COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

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COIT20262 - Advanced Network Security, Term 1, 2017
Assignment 1

Due date: 5pm Friday 21 April 2017 (Week 6) ASSESSMENT

1
Weighting: 40%
Length: N/A

Instructions
Attempt all questions.
Submit the following on Moodle:
Answers: A Microsoft Word document containing answers to the questions.
Files for Question 3: keypair.pem,pubkey.pem, commands.bash,
signature.bin, key.txt, ciphertext.bin, secretkey.bin

This is an individual assignment, and it is expected students answer the questions themselves.
Discussion of approaches to solving questions is allowed (and encouraged), however each
student should develop and write-up their own answers. See CQUniversity resources on
Referencing and Plagiarism. Guidelines for this assignment include:
Do not exchange files (reports, captures, diagrams) with other students.
Complete tasks with virtnet yourself – do not use results from another student.
Draw your own diagrams. Do not use diagrams from other sources (Internet,
textbooks) or from other students.
Write your own explanations. In some cases, students may arrive at the same numerical
answer, however their explanation of the answer should always be their own.
Do not copy text from websites or textbooks. During research you should read and
understand what others have written, and then write in your own words.
Advanced Network Security Page 1 of 8
COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Question 1. Analysis of Protocols with Wireshark [14 marks]
Objective: Gain a good understanding of common Internet protocols as well as using packet
capture software (Wireshark)
The file a01-assignment-1-question-1-capture.pcap on Moodle contains packets
captured in an exchange between several computers.
The capture was performed in an internet where all subnets used a /24 mask. The capture was
performed on interface eth1 on a computer with the following details:
network@node:~$ ifconfig eth1
eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:cc:71:35
inet addr:192.168.1.1 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fecc:7135/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:917 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:831 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:299281 (299.2 KB) TX bytes:99008 (99.0 KB)

network@node:~$ ifconfig eth2
eth2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:1c:6d:33
inet addr:192.168.4.1 Bcast:192.168.4.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe1c:6d33/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:435 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:412 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:40322 (40.3 KB) TX bytes:58580 (58.5 KB)

network@node:~$ ifconfig eth3
eth3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:61:fc:c4
inet addr:192.168.5.1 Bcast:192.168.5.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe61:fcc4/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:411 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:541 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:59508 (59.5 KB) TX bytes:243173 (243.1 KB)

Use the file and the above information to answer the following sub-questions. Do not try to
guess answers; use only the above information, the capture file and your knowledge of
networking and security to find the answers.
(a) Several applications were used on several different computers. Complete the table to
summarise the applications in use in the network. The columns are:
Application name or protocol, e.g. Web, SSH, ?, where ? means cannot
determine from the capture.
Transport protocol. TCP, UDP, ICMP or other.
Client Port(s). Use a range, e.g. 1-10, if the client changes ports for each
connection.
Server Port, Client IP, Server IP.
Time of use. The time when the application is in use. Round to the nearest
second. Use a range, e.g. 0-4 seconds.

The first row includes example values of selected columns. Complete (or edit) and
add further rows as necessary. [4 marks]
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COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Application Table
App. Tra. Client Server Client Server Time
Port(s) Port IP IP of use
Web 48158- 0-4
48170

(b) Complete the address table below to show known address information of
computers/interfaces in the network. Some information in the table may not be known
(e.g. cannot be determined from the capture). Use a question mark “?“ in the table if
the information is not known. Use only the information in the question and the
capture file to determine the answers (do not guess). [2 marks]
Address Table
Computer Interface MAC IP
1 1 08:00:27:cc:71:35 192.168.1.1
1 2 08:00:27:1c:6d:33 192.168.4.1
1 3 08:00:27:61:fc:c4 192.168.5.1
2

(c) Some of the computers in the network have domain names as well as IP addresses.
List the IP address and domain name of each computer with a domain name, and give
the packet number where you found the domain name. [2 marks]
st
(d) Consider the 1 TCP connection in the capture (which starts at packet number 3 in the
capture file). Draw a message sequence diagram that illustrates all packets in that TCP
connection. A message sequence diagram uses vertical lines to represent events that
happen at a computer over time (time is increasing as the line goes down). Addresses
of the computers/software are given at the top of the vertical lines. Horizontal or
sloped arrows are used to show messages (packets) being sent between computers.
Each arrow should be labelled with the protocol, packet type and important
information of the message. Examples of message sequence diagrams are given in
workshops. Note that you do not need to show the packet times, and the diagram does
not have to be to scale. [2 marks]
(e) Briefly explain how a TCP connection starts (or opens), and how it completes (or
st
closes), using the 1 TCP connection from the capture (and your message sequence
diagram above) as an example. [2 marks]
(f) Some of the computers in the network are running a web server. Choose one of the
computers and then list which files exist on the web server, and which files do not
exist on the web server. Explain how you know the files (that is, refer to the packet
number(s) in the capture). [2 marks]
(g) What is the password? [0 marks – this is challenge, but worth no marks. Don’t tell
other students the answer if you find it.]

