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COPING WITH

STOWAWAYS
EDITION 2
COPING WITH
STOWAWAYS
EDITION 2

A VIDEOTEL PRODUCTION
THE PRODUCERS WOULD LIKE TO ACKNOWLEDGE
THE ASSISTANCE OF THE MASTERS, OFFICERS AND CREWS OF

MV MAAS VIKING, MV CMA CGM THALASSA


BIBBY SHIPMANAGEMENT LTD
BIMCO
BANCROFT MARITIME SECURITY SOLUTIONS LTD
CMA CGM & CMA SHIPS
CWAVES LTD
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO)
ISIS SHIPPING
MERIDIAN MARINE MANAGEMENT LTD
NAUTILUS INTERNATIONAL

WARNING THE LONDON P&I CLUB


Any unauthorised copying, lending, exhibition, diffusion, sale, public performance or other exploitation of
this video and accompanying workbook training package is strictly prohibited and may result in prosecution.
PRINT AUTHOR: NICK CRITTENDEN
COPYRIGHT VIDEOTEL 2011 WRITER/DIRECTOR: BARNEY BROOM
This video and accompanying workbook training package is intended to reflect the best available PRODUCER: ROBIN JACKSON
techniques and practices at the time of production. It is intended purely as comment. No responsibility is
accepted by Videotel, or by any firm, corporation or organisation who or which has been in any way
concerned with the production or authorised translation, supply or sale of this video for accuracy of any
information given hereon or for any omission herefrom.
CONTENTS 1 / ABOUT THE TRAINING

The number of stowaways detected on board ships is increasing every year.

Not only are the numbers rising, but the stowaways themselves are becoming
increasingly desperate once they are caught. Organised criminal gangs
are often involved, and are becoming more and more sophisticated in their
PAGE methods.

At the same time, port and immigration authorities are becoming far tougher,
1 / ABOUT THE TRAINING 05 with many countries refusing to accept stowaways, even when all the
arrangements for repatriation are in place, and the stowaway is co-operative.
2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 08
This combination of factors and trends means that nding stowaways on board
3 / PREVENTION 13 your vessel will not just be inconvenient it will be time consuming, expensive,
4 / MANAGEMENT IN PORT 23 and can also be dangerous.

The best solution is always to stop stowaways getting on board: PREVENTION


5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA 25
IS BETTER THAN CURE.
6 / DISEMBARKATION AND REPATRIATION 29
7 / CASE STUDY 32 THE AIM OF THIS TRAINING PACKAGE
8 / FURTHER INFORMATION 36 This training package is aimed at all ofcers and crew, helping to raise
awareness of the growing problem of stowaways.
9 / IMO GUIDANCE ON STOWAWAYS 37
After using the workbook and video, you will be able to:
10 / CHECKLISTS 41 understand the nature and scale of the problems that stowaways can
11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 45 cause for crew and owners
help devise and work through clear procedures for preventing stowaways
12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 50
from boarding your ship
13 / ASSESSMENT ANSWERS 54 search common hiding places using effective search strategies
manage stowaways effectively from their discovery to their disembarkation
understand the basic legal and ethical requirements for the treatment of
stowaways

04 CONTENTS 1 / ABOUT THE TRAINING 05


RUNNING A GROUP TRAINING SESSION These are general principles for

Preparation: preventative actions

Read the entire workbook, to get an understanding of the information which actions when stowaways are found

it covers. Watch the entire video, and see how it matches up with the different You can use these to generate discussion about how to devise or improve
parts of the workbook. checklists which are specic to your ship.

Set up a separate training session for ofcers rst, as their experiences and Multiple choice questions:
comments will be useful in later sessions with the crew.
The workbook includes assessment questions which you can copy and use with
During the session: the group to check their understanding of the material.

Briey explain:
the purpose of the training
the length of the session (an hour is recommended)
what will happen during the session

Follow this sequence:


1. Show the video to the group right through without interruption. It is in four
parts:
1. The problems caused by stowaways
2. How to stop stowaways getting on board
3. The procedures to be followed if stowaways are found
4. A summary and reinforcement of the points made

2. Ask for questions and comments about what the audience has seen:
have they had previous experiences which are relevant?
could it happen to them?
how can they prevent it happening?

If you have had relevant experiences yourself, tell the group, and use those
experiences as a way of starting a discussion.

Checklists:
The workbook includes two checklists which you can copy and provide to the
group.

06 1 / ABOUT THE TRAINING 1 / ABOUT THE TRAINING 07


2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT

You should start to prepare your defences against stowaways before you even
enter port.

Gather information
Essential sources of information are:
your company security ofcer
ofcers and crew with recent experience of the port
other ships
the P&I Club through or their local correspondent
the local agent
the port authority
Review the Ship Security Plan
industry bodies
Using the information you have gathered:
the media
assess the level of risk from stowaways
private intelligence companies
adjust the Ship Security Plan to reect the risk
Some ports are known as hotspots for stowaways, and extra vigilance is match the level of risk to the level of the ships defences
needed. However, hotspots can change rapidly so always make sure your
information is up to date. And even in low-risk ports, it only takes one stowaway Note: any change to the Ship Security Plan means the plan must be re-certied

to make your voyage far more difcult and expensive than it should have been. by the Recognised Organization

Gather information about the methods that stowaways use in that particular Next review the Contingency plan (see Page 23) for if stowaways are found.

port. (see the sections on Common access points and Common hiding places.) Check your security equipment
Gather information about the port and the country generally: Check that all alarms, locks and electronic security equipment are working.
how much poverty is there? Replace any parts which are worn or look faulty, or might become so.

is there political turmoil? Brief the crew


is there armed conict?
tell the crew members what you have found out
are there many refugees?
explain to them the risks and consequences of stowaways getting on board
is port security tight or loose?
explain to them the specics of the plan and the defensive measures
make sure they understand their personal role

08 2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 09


Issue personal anti-stowaway checklists for crew members if necessary little or no pre-planning.

