Production Engineering Project Report

Manufacturing of Piano BallPoint pen (with Clutch) by using Injection Molding

Class - Mechanical (S.E)

Section - B

Batch - 2011-2012

Group members

1- Syed Wajahat Hasan (ME-075)
2- Danial Sohail (ME-089)
3- Syed Osaid Ul Haq (ME-102)
4- Ranjeet Kumar (ME-104)
5- Owais Ali (ME-105)

P.E Project by ME-75, 89,102,104,105
1

Index S No.E Project by ME-75.105 2 . Contents Page Number 1 Injection Molding 03 2 Formation of Pen by Injection Molding 05 3 Cleaning and Finishing Process 06 4 Pen Assembly 07 5 Quality Control 07 6 Recommendation of Process 08 7 Materials Used 08 8 Overall Cost 10 9 Bill of Material (BOM) 12 10 Mold Views 13 11 Pen Image 15 12 Pen Views 16 13 Clutch Views 18 P.102. 89.104.

The mold is expensive and it is mostly used for mass production. They are: 1) Injection unit 2) Clamping unit P. mixed. and application. complexity. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel. Injection molding machine An injection molding machine has two parts. and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding.102.104. raw plastic material. and a mold. Its typical cycle time ranges between 1 and 60 sec. which vary greatly in their size. INJECTION MOLDING Injection molding is a common process used for high volume production of thermo plastic resin parts. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine.105 3 .E Project by ME-75. 89. It is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mold. A single mold may contain multiple cavities (when the parts produced are smaller in size) so that multiple parts are produced during each cycle.

102. P. If the material being used is thermo plastic instead of thermo setting then plastic pellets must be preheated because once they solidify. On the inside of barrel there is screw which has threads on its outer surface. There is a non-returning valve at the forward end of the screw which prevents the molten material from returning during the injecting process. The barrel has heaters or heating jackets on the outside to melt the material as it flows from one end of the screw to the other. It is also known as reciprocating screw. The heating jackets maintain a temperature of about 400-600 Fahrenheