Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 250424, 19 pages

Review Article
Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia:
A Potential Source of Probiotics

Manas Ranjan Swain,1 Marimuthu Anandharaj,1
Ramesh Chandra Ray,2 and Rizwana Parveen Rani3
Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India
Centre for Tuber Research Institute, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa 751019, India
Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram, Tamil Nadu 624302, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Manas Ranjan Swain; manas.swain@gmail.com

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 30 April 2014; Published 28 May 2014

Academic Editor: Triantafyllos Roukas

Copyright © 2014 Manas Ranjan Swain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables,
fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables
products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are
associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable
commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical
countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and
vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented
fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus
plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally
fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to
describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.

1. Introduction organic acid and alcohols, impart desirable flavour, texture to
foods, reduce toxicity, and decrease cooking time [2].
Fermented foods and beverages have heterogeneity of tra- World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agri-
ditions and cultural preferences found in the different geo- culture Organization (FAO) recommended intake of a spe-
graphical areas, where they are produced. Fermentation has cific dose of vegetable and fruits in daily food to prevent
enabled our ancestors in temperate and cooler regions to sur- chronic pathologies such as hypertension, coronary heart
vive during the winter season and those in the tropics to sur- problems, and risk of strokes. The consumers tend to prefer
vive drought periods. Fermentation is a slow decomposition the foods and beverages which is fresh, highly nutritional,
process of organic substances induced by microorganisms or health promoting and ready to eat or ready to drink [3].
enzymes that essentially convert carbohydrates to alcohols Lactic acid (LA) fermentation of vegetables and fruits is a
or organic acids [1]. In many instances, production methods common practice to maintain and improve the nutritional
of different traditional fermented foods were unknown and and sensory features of food commodities [4–6]. A great
passed down to subsequent generations as family traditions. number of potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were iso-
Drying and salting are common fermentation practices in the lated from various traditional naturally fermented foods [7].
oldest methods of food preservation. Fermentation processes Asian traditional fermented foods are generally fermented
are believed to have been developed in order to preserve fruits by LAB such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L.
and vegetables for times of scarcity by preserving the food by brevis, L. fermentum, L. casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides,

2 Biotechnology Research International

Fruits and vegetables

Selection, cleaning, washing,
and disinfection

Blanching, pealing, and

Salted Mixed
(2.5–10% salt) (3–5% salt along with
other ingredients)

Soaking in brine Sun dry
Soaking in brine

Fill into vessel
5–30 days at 25–30∘ C
1-2 weeks at 10–25∘ C

Drying or pressing 1-2 weeks at 2–10∘ C Drying or pressing

Sun dried or pasteurization

Packing and

Figure 1: Overall fermentation process of fruits and vegetables.

L. kimchi, L. fallax, Weissella confusa, W. koreenis, W. cibaria, 2. Fermentation of Fruits
and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which are considered as the and Vegetables by LAB
probiotic source of the food practice. Availability of certain
specific nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and acidic Shelf life of the perishable food can be improved by fermenta-
nature of fruits and vegetables provides conducible medium tion which is considered as the oldest technology compared
for fermentation by LAB. to the refrigeration. Fermentation is one of the oldest pro-
Probiotic is a relatively new word meaning “for life” and cessing techniques to extend the shelf life of perishable food
it is generally used to name the bacteria associated with and was particularly important before refrigeration. LA fer-
beneficial effects for humans [8, 9]. Probiotics are defined as mentation of cabbage to produce sauerkraut has been widely
live microbial feed such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. studied for many years [16, 17]. Basic outline of the fruit and
acidophilus, and Streptococcus lactis which are supplemented vegetable fermentation is given in Figure 1. With the popu-
by food that beneficially affect the host by improving its larity and success of sauerkraut, fermentation of many other
intestinal balance [10]. Several studies have shown that vegetables has emerged, such as cucumbers, beets, turnips,
supplementation of probiotics to food provides several health cauliflower, celery, radishes, and carrots [18] (Table 1).
benefits such as reduction of serum cholesterol, improved Depending on the type of raw materials in final fermented
gastrointestinal function, enhanced immune system, and products, vegetable fermentation is characterized accord-
lower risk of colon cancer [11–15]. This review provides an ingly. Sauerkraut, fermented cucumbers, and kimchi are the
overview on the current research prospects of LA fermenta- most studied lactic acid fermented vegetables mainly due to
tion of fruits and vegetables with regard to human nutrition their commercial importance. Canning or freezing is often
and health. too expensive method in food preservation which cannot

India No Pediococcus and Lactobacillus spp. various Leuconostoc mesenteroides Dhamuoi Vietnam [37] Biotechnology Research International vegetables L. pentosus [103. Plantarum [68] Leuconostoc lactis Enterococcus casseliflavus L. radish. plantarum L. Table 1: Examples of traditional fermented fruits and vegetables. Fermented food product Country Fruit and vegetables Other ingredients Microorganisms References L. hellenica Jiang-gua Taiwan Cucumber Salt L. [10. plantarum and salt L. 109] P. sakei Nozawana-Zuke Japan Turnip L. plantarum Khalpi Nepal Cucumber No [10. brevis Dakguadong Thailand Mustard leaf Salt L. fermentum L. ginger. mustard. which are used in various parts of Asian subcontinent. radish. plantarum [107] Cabbage. brevis Olive Spain. mesenteroides L. Cabbage. pentosus Dua muoi Vietnam Mustard or beet Onion. brevis Kimchi Korea green onion. [10. brevis Pak-Gard-Dong Thailand Mustard leaf Salt and sugar solution P. plantarum L. brevis. and salt [103] L. [42] vegetables L. brevis Burong mustala Philippines Mustard leaf Rock salt [105] Pediococcus cerevisiae L. Gundruk Nepal. pentosaceus Leuconostoc mesenteroides Garlic. cerevisiae L. sugar. red pepper. 27] P. pentosaceus Cabbage. various L. 106] L. pentosus [108. fermentum Ca muoi Vietnam Eggplant L. 37] cauliflower L. curvatus [65] L. plantarum P. cerevisiae [110] L. 27. plantarum Inziangsang India Mustard leaf No L. 36] Pediococcus acidilactici Weissella cibaria W. plantarum 3 . Italy Olive Salt L.