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COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Marking Scheme
(a) All connections are listed correctly: 4 marks. Minor mistakes in few connections: 3
marks. Missing few connections and/or multiple mistakes: 2 marks. Missing multiple
connections and/or many mistakes: 1 marks. Most connections wrong: 0 marks.
(b) 2 marks for service table; 2 marks for address table. All entries included: 2 marks.
Some entries missing or wrong: 1 mark. Most entries missing or wrong: 0 marks.
(c) All packets clearly shown: 2 marks: Minor mistakes: 1 mark. Multiple packets wrong
and/or multiple mistakes: 0 marks.
(d) All computers/domains listed: 2 marks. One mistake: 1 mark. More than one mistake:
0 marks.
(e) Clear explanation of connection open and close: 2 marks. Mistakes or wrong
explanation of one of the steps: 1 mark. Multiple mistakes or wrong explanation of
both steps: 0 marks.
(f) All files (both those that exist and those that don’t exist) listed with packet numbers
referenced: 2 mark. Some minor mistakes or missing file: 1 mark. Multiple mistakes
or multiple missing files: 0 marks.
(g) This sub-question is worth 0 marks. It has no impact on your total marks.

Advanced Network Security Page 4 of 8
COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Question 2. Web Application Attacks [8 marks]
Objective: Understand how real web application attacks work, and methods for mitigating
them.
For this question you must use virtnet (as used in the workshops) to study web application
attacks. This assumes you have already setup and are familiar with virtnet. See Moodle and
workshop instructions for information on setting up and using virtnet, deploying the
website, and performing the attack.
Your task is to:
Create topology 7 in virtnet
Deploy the MyUni demo website on the nodes
On node4, add a user to the grading web application with username set to your
student ID, and password set to your first name.
Perform an unvalidated redirect attack, such that the attacker steals your
username/password.
While performing the attack, take a screenshot of the window showing the stolen
username/password.

After performing and understanding the attack, answer the following sub-questions.
(a) Give a short description of an unvalidated redirect attack, referring to the steps you
performed in the attack and the vulnerability your attack exploited. [2 marks]
(b) Assuming a website must use redirects, recommend a technique that can be used to
minimise the impact of unvalidated redirect attacks. [1 mark]
(c) In the attack you performed in virtnet, describe what methods the attacker used (other
than an unvalidated redirect) and how the attacker benefits from the attack (that is,
what do they gain and how?). [3 marks]
(d) Include the screenshot of the stolen username/password obtained during the attack. [2
marks]

Marking Scheme
(a) Clear description, demonstrating understanding of the attack: 2 marks. Some mistakes
or misunderstandings: 1 mark. Many mistakes and/or lack of understanding: 0 marks.
(b) One relevant techniques clearly described: 1 mark. No relevant techniques or lack of
understanding of techniques: 0 marks.
(c) Clear description of methods and benefits: 3 marks. Minor mistakes or
misunderstandings in description: 2 marks. Missing methods or benefits; major
mistakes: 1 mark. Lack of understanding of both methods and benefits, or no relevant
methods/benefits: 0 marks.
(d) Screenshot showing relevant information: 2 marks. No screenshot or not showing
relevant information: 0 marks.