Looking for a better life


Economic migrants stow away because they believe that a better standard of
living, or more economic opportunities, are available in the ships destination
country. They often pay criminal gangs for their passage, often working their
passage by acting as a courier for small amounts of illegal drugs.

Seeking political asylum


Genuine asylum seekers are refugees trying to reach a country where political
asylum may be granted. Often they are economic migrants claiming asylum so
as not to be repatriated. They often try to conceal their true identity, or adopt
the nationality of an area where there is conict.

Trafcked by criminal gangs


Other stowaways have been trafcked by criminal gangs who will use them in
organised crime or as organised labour in their destination country.
WHAT IS A STOWAWAY?
The 1965 Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Trafc (FAL
Convention) denes a stowaway as: PROFILE OF A TYPICAL STOWAWAY
Any person who is secreted on a ship, or in cargo which is
Although an extraordinary variety of people try to stow away on
subsequently loaded on the ship, without the consent of the
ships, and there are many exceptions, a few general principles can
ship owner or the Master or any other responsible person, and
be drawn up about typical stowaways:
who is detected on board the ship after it has departed from a
port, or in the cargo while unloading it in the port of arrival, and usually they are male
is reported as a stowaway by the Master to the appropriate aged from 15 to 35
authorities. live in poverty in their country of origin
have some form of national identication
WHAT MOTIVATES A STOWAWAY? do not have a passport or travel document

Fleeing from war or persecution have small amounts of water and food

Refugees trying to escape from war or civil unrest, or who persecuted for their have tried to stow away on previous occasions, and will try again
political or religious beliefs, can make impulsive attempts to stow away, with are desperate and may be dangerous

10 2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 11


carry contact information for someone at their destination
3 / PREVENTION
paid for their voyage in cash (either a human trafcking
operation, or by bribing a security guard or ofcial)
ROUTINE DEFENCES
or paid for their voyage by smuggling a small quantity of
illegal drugs Stowaways tend to look for easy targets, so your ships routine defences can be
a very effective deterrent. Potential stowaways will simply move on, looking for
may have been coerced to smuggle illegal drugs
a ship which is easier to board.

The Ship Security Plan, or SSP, will describe routine security measures in
detail. The issues which you should consider when developing or reviewing
your ship's Security Plan are:

Watchkeeping and patrols


use deck watch keepers and patrols
make sure that patrols are random
equip patrols with hand-held radios to communicate with the watch keepers

Being alert for suspicious individuals and behaviour


Keep alert, and question anything which doesnt add up. For example, a
potential stowaway posing as a stevedore may not be wearing the same uniform.

You should ask yourself:


are there any irregularities or discrepancies in their documentation?
does the age of the person according to the document roughly match their
appearance?
does the person appear unnecessarily nervous about something or
alternatively, unusually low key as if they are trying to remain unnoticed?

A security camera trained on the security desk will provide a record of everyone
coming on board, which may prove extremely useful if stowaways are found.

12 2 / BEFORE ENTERING PORT 3 / PREVENTION 13


On deck:
lock all internal and external hatches
close hawse pipe covers
consider using chain link fencing to block points where individuals might
be able to climb on board
ensure that there are no unnecessary ropes or wires hanging over the side

Controlling access within the ship


accommodation, including doors and windows to individuals' cabins, should
be kept locked while in port (bearing in mind emergency escape routes)
restrict access to the bridge, engine room, radio room, cargo hatches,
decks and steering gear, for example by using key pads on doors
control where keys are kept on board, and who has access to them. Keys
Controlling access to the ship should be kept in a locked cabinet, preferably in Heads of Departments'
At the gangways: ofces, with a written log of issue and return

restrict access to a single point consider using a lockdown procedure, where security stickers are used to
seal potential hiding places. Seals can be checked before leaving port to
keep gangways hoisted and the stern ramp closed when not in use
make sure they are still intact
assign crew members to gangway watch, keeping a tally of all those
coming on board and leaving, particularly port workers
consider issuing coloured vests to stevedores to enable easy identication
provide the gangway watch with a two way radio link to the Duty Ofcer
and any security patrols
make sure the gangway watch understand that they must ask all visitors to
identify themselves
establish a communication link with the shore side
consider using disinformation as a confusing tactic, for example putting
out signs with a false destination
make full use of CCTV, if it is tted
consider using shore based security guards for gangway watches. But take
advice from your Company Security Ofcer, since in certain ports local
security personnel are not reliable