plantarum L. cerevisiae [107] pentaphylla) L. mesenteroides L. 112] L. pentosaceus L. fermentum Lactobacillus pobuzihii. 64] W. 4 Table 1: Continued. rhamnosus L. salt. brevis Pak-sian-dong Thailand (Gynadropsis Brine P. Ginger. brevis [95. P. plantarum Pobuzihi Taiwan Cummingcordia Salt W cibaria [63. L. 114] Mustard leaves Tetragenococcus halophilus L. Nepal. cabbage. plantarum P. hot Leuconostoc mesenteroides Paocai China [36. lactis Chinese cabbage. and radish red pepper L. plantarum Sauerkraut International Cabbage Salt L. brevis Sunki Japan Leaves of otaki-turnip Wild apple [20] P. paramesenteroides P. brevis Sinki India. confuses Sayur asin Indonesia Mustard. celery. brevis L. pentosaceus L. pentosaceus Suan-tsai Taiwan Salt [102. plantarum L. brevis Soidon India Bamboo Shoot Water L. L. plantarum L. and Bhutan Radish No L. fermentum Biotechnology Research International . mesenteroides Tempoyak Malaysia Salt [53] zibethinus) Lactobacillus mali L. 113. pentosus. cabbage [54] Liquid from boiled rice L. plantarum Cabbage. sugar. pentosaceus Bacillus coagulans L. 111. pentosaceus L. fallax P. 51] cucumber. fallax [39] L. plantarum L. Fermented food product Country Fruit and vegetables Other ingredients Microorganisms References Leaves of Pak-sian L. L. lactis L. mesenteroides Salt. brevis Duriyan (Durio L. fermentum [10] L.

W. cibaria Sugar. paramesenteroides W. and W. lactis. salt [66] W. [62] plums E. minor Yan-tsai-shin Taiwan Broccoli [67] sesame oil Leuconostoc mesenteroides L. mesenteroides. Lactis Yan-jiang Taiwan Ginger Plums. sulfurous 5 . L. cibaria. cibaria L. Salt. minor L. paramesenteroides L. plantarum L. sugar. faecalis. and pickled Yan-taozih China and Taiwan Peaches W. Table 1: Continued. soy sauce. Biotechnology Research International Fermented food product Country Fruit and vegetables Other ingredients Microorganisms References Salt. lactis subsp. sugar. sakei Lactococcus lactis subsp. and W. cibaria Yan-dong-gua Taiwan Wax gourd [52] fermented soybeans W. paramesenteroides. Plantarum E. brevis W. W.

products are removed and sun-dried for 2–4 such as diarrhoea and cirrhosis of liver because of probiotic days. and fruit pulps such as banana [22]. After desirable erals. Traditional Fermented Fruits and diet and remove antinutritional factors to make the food safe Vegetables in India to eat [4]. and cabbages (Brassica consumption of LA fermented fruits and vegetables helps sp. 21]. microflora. Fermented fruits and vegetables (Table 2) have an impor. aromas. were soluble vitamins C and B-complex. radishes. L. sun-dried for 2-3 days. Africa. L. sauerkraut of Germany. acidilactici. the industrial production of fermented 3. L. nutrients and coloured pigments [27]. reported fermented fruits and vegetables are categorized as the pit is lined with bamboo sheaths and paddy straw. soidon. L. The celeriac. covered with (i) Root vegetables: carrots. Radish follows. Sinki. and phytochemicals for the tosaceus. today [20. production of wholesome nutritious foods in a wide variety of flavours. immature mangoes. squeezed. In Italy. and warmed by burning. tap roots are wilted for 2-3 days. provitamin A. and soijim of the Himalayas. providing vitamins. is traditionally prepared by pit fermentation. and fermented naturally for about 15–22 days. as starter culture(s) for controlled and optimized production ity of the fermented fruits and vegetables and retains the of fermented vegetable products [34]. phytos. After removing the ashes. fermentum. cut pers. turnips. industrial significance only for cucumbers. and horseradish [75]. which act as Japan [36]. in the food industry [22]. citreum. and acidic production of finished and half-finished products is consid. carrot. minerals. the Chinese cabbage.) are wilted for 1-2 days. L. The (Brassica oleracea L. a pit was dug mentability than other vegetables (okra and gourds) because with 2-3 ft diameter in a dry place.6 Biotechnology Research International be affordable by millions of world’s economically deprived (iii) Vegetables juices: carrot. pen- terols. casei. Fruits and vegetables are exclusive sources of water. The pit is cleaned. and preventing several diseases fermentation. food. such as kimchi of Korea.. fallax. mesu. Fermentation-based industries are an important the perishable vegetable for storage and further consumption source of income and employment in Asia. and Leuconostoc fallax Pediococcus spp. immature tant role in feeding the world’s population on every continent palms. Fermentation of fruits and vegetables can sinki. and khalpi are fermented vegetable product of Nepal. olives. top of the pit is plastered with mud and left to ferment for (ii) Vegetable fruits: cucumbers. and Bhutan. fresh sinki is removed. dietary fibres.). dipped in lukewarm water. Some of rich in minerals and vitamins and have neutral pH and thus the LAB strains may also possess protective and functional provide a natural medium for LA fermentation [26]. L. and textures which enrich the human 3. campestris var. the use of starter culture such as are the predominant LAB involved in ethnic fermented L. botrytis L. P. and stored at room . gasseri. which is a According to Kim et al. and pressed tightly into the pit. rhamnosus. plantarum. var. L. 22–30 days. Gundruk is a nonsalted. curvatus. Wilted leaves are crushed mildly to enhance human nutrition in several ways such as the and pressed into a container or earthen pot. tomato pulp.. acidophilus vegetables. LA properties that render them as interesting candidates for use fermentation enhances the organoleptic and nutritional qual. an indigenous fermented radish tap root vegetables is limited to sauerkrauts and table olives [31]. and L. Lactobacillus brevis. arthritis. Sinki. and Pediococcus pentosaceus ageing [30]. and sunki of anthocyanin.1. lycopene. and Latin [33]. pseudoplantarum. For sinki production. cauliflower leaves promoting the positive health image of probiotics [28]. Gundruk. people and lactic acid fermentation [19]. soibum. and Enterococcus durans [33]. Vegetables have low sugar content but are lactis. and sweet potato [72]. L. with the ethnic fermented tender bamboo shoot products. turnips. and olives [22]. mesenteroides subsp. cuneifolia). L. implicated in degenerative diseases like cancer. such as Lactobacillus spp. plastered they have more fermentable saccharides [32]. The most with mud. and spinach provide relatively higher fer. fermented. L. After fermentation. Some of the fermented fruits and vegetables resemblance with other fermented acidic vegetable products contain coloured pigments such as flavonoids.. and better social well.2. brevis. The predominant microflora of Gundruk includes antioxidants in the body by scavenging harmful free radicals various LAB such as L. ?-carotene. Fermentation serves many benefits. beet. and these foods are well suited to mustard leaves (Brassica juncea (L. human diet [25]. LA fermentation of vegetable products applied as a preservation method for the 3. beetroot. cabbages. They play an important role in preservation. America [23]. Lactic acid fermentation vegetables such as gundruk. P. and Pediococcus pentosaceus. casei subsp. L. During fer- ered as an important technology and is further investigated mentation of gundruk. tomatoes. In eastern Himalayan regions of India a wide range of being of the people living in marginalized and vulnerable fermented vegetable products are prepared for bioprocessing society [22]. plantarum. Leuconostoc spp. min. and glucosinolates. in the Sikkim Himalayas. and carbohydrates. mesenteroides. which include food security. plantarum. into small pieces. cabbage. Lactic acid fermentation of vegetables has an [33. however.) Czern). unique type of biopreservation of foods by LA fermentation tomato. pep. improved nutrition. and green peas [27]. plantarum. sweet potato. (iv) Fruits: apples. occur “spontaneously” by the natural lactic bacterial surface Sikkim. made airtight attainment of balanced nutrition. lemons. 35]. okra. crushed. pears. vegetable product indigenous to the Himalayas. Predominant functional LAB strains associated provides consistency and reliability of performance [24]. onion. dry leaves and weighted down by heavy planks or stones. identified as L. and L. Gundruk is consumed as pickle or soup and has some properties [29]. fresh leaves of local vegetables known because of the growing amount of raw materials processed as rayosag (Brassica rapa subsp.