Advanced Network Security Page 5 of 8
COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Question 3. Cryptographic Operations with OpenSSL [9 marks]
Objective: understand and apply different cryptographic primitives, use common encryption
software (OpenSSL), and demonstrate secure procedures for key management.
Your task is to use OpenSSL to perform a set of cryptographic operations. When performing
cryptographic operations you must be very careful, as a small mistake (such as a typo) may
mean the result is an insecure system. Read the instructions carefully, understand the
examples, and where possible, test your approach (e.g. if you encrypt a file, test it by
decrypting it and comparing the original to the decrypted).
Perform the following steps:
(a) Generate your own RSA 4096-bit key pair. Use the public exponent of 65537. Save
your key pair as keypair.pem.
(b) Extract your public key and save it as pubkey.pem.
(c) Create a Bash shell script that contains all OpenSSL commands you used on the
terminal in the previous steps, as well as the following steps, and save them in a text
file called commands.bash. You should copy-and-paste the actual commands you used
from the terminal as they may be used to test your submission. As this script contains
commands from steps (a), (b), (d), (e), (f) and (g), you should run those commands
first and then put them in your script file, then do them again using the final script.
(d) Sign your Bash shell script using SHA1, saving the signature as signature.bin.
(e) Generate a 256 bit random value using OpenSSL. This value will be used as a secret
key. Store the key as a 64 hex digit string in a file key.txt.
(f) Encrypt your Bash shell script using AES-256-CBC and the key generated in step (e).
Use and IV of all 0’s (that is, 32 0’s). Save the ciphertext as ciphertext.bin.

(g) Encrypt your key.txt file using RSA so that only the Unit Coordinator can view the
contents. Save the encrypted key as secretkey.bin.
Multiple files are output from the above steps. You must submit the following on Moodle:
keypair.pem
pubkey.pem
commands.bash
signature.bin
key.txt
ciphertext.bin
secretkey.bin

The file names must be exactly as listed above. Use lowercase for all files and double-check
the extensions (be careful that Windows doesn’t change the extension).
Examples of the OpenSSL operations needed to complete this task, as well as a Bash script,
are on Moodle.

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COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Marking Scheme
Once files are submitted, they will be decrypted/verified using the reverse operations of what
you were expected to do.
If your files successfully decrypt/verify, and the commands (commands.bash)
submitted are correct, then you will receive 9 marks.
If your files successfully decrypt/verify, but the commands contain errors, then you
will receive between 6 and 8 marks, depending on the severity of the errors (e.g. small
typo vs wrong command).
If your files do NOT successfully decrypt/verify, then your commands will be
reviewed to determine what mistakes you made. You will receive between 0 and 7
marks, depending on the severity of the errors.
Up to 6 marks may be deducted for incorrect submissions (e.g. not all files submitted,
additional files submitted, wrong files submitted, wrong filenames).

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COIT20262 Assignment 1 Term 1, 2017

Question 4. Malware Research [9 marks]
Objective: research real malware and gain an understanding of the techniques used in the
malware and countermeasures
Ransomware attacks are increasingly publicised. In addition it is estimated there are many
more ransomware attacks not being made public, e.g. companies and users paying a ransom
but not disclosing the attack. The prevalence of ransomware, and the impact it has on
organisations, has led to the discussion of ransomware insurance. Your task is to study what
is ransomware, what are the challenges and possible countermeasures, and report on it in an
easy-to-understand manner. You must write a short report on ransomware that addresses at
least the following issues/topics:
(a) What is ransomware?
(b) What are examples of ransomware attacks? For example, names of malware,
organisations attacked.
(c) What are common methods of infection by ransomware?
(d) What is the payload in ransomware? What cryptographic techniques are commonly
used?
(e) How is the ransom obtained? What is the role of Bitcoin (or other cryptocurrencies)?
(f) What are the options for users once infected?
(g) What countermeasures should users and organisations take to prevent ransomware
attacks?
The above is a guide of what should be covered. You may also address other issues, and you
don’t have to address them in the order listed.
There is no minimum/maximum length of the report. As a guide 1 to 2 pages of text (not
including pictures) may be appropriate. In addition you may include your own pictures (not
pictures from other sources) if they are useful in explaining ransomware. Including pictures
from other sources, or including pictures that do not help with the explanation will not gain
marks and may lead to reduced marks.
You may assume the audience of the report has similar background on network security as
you. You should refer to techniques and concepts covered in the unit, and give sufficient
technical detail to demonstrate you understand ransomware.
At least five (5) references should be included and follow the Harvard (author-date) style.
References may be a mix of websites, textbooks and conference/journal articles.
Marking Scheme
1 mark will be given for each of the seven (7) topics/issues ((a) to (g)) if they are
satisfactorily explained.
1 mark will be given if the report is well presented, including: well formatted, few
spelling/grammar mistakes.
1 mark will be given if the references are sufficient and appropriate. Inclusion of
inappropriate/irrelevant references will result in 0 marks.
Up to 6 marks may be deducted if the report is difficult to read (e.g. due to grammar),
includes information irrelevant to the question, and/or includes material (pictures,
quotes) taken from other sources.

Advanced Network Security Page 8 of 8

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