14 3 / PREVENTION 3 / PREVENTION 15
Lighting and alarms
Lighting:
COMMON ACCESS POINTS

oodlight the deck and the area surrounding the ship at night, particularly
Common access points will be detailed in the Ship Security Plan,
at the bow and stern
but the most common points of access for stowaways are:
xed halogen lights at bow and stern, controlled from the wheelhouse, are
gangways: stowaways often pose as stevedores or day labourers,
often the best approach
with real or fake identify papers, and try to enter the ship
sweep the water alongside with searchlights
Jacobs ladders or Pilot ladders: if they are not fully
Alarms: retracted, they are a target for swimmers and small boats
make sure the crew know what to do if the alarm is sounded waterside of the ship: generally the favourite access point for
stowaways who are not within the cargo or a container, often
by using a grappling hook with a rope, thrown from a small
boat
supply and bunker vessels: especially those tied up on the
water side of the ship, which are used as a platform to get to
the ship they are targeting
mooring lines: especially at night when the ship is at low tide
and heavy with cargo, since it is lower in relation to the dockside
anchor chain: the main access point for stowaways when the
ship is anchored, especially if the hawse cover is unsecured
The spurling pipe is also a common access point
rudder compartment: still commonly used even after well-
publicised cases of fatalities among stowaways using this method

The stowaway pole


Control of information A bamboo pole used by some swimmers to get access to a ship. It
Crew should be briefed never to disclose any information about the ship, its has a metal hook at the top for hooking onto the deck rail, and
cargo, its sailing time and its destination. rubber handholds along its length. It oats in the water, making it
The details of the Ship Security Plan should be restricted to those involved in easy to swim with. Swimmers use the pole by pushing it underwater
its operation, and it should be kept in a secure location, not easily accessible to lengthwise. The air inside the bamboo helps to project the pole
unauthorised people. out of the water towards the deck rail. Once hooked on, the
swimmer climbs the pole using the rubber handholds.

16 3 / PREVENTION 3 / PREVENTION 17
COMMON HIDING PLACES room, breathing through a straw or tube

Some hide inside break-bulk and palletised cargo:


pallets can be packed around the stowaway before loading,
leaving them in a space at the centre

Empty containers are a favourite target:


they are left unsealed and unobserved by security staff
they have space and air for groups of stowaways

Canvas-top containers are also popular:


tie ropes can easily be cut or the top pulled back
generally stowed on deck and provide fresh air during voyage

Many stowaways hide around containers:


on top of containers in the hatches
The most common hiding places for stowaways are: wedged between containers stacked four or ve high
ventilation shafts and crawlspaces in cargo bays
storage lockers, behind or inside coiled mooring lines and
equipment
life boats
the funnel
the engine room and steering room
engineering and spare parts lockers
the rudder trunk void space
equipment rooms
crane compartments
crew accommodation and passenger or pilot rooms
linen lockers
food storage areas
the compass deck
the top of the radar mast and cross trees
and in the oily water under the raised oor of the engine

18 3 / PREVENTION 3 / PREVENTION 19
SEARCH TECHNIQUES SEARCHES MAY BE AT TWO LEVELS:
Its essential to carry out a thorough search before sailing, so that any stowaways faster search, of unsecured spaces only. If a lockdown procedure has been
discovered can be handed over to the port authorities and put ashore. followed, using security tags, then these spaces need not be searched
unless the security tag is broken
It is also essential to make a thorough search after sailing, but before leaving
the port limits, so that urgent consideration can be given to returning slower search, which includes all secured spaces

stowaways to their port of origin. You should always discuss returning The main elements of an effective search are:
stowaways in this way with the Company Security Ofcer rst, because complex Housekeeping:
legal issues can arise.
When all materials, tools, stores and so on are neatly stored in the right places
The ISPS Code says that a search must be made of three areas the engine it cuts down the number of possible hiding places, and makes the searchers' job
room, the deck, and the catering areas. However, its vital to make a thorough easier. Unlocked tool stores can be a source of weapons for stowaways to use.
search of all areas of the ship. You should refer to your Ship Security Plan for
Control:
details of searching your vessel. As part of the ships Safety Management
Every search should be controlled by one person who sends out the
System, a checklist must be used.
searchers and receives their reports. This removes the possibility of
Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be worn. This should include eye searching areas twice, or overlooking areas completely. Usually this is the
protection, and may include anti-stabbing vests if they are provided on your vessel. Ship Security Ofcers role.

Searches should be done in pairs, not alone. A system:

Searches may be either routine or reactive. But they all take time, patience, Search patterns should be established and documented in advance, so that
and discipline to do effectively. those searching a particular area of the ship know precisely what route to
follow, and where to look. This can be put on a checklist which searchers tick
ROUTINE off and give to the Ship Security Ofcer on completion.

an essential precaution The right people:


should be a standard procedure in every port Searches should be carried out by people who are familiar with the areas of
ship Security Plan may list exceptions the ship which they are responsible for searching. Ideally, searchers should
work in pairs.
REACTIVE Completion:
when stowaways are suspected to be on board Searches must not be abandoned once stowaways have been discovered.
when one stowaway has been found and others are suspected There may be more. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is of prime importance,
after nding a stowaway, searching for their belongings, including drugs especially after the rst stowaway is found.

20 3 / PREVENTION 3 / PREVENTION 21
Communication:
4 / MANAGEMENT IN PORT
Those carrying out the search should be in contact with the SSO during the
search, using two-way radios.