08%.2% Sugars 3% Protein 2.68% Kimchi Korea Raphanus sativus Dietary fiber 1.1% Paocai China Dietary fiber 2. Common name Nutrient composition Botanical name Used for Country Leafy vegetables Carbohydrates 6.3% Bambusa tulda Soidon India Dietary fiber 2.7% Carrots Protein 0.24% Dietary fiber 2.2% Potassium 11% Zinc 12% .7% Broccoli Protein 2.01% Brassica rapa.Biotechnology Research International 7 Table 2: Nutritive values and scientific names of fruits and vegetables mostly used for lactic acid fermentation.0% Carbohydrates 9.75% Chinese cabbage Fat 0.98% Zingiber officinale Roscoe Yan-jiang Taiwan Fat 4.68% Fat 0. Sugars 1. Sugars 3.39% Ginger Protein 8. Rapa Fat 0.9%.1% Sinki India Carbohydrates 5% Turnip Protein 1. Dhamuoi Vietnam Sugars 3.8% Carbohydrates 71.37% Dietary fiber 2.5% Nozuwana-Zuke Japan Brassica rapa subsp.62%. Pekinensis Suan-tsai Taiwan Vitamin K and Molybdenum Burong mustala Philippines Carbohydrates 4% Dakguadong Thailand Mustard leaf Protein 5% Dua muoi Vietnam Brassica juncea Total fat 1% Inziangsang India Dietary fiber 9% Pak-Gard-Dong Thailand Suan-tsai Taiwan Root and tubers Carbohydrates 9.8%.6% Bamboo Shoot Fat 0.64%.96% Sugars 7.28% Kimchi Korea Brassica oleracea Fat 0.6% Carbohydrates 5.86% Gundruk India Radish Protein 0.18% Dietary fiber 2.6% Paocai China Fat 0. Sunki Japan Dietary fiber 5% Vegetables Carbohydrates 5. subsp.1% Carbohydrates 3.82% Brassica oleracea L. italica Yan-tsai-shin Taiwan Fat 0. var. Protein 0.96% Beet Protein 1.2% Gundruk India Cabbage Protein 1.6%.4% Sugars 1.5 g Sauerkraut International Suan-tsai Taiwan Carbohydrates 3. Sugars 4.24% Dietary fiber 14.93% Daucus carota Kanji India Fat 0.

Preparation process of . 33]. especially the people cucumber product in the entire Himalayan region [36]. Olive Spain.39% Peaches Protein 1% China and Prunus persica (L.32% Dietary fiber 3. plantarum.7% Protein 0.54% Sugars 8. as pickle by adding mustard oil. Microorganisms isolated from Khalpi include L.47% Durian Fat 5.3% Dietary fiber 2% Carbohydrate 2. brevis. Fermentation after preservation of breadfruit.54% Olive Protein 1. Common name Nutrient composition Botanical name Used for Country Carbohydrates 5% Sugars 1.9% Brassica oleracea Gundruk Nepal Fat 0.) Stokes Yan-taozih Fat 0. commonly consumed by the Brahmin Nepalis in Sikkim. (Cucumis sativus L. taro. traditional Ripened cucumber is cut into suitable pieces and sun-dried fermented leafy vegetable product prepared from mustard for 2 days.3% Pak-sian Gynandropsis pentaphylla Pak-sian-dong Thailand Carbohydrates 9.) product. salt. Carbohydrates 27. yan-dong-gua Taiwan Fat 0. 38].8% Paocai China Carbohydrate 2% Protein 2% Eggplant Dietary fiber 12% Solanum melongena Ca muoi Vietnam Vitamin C 3% Carbohydrates 6% Protein 3% Green onion Fat 1% Allium wakegi Kimchi Korea Dietary fiber 7% Carbohydrates 3% Wax gourd Protein 2% Benincasa hispida Thunb. Forst. Inziangsang. Khalpi or khalpi is a fermented cucumber L. 3. In Northeast India. casei. It is the only reported fermented 3.13% Cucumis sativus Khalpi Nepal.25% Taiwan Dietary fiber 1. banana. Italy Fat 15. L.33% Durio zibethinus Tempoyak Malaysia Dietary fiber 3.5% Vitamin C 8% temperature for future consumption [36].9% Cauliflower Protein 1. of Nagaland and Manipur consume Inziangsang. and powdered chilies. Pit fermentation airtight by covering with dried leaves.8% Carbohydrates 3.09% Protein 1. brevis. and Leuconostoc fallax [33. and Leuconostoc fallax [10.3. It is fermented natu- has been practiced in the South Pacific and Ethiopia for rally at room temperature for 3–5 days.4.84% Sugars 0.5% Dietary Fiber 7% Fruits Cummingcordia Cordia dichotoma Pobuzihi Taiwan G. plantarum. and then put into a bamboo vessel and made leaves and similar to gundruk [36].8 Biotechnology Research International Table 2: Continued. Khalpi is prepared in the months of September and October. Khalpi. India Dietary fiber 0.03% Olea europaea L. L.67% Jiang-gua Taiwan Cucumber Fat 0. Khalpi is consumed Sinki fermentation is carried out by various LAB including L. 5 days makes the product sour in taste. and cassava [37].

