. We Americans don't approve of the cafe custom . the French take life and work at a more insulate his feet against mud and damp much better than.

2. There were. how-ever.wo'mecc Cn'~ . . . Tile French farmer has always been regarde d them . .. 'ality ?" . . France is not deforested because for centuries the Frenc h have been careful to re-plant the trees they' ve cut down . out without a chaperone . the young people of France streame d Most French girls before the war had far less freedom .the French.' Ti' hp don't . pick up near an rmy..Ruin without anyone woi'f'tng . an d the French soil is cool and moist.rZ ab . .230. And so the rivers of France run deep all year round. " practical than leather-shoes . Which FrenelY women ? After World War I . as one of the most industrious and thrifty in the world . .F2e. abort all the street- mines _ laid by thE . Perhaps another reason that more Frenchmen are no t in the fields is that French people have been hided b y 57 "How'do the r'enrh themselves feel . and wooden shoes com e in mighty handy . In 1930.Se e the few any American has met as it would be to generaliz e fceiin after . but it was not vein.oi' 1.are those who are easily picked up . The French women who are easy pick-ups .. country to the cities . wrong to deduce from this that the French .ii'ri9ri . wo ii.12 are ea sy plait-ups . " Fiench. The Frencilfarmer finds them mor e . of . In one month this yea r °calkers ? How cars they close their eyes to all the imnw - 130 were billed or maimed in this manner . . . Germans .effective .permit- some areas of Trance were deserted . 'he Frenc h about all American women from the few a man migh t are lazy .:'OM(. slave la bor . deportees .. whole villages in than our girls back home . Farm legislatio n ted to 'go . The immoral Frenchwomen are. That's why we -meet so many o f are "lazy" .. for us to Meet . France is dominantl y made an effort to cheek the flow of population from th e Catholic in religion and in morals. until very recently.s as foolish to generalize about French-women fro m 54' . ? Yov_. the ea s ies t It is.000 Frenchmen in Oetnaar as PM'. woie1i. It i. . A great many'-were not. from the farms to the cities . Thed' /Fells .

Today there is undoubtedly an abnormal . husbands. are snacked by the rude way iu which CPIs talk to a woman. . and had their activitie s strictly limited to specific areas .1 O/ of our per capita outlay was spent on alcoholic neighborhoods It's disgracefu l beverages .-45 states that in 1937 . " areas protects decent women from being molested .. are too demo (ii .French grapes and wines ar e The same thing is happening all over Europe. women have had 60 "Every time a Track girl sit down site mills ibex with intoxicated and amorous American soldier s dress oe skirt up .epsasi > is trying to save wear and tear on old clothes . T have never teen so many prostitutes And in respectable 5. prices woul d ence between French and American attitudes towar d come down .41. "In forty years of living in Paris . another of the appalling consequences of the war German y In 1942. they have a . and by the number o f unpleasant experiences decent French .385. If there weren' t won't take much wear .ay girls who cannot Iive o n man drunk.S . number of The Fr ench think we do. 000 was spent in the L . in retail_ started . They don't go in for whiskey . They are a wine-drinking people women have lost their sweethearts. " She isn't trying to call your attention to her legs . so many men after the same commodity. said to ing places.130.034 drank A Frenchmen who took a walk in Paris : recently. were ie inected regularly .000 . The French. . 44 45 . by the way . It i s among the beet in the world . right to be .032. Before the war. She w 5$ Rene/ women. In 1939. licensed.prostitution .59 " The French drink too mnth . see question S0 . and regulate it . 71ai.000 . The French recognize that prostitutio n Tf you want to see-how much it costs a French woma n es sts. Thousands of Frenc h never liked cocktails . or on ne y clothes which are made of such shoddy material that the Prices are made by demand and supply . there were 135 . an American friend. They hav e their wages take to the street . homes . They don't close their eyes to it . doing an annual business of 81. That's the first differ. all prostitute s to live. The French think tha t legalized prostitiuon g ives health protection to the genera l public and that the restriction of prostitution to known . The Economic Almanac of 1941. liquor establishments . You very rarely see a French- prostitutes in France .

" For over 000 years France has 1been one of the grea t civilizations of the world . embarras s he believes in and fights for . The French have a very strong fai-nil y e Protestants) .at first . " men look back upon this Republic . that mankind will be in its debt forever . . available ---. we retort that they are old and "immoral'"Their moralit y eli f w-. it be proved i York Taanes . between old friends . u the artists and thinkers. : . 62 " They Liss rzqh-t in Oefopen .Tf you lived in France-=long enough.rely low divorce rate. . is obedience to Cod . When free 61 " The French are immoral .just as we do . . attendant's In the men . so human. . France is a very devout 'nation . .Str'Cets. like many other European peoples. Americans are a young and "unsophisticated" nation . It has a religious Catholic population (only one million Frenchmen . what is mor e important than anyone~s manners or customs are the thing s Because it is an old custom and it does not." (Yea. are fa r less Puritanical than e are in their the._ room s From the American point of view.. ' the Montmartre For their' love-ma-lun g . Europeans often say w e . Don't fudge France by the Montmartre . love-making . a. the French prefer privacy. "moral " or more "uninhibited" depends on your point Kissing on both cheeks is the traditional French greetin g of view . conversation and conduct . Whether it is less This always startles Americans .s from ours on certain matters .there lived and flourished a civiliz- ation so brilliant. i f catei:s to foreign tourists in search of the risque . ) The• French. so g racious and beautiful. the poets. it woul probably cease embarrassing you. . . In this sense. we agre e d with theidea of Thomas Jefferson : "Resistance to tyrant s there . They arc morally decaled. "Within the framework o f the Third Republic. and a mach lower crim e 63 v oic eon lhwi pot -op with the ensto7n of haeozg wome n rate than we do . How ca n who made France a temple of the Western spirit . musicians. and scientist s That is a very broad and vague statement . they will remember .