Practice: Routine defensive measures are not always successful against stowaways. So
Its essential for searchers to know what (and what not) to do if they nd its vital to have a contingency plan to handle their discovery.
stowaways. Before carrying out real searches in port, they should practice in
If you nd a stowaway:
training sessions and drills during the voyage.
The main elements of an effective contingency plan are:
Records: Information:
All searches should be logged and records kept, including completed
tell your Company Security Ofcer
checklists. Records provide information to make improvements, and
tell your companys agent, who should alert the police and port authorities
evidence for law enforcement agencies, the company and its insurers.
notify your P&l Club
inform your ag State

More than one stowaway:


if possible, isolate them individually
take them to safe and secure quarters, such as the mess room or deck store
make sure there are two crew members with each stowaway when they

22 3 / PREVENTION 4 / MANAGEMENT IN PORT 23


are moving around
5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA
keep them in sight at all times, including when they go to the toilet

Now do a full search:


Stowaways are often discovered shortly after departure, despite the most
This is essential, as there may be more than one stowaway. See the section on
stringent defensive measures.
searches, on Page 20.
After departure, always conduct a thorough search of the ship before leaving
The main intention is to disembark the stowaways as quickly and effectively as
the port limits.
possible.
When stowaways are discovered at sea, all of the previous steps should be
Remember that you have made a declaration on arrival at the port that the
taken, but there are a number of additions:
stowaways were not on board at that time.
Inform the Company Security Ofcer (CSO) immediately.
If you have mounted effective defensive measures, then there may have been a
failure of port security. Inform the companys agents in the next port of call, so they can alert the port
authorities, immigration ofcials, and the P&l Club.
The P&I Club through their local correspondent will assist with any issues that
arise. Be aware that stowaways who are not disembarked at the next port of call may
no longer be regarded in law as stowaways once the ship sails for another port.

If stowaways are judged to be a danger to the ship, they must be kept locked up:
separate any women from men
a crew member should guard the door of their accommodation
two crew members should be present during contact with them, such as
when food is brought to them
they should not be given metal cutlery or anything in glass containers,
since these can be used as weapons

Belongings and documents:


search the area where they were found for any belongings and documents
ask them for any belongings or documents they are carrying
go through any belongings to look for documents or weapons
take an inventory, and make two copies
put everything you nd into a plastic bag, with one copy of the inventory
the other copy of the inventory should be placed in the ships safe

24 4 / MANAGEMENT IN PORT 5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA 25


give their belongings to the Master for examination stowaways should not be allowed to return to a group of other stowaways
retain documents, money, and anything that can be used for self harm or after interview, as this will allow them to compare notes and agree on
as a weapon their answers
return spare clothing to the stowaway. Approaching the next port of call:
when land is sighted, make sure stowaways are conned. This will prevent
any attempts to swim ashore. If they succeed the company may face a heavy
ne and the Master may be arrested and charged with aiding illegal immigration
restrict the information you give to stowaways particularly information
about their repatriation
immediately a stowaway knows they will be repatriated, this is a ashpoint.
They may become violent to others, or cause harm to themselves.

SEARCHING STOWAWAYS

any person who is on board is legally liable to be searched


whenever a person is searched, there must be two people
present - one to conduct the search, and the other to observe
every search that is carried out must be recorded in the
Interviews: appropriate log
standard information required is covered in the IMO Stowaway Details use hand-held metal detectors if they are available
Form (see Page 45). First ask each stowaway to ll in the form themselves you should always wear latex gloves to conduct a search
the answers can be revealing.
it's very important that whenever possible men should be
each stowaway should be interviewed separately by a Senior Ofcer, and searched by men, and women by women, making proper
photographed. If at all possible, the Master should not be in direct contact allowance for local clothing, or customs of dress
with stowaways
always stand facing the person you are searching, but bear in
ofcers should bear in mind their personal safety during interviews. They mind any cultural differences that may cause particular offence
should be accompanied by another crew member, and wear personal
when you're checking someone's body and limbs, make sure
protective equipment, particularly eye protection, and anti-stabbing vests
you keep your hands in touch with their body all the time, as
if they are provided
you search
the Master should try to nd out how the stowaways got onto the ship, so
when you check the contents of their pockets, do so by putting
that incidents using the same method can be prevented
your hands on either side of their jacket. Never put your hand
answers given by stowaways in separate interviews should be compared in someone's pocket

26 5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA 5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA 27


check lapels, collars, cuffs and seams looking for small 6 / DISEMBARKATION AND
items that may be components of a weapon, or could be used
as a weapon
REPATRIATION
if you feel something in a pocket or you want to see
something, ask them to produce it for you: Once stowaways are on board, disembarkation and repatriation can be
extremely difcult. A successful disembarkation depends on very much on the
If you push your hand into a pocket you might encounter
cooperation of immigration and port authorities.
a sharp object - perhaps a knife or a needle. By putting
your hand in someone else's pocket you could also be While they are on board, the Master should declare them to the authorities
accused of planting an object, so always ask the person at each port. If this is not done, the Master could be open to criminal charges,
to produce an object from their pocket. the ship could be delayed, and there could also be a large ne. The local agent
once it has been produced, check to make sure the pocket is should be able to give advice on the correct procedures.
now empty The immigration authority at the next port of call should then be notied.
check their belongings carefully: be systematic and don't
Some ports will not allow you to enter if you have stowaways on board, and
rush the process. You can always ask the person to open
some demand that if you enter, the stowaways are conned. You may need to
items so that you can examine the contents
have a security team from the agents on board, to make sure the stowaways
use the backs of your hands when checking someone's lower
remain locked up.
abdomen, or the chest area on women
In many countries the authorities will not cooperate and will give no
assistance, so a stowaway may well be on board for numerous voyages.
HUMAN RIGHTS OF STOWAWAYS The P&I Club is essential for liaising with the port authorities, dealing with
legal issues, and mitigating any nes.
Stowaways have basic human rights acknowledged by the
International Maritime Organization and the United Nations, OBTAINING TRAVEL DOCUMENTS
including the right to:
Immigration authorities will only allow a stowaway to be repatriated if they
food and water have the correct travel documents, or temporary travel documents have been
reasonable accommodation issued by a national embassy or consulate.
a lifejacket
The P&l correspondent will assist you to approach an embassy or consulate for
instruction in safety procedures, covering re and
travel documents.
abandoning ship
But rst the identity of the stowaway has to be established reliably. Further
You are fully entitled to lock up stowaways, both for the safety of the
ship and the safety of the crew. Locking up stowaways does not violate questioning of the stowaway is likely, since a large number give false identity
their human rights, as long as you respect the rights listed above. details when they are rst caught.