L. Leaves ria isolated from kimchi produce beneficial enzymes. Some important Manipur prepared from the tip of mature bamboo shoots. antimutagen [46]. mented at low temperature (2–5∘ C). L. Enterococcus faecium. Bacte- was carried out for 3–7 days at room temperature. This fermentation is also supported were the predominant species [41]. and the preparation is covered. blended with various Paocai is a type of pickle. L. the cabbage or other lactis. In addition. 42]. sour liquid (soijim) of a previous batch is added as starter and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activities of in 1 : 1 dilution. Traditional Fermented Fruits and the production of carotenoids by Rhodotorula rubra or for Vegetables in Other Asian Countries ?-glucosidase production by Candida wickerhamii for commercial applications [50]. L. and Pediococcus leaves and fermented naturally at room temperature (15∘ C– spp. belonging to the family mixed with 2.0–4. may be added in the [48].0% salt before allowing for natural Brassicaceae.3–3. which is traditionally made at home and palate. and extended period of optimum taste [43]. were LAB isolated from goyang [40].Biotechnology Research International 9 inziangsang is like of gundruk.5 to 3. which is made with many . W. In certain places of China. such of Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. Nagaland pickles that are popular fermented vegetables [44]. kimchi was nom- fermenting vessel during fermentation to enhance the flavor inated as one of the world’s healthiest foods in a 2006 issue of soidon. brevis. point. leafs of magane. Like gundruk. Fermentation kimchi are thought to protect against disease [47]. plantarum. and dried for 4-5 days and stored in a closed container for a year or carbonated taste and differs in flavour from sauerkrautand more at room temperature for future consumption. and then fer- hangam (Brassica juncea L. chlorophyll.3. and meats. ginger. in the initial phase and Lactobacillus spp. ambient temperature (20∘ C–30∘ C) and allowed to ferment for overripening. plantarum. the surplus vegetables such served as a side dish at meals [41]. But low temperature is preferred to maintain the anaerobic condition. celery. L. and W. sweet.2. Czern). in the subsequent phases [42]. respectively. Soidon. vitamin C. curvatus. yeasts Candida spp. and fermented nese is Paocai. Lactobacillus brevis. Outer casings and Kimchi contains various health-promoting components. Dendrocalamus lactis. and radish were retained during indicating a group of traditional LA fermented vegetables superfluous season. varies in terms of taste and method spices (red pepper. locally as dextransucrase and alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase called heibungin in Manipuri language. or radish) are salted after prebrining. fruits and crunchy texture and tangy taste. red pepper powder. L. brevis. and that LAB contributing to kimchi fermentation include L. The major raw materials (oriental cabbage niment with the chief meal and occasionally used as a Nipple. crushed.8 [49]. soidon is removed from the pot and of Health Magazine [43]. a prominent traditional fermented 4. L. cucumber. Goyang. pen- 3. The fibre [43]. locally called vegetables. citreum. P. garlic. ginger. 3. Goyang. sakei. Kimchi is a Korean traditional fermented veg- etable made from Chinese cabbage (beachu).1. radish. etc. After 3–7 days. The pH of final product 25∘ C) for 25–30 days. 33]. Leuconostoc fallax. Kimchi fermentation is and soaked in warm water. Leaves are squeezed to remove temperature-dependent process.0 [41. a lactic acid fermented vegetable with saltish seafood (jeotgal).5-0. green onion. Optimum taste of kimchiis attained stored in a closed container at room temperature for a year. species thought to be responsible for kimchi fermentation are Main source of fermentation is the tips or apical meristems Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. In resident meal. gasicomitatum.6. L. lactis. of mature bamboo shoots (Bambusa tulda.5. lower portions of the bamboo shoots were removed and including ?-carotene. Sauerkraut. freshly prepared inziangsang is sun. antioxidation.). generally involving Leuconostoc plants. Lactococcus varies from 3. In vegetable foodstuff of the Sikkim and Nepal. are collected. vegetables will be preserved for a long period of time [37].) and other of preparation in different areas. The tops of the baskets are then covered with fig plant spp. giganteus. sauerkraut fermentation. Kimchi is a generic term as cabbage. confusa. washed.. cut into pieces. The most favored customary tableware of Chi- onion. 7–10 days.6. It ripens in one week at 15∘ C excess water and pressed into the container and made airtight and took three days at 25∘ C. Because of these beneficial properties. (family: Guttiferae). when the pH and acidity reach approximately 4. 4. are collected. the fermented extract of ziang dui is that Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum used as a condiment. and Lactococcus lactis take part 0. and L. The container is kept at in kimchifermentation to prevent production of strong acid. brevis.). At this pH. Paocai. Usually Paocai is served as an accompa- in Korea [42]. plantarum. fish. etc. Soidonis a widespread fermented product of tosaceus. Sauerkraut brine is an important byproduct of the cabbage fermentation industry and can be used as a substance for 4. cereals. fresh cabbage is shredded and saag (Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Mustard leaves. and Pediococcus pentosaceus. and then fermentation.5 and L. Kimchi. and Melocanna bambusoides). 39]. L. mesenteroides. Pediococcus [10. Sauerkrautproduction typically relies on a squeezed to drain off excess water and are tightly pressed into sequential microbial process that involves heterofermentative bamboo baskets lined with two to three layers of leaves of fig and homofermentative LAB. Taiwanese paocai has minor ingredients (seasonings. Kimchi is characterised particularly by its sour. green 4. and dietary whole tips are submerged in water in an earthen pot. pseudomesenteroides. Sauerkraut means sour cabbage. garlic. koreensis [45]. as the pH gradually falls to 4. The clas- people consume inziangsang as a soup time with steamed sical identification of bacterial isolates from kimchi revealed rice. Vitamin C content is maximal at this in fermentation [10. salted sea foods. Several results suggested by set of LAB which includes L.