But foreigners who drive in America are astonishe d 67 " French.. or protect their vehicles weil a s 65 we do. . compared to men . foreigner in Paris. It is not generally believed that American jeep and truc k drivers are distinguished for their caution or their regar d The French.c? r_crr They can ' t heap at 0. d. And at the present time we ha. on the whole . . keep a car up as well. allowmg for the greater amount of cars we have and the The state of t. rolling Arateishgn stock : (2) we shot rep a good deal of the Frenc h railway system before and after D-Day . "Lham thes e 64 TVhy clothe French dive so g-ci. can't rlrzvn .he. fast?" furriners '. certainly do not chive as well. We have had more mechanical training. French drivers are as terrified of ou r They 'vin vehicles . ?L2 re a t by the speed . The French. ' `' he cried : Then° even put spot-lights on their automobiles so's they can find the pedestrians to an do n. might Niell feel like the farmer who spent most of his vacatio n in a big city jumping out of the way of ears. " driving as we are indignant about theirs .e ionu tics! They don't obey tic') rules . " The statistics on automobile accidents and deaths i n the United States are nothing for us to be proud of. they dcc ' t area ase common sense . daring and recklessness of American driving . for pedestrians. Even They are . Most Frenchmen are probably not as skillful driver s as most Americans . more technica l experience .Ye incAgnpa - rahi better maintenance facilities . "The French. ire h: . terrible . command ears. our automobile accident facts (1) the Nazis took away most of the best Frenc h world . and trucks . Their traffic rules and system are inferior to ours . rc ilroads are a mess. The French ask the same question about the American s at night' " French traffic has speeded up with the introduction o f thousands of American jeeps. The. Neither do women . French railroads can be traced to thes e greater amount of driving we do. like a foreigner in New York.

Their third-class coaches were les s c u uufortaf)le than ours but their first-class accommoc] .' 0 of their locomotives. France had three classes of accommodations . the French found only 35 0. "'Ye gim U em locamotia es and they on even ran .ar France had some of the finest trains in the world. After liberation. . and some of the fastest short-distance runs i n the world . o of their passenger coaches . . and 34 0.--reh have are running .>. 37 0! 0 of their freight cars.t- tions were in many respects better than anything we ha d in America . As in all European countries. the7r.. " Then who -'oes 2 The locomotives which the Fi. Before the.


that they are "ou r The Germans obey the law --. because yo u Would the French have obeyed such men and suc h are not seeing Germany : you . by their acts . IX. because you are seeing Germans who ar e 72 large scale.under military govern - ment. government of the people. Germans obeyed Bismarck they obeyed Kaiser Wilhelm record of deeds . the rights of minorities . not pretense .the things they fight : for . Eeciesiasticus. The Gerunds are . not assumptions it's a if their leaders use savage . they are not . corrupt and obscene The. th e tion . They were our "The Germans are easier to set along with than 71 French.' > `'Forsake not an old friend. freedom o f wouldn't be a clean as they might like to be . You can 't tell what "the Germans " u "The F1each are rot as efficient as the Gerrua-ns i are really like. The Germans obey their leaders -. and for th e than an immaculate enemy . e 69 The French aren ' t our 7:i-ad of people . The French are not as efficient as the Germans in build - . What do the Germans believe a n The French were our allies during the American Revolu. people . "An untidy friend is bette r religion. freedom of the press.even if the laws ar ne kind of people " . conquered. by their acts. mass production . The French believe that all men are born and create d If the Germans had had no soap for five years the y equal . allies in 1941-1945 . You are policies ? Would we American s seeing a Germany that has had the arrogance and insolenc e knocked out of her . are seeing a Germany that has been beaten. in . They believe . Look at th e barbaric laws . A learned man once said. and occupied . oar kind of people" . . they obeyed Hitler . You can't tell what Germany is really like. "than . because the Germans are loo abiding . for the new is not comparabl unto him" . What were the German s The French proved. The Germans proved . They were our allies in I917-191S . ' ' being forced to obey themselves . by the people. . the things they fight against ? Perhaps not . in freedom of speech. It's a record of facts. eve record . 10 - What makes a nation "our kind of people" ? Th e w=-ay they look The clothes they wear ? The kin d of plumbing they have ? Or the things they believ e "The French are not as clean as the Ger mans .

"I believe .7Le' led: !'!(f/1g hr•st. V e will ne eta go to war . `' more " ellivi ent" in building cis IICy : klrldness. wailing all the while : "You're my pal.Gr=lrrtcr. Incidentally. finer philosophies z peace in 193$ -. be ctIiirs of the e'er^mans an d their equipment.and they grabbed Austria . afte r e ver reaatc c1 . kept. they pleade d for peace.." And the second replie d tearfully.a which pulled the. you but you have such a funn y Who started the afar anyway ? Who still teit th e way of showing it . German efficiency is used against peaceful. one of the most efteetive prapiigaanil a dec"azt people. w. . .and the y iia~.but who wants to Inc in i t e the Munich agreement rI Marnclruria . The 73 "The.901 over the eyes of a lot of gullible natter of output and production charts and impressiv e ceeple. and I love you . . all reminiscent of the story of the two drunks . flaaral( J-tlhrowcrs. and on e \1' hat does "e flciency" really mean Is it only.s. hree ware ! airte d ing tanks. F1'f'rrf'h. 9i2flkfi'sr he . deeper morals. weapons the Nazis used. m y best friend. from 1933 to 1939. . beating his friend on the head with a club . argued for peace. guns. n as the constant cry "We Germans want peace . This is strang e cams and torture chambers . better art.. The French are not efficient in starting wars . the Germans invacicil 1 bait in the •orltl would we fight the . wante d -Cf fer human life ? Has German "eficicucy" led to greete r r. Fret eh trboc t . A prison is one of the most "efficient" institutions teaaa i Germany promised the world peace again in 1938.ic.. The Germans invaded France in 1870 . From 1918 to 1939. statistics ? Arc the Germans more "efficient" in provid. cone€ntratie n by the same nation an sevent y years . Our aims in Europe ai r r mg haiiiaines s or peace to their people ? Are t he t !ermans eatjelled . - Poland and Czechoslovakia iii I939r. their entire militar y ji 0h t the . their fortifications.(ry'e ten? IdC.h'rench . Their arm y 74 VVt'd be a lot smarter tai . the German s invaded'Belgium and France in 1914 . isdom.and then invaded (r ''ho elo vakia. PIane. resl)ec t The Jamie said they wanted peace in 1931 --. my buddy. Th e conduct for a "peaceful" peop h mane are." strategy was devoted to a war of defense . Mussolin i said Italy wanted peace in l035 and invaded Ethiopia . built for peace . The Germans : said they . "trouble-making" ? The facts prove beyond any shadow of a doubt that th e French wanted peace .