28 5 / MANAGEMENT AT SEA 6 / DISEMBARKATION AND REPATRIATION 29


An interpreter may be needed, as well as a skilled interviewer.
6. Allow a stowaway to work
Passport sized photographs might have to be taken.
7. Try to hide their presence from the immigration authorities
And a full set of ngerprints will often be needed.
And always remember:
Embassy ofcials may sometimes interview a stowaway to satisfy themselves
1. The Master has overriding authority, given by the ISPS and
that he or she is one of their nationals before issuing temporary travel documents.
ISM codes.
Often several embassies have to be contacted before the stowaways nationality
2. Prevention is better than cure.
can be determined.

REPATRIATION
After travel documents have been issued, the agreement of immigration
ofcials is needed for disembarkation and repatriation.

Even in ports where disembarkation is allowed, there will be stringent


conditions attached:

repatriation might have to occur before the ship leaves port


an indemnity may have to be given for the costs of repatriation
stowaways will have to be accompanied back to their country of origin
transit visas may have to be obtained for intermediate countries
airline and airport clearance must be obtained

SEVEN THINGS TO NEVER, EVER DO


(AND TWO THINGS TO ALWAYS REMEMBER).

Do not ever:
1. Treat stowaways roughly or aggressively
2. Allow any crew member to become familiar or friendly with them
3. Enter a room or space with them unless two crew members
are present
4. Allow them access to any part of the ship unaccompanied
5. Allow them anything that could be used as a weapon

30 6 / DISEMBARKATION AND REPATRIATION 6 / DISEMBARKATION AND REPATRIATION 31


7 / CASE STUDY Lesson learnt: The Master to divide the guarding duties, and consider all of
the staff he has available. Cadets are not to be used under any circumstances.

BACKGROUND Issue: The crew used for guarding were not stringent or strict towards the
stowaways. This was a cultural characteristic of the crew members involved.
During cargo operations in port, three stowaways were discovered on the main
They were not trained at all in how to deal with stowaways, nor in securing
deck. Two claimed to be from Somalia and the other from Ethiopia. The two
areas for connement, or in how to conduct a body search. (A razor blade was
Somalis were taken off the vessel after claiming refugee status in Hong Kong.
concealed under a watch and tooth picks were hidden in a stowaways hair.) No
The Ethiopian refused to accept refugee status in Hong Kong, and was nally
drills were dened for handling stowaways.
removed on arrival in Djibouti.
Lesson learnt: Regular brief training is to be undertaken weekly by the
All three stowaways remained conned and behaved in a quiet and compliant
crew to encourage them to deal with stowaways in an assertive manner.
way. However, during the vessel's port stay, the Ethiopian stowaway threatened
Also to include instruction on how to conduct body searches.
to take his own life with a razor blade that he had concealed.

The Company Security Ofcer (CSO) was instructed to join the vessel to support Issue: The search of the vessel was ineffective, otherwise the stowaways would
the Master. The CSO was supported by one independent security guard, and a have been found before departure.
further two independent security guards were embarked later, to give further
support and relieve the vessel's crew of all guarding responsibilities. Lesson learnt: The SSO / Master should be directly involved in the
searching of the vessel to ensure it is conducted correctly and to show his
commitment to the security of the vessel.
ISSUES AND LESSONS LEARNT

Issue: When the stowaways were discovered, the Master did not immediately
Issue: The Master was perceived to have not handled the negotiations well with
decide on a plan to manage the situation. When one stowaway became
the stowaways. He reacted to the stowaways' demands, rather than imposing
threatening, the Master and CSO did then agree a plan. The CSO should check
his requirements. He appeared to 'give too much' rather than dening limits
that requested actions are being followed up.
within which they should behave.
Lesson learnt: The Master should call a meeting of at least the ofcers on
Lesson learnt: At all times the Master / Ofcer / Crew dealing with the
board, to explain the situation and formulate a plan for dealing with it. This
stowaway should remain in control and be driving the situation. The vessel
plan should be submitted to the CSO for approval and / or amendment, and
will dictate when food and water is given, when stowaways are taken to the
then returned to the vessel for the SSO to enforce, with the CSO checking on
toilet, shower, etc. If the stowaways discover their requests are granted
a regular basis that the plan is being followed.
immediately it gives them an advantage.

Issue: It was noted that if the Master and ofcers had followed the Ship Security
Issue: Before the trained security guards were embarked, all of the guarding of
Plan then the management of the situation would have been more efcient.
the stowaways was done by the deck department and cadets. No member of the
engine room staff was involved. Lesson learnt: SSP to be read and signed as understood by all ofcers at

32 7 / CASE STUDY 7 / CASE STUDY 33


the start of their contract. Issue: The gangway watch was at times unable to cope with the volume of
visitors the ship was receiving, especially during the rst hour or so in port.
Issue: The stowaways were not separated into different cabins until one of
Lesson learnt: Gangway watches to be doubled in the rst hour, or during
them became violent.
periods of high trafc. This may seem as a drain on manpower, but is far
Lesson learnt: Stowaways always to be separated as a matter of course upon less draining than guarding a stowaway.
discovery. Any compartment in which they are placed to be stripped to the
bare minimum, removing any items with potential to cause physical harm.