Shalgam is widely used in approximately 30–60 g kg−1 . and Pediococcus pentosaceus [56. Yan-Taozih. The time of W. [53]. plantarum. Chen et al. paramesenteroides. The fermentation is achieved by Mustard cabbage leaves (Brassica juncea var. Leuconostoc mesenteroides. After the exuded water is removed. exhibited limited growth during the first day of fermentation. and fermentation process is for one month. rubbed. Fermentation was characterized by a sequential bacteria by producing organic acids. which are the traditional and maintain a fermentation time of 1 week or even longer. Starch degrading 4. but it may be elon. Weissella cibaria. a leafy turnip plant. combined with salt. but some producers for commercial production. Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Lactococcus lactis subsp.9. and Pediococcus pentosaceus sour taste of tempoyak is attributed to the acid produced by from fermented pobuzihi [63. and various 4. Initial fermentation was carried out by Lactobacillus sakei and mentation that includes sour-dough fermentation (first fer. Traditional method has two stages of fer. Seeded durian is mixed by filling up the boiled cummingcordia into containers and with small amount of salt and left to ferment at ambient tem. fermentum. and initiated by various microorganisms presented in the raw Pediococcus [58. zuke and preventing its contamination from disadvantageous mentation. The peaches are then wax gourd. sugar. inorganic salts and red pepper powder containing spicy is produced in China and other South East Asian countries.8. and other ingredients by anaerobic The shalgam juice fermentation was mainly carried out by fermentation in a special container. and LAB become the dominate bacterial finally. locally called Nozawana and an unidentified Lactobacillus sp. Staphylococcus. and Corynebacterium widely used in Taiwan. L. mixed with salt (NaCl). The ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was washed. Yan-Dong-Gua. Liquid from including Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. W. Chen et al. mass of Mijiu (Taiwanese rice wine) is mixed in the earlier isolated Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Pobuzihi is a widely used traditional fer- other foods. Shalgam juices were prepared by two methods for 3–5 days at low temperature (6–10∘ C).) for several minutes (Durio zibethinus).10. hum choy. spices. The LAB species predominantly include materials. gated even more than two months. Lactis and this species are replaced mentation) and carrot fermentation (second fermentation). L.4. fermentum.6.10 Biotechnology Research International kinds of vegetables. It is majorly consumed by Japanese people. . L. Tempoyak. black carrot bulgur (broken wheat) flour. Lactobacillus curvatus. Leuconostoc. L. f. lactis. 4. prepared using until water exudes from the peaches. The fermentation was growth of the lactic acid bacteria. components to nozawana. con. Shalgam juice is prepared from the mixture is mixed with sugar. L.7. In Taiwan. meatballs.5%–5% salt.8 to 3. fermentation [66]. after cooling removed from the containers. Nozawana-zuke is a low-salt pickle L. Lactobacillus pentosus. prepared by using field mustard. All of the ingredients are mixed well and then allowed fermented soybeans. stage of fermentation and the bucket was sealed. buchneri. Caked or granular pobuzihi is prepared by boiling cum- mented condiment made from the pulp of the durian fruit mingcordia (Cordia dichotoma Forst. L. Paocai fermentation is LAB that belong to the genera Lactobacillus. minor to ferment at low temperature (6–10∘ C) for 1 day. The pickle is man- 4.6%. durianis. Fermentation usually continues Turkey [55]. The caked pobuzihi is prepared fermentation at ambient temperature. the extensively used custom. 4. Yan-jiangis a traditional fermented ginger species of Bacillus. Weissella of tempoyak was reported as approximately 2. and plums. It is prepared by two methods. lactis. 57. Pediococcus pentosaceus. paracasei. 61]. L. plantarum at the final stages of The direct method has only second fermentation [56. L. plantarum. The cibaria. Paramesenteroides are mented food prepared with cummingcordia in Taiwan. 59]. Salt and sugar are added to a final concentration of water by lactic acid fermentation. Two the bacteria responsible for fermentation [52]. Usually.5. (Brassica campestris var. Yan-dong-gua is usually used as a seasoning for fish. shredded. Yan-Jiang. minor. Lactobacillus confusus. Lactobacillus plantarum. rapa). brevis. direct methods. Fresh peaches (Prunus 4. L. L. or squeezed with 2. 60. wilted. W. and Lactobacillus plantarum. and method P. 51]. carried out by Lactobacillus curvatus [65]. Sayur asin is a fermented mustard cabbage ufactured by lactic acid fermentation after adding various leaf food product of Indonesia. LAB were the predominant microorganisms including Lactobacillus brevis. Sayur Asin. Yan-taozih (pickled peaches) is a popular pickled fruit in China and Taiwan. dried in sunlight. and layered in a bucket for 2–6 h.11. salt. types of Pobuzihi are mainly available that can be easily differentiated from the appearance of the final products. Salt is sometimes added to proceed and mixing it with salt. Lactobacillus brevis from Yan-taozih [62]. Pobuzihi. pork. and pickled plums are added only in of turnips. Weissella cibaria and W. Harvested wax gourd is washed and sliced into washed and mixed with 5%–10% sugar and 1%-2% pickled little pieces. brevis. the ginger 4. and layered in a bucket. lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during fermentation. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides are the LAB isolated from paocai [36. perature in a tightly closed container for 4–7 days. persica) are mixed with 5%–10% salt and then shaken gently ary fermented nutriment is Yan-dong-gua. Enterococcus faecalis. by Weissella cibaria and L. such as with addition of plums and without addition of The yeasts. Tempoyak is a traditional Malaysian fer. L. 57]. These LAB con- boiled rice is added to provide fermentable carbohydrates tribute to generating the sensory properties of Nozawana to ensure that sufficient acid is produced during the fer. A similar product. Salam Juice. Candida sake and Candida guilliermondii. rugosa) are various plant-derived genera of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). tributed to the fermentation [54]. 64]. plums. paramesenteroides. 4. The acidity isolated novel Lactobacillus pobuzihii. mali. Nozawana-Zuke.