no courage . (Fo "What boots it at one gate to make defence .000. for the past hundred years France has not ha d another to let in the foe ?" enough coal. Germany had th e resat-trees . were abou t Germans pick on someone their own size ? " 1. and strategy This is true . and could not have had. e for all of us if the Germans weren't so industrious .000 .O00 men and women.115. against the Cerrtiar is 58 5. ) 75 "The riench aren. desperately. "Why don't th e an enormous loss for a nation of 40 million States military casualties . would be better to ask. %e french hass(. principles or goals would we have in commo n The 'French 'did not have. What ideas. to supply her peace - . and "fifth column activities financed from Berlin. Hitler threw the manpower and industrial resource s ': .z~ ~r~erto torn up 77 'The French-don' t z~_-n tart-~e er:e. up to V-d Day.) The few advocates of modern mechanized armie n No one ever accused Al Capone of not being industrious . That i s and civilian . just as the ore of Minnesota goe to the coal and limestone area of Pittsbur gh. militar y theirsseise S agobust the Geri uasus ? " . armament. 000 Germans against 40. i_ +- of over 80. in dead. 1933-1939 . (The United Maybe it. air force. devoted its energies and training entirel t that built the most terrible army. German propaganda . (such as General: de Gaulle) were like voices crying out i " the wilderness . the.while ranee. Line .000 in dead and wounded . tank force . A great lightweight can't lick a great heavyweight . disabled . . war -.9 . especially coking coal . because Germany wa s are . to detcu e measures . way the Germans France was beaten by Germany . Ralf strhYts. TJ7iy can ' t they defend The French lost 1. : and a t iiistanee. equipment . wounded and . g. Perhaps would have been a lot bette r it incalculable advantage of having planned an ofiezisiti°e . which wanted peac y g was German industriousness in six short years. Modern warfare is not simply a matter of courage .John Milton 's time needs .000 Frenchmen . It Blitzkri e . th er with the Germans ? military and industrial power tc beat Germany .eve n if he has courage to spare . French iron ore normally flows co Germany s Ruhr valley for smelting." enormously superior to Fc" nee in manpower. helped to demoralize an d 76 confuse a nation that didn't want war in the fast place . (That why they built the Magino s si bombs and submarine Warfare the world had ever seen .060.

0 . the French lost ..malnutrition worked so well that in 1945.or 73. '' record of sheer courage and tenacity . from May 10 to June 22 .hec walk en. German s nearly 2. the Germans gave the French a terrible beating . rn military personnel alone . when th e War L Here is what the French loam from 1914 to 191 8 French government was drafting men to re--create a Killed or died 1 .away from French women .000 called up for physical duty were physically unfit . By 1939 .French army. i. But this does not France particularly hard because they were added to th e mean that the French did not put up a. True. loss .least of all the French themselves -. larger.000 French men in German prison and work counted on in 1870.00 0 portion of the French population under 20.800.410. the pro 1940. 260.064i killed . is one of the things the.° sexes . Total 6. years of age . France suffered. Soviet Russia. The Gerirsan policy France never fully recovered from the results of Worl d of .337S0 9 .840 The French had mobilized 8.160 . Canada.for the seoond war German y try do deny the enormity of the defeat and the humiliatio n launched against her within a generation . ` : real fight serious problem of a declining birth-rate . But it took the combined strength of the United States . it was found that 40 a !a of all Frenchmen Wounded 4. They lost 6. largely because of the losses of World War I.000 casualties was small --. in 1914 and in 1939. There was scarcel y a family in France that did not number one or more o f its members among the dead .and growing smaller .3 0.00 0 1942.) 60 61 . In 1940 .will weak and exhausted . etc .1 60 . ur 1940 . No nation had shown a greater T c reach: c7kia t yc•lp iI .000 . held match such strength against hers . That. (See question § 76 .caL ~LC~kf ogount th e Ge9`ii oa . A total of 368 ./s ii mcaL itt t!!°_ I eilt . after occupation. camps . Frenchmen over 60 years of age was large = and growin g Yes. in fact. French military leadership an d The catastrophic effects of the first World War hi t strategy was tragically inadequate . wounded and 108. In the six week Bathe of France . No nation had ever suffered 7$ such a staggering .000 more deaths than births in France . there wer e 500 . .266 .000 men . World War I . The Germans . the proportion o f in six weeks is not something to pass off lightly . the Germans tried to cripple i Great Britain. It's asking rather a great deal of France t o and the segreg ation of the. to beat the France permanently by a policy of deliberate starvation Germans . left France No one --. In Prisoners and missing 537. at the height of German occupation.

to France-machinery . them to the Germane. Horses 650 .000.000.000 Russian. So what ? -Beer 83 .000 gals cleaning up their cities than the French .360 . .253. to take back some of th e commodities the Germans had stolen from them .got busy and o7e g. 448.000 and PWs to the job . . . etc .. 1 x. It is our _\Elitarv Government whic h Cider apples 210 .'tuItgart tlhe Germans..000 French men and women inside Germany as PWs.00 0 Cognac 3 .e-bodie d Hai 1 .stuff looted fron t the Germans .000 Francs worth of agricultural products . Great Britain and Russia .bulldozers .000 France is not . The French lack materials. we snc long convoy s (1 metric ton equals 2. . Oat. 79 The French aren 't clew ing 2rp their boni. goods.301. Here are sample figures on what the Germans took ou t and manpower . Germans gotten the stuff t Fro m 246.long convoys of . Wine . to 1 long ton of 2.330 . Polish . under international law. The . ---.he Eggs .000 metric tons we invaded Germany) with PWs . gasol?ne. . : "loot" : (See also question § 100 . 1 . In llun:ich and States. they were authorized reparations. " 668. of Franc e The Germans started cleaning up their cities (befor e Wheat .000 .000. ) The Germans also " requisitioned " or damage d svuppliea.00 0 80 lip? French cleaned out Stuttgart. Germany is an occupied country .bed cities . approved by the -Unite d Just eoir . Apart from these qualifications .French had a . cattle .000 Francs worth of war material .870.000 Champagne 16 . slav e Strays .0020 supervises reconstruction and assigns German civilian s Sugar 180 . 'racks. .310 .000 dozen Germans would probably do a quicker and better job of .458 .000 Francs worth of industrial and commercia l products Where had the .000.205 pounds. 63 . horses.000 Today.000. (ities . 2. . 100 .7 2.230 .pure .iced up their streets : " right. France. The Germans had 2 .474. Potatoes 7 ) . The long convoys you saw were not . 150.000. approximately equa l of stuff going bank.000 up their cities . -. it is not the Germans alone who are cleaning Fresh fruits 2 . ..French.000 abi. .000 - laborers.) .240 lbs . etc .