Issue: There was not one ofcer who was designated to be in charge at all times.

Lesson learnt: Although the Master always has the overriding authority
on his ship, it should be clear that he can delegate the management of the
situation to one ofcer whom he deems as competent. This should then not
change until the situation is over.

Issue: The Master often negotiated with the stowaways, and consequently he
was then making decisions on what actions to take. This causes a great deal of
tension and stress on the Master, and may lead to poor or wrong decisions.

Lesson learnt: The negotiator should never be required to make decisions,


but simply be the voice of reason and a messenger. He should also attempt
to build up some form of rapport with the stowaway, to improve cooperation
with the Master's instructions.

Issue: There was no clear guidance that when physically interacting with the
stowaways there should always be more crew than stowaways.

Lesson learnt: Self explanatory.

Issue: No written guidance was available near the holding areas.

Lesson learnt: A brief overview is to be posted near to the holding areas,


giving details of last food, drink, shower, etc, so that unreasonable requests
do not seem reasonable to a new watchman. Also there should be brief
instructions on the current plan, together with actions to take in an emergency.

34 7 / CASE STUDY 7 / CASE STUDY 35


8 / FURTHER INFORMATION 9 / IMO REGULATIONS ON
STOWAWAYS
RELEVANT ORGANISATIONS
The following organisations can provide more information about Coping with > 6.1 / AN IMO INITIATIVE
Stowaways:
In 1965 the IMO passed the Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime
Baltic and International Maritime Council BIMCO www.bimco.org Trafc (the FAL Convention). The main objective of the FAL Convention is to prevent
International Chamber of Shipping ICS www.marisec.org unnecessary delays to maritime trafc, aid co-operation between governments
International Maritime Organization IMO www.imo.org and to seek uniformity of rules pertaining to this area of maritime law.
International Shipping Federation ISF www.marisec.org
Several incidents involving stowaways, asylum seekers and refugees prompted
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code www.imo.org
the IMO in November 2001 to adopt a resolution on the review of safety measures
and procedures for the treatment of persons rescued at sea, including stowaways
VIDEOTEL PROGRAMMES
discovered on board. Further amendments have been made in recent years, adding
The following Videotel programmes contain more information about these new standards and recommended practices for dealing with stowaways.
specic subjects:
The aim is to ensure that the well-being of persons on board ships is safeguarded
Code 933 Recognising Suspicious Behaviour. at all times, pending their delivery to a safe port. The regulations also require the
Code 934 Recognising Proper Forms of Identication. IMO to review all of its instruments ensuring that any existing gaps, inconsistencies,
Code 935 Search Techniques. ambiguities, vagueness or other inadequacies can be reviewed over time.

These efforts are also to be considered in conjunction with the 1997 IMO
Guidelines on Allocation of Responsibilities to Seek the Successful Resolution
of Stowaway Cases. The IMO has incorporated these principles in the FAL
Convention, thereby making them legally binding. The practical impact of these
regulations on the stowaway problem, however, remains to be seen.

The above amendments were adopted on 10 January 2001 and entered into
force on 1 May 2003.

> 6.2 / PREVENTION OF STOWAWAYS INCIDENTS


According to the amended FAL Convention, the list of minimum security
arrangements to be put in place is as follows (not exhaustive):

36 8 / FURTHER INFORMATION 9 / IMO REGULATIONS ON STOWAWAYS 37


The shipowner > 6.4 / DISEMBARKATION
The shipowner must ensure that each vessel has formal plans for preventing
Do not deviate! Although the Master has overriding authority, this is one of the
stowaways boarding the vessel and a stowaway search must be undertaken
main features of the Convention: the ag State should urge the shipowner to
upon departure from ports where there is a high risk of stowaways. These
instruct the Master to stick to the planned voyage after the vessel has left the
requirements do not apply to passenger vessels.
territorial waters of the country of embarkation. The exceptions are
lock all doors, hatches and means of access to the vessel whilst in port
the required documentation is available and permission has been granted
keep the number of access points to a minimum and ensure they are secure
by the port to which the ship intends to deviate to disembark the stowaway,
secure areas seawards
or
keep adequate deck watch
repatriation has been arranged elsewhere again with the appropriate
maintain adequate lighting at night; both inside and along the hull
documentation and permission for disembarkation, or
tally embarkations and disembarkations sheets
there are extenuating security, health or compassionate reasons for
maintain adequate means of communication
immediate disembarkation
The port / terminal authorities always check rst with your Company Security Ofcer, as complex legal
patrol port areas issues can arise
establish a secure storage area for types of cargo which may serve as A stowaway found inadmissible in the country of disembarkation must be
hiding places for stowaways returned to the country of embarkation, which is not permitted to return the
monitor persons and cargo entering the above area stowaway to the country of disembarkation. If a country refuses permission
make arrangements with the stevedoring company concerning authorised to disembark the stowaway, it must immediately notify the ag State of the
personnel reasons for the refusal.