with low solids and mild flavour and are often consumed (iii) ability of substrate to accept a starter culture. The fermentation of beetroot and carrot juices. various workers like Rankin et al. Although. washed. Sweet onions are a spring/summer variety biogenic amines (BAs). A mixture of beetroot and mented broccoli is mixed with various ingredients. W. L. cut. 75]. Pickling of cucumber is made in Africa. desirable sensory properties of fermented products. The consumption of LA fermented vegetable juices (lacto- and then sealed with heavy stones on the cover. depending upon the temperature starter cultures such as L.13. vitamins. a variety of methods are used. of nutritionally important substances. and minerals. cibaria. it is imperative to use commercially supplied 3. Jiang-Gua. the During the manufacture of lacto-juices. including carrot juices with brewer’s yeast autolysate (fermented bio sugar. [27].) are dietary supplements and used for culinary purposes in (i) spontaneous fermentation by natural microflora.6 in about two weeks. and and Enterococcus sulphurous [67].7–5. Khalpi is a (ii) fermentation by starter cultures that are added into cucumber pickle popular during summer months in Nepal raw materials.4–3. After the exuded water is removed. Other Fermented Vegetables and Fruits There are three types of lactic fermentation of vegetable Pickles from various vegetables and fruits such as mango juices: (Mangifera indica L. L. layered in a bucket. plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were a seasoning. After the exuded water has been tomato [4]. Harvested cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. bavaricus. L. When the pH attains at about 4. Fermentation depends upon Weissella (i) usual way of vegetable fermentation and then pro- cibaria. bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus. Plantarum. Lactobacillus Plantarum. Asia. Different varieties of onions (Allium cepa) such as sweet.) are isolated from the cauliflower fermentation [19]. The criteria used for finding out additional source of pickle with usual beneficial probiotic suitability of a strain are as follows [76]: properties [72]. with peeled. plantarum. soy sauce is added optionally depending on the recipe. the cucumbers are mixed with sugar and vinegar. red beet. The (iii) fermentation of heat-treated materials by starter cul- cucumbers absorb salt until there is equilibrium between tures. and Latin America [69]. bifidus. It is widely used in Taiwan. Spontaneous cauliflower fermentation is commonly encountered in many countries with local variations 4. change in pH.0% (as LA) and a pH of highest quality. production of probiotic beet juice by four species of lactic acid minor. L.Biotechnology Research International 11 4. so they were chosen (ii) decrease in nitrate concentration and production of for fermentation. Jiang-guais a popular traditional fermented depending mainly upon tradition and availability of raw cucumber in Taiwan that can be served as a side dish or materials. together with United States. carrot. White and yellow storage onions are typically used for pro- cessing due to their high solid content. several parts of the world. mixed with salt (NaCl). The 105 to 5 × 106 CFU/mL [4. sweet potato lacto-pickles may serve as an L. Leuconostoc Mesenteroides. . 5. ily. W. L. rice wine or sliced hot pepper to obtain a unique flavour. plantarum). Leuconostoc lactis.12. mixed with salt (NaCl). W. temperature (6–10∘ C) for 1 day. (ii) fermentation of vegetable mash or juice. celery.) is one of the most popular (iv) type of metabolism and ability of culture to create of temperate fruits. xylosus. [71]. and cessed by pressing the juice (manufacture from Enterococcus casseliflavus [68]. was also carried out by approximately 6 h.7. Similarly. procedures: In addition. For fermentation of juices of final product has an acidity of 0. Yan-Tsai-Shin. Iran. Lacto-juices are usually continues for 4-5 h. placing the cucumbers in 5% salt brine is a satisfactory method. and a longer processing time. Fermentation usually continues for at least 1 day at low temperature (6–10∘ C). and L. L. is one of the main world producers of sweet (Brassica oleracea) stem. The most common bacterial Red beets were evaluated as a potential substrate for the species include Weissella paramesenteroides. They can be produced by either of the following drained off. loss white and yellow storage were used for LA fermentation. cut. the pressed juice brine is inoculated with either L. Some producers also add product) has optimum proportions of pigments. fresh. fer. delbrueckii. plantarum or Pediococcus can be pasteurized at first and consecutively it is inoculated by pentosaceus or a combination of these organisms for a total a culture of selected LAB at a concentration varying from 2 × cell count of 1–4 billion cells/gallon of brined cucumbers. but some producers maintain produced mainly from cabbage. Italy. casei.) and amla (Emblica officinalis L. soy sauce. and sesame oil. cherries [73]. and filled in a bucket for addition of brewer’s yeast autolysate. hellenica.6–1. which is belonging to cabbage fam. sauerkraut). Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. Europe. This balanced material represents a valuable The ingredients were mixed well and then fermented at low product as far as nutrition and health are concerned [74]. the salt in the cucumbers and the brine (about 3% salt in the brine) [70]. Harvested broccoli is washed. brevis. L. Yan-tsai-shin is a fermented Broccoli and Turkey. (i) the rate and total production of LA. This process juice) has increased in many countries.

Genera of LAB include. persistence in for food preservation. paracasei. non-spore-forming.3. group of lactobacillus which are commonly found in food and feed as well as common inhabitants of the animal/human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) [80]. by sup- Leuconostoc. silage inocu. 88– condition and strictly fermentative in nature. Pretreatments can promote growth of lactic flora that can be fermentum. of lactic flora [93]. The genus inflammatory bowel diseases. Pediococcus. W. which are can be used as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in the all Gram-positive organisms which produce lactic acid by treatment of enteric infection or to reduce the symptoms fermentation. W. heterofermentative. reuteri. plantarum is consid. and W.2. and Lac. For LA fermentation [84–86]. Lactobacillus is proposed as potential probiotics Salmonella spp. Members prior to lactic fermentation. The genus Lactobacillus is a hetero. and as starters in fermented food [77]. probiotics Lactobacillus belongs to the large group of LAB. and L.5 due to the main catabolite as lactic acid. 6. kandleri (formerly Lactobacillus kandleri). They grow well in anaerobic on the positive effects of probiotics on human health [77. L. of antibiotic associated diarrhea [87]. Lactic Acid Bacteria. L. Lactobacillus is rod pressing potentially harmful bacteria and reinforce the body’s shaped. Many studies supported that maintenance with important implications in food and feed fermentation. Definition and Mechanism of Action of Probiotics. 6. starter for dairy products. which represent the respective phylogenetic tastes will likely decrease as sourness increases [76]. fish. It has been used juice and bile. Probiotic bacterial coccus. W. Most Lactobacillus strains belong to the variety of ways. paracasei. As a result. Lactobacillus is Gram-positive organisms which produce lactic acid by fermentation which belongs to the large group of LAB. Enterococcus. fermented the human GIT. thus favouring the development The Weissella species are Gram-positive. The genus Weissella encompasses a phylogenetically of tomatoes. W. since coherent group of lactic acid bacteria and includes eight Leu. The functional wide verity in habitat Lactobacillus possess a wide range of requirements of probiotics include tolerance to human gastric metabolites versatility in the LAB group. rhamnosus. groups. the sweetness and L. Lacto. and in insects [79]. such as fresh vegetables and fermented silage that hamper efficient fermentation [94]. choosing very ripe fruit is recommended. antagonistic activity vegetables. con- verting sugars mostly into lactic acid and heterofermentative 6. Listeria monocytogenes. difficile). mainly for the production of of the genus Weissella have been isolated from a variety cocktails and juices [4]. one of the best-known species of this group. lactic acid is produced L. Oenococcus. much evidence exists within a family Lactobacillaceae. Enterococcus. Washing fruits and vegetables prior to fermentation reduces 82]. cultures support the growth of intestinal microbiota. W. generally divided into two groups depending on the ability of the sugar fermentation: homofermentative species. Lactobacilli are used as probiotics teroides (formerly Leuconostoc paramesenteroides). LAB can influence the flavour of fermented foods in a within the LAB. L. the high solanin content of unripe fruit might inhibit the conostoc-like species. It must survive passage through It can be found in a wide ranges of ecological niches such the upper GIT and reach its site of action alive. inoculants and as starters in fermented food [77]. viri- geneous group of LAB with important application in food descens (formerly Lactobacillus viridescens). testinal disorder including gastrointestinal infections and lants. when administrated in adequate amounts. among others. acetic acid and the most extensively studied and widely used probiotics CO2 . nonmotile.. 7. or coccoid rod-shaped organisms [83]. L. 80. paramesen- and feed fermentation. been isolated from vegetable and dairy fermentation [77. has used depending on the fruit or vegetable to be fermented. converting sugars into lactic acid. Lactobacillus is 91]. of health gut microflora provides protection against gastroin- Lactobacilli are currently used as probiotics. L. confer health ben- The genus Lactobacillus is a heterogeneous group of LAB efit on the host”. casei belong to the intestinal microbiota [88–92]. due to the metabolism of sugars. and it must as plant. Vegetables are also macerated with ative. Oenococcus. On the other hand. L. . Lactobacilli are species. production ability [78]. and Clostridium due to its potential therapeutic and prophylactic attributes. Pediococcus. Selection and Application of Probiotics. During fermentation. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) tobacillus are also considered in LAB group due to lactic acid Probiotics are defined as “living microorganisms which. catalase neg. raw milks. often organized in chain belonging to a large group natural defence mechanisms. Other genera such as Lactococcus. animal. minor (formerly Lactobacillus minor). it must fulfil from pH 5. the initial microbial count.5 to 6. Currently. decades. acidophilus group. Leuconostoc. are known to contain probiotic strains. several criteria (Figure 2). salivarius. Streptococcus. Raw Materials Pretreatments ered a food-grade microorganism because of its long and documented history of safe use in fermented foods [81]. immune stimulation.12 Biotechnology Research International 6. In order for Lactobacilli prefer relatively acidic conditions ranges a probiotic to be of benefit to human health.1. and sausages as well as silage inoculants for toward intestinal pathogens (such as Helicobacter pylori. Many vegetables contain glycosides of sources. adherence to epithelial surfaces. plantarum. The genus hellenica [83]. and Lactobacillus [78]. pectinolytic enzymes [75] to allow for their homogenization irregular. Streptococcus. and the capacity to stabilize and modulate the L. including Weissella confuse (formerly growth of LAB. halotolerans (formerly Lactobacillus halotolerans). Probiotic Microorganisms Lactobacillus confuses). Due to the be able to function in the gut environment.