" That is as deplorable as the same conduct on the par t of ii. whose wife or sister or mother had been take n into a German concentration camp and raped or killed . If you think French troops misbehac'ed hi Germany. 8h2t9Z . Russia. Greece.rls . - 64 . Our SIP records testify to a deplorable amount of americans . you might have found it difficult to control Your emotions . and other acts of violence by their soldiers against enemy populations. as any other..suppoeFci to Irate the Genrucras . looting . " The French army. r~t. a good many French women have been in terro r of American troops. Holland . 81 The French -troops in German' had. If you were a French soldier. had to cope with disor- dely conduct.Cf up with German. molesting of women and street fights -. . especially in Paris .2ericans. 82 "The French soldiers were. whose land had bee n invaded. you might ask now German troops behaved in Poland . but they didn't waste any time. the yeomen terrorized. Lastly.


83 "Forty francs to a dollar is blackmoil The dollar i s 84 "The high prices and - inflation . era France are a disgrace . "
,north, at Inlet 100-200 francs . "
Inflation is more than a disgrace - it is a tragedy. Th e
French are hit by it much harder than we are .
The rate of 50 . francs to the dollar was established i n The basic reason for inflation, for very high prices, is the
1942 at the Casablanca conference . France didn 't set great shortage of food and goods and things which peopl e
the rate the rate was agreed upon .by the go irernment s need and have the money to buy . When there is not
of France and the United States . enough of anything (except money), prices go up . When
-Why was the -rate set at such a disadv-anta-ge to .the there is too much . prices go down ; when supply and
American dolla r demand operate in a healthy, normal fashion, prices ar e
First, to keep American soldiers from buying- . up Many reasonable .
of the articles which the French themselves -desperatel y Inflation in France will end when there are enoug h
needed . The American soldier gets his lodging, food , goods for all the people who want to buy= them . As long
clothes free - and his Psi . rations at extremely low- prices ;- as there are severe shortages . prices will be high .
The French people do not get their lodging, food . clothe s
free - and the prices they pay for the things we get a t
our PXs (if they can even get those things) .are eery high .
Secondly . -i.he dollar was kept low in order to keep price s 85 "T.-Vhera . we bzry -nice 'presents to send home, loc.. pay
from going even higher than they are now . through- the nos e
If the dollar had had more purchasing power in France ,
American purchasers could have cleaned out the shop s It's the. same nose you pay through when you buy nic e
of, say . Paris . Prices would .be much higher than they presents in the States . At home, most of us did not .bu y
already are . Iuxury articles . Here we do . How often, back home ,
(Incidentally . if the dollar had been pegged at 100 francs . did you buy line French perfume for your girl How muc h
say, the French private would have been getting 88 a did you pay ?
month pay at the wartime pay rate of 800 francs pe r The French government has taken the luxury tax off
month . He would now begetting 81 .80 per month at th e articles purchased by American soldiers . The Frenc h
peacetime pay rate of ii francs per day .) pay it we don't . Who is paying through the nose ?

86 "The prices we are gctti,tg soaked• is a . scoe1al. " - bracelets can the average Frenchman buy - after h e
gets done paying for food and rent ? How much can the
French GI buy - .on pay of 6 cents a da y
Prices in France are certainly -very high . But hig h
prices hit the French much harder than 'hey hit -any o f
us . Most of the things we buy in France are luxuries .
A shot of cognac is definitely a luxury for most Frenchmen . 87 "What dirt the French . ever do .to ioal.e up for the ridi- -
Examine the followin g prices, which the French are culous exchange late ?' '
paying - if and when they can get the articles
The French government has made an effort to reduc e
7 .4 0 the low purchasing power of the American dollar by :
Bread 1 hg . (2 .21bs .) . 1 . Giymg each US soldier in France a gift of 850 franc s
Beef 1 kg- 0 ; .0 0
113 .0 0
a month (this is over four months pay for a Frenc h
Butter 1 kg private)
Eggs 1 dz . 4.5 .6 0
. . _

31 .0 0
Reducing the cost of gifts purchased at Piles b y
Soap 1kg 9-42 0r 0
Electricity, 1 inc w 4 .6 4
3 .2 0 . Making luxury tax rebates of 11-47 0; ' o on gift s
Gas, m 3 purchased at retail stores and sent home via Re d
Cotton Socks 150 .00 -
(when you can get Cross wrap-rung centers .
them) 4 Giving free conducted tours to Americans all
350 .00 - through France .
Undershtr Opening s pecial night-clubs and entertainmen t
(plus 8 points )
1,500-1 .000 francs facilities for American soldiers .
Suit <
(but try to and
one )
88 ining„ 21s 850 francs a ^iontia is ~fst a way for the
The average skilled worker in France gets 1 .200-1.300 fr. Fre fch to ,qet ofl the fool.: tar all the Lend-Lease stu f we ' v e
(824-26) a week . How much cognac, perfume, kerchiefs, given them . "

The, 850 francs are in no way connected with . Lend -
Lease . The gift is not to be
deducted from the Frenc h
government debt or commitments under Lend-Lease .
It has no reciprocal basis of any kind . It is an outrigh
gift . It will ultimately cost the French around 8 40 t
.290,00 0

89 T/ 550 rrafcs a 1 12o? t)i. O'r/t to s )% ;'(8 4om
f_s/ty o tiot?t it . ' binc,

There s nothing fishy about it .
"All Iooks yellow to the jaundiced eye "

-Alexander Po p e .