> 6.3 / WHILE ONBOARD > 6.5 / RETURN OF STOWAWAYS


If, despite the above measures, a stowaway manages to hide himself on a Few problems exist in returning a stowaway who holds a valid passport or
vessel, the vessels ag State, according to the amended Convention, requires other proper identication. In most cases, however, the stowaway will not be
the shipowner to ensure that the health, welfare and safety of the stowaway in possession of any identication documents. The suggested way around this
is properly maintained, and the stowaway is also entitled to food, lodging and problem is by way of a covering letter. The amendments to the FAL Convention
proper medical and sanitary facilities. recommend that in the case of undocumented stowaways, the port state shall
issue a so-called covering letter authorising his/her return and containing
The Convention also includes a standard form/questionnaire to be used in
the relevant information and a picture of the stowaway. It should also include
order to record the stowaways details. In an effort to improve the statistics on
any information required by authorities at transit points. Not unexpectedly,
stowaways, the amended Convention contains a requirement that the ag State
however, the issue of such a document is conditional on compliance with
reports all stowaway incidents to the IMO.
relevant national legislation.

38 9 / IMO REGULATIONS ON STOWAWAYS 9 / IMO REGULATIONS ON STOWAWAYS 39


> 6.6 / COSTS AND PENALTIES 10 / CHECKLISTS
The port state is recommended to keep the costs of detention, maintenance and
return to a minimum when these are borne by the shipowner. Furthermore, the > 10.1 / ACTIONS TO PREVENT STOWAWAYS
port state is encouraged to mitigate penalties or other charges, if the Master/
shipowner has: General
1. properly declared the presence of the stowaway,
1 Access to the ship restricted to the gangway only.
2. substantiated that all practicable measures have been taken to prevent the
stowaway from boarding the vessel in the rst place, and/or Security personnel from a reputable shore company employed if
2 necessary.
3. otherwise co-operated fully with the authorities.
Gangway
> 6.7 / THE ROLE OF THE FLAG STATE
3 Full-time gangway watch kept.
The ag State must assist and co-operate with the Master/shipowner in identifying
4 All embarkation and disembarkation movements tallied.
the stowaway and determining his/her nationality. It must also assist in contacting
the relevant public authorities to assist with the removal of the stowaway. 5 Pass system in operation for visitors.
Finally, the ag State must also assist and co-operate with the Master/shipowner
in making arrangements for the removal or repatriation of the stowaway. 6 Pass system in operation for stevedores.

Deck
Full-time watch kept at loading arms, ro-ro ramps and other potential
7 access points.

8 Roving deck patrol.

9 Decks and potential access points well illuminated.

10 Mooring lines tted with rat guards.

11 Covers tted and locked over hawse pipes.

12 Pilot ladders and other ladders turned inboard.

13 Accommodation entrances locked and sealed where safe to do so.

14 Engine room entrances locked and sealed where safe to do so.

40 9 / IMO REGULATIONS ON STOWAWAYS 10 / CHECKLISTS 41


> 10.2 / ACTIONS IF STOWAWAYS ARE FOUND
15 Store room entrances locked and sealed where safe to do so.

16 Internal cabins, storerooms and other spaces locked. Search


Area in vicinity of where the stowaways are discovered searched for
Cargo spaces 1 other stowaways.
17 Cargo space accesses locked and sealed where safe to do so. Area in vicinity of where the stowaways are discovered searched for
2 papers and personal belongings.
Hatch covers closed when cargo work has stopped, or been completed,
18 and safe to do so.
3 Stowaways searched for papers and personal belongings
Pontoon type hatch covers that have been landed ashore inspected
19 before being replaced on the ship.
Security
20 Warning notices posted about fumigation of cargo spaces.
4 Objects that could be used as weapons conscated.
Audible warning given before fumigation of cargo spaces, containers
21 and ro-ro trailers. 5 Larger groups of stowaways separated into smaller groups.

22 Seals checked prior to loading to ensure they are intact. Appropriate measures taken to ensure the security of the stowaways by
6
locking them in suitable cabins or storerooms.
23 Empty units inspected and sealed prior to loading.
7 Guard(s) posted.
24 Open-sided and I or open-topped units inspected prior to loading.
Health & welfare
Stowaway search
8 General health check of stowaways carried out
Simultaneous stowaway search of the accommodation, engine room,
25 cargo spaces and main deck carried out immediately prior to sailing. 9 Expert medical advice sought if necessary.

Second stowaway search carried out after sailing but before leaving the 10 Stowaways provided with food and water.
26 port limits.
11 Stowaways provided with clothing and bedding.
27 Details and results of the searches recorded in the log book.
Repatriation arrangements
Stowaways landed before ship leaves the embarkation port or harbour
12
waters.

13 Ship operator notied.

42 10 / CHECKLISTS 10 / CHECKLISTS 43
14 P&l Club notied. 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE
15 Stowaway questionnaire completed for each stowaway. YOU MAY PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM
Statement prepared for the appropriate authorities containing all
16
relevant information.