a volatile aromatic compound major roles: with antibacterial and antifungal properties. An acetic acid + style olive fermentation. systems (acid + acid salts) are often added to the fermentation medium. The main role of salt is to promote the growth of LAB over spoilage bacteria and [21]. sourness. Anaerobic conditions are more effective Chemical preservatives such ascorbic on benzoic acid salts in the finely cut and shredded cut material. Ingredients Favouring Bacterial Growth. LA fermentation of fruits and vegetables as it has high lactose content. In Spanish. the addition of sugar promotes bacte. Ingredients Modifying the pH and Buffers Effect of Brines. It also supplies minerals salts and vitamins by adding common dry salt (NaCl) with high water content or necessary for the lactic flora metabolism. 70]. There are many sulphur compounds with antibacterial induces plasmolysis in the plant cells and the appearance of a properties in garlic which must be combined with other liquid phase. juniper berries. Certain spices. Role of Ingredients Used in Fermentations washings. are sometimes used in industrial production of LA fermented sauerkraut.2. followed by repeated the LA cucumber fermentation process. and taste to the 8. The role of essential 8. . olives. submerged product.3. Salt [22]. or cucumbers [69]. vitamins. acids. Whey is often recommended for use in traditional LA vegetable fermentation processes 8. Mustard seed to enhance the development of lactic flora. which inhibits the growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and promotes (i) they are a source of nutrients such as sugars. (ii) they add desirable aroma. thus rial growth. and minerals which initiate fermentation. Some ingredi. spice oils such as thyme. which is a potential energy is mostly carried out in a salted medium [95]. They are then replaced with glucose on sucrose to of Fruits and Vegetables improve LA fermentation [71]. medium has to be buffered to slow down acidification. and texture). To promote the growth of LAB over yeasts. growth of LAB [69. Spices or aromatic NaCl by KCl up to 50% in the preparation of kimchi from herbs are added to most of the lactic fruits and vegetable cabbage did not affect the sensory qualities (saltiness. the fermentation turnip and cucumber.4.Biotechnology Research International 13 Persistence in the human intestinal Clinically validated Adherence to tract and documented human intestinal health effect cells Production of Antagonism antimicrobial against enteric substances pathogens Susceptible to Human origin antibiotics Characteristics Acid and bile of potential Safety in food stability probiotics and clinical use Figure 2: Basic characteristics of selection of a probiotic strains. moulds and other (iii) they help in combating the spoilage bacteria by pathogenic or unwanted bacterial strains. by soaking in brine solution. which creates anaerobic conditions around the vegetables at ratios not higher than 150 g/kg of vegetables. fermented product. lemon. hotness. bitter- fermentation to improve the flavour of the end products ness. allowing the LAB to consume all the sugars. sage. Substituting 8. and to inhibit potential pectinolytic and proteolytic enzymes that red chillies help to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria can cause vegetable softening and further putrefaction. 8. cloves. flavour. such as with high fermentable sugar contents. olives have undergone alkaline calcium acetate buffer system has been reported to improve treatment to eliminate their bitterness. thereby accelerating fermentation. Salting is done substrate for LAB. or buffer lowering the pH. mainly garlic. and dill is to inhibit ents when added to LA fermented vegetables or fruits seem the growth during fermentations of olives [70]. Ingredients with Antiseptic Properties. The optimum salt concentration depends on the type of vegetables or fruits [96]. During the fermentation of fruits and vegetables For some vegetables with low nutrient contents. They have three contains allyl isothiocyanate.1. Addition of Salt.