in France or in any country ge'. Daring four fears of occupation. . L4_y„ being shipped in .g itie.were notorious traders o n which we never had in the United States it becam e Vito market e . of France. had no identiii. The French math for relati . no cite family could `et enoug h food m the rations doled out by the Germans . if through false papers . Hence the. on the black market for a week ?" "Certainly . e uan authorities did riot. market. (In. would increas e way of getting supplies with which to carry on resistance . (The averag e Why were (and are) there great shortages in Franc e consumption in the United States is 3.. is .:. Most Frenchmen think eat for four years . the black market .its not engaged In heavy work .000 to 3 . the Parisians wer e reason for any black market.- _ Lek market in France is.calories a day is considered the necessary minimu m which people need .Paris in 1944.oe luxuries (gasoline.not-. newspapers are full of daily criticism_ of the black market . the cities.t calories of food per day .oess of t -Le . black -market would do less business . So the black market took on a quality 'was drmans. " There was another important reason for the blac k w a. . the Otis omit ration provides 4 .21 " weapon a. at war.?. too .for personal profit .bec a-use. f"i :. They could only liv e sufficient.acetz.. 'try to stamp out the It was one way of continuing to fight German rule. the food depot for the whole south. not. ma 1 _yet --.r :_ _ aer-preen 1 . they knew it.307 calories daily : Largely because during four years of occupation . In France. the French had more transportation to bring the crop s They could only live by getting food and supplies .~ i e reply . thousand s of French men and women who were fugitives from th e . quantity to . Qn e . black market . the Germans took 60 D Q of the food that wa s story of . is enou g h food and supplies in the ordinary stores. . It.Xz%y >. s patriotic for many people to patronize the black market . Germans stripped France bare . incidentally . steaks . in cation cards and no ration cards .The .oh neopte Coward their go>'ernr- .r._ __n. 90 "The black ma et in France is di. be sold at reasonable prices . . . ?".-rsilliing to stop biting anything .067 and3 .I '. the liberation of . as it was in Mme rica .000 calories a day .two Frenchmen .'c. have _ had enough .1 . "Do you want my children to go hungry .'.. (From Why did the black market arise in France ? The basi c -i0.) And when theGei'mans left they Would you hx . discussing the. fo_r .fiatk market in France will disappear when ther e Gestapo or' members of the resistance. most Frenchme n bone . took along everything they could lay their hands on .-i.fro m irate. _th black market purchases . whiskey . is ._. the . They could only live illegally .yutteeh . is that there is a great shortage of certain goods . !. picked her clean as a t .

It is not our job to appraise the energy or Vie method s of the French government . the .h . It is hard for us to realize how profoundly th e smeared the leaders of that movement . rule were simply criminals . "T Y ley !h`rL ' t the Feetieh. France is tired. is something which the French people. They have to live with it . demoralized This is the exact argument used by Dr .i c. shoe s will recover. the blows France has suffered. in order to survive . ":Pull harder. The The French resistance used the black market during French saw their country . If there is a lesson for . Gcehbcis an d from the war and the effects of the war . It is not :inplace for American s to tell the French how to run their affairs .:. to disrupt the French economy and demoraliz e No Frenchman -i>l deny the mistakes France has made . especiall y when he was knocked The French people ash that question every day. me. uncertain. (See question § 90 . They had to use their leaders and .) . . This much .u-d the bootstraps .If there is a . . defeated .nt and leaders : The. American soldiers. French people . They it. Americans .. the way in which theFrench will meet pro- From . . ill-decide for themselves . however . weak . moral for the world in all this . The Germans wante d us to realize . soap. the appalling toil which the war took fro m to smash the resistance movement they constantl y France . " Lkance' is still "punch-drunk". Germans used every trick i n -hate all this more than we do . Mdse 8ti'ougu' /r alJwh5 to ever let the Germans or any other Fascist power bea t &topI the bla-eI. candy. acting democrati- cally . Gcebbels kep t entire economic and political structure of France hra . market .?ee b e. chocolate.e . hungry . It is hard fo r the German propaganda machine . o f the four years of German occupation . They saw some .on the blac k blems as grave and difficult as any she has ever known . .it . river. where did the French black market get America n that France must now take .i ces sell them down the .` ' . it is : don't 91 .'bee n hammering at the idea that those who resisted Germa n shaken by the events from 1940-1945 . It's a cinch . who sold them . say . razor blades . market ? " you . But the way in wh=ich Franc e cigarettes. just pull harder . can be said France is pulling herself up by "7'he leaders . the long and difficult. hag . roa d Lastly. discouraged. it is : we don 't kick a friend when h er s down e. poor. It ' s very easy to stand to one side and thE black market They all got rich on .French e reeist r. of rh.

.for official credentials . 1945 when . n o. French MPs stopped hundreds of French military vehicles in the greate r Paris area in a surprise cheek-up . loot-n tin pij to sto p n .'nce the liberation of 'ranee.'t.` The latest check-up on pleasure driving by the Frenc h too': : place one Septembei.weere ''_1~plieO ±az ::hurt act :o?]_ . 25.z~rons uid the resistance leaders . 9 n 7L''ItLli ]. no group in France ha s -- :') :„o ' igor°ouslj fought• the black market and demande d -1_a« e government stop it than the resistance o~g n i s.s rui " i .1s :. _eneh vehicles were stopped and each driver had t o h ucc papers showing the car was being used for official :n 0. Preneb civilians or military personnel who pr'o i??' papcra .one R.


every French soldier took a place that might . Wh y . eneli resistance. gC :)Oa Want to form your Own opinion about how lintel .4s ii _ single-handed.W Mitt th Ru. i. in 1942.: 7 f it-"2t i~.e. were.bu t very poor ersatz soap. didn't We or the French provide . in aitrtl France. ask yourself thes e . haci to be filled by. die French did to help win the war. TThe 'French soldier got oahiti• o p : full uniform issued t o f:osre . to -distinguish them 'from ours ? Because they did not .pi eduction no French espionage for SHAFF..i _e?: 2rench soldier got paid Sit} &hxles a rrto-ol'h ($16) .the French dye their unifonn.c3)i the tear <. Why . ?ha -e the d es. no French sabotage of Gernna n The 11 : 000 French soldiers who were killed in actio n it z:en.-ti do ore damned fools .our dyes for more important . Neither did we. . so(.'T)ri'3 scee deep their uaiiooiits ?" turning them over to the French % Because we wer e hrairig . 1.s a mistake.uttis or the British or the Chine3t. (e'leazing takes three to four weeks in France : Why don ' t: they use cleaning fluid ? Because they don' t Lave cleaning flunk 95 r1 ~~ rYilf'T. .s .:j i2 . our go-vein . have 3thppo there had been no French' nnderg ound . is the only soap they Those. war production _pur. equipping the French Army . The French did . aasre.. wetsting the Germans or the Itahails had been fightin g tame arranged to equip eleven French divisions .t `iff ~~-! t)! Pie dont they wash their uniforms ? They do . no Frenc h died .r )-lDayr were entitled to the uniforms in which then French guerrillas behind the German lines. no FT'z inc de France as w e uestiun Where else could the French have gotten fought ur way through ? How many more America n uniforms ? .didn 't. is impossible for him to draw another : it i s --isil. ` joinei no with the Germans m 1940 as Hitler tried to efoi'e we invaded North Afhica. more ni fit. ar _t . get them to do) Suppose . .r recognised French insignia ? That -wa .t would burn you up more i they were ill (4-ma n uuessions : Suppose the French army and navy ha d f rhh : .lot. utmost mpossible for him to jnireha e another . Question . it .From the Germans '2 France was occupie d hdcas do you think we would have lost by the Germans when we. the French armies whic h .. t ~Sdiife~ nm v p F'reldChieia a American .Because. Why didn't we dye the uniforms befor e ieet: J. .