17 Relevant details notied to the authorities at the port of embarkation.

18 Relevant details notied to the authorities at the next port of call.

19 Relevant details notied to the authorities at the ag State.

Photograph of stowaway

SHIP DETAILS

Name of Ship:
BIO Number:
Flag:
Company:
Company Address:
Agent in next port:
Agent Address:
IRCS:
INMARSAT Number:
Port of Registry:
Name of Master:

STOWAWAY DETAILS

Date/Time found on board:


Place of boarding:

44 10 / CHECKLISTS 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 45


Country of boarding: Where issued:
Time spent in country of boarding: Date of expiry:
Date/Time of boarding: Issued by:
Intended port of destination:
Emergency passport No:
Intended nal destination (if different):
When issued:
Stated reasons for boarding the ship:
Where issued:
Surname: Date of expiry:
Given name: Issued by:
Name by which known: Home Address:
Religion:
Gender:
Date of birth:
Place of birth:
Home Town:
Claimed nationality:
Country of domecile:
ID document number:
Profession(s):
Passport No: Employer(s): [Names and Addresses]
When issued:
Where issued:
Date of expiry:
Address in Country of Boarding:
Issued by:

ID Card No.:
When issued:
Where issued: Height (cm):
Date of expiry: Weight (kg):
Issued by: Complexion:
Colour of eyes:
Seaman's Book No:
Colour of hair:
When issued:
Form of head/face:

46 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 47


Marks/Characteristics: [eg scars, tattoos etc] Other information (e.g. names and addresses of colleagues, Community Leader
First language: eg mayor, tribal chief, contacts in other parts of the world):

Spoken Read Written


Other languages:
Spoken Read Written
Statement made by Stowaway:
Marital Status:
Name of Spouse:
Address of Spouse:

Name of Parents:
Statement made by Master (including any observations on the credibility of the
Nationality of Parents:
information provided by the Stowaway):
Address of Parents:

OTHER DETAILS

Method of boarding, including other persons involved (e.g. crew, port workers
etc), and whether they were secreted in cargo/container or hidden in the vessel:
Date(s) of Interview(s):

Stowaway's Signature: Date:

Inventory of Stowaway's possessions:


Master's Signature: Date:

Was the Stowaway assisted in boarding the vessel, or assisted by any member
of the crew? If so, was any payment made for this assistance?

48 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 11 / IMO STOWAWAY QUESTIONNAIRE 49


12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 5. If stowaways are found while the ship is still in port, what is the Masters
best course of action?
a) sail on schedule, even if the stowaways are still on board.
b) refuse to sail until the port authorities take the stowaways off.
1. How does the FAL Convention dene a stowaway?
c) consult with the Company Security Ofcer and the ship's owners or
a) anyone who is on board without the permission of the Master or owner,
managers about whether to sail or not.
but has not paid for their passage.
d) negotiate with the stowaways to persuade them to leave.
b) anyone who hides on board without the permission of the Master or
owner, and who is still on board after the ship has left port.
6. If stowaways are found on board after a ship has left port, the ship should:
c) anyone who is on board after the ship has left port, but does not have the
a) alert the owners or managers and proceed to the next port of call.
correct documents, such as a passport, visa, or health certicates.
b) return to the last port of call.
d) anyone who hides on board without the permission of the Master or
c) proceed to the nearest port.
owner, and intends to remain on board after the ship has left port.
d) proceed to the port most likely to take the stowaways off.

2. Who has overall responsibility for preventing stowaways getting on board


7. If stowaways are found on board after the ship has left port, who should the
when a ship is in port?
Master inform rst?
a) the harbour authorities.
a) the immigration authorities at the next port of call.
b) the agent.
b) the companys agent at the last port of call.
c) the ship's Master and crew.
c) the Company Security Ofcer (CSO).
d) the owners.
d) the P&I Club.

3. When is the best time to begin to prevent stowaways getting on board?


8. It is safest for stowaways to be searched by:
a) before the ship arrives at a high-risk port.
a) the Master and another ofcer.
b) while the ship is in a high-risk port.
b) two crew members, one to search and the other to observe.
c) just before the ship sails from a high-risk port.
c) a crew member wearing protective clothing.
d) before the ship arrives at a low-risk port.
d) a single crew member using a hand-held metal detector.

4. If stowaways are found on board while the ship is in port, who should the
9. It is important to take possession of any papers or documents a stowaway
Master inform rst?
is carrying because:
a) the port's immigration ofcers.
a) the costs of repatriation can then be charged to the stowaway.
b) the harbour master.
b) relatives must be informed of the stowaways location.
c) port security.
c) the ship's ag State will then be able to issue a passport to the stowaway.
d) the police.
d) identifying the stowaway makes it easier to them to be disembarked.

50 12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 51


10. While stowaways are on board ship they are entitled to: 15. Which organisation has issued guidelines on who should be responsible for
a) secure locked accommodation and an interview with the Master. resolving stowaway cases?
b) bread and water, heat and light, a lifejacket, and instruction in how to a) the United Nations.
swim. b) the Nautical Institute.
c) food and water, reasonable accommodation, a lifejacket, and instruction c) Lloyds Register.
in safety procedures. d) the International Maritime Organization.
d) the same food and accommodation as a crew member.

11. Who pays all the costs of keeping stowaways and returning them to their
country of origin?
a) the immigration authorities at the port of disembarkation.
b) the ship's owners or managers.
c) the stowaways.
d) the government of the stowaways' country of origin.

12. Stowaways should never, ever, be allowed to:


a) work.
b) leave their locked accommodation.
c) walk on deck.
d) eat hot food.

13. At what point should a stowaway be told they will be repatriated?


a) as soon as they are discovered.
b) as late in the process as possible.
c) never.
d) when being interviewed to establish their identity.

14. When a ship docks with stowaways on board, who decides whether they
can disembark?
a) the ship's Master.
b) the Company Security Ofcer (CSO).
c) the P&I correspondentr.
d) the port immigration authority.

52 12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 12 / ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 53


13 / ASSESSMENT ANSWERS

NO. ANSWER

1 b
2 c
3 a
4 a
5 c
6 a
7 c
8 b
9 d
10 c
11 b
12 a
13 b
14 d
15 d

54 13 / ASSESSMENT ANSWERS
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