triglyceride oils). and changes in the cell envelope of the target bacteria cooked is equally important as the identity of the food itself. and cluster analysis of health benefits of “natural” and “traditional” foods. The raw materials have increased the level of vitamin carbon dioxide. Similarly proteinases produced (broad spectrum) [97–99]. food. Chemical additives have generally been LAB strains of fermented fruits and vegetables [101]. Galactose bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect on other bacteria.. consumers are particularly sequencing. ethanol. changes in solubility and It has been concluded that the way food is prepared and charge. Fermented foods are rich in globular fats which their “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status. Most of the fruits the possibility of allowing the development of desirable and vegetables contain toxins and antinutritional com. This can modify the intestinal microbiota positively and 10. In fact. proteases or other inhibitors. for this reason. among which. [97. generally a cationic character and easily interact with Gram- positive bacteria that have a high content of anionic lipids in the membrane determining the formation of pores [97]. LAB Analyzing Microflora of Fermented strains also improve the digestive functions. and antibiotics such as reutericyclin [97]. LAB bacteriocins enjoy a food grade and this offers food scientists 9. attracted great interest in terms of food safety.). Several researchers have described the beneficial effects of LAB.and contain a series of compounds.3. control Fruits and Vegetables the serum cholesterol levels. antinutrients. Plant foods fermented and nonfermented foods by using a broad. 9.1. LAB have can be easily digested. multiplex PCR. such as the binding condensed tannins. extracellularly released low molecular-mass pep- different role in increasing food quality. and eliminate the unrequired In addition to traditional methods (microscopy. Removal of Antinutrient Compounds.” Bacteriocins are ribosomally foods have a variety of enzymes and each enzyme can play a synthesised. products of LAB and. a effect of several constituents rather than studying their fate technology referred to as active packaging. and ?-amylase inhibitors. which may improve the microbial stability of the final products of fermentation. hydrogen bacteriocins. which impacts unrequited bacterial colicin produced by Escherichia coli. collectively referred to as narrow-host-range bacteriocins. Bacteriocins have during lactic acid fermentation. are becoming more are employed to isolate and characterize different type of and more attractive. either is an important constituent of cerebroside that can promote in the same species (narrow spectrum) or across genera brain development in infants. 100]. Numerous processing of bacteriocins to food components (fat or protein particles) and cooking methods have been shown to possibly reduce the and food additives (e. Beneficial Effect of used to combat-specific microorganisms. Enhancing Food Quality and Safety. gradient gel electrophoresis. hydrogen peroxide. inactivation by amount of these antinutrients and hence their adverse effects. antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids. enhance the utilization of calcium. the Fragment Length Polymorphism). In the case of fer- Fermented Fruits and Vegetables mented foods. diacetyls. respectively. and bacteriocins are produced during The term “bacteriocin” was coined in 1953 to define the fermentation process. Like LAB. negatively influenced by various factors. flora in fermented foods or preventing the development of pounds. species-specific PCR. The etc. Bacteriocin production has been by LAB can break down the casein into small digestible found in numerous species of bacteria. lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been essential for these millennia. thus promoting food can be enhanced by fermentation. several modern techniques like RAPD. phosphorus. and phytic acid. the major problem toxic or undesirable physiological effects. and diacetyl and mineral content compared to its initial content. Several antifungal compounds such as fatty acids or phenyllactic acid. peroxide. enhance the immune system. Modern Techniques Used for prevent the colonization of other enteric pathogens. reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. protease. Nutritional quality of tion and microbial safety of fermented foods. Such antinutrients is related to the in situ antimicrobial efficacy that can be include oxalate.4. and iron and “bacteriocins can be used to confer a rudimentary form of also increase adsorption of iron and vitamin D. Improving the Health Benefits of Humans. due to molecules. Amplified Polymorphic DNA-) PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). As reported by Cotter et al. Fermented innate immunity to foodstuffs. LAB play a defining role in the preserva- 9.2. plate count. processed TTGE (Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis) with no added chemical preservatives. the digestibility and beneficial components of fermented Protection of foods is due to the production of organic acids. The most recent food application of bacteriocins Research is currently focused on identifying the antinutrient encompasses their binding to polymeric packaging. also bacte- growth and on the other hand increases the shelf life of the riocins have been consumed for millennia by mankind as food. These can be removed or detoxified by the action specific unwanted (spoilage and pathogenic) bacteria in both of microorganisms during fermentation process. which have a food product degrades the lactose into galactose. lectins.14 Biotechnology Research International 9. which generally interfere with the assimilation Regarding the application of bacteriocin-producing of some nutrients and in some cases may even confer starter strains in food fermentation.(Random overall health benefits of LAB are elucidated in Figure 3. 16s rDNA 9. RFLPs (Restriction aware of the health concerns regarding food additives. Biopreservation. RFLPs . Nowadays. they may be considered Lactic acid content of fermented food product may as natural food ingredients. Lactase in fermented tides or proteins (usually 30–60 amino acids).g. antinutritional compounds present in food materials.

a suitable carrier for probiotics. Previous research investigated the In Asian continent.Biotechnology Research International 15 Support digestive process Intestinal microbial composition Prevention of irritable Eg. E. sinki. The major representatives of LAB to the genus Lactobacillus. Studies showed that fruits and vegetables may serve as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed. brevis. coli. Tamang [10] is growing evidence of the possibility of obtaining probiotic isolated 269 strains of LAB from gundruk. 116]. plantarum strains searching and developing new strains. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DGGE analysis functionality of probiotics [77. L. few strains are com- involved in these fermentations were L. were also used to analyze the fermented vegetable samples [103]. fruits. Research Prospects lactic acid bacteria from dochi (fermented black beans) and Future Applications and suan-tsai (fermented mustard). Conclusion MS fingerprinting revealed genetic variability within highly heterogeneous species. fermented fruits and vegetables are genetic diversity of LAB isolates associated with the produc. However. and 16s rDNA were employed to isolate and characterize 11. Generally existing probiotics belong specific PCR techniques. bles contain a diverse group of prebiotic compounds which . there halophilus. a traditional fermented gruel from Burkina allowing for an increased thoughtful of mechanisms and the Faso. probiotic foods [115]. P. and so on. The isolated strains are L. Fermented fruits and vegeta- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) [104]. Gene P. Bacillus licheniformis. traveller’s diarrhea Prevention of exogenous pathogen Improve lactose digestion Improve resistance to allergies Cholesterol Stimulate the innate reduction immunity Probiotics Immunomodulation Prevent respiratory Anticarcinogenic diseases activity Lactose hydrolase Prevent osteoporosis Bile salt deconjugation (bile salt hydrolase) Prevention of Metabolic effects urogenital infection Lower the toxigenic/ mutagenic reaction in gut Synthesis of vitamins (B2 . acidilactici. RAPD-PCR and gradient gel technology and relative genomics will play a role in rapid electrophoresis were used to isolate L. and species. nondairy using RAPD-PCR. pentosaceus. plantarum. mercially obtainable for probiotic function (Table 1). antibiotic bowel syndrome associated diarrhea Prevention of endogenous pathogen Eg. fallax. Even though it has been broadly verified that dairy fermented Salmonella enterica. Tetragenococcus products are the best matrices for delivering probiotics. inziangsang foods from nondairy matrices. and vegetables) have recently been investigated the phenotypic characteristics of these strains by genotyping to determine their suitability for designing new. plantarum. and Khalpi samples and studied cereals. with gene sequencing from ben saalga. and L. associated with several social and cultural aspects of different tion of fermented Almagro eggplants using a combination of races. Several raw materials (such as (a fermented leafy vegetable). repetitive element PCR. Characterization of LAB isolates by using MALDI-TOF 12. B12 ) Enhance calcium metabolism Prevention of rotaviral diarrhea Therapeutic effects Prevent skin problems Figure 3: Beneficial effects of probiotics. B6 . a traditional fermented food in Taiwan [102].

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