t. it is also worth remembering that in tle 4t: tft .some don't : Cheek.e d t i/n. even though they are _'n c_rti i iar i Tlie" . (in the FFL ac - physically unfit for military duty (and the ? u . "undisciplined" soldiers -. North - all commands are pernutted to wear civ_ aas n the s frica in an.cart i . are sloppr~ 1aol :~izg ao~rlr~r. They still dress : n'et and. in cddiian clothes." . : ... : . . clothes when they are on pass or oil duty .cers from the .but . ft. tt']. . Many of them are.~~lfus .Trench h the French had to reject 40 ° .ffv - 97 "Iii . be helpful to remember -that . Chad and ._ -'as the Germans who got the shellacking .. ragged`mof3 ..(7n To ' 'it C]1 Cg1r7sis look ! . during the four years of German . gip : . y i knaic lbe.cls. s used were lower than those used in our ar Why..~ .•. their.=lophy . Paris you see huin7 eds of yoang Frd Gerin 'n officers called metu arl GT .'o of the men ti~ G~ rc as soldiers had been guerrilla fighters.dont tell. of th e Wellrnrachi. "eareless. astonishing eainpaian. ) Because the best Freich youth were kiileJ: t . No <ace sneered a t en ff uty .French under General Le Cleve fought . were so many young Frenchmen unlit Iu -_-=r:_? l t Because they were underfed by the Germaalth e occupationBecause 4 . ilia n The ._nhe Pa-nzers. It might . . Tl eii fighting .e cr y l r um .. an d they put 'up an amazing fight against the : . .n. or taken as slave laborers into Gerrrn :_n around . . - age . time the French government announced it woul d .arrnnv of George Washington often i : :_ e clothes . __:err war . and the Luftws. soldiers wore funny white skirts . 1945. tier 12 cents a day ? licked the pants off the dashingly dressed .y ail ut On. this -i . when this sum was cut ` v sanc s a month (:3 . '-' c(tts a You . J Qnm e I o(.heart.-s.. until September.60) . 'riot grand fi. tuberculosis and other bsaase s 99 7 / . day: How well could you keep up you r o'canil on The Greek .mauas a 'ta :s . . uniforms then .n.noised . Reason Tin' most French ..of Africa to Lake . American soldier in France 850 francs a mont h zA . disabled. na : ) The French soldier gets a total pay of about. _ L.y ai. tQn : foiia s Because of the effects of World War I .clof p spread. enlisted men are permitted to .com.on. . s :_ . how an army fi ghts b t_r _e lochs . (This cut in pay came at a : al 98 "The ' e. Fze _t. like guerrillas . ..a cl a the resistance) . (See 71 . record is anc_ h a story .. the Paris area).

' ..:.i.ou "moonliht 4 e.. Local papet s gro. the return of Pfc Elmer Glutz on the clay we droppe d tile atomic bomb on .esistance . in the ietlidso f are pond of the deeds of local boys .... .ur.bei. T. then criticize American news judgment . 101 " -k :e)tch 6-tol g ere t..o.? Aii-tericaas.. It's the kind of.*:. see the statements of Genera l Patton and General Patch. It was as natura l sa'otage i. etirig to.ri.i. . under question 77 t tt. ni guerrilla warfare.g that the French a:rnues ha d i/ery :-Ialnbei . .stole OVi :... Our ow n of th e for the Freneh to praise the fighting of the French as it ia :.ipri's . : story tha t ins hit the front pages ever since there were wars .s.o . " 6orae Freneh..1~~tttrr ih the wel' wets.. .' ' is worth reraen. rJ` S itott to -post etietw vehtcle.. Tliere trained to.:ocat papers always play up local news. Such soldiers . Th. tett . as . The story of the maquis and FF 1 was "natitra!" news story . Zrench 'isci :i.fapan . . ight to .s.-i .v cottid g .i. Ire like Se &era.o'tes ..ecps . ii gool t/. AA for the role the FFI and the Maquis played _in the against Gei many.itsi ull the 2iii6 . . t.titti the. not French vanity.i-pid .-.:nionoo'iy .a fighting.eaty the f enelt.:Is for the Botsford Bitget to give front-page space t o u s d newspapels to report on them . hieh you'i e iv-i -ol)y. . it's publicity m the American press .so t uietl .toty thte. . Of MeaWliO had been trayic1 under .e Frenelt didn't like that . trits/c. Fri th-e pwt. soldiers certainly did steal .eaYto'ejeirtteg the pres'.s go!! 3V:6 the l.


~. They ran an elaborate "underground railway" for the facts on how the French fought the e ' . The 6en-t111 3 ' ropa ancla effort to amake sis think there was no l•e .. F hll t o coaorate: b estroyecl parts. . Vor 'destroye d . . ..z.dynamited power . i_e Fighting French never stopped fighting e. .. rhat the Germans tried to organize.ern . Italy . b s save -powder to London . They wreaked trains . people inside France fough t !c i erllrt?71 Tc'ot !rl c l). Fdr two years red a ez s.t ' " ali .s 0. rlo 1 see c7i st. -e cazlcnagn f . North Africa. Gerrnanr .fisted err7i ans admitted thi was. siowed down pro - by they killed so many hosta ges. and /c dot .rnay .lt up i fcih.meer . plants. lilt . S} IAA 11\~ := ANTRY JOURNAL Library . the Vichy militia .is'r ?. '_Chef. Trance under <occtu aa . Thaes why 'changed blue-prints. Il' tzf dirt ii t to t tf_ they p .e line : ceb/mcls used . work in .ll n ons .iou5 I w .mist nee in France . and -tl e nature and move p ent of military supplie s The L1 F iLegion .tion rules . military .L F periot about ~ .xez Na i _ s .PicrccJ' laid down .augr'ee with that .ttt the Baer i .itcs . . . acted `1 a great spy army for SH -1FI= r London .m!5 3 : u='n/P all over them.women and children pu t C.promise . not connecte d : military operations . r d s .rlce .eh that took immense guts. T'alontaice 'rancaise j.hont the resistance. ' An ! In all of T.S and protection nenied them in .. 104 f F' `'racee fell .c•~~.quarhs tried to stop out hearing a . .. t'i . <lurirlg that . destroyed comin.. :Here is how the French . Yl:iliio s of French men .it. They damaged locomotives . They 7-yst tt' astwd taw 7r . better _ food clothe s : s3 av executed French collaborationist s . damaged machinery. ?1Ztic dop . trick and pressure to induce th e . The Germal? s They sabotaged production in war plants .i aa. skill and patience . wah They got. 1. . flyers baPi tca . the _ :eT mans after the fall of France : :ecl for four years to get mor erencmen . a i d up through xra lmce " wit h the S th Army . ll 1 They transmitted . Fianc were %lid i?lff th e IFd . '. i 'ec'e. Ti c . Oct German troops movements.r~r7aj French we hems e. .offered : workers pI the Csemta:po. 4^ them .`'1C. trans - :The Germans overran France in 194b mission line . aailure .inities for • crinmes' . warehouses. for the Gernian w ar organized armed groups which fought the Germa n = tci ine _lie . the .aas ratting shot -down American and Brit . peopleto .7ariple of ~ new C. amany as 00 report : a day to Sil A.4 1 S ft . ~ a/io. the Frenc and c upl_ r hola .1c ic'eer nee questio ns l a f. azi cenohi! f srsp a.

`cieace 31onitot on December 26. 1942 ." . clothed . stated sadly "For systematic inefficiency and criminal carelessness the y (the French) are unsurpassed in the history of -modern industrial labor . fed and smuggled out o f France over 4 . The Germans destroyed 344 communities comple- tely) for "crimes" not connected with military operations . from 1040 to 194 4 by the Germans in an effort to stop French sabota ge and assistance to the Allies . `(Getting' food and clothes isn 't easy when you 're on a starvation ration yourself. They hid .000 American airmen and parachutists . Its risky to forge identifica- tion Tapers:) Every American airman rescued mean t half a dozer_ r'rench lives were risked . An official German report. Perhaps the Germans realized better than we do the relent - less fight against them which the French people waged.a. . one Frenchman was shot crsi y two io~?rs . On an average .i glend. r. quoted in the C'hristia.


00 0 Laborers 20. . 130. . America by a walk dow n .. of then_' weight .concentration camps. 60.Colit. r .. because: Total civilians -Lilte d of the food and mill. France by a stroll down the Champs Elysees._n the { ar. Deportees .of labor that the dermans took for themselves .1 5 .00 0 You can't . see the 1 . X147 .Killed . . shortages .£x:0 the Atlantic City boardwalk .j . . fii'-l.ens .000 .1!f'idt PIl'LJ2}.000 Yon can't see the malnutrition that the Germans caused . read the answer to the next Cei'ma it'y question. (300-400 °-) in tuberculosis - dl.000 man-horn's Killed in bombings . just as you .ical prisoner . " Cost France No. they ' d cten +1~s1t i.000 . Yo u illed ii_ Battle ofi' Frano? can't see the meagre rations that the French were fed . see the 12 . oi iiieii i n If you want more facts .s_.000 French men and women and children who died.551 .039. couldn 't tell what the war cost.'. You can 't tell what the war cost . 30 . rickets in France 150 .or°ed in You cant see the increase .c.000 . . or were shot as hostages : Yo u can't see the food and supplies that were taken fro m France.a of the men and 55 of the women in France lost .00 0 an average of 12 °. You can't.erations 20. You can t see the number of babies who were born dead . were wounded. infantile paralysis .-.°ou. Y'. :in Paris . .1)0 0 on the Champs Lly.00 0 Prisoners of War 30. were in . You don ' t see .9 " . thn-e r w c i the way a 'city l e: Paris looks .ptoeria.or 'mas. .. O! e uo you call "pretty ease (" Here is what. 'o. typhoid fever.' . l~ tal 430 . 200 .. .ed In other 'militar y { 0 '. .cded 230 . you wouldn 't .o' t!"021 .

1 . sTxE"„T.aL S Geaiman conscrip- tion . In France . . Deportees-(returned from Germany) : .die 2a. deportations Three-fourths of all the . figures represent a loss to France of .or the total earnings of al r_ .ia. . were lost to France .000. '? her - _ -. Agricultural workers grow . . . Three-fifths of all French railroad stoe'= --t<s ethe r destroyed or taken to erim nv by Gerar t they Hours of work lost t c treated in 104. 228.cnhled .4? s for two years . which--. dollars . . I. '?y natibxnal_wealth --. .. .500. . France due to mas s Half of all the livestock in France was lost c.s of forced labor in Franc e Frenchmen were forced to perform for tbe ails. Disabled ctt'i. dz.z. for the Germans.: .2~l g %LiLS CI'i~(! ~ -(P 7 ~. Franc e Total inikkfr'y ar c! rL2*2Z2Crii .-e: r .erS i n WOOO2ded . .000 buildings were destroyed .-.le) Iii . Industrial wGa ?. Totalt r t. .S I lled.000 man-hour's of labor. ..'cc:c snd :32 billion. French plants (ras' - Ding for Germany) .l ./. The national debt zio..785. 5 .i lie These . : .00 0 'Deportees . .ing crops for Imo. agricultural ecyarn_ t wa s Hours of work lost t o lost.5 .Oi'te . .000 bridges were blown :--up . : . Forced workers i n Total 'iiiChral and c+3Ziliian.r. France because o f 12 .

' of the fr ei ht e rs .iaa exchange extortion { ::et. __'-_' nsport and Celo 11unrea. oar Office of War Information 'a alyzed .1m the franc at 20 hams to the -.ct itiiral p .occupation .000. _ ..we - 1.00 0 charges imposed.C00 .030 3. S:-. Or daillaae.E t 4. . .450.1 00. ClaMa erl '240.0v0. 1he Th erebuilding of Franc e {s a trecilenclou s aicnZ' Oi oc c upation . 1.S . ear p ut nearly all of France into Utah and Nevada . :Franc ll: France is .30 0 E . Cieariiig and removal costs . 448 . .309 billion dollars . . < .00 n' Yn ` a _ made a more rapid recovery imuossibie . 1iti. and Inanpo to'e r .:°'ar'. power.'.'G•3. to the direct-costs of Germa n tench.Iu tr . .a ~ . electricity.00 0 of the taneks and automobiles .000. France p ound that of its .00 0 which -fill take a long time .00 0 i tench Minister of Finance recently reported that zee iaeins ind stries a r e beginning to operate at 70 of Cash payyr i ente to 'maintain Gorma n t v .000.000. . _UjIl . : i' i J̀^IL~1 r r̀' C =ated total.ti+o :1 damar .O0t> eoszons to military and civilian dea d and cNsabled . 102. Ei ti . .ci 065 .e d or damaged . .'ndust?" and Comrneiy'l. . rance ___ most important single factor' which .'527 .Jl1Cli t<.36 t.3 2 `)OP. 'What material taken by . Man . money cost to Franc e e t_'e rar 98 billion dollars . 2 .000 . < . 107 Corot e y IIO to if'oi' ' erns? r•e&'lido' (liar rr r. the mark.'ai' material etc 2. Germans o r of :the mer0ant marine ..:.00(5 of the 1. ri v . .00 0 i _. is -holding .-.000.53 0D0 . production is the shortage of coal .33 .0OO .'..iitiJ ? " francs to . zated total cost to'U . about one fonrteeiith the size of the United St-= es . transport-.3 33.t3 . Sicortag'e of coal .0C'o217 . ..2 .222 . .0i1'.'. agricultur e.trial L. r(' uisition . on .u'ociucta taken by i eca line. . On . . R t ~f after liberation .5s0. 1'. 5 (I . the tOil0-win `r -were left i . 35o . 1043. . .) .tnuction of 'eniilcii' rs..000 . instead of a the real value .

'dilte s could not operate without timber pit props to up the ceilings of tunnels in coal veins as they were . :red. .1-_ _ of French factories as have the grave shortages -or other essential raw Materials .wour:ded or disabled) out of a population at around forty million in 1940 .o7-. economic conditions in France and pointed ou t coal crisis has plunged France into a vicious circle. ._ cbe7_ also needed coal with which to operate. And never f'org'et the loss to France of -:talc (killed. But the transportation needed to bring in ~r. Coal shortages have caused as many shut-.-.. This is ring blow to the manpower needed for rebuilding .


They ti. The system differs from ours as far as parties are eon.too 7}2. the cabinet can easily minority rights. democrac--y . In our city elections. and freciuently vote for their friends . on common program . freedoni together. allnast ever. . neighbors. people smear campaign before the war.. and disadvanta g es of a multiple-party system : H O the French have many parties. hold to any one way they have a right to be represented_ .. T/ p:y ' r e 7ot . each her pr oblem or each new crisis.l C yre. like ours in its basic principles : freedom of speech .:i'fie let tocyaf7i. line for French in the Iovernm. be ?L•r.i.' The French electoral practice has not encouraged pant . ifoir ' t pace e .freedom of the press. elections all -in democracy itself . polities was. i ein up ..jury. Odd. the German propaganda . protection under the law. in their government . at things " : the Frenc h get graft. Germans wanted the French people to lose confidenc e organisation such . " in the Chamber of Deputies : Cabinets are always com- bination or coalition cabinets . The elections to the Chem ber: in their leaders . . The multiple-party system has this grave dis advantage 1n France . etc . how they will translate wide represent - . conceivable political position . The Germans ran a gigantic than our national elections . The French have a political party for . were not corr. Incidentally. It is easy for such cabinets to be over - The French political system Is a . no one patty controls a majority of the vote s QQ "The F eiIC. "All French politicians are corrupt ..ent . and . it gives even. They don t believe tha t That's as silly as saving that all American politician s there are two was of looking.oe smear were -. ri •ce.iiiost o f of Deputies are more like our municipal (city) . as ours . It is thrown. The Frew-ter has to rel y on persuasion . said the Nazis. they 1T i l solve It . its program considerec . So think there are dozens of ways . trial by . The only French politicians o f men rather than parties . and that if enough people are some American politicians .pro-up of any size a voice in government . a chance to ge t certain lams passed .m.rir . Son3e French politicians are corrupt . for many years wits. The French today are r during the occupation . too : importance whom the Germansadid . It is relate elyr hard for such 'cabinets to worm. 7tt ro0lttica. ii'tJ pai'tica . They. . of religion. The French mutiple-party system has this advantag e Detain and Laval . during the war . rent .c.uch aware of the angel s cernea : we have a "two-nasty ' form of administration . freedom of the vote . anti . isn't i t a chance to get . This is true in France.

" 111 he . Theis rote cast c•: . in the 1936 elections .list ." mualat). got 382 seats in the Chamber of Deputies out of a tota l of 30S . dccode . Frea_ft. May 1945 Sept. ea into simpler edministration Is their problem .1 The Commtmist : Party got 10 seats in the Chamber o f z a eom. n . "Demoeraties are decadent . ) 110 . name is a carry-over from the past .e 1943 .'' -ettr°eme Left nor extreme Right . It i the party of small farmers and th e Deputies in the 1932 elections. How does one measure decadence ? Poplar Frhnt (Radical Socialist.1?r. Since the liberation . got. For the ast twenty years. Communist Party : : .`7t potWe. the great majority. of Trench - i ee have ' voted for men and parties that were neithe r 112 "France is a . i o u 't he fools t"b y the names of the French parties . in the last pre-war elections of 1930 . 1945 are. 222 seats . . which opposed th e Popular Front .. et.and Col l. partie s in goose elections was approximately as follows di . . the French have held miuiicipa l elections in May 1945 and cantonal elections in Sep - ter_? e. the par ties of the . For their vote in 1945. rote cast .et notice . i5 neither tarLiez i. and 2 out of 60S seat s iowe' Middle-class it is a middle-of-the-road party. >r rrre r r ro' 7t~ r .:cal z . see questio n {It.5. which . The Germans said. The voting strength of the main . The parties of the Right. trying. The Rttical Socialist -party for example.Fie/tat are G'oirlr. stood for a sort of _ ew Deal program . 1: 21 Socialist Part` 15 24 Radical Socialist Parts 32 24 Popular Republican Movement 9 . 'Socia'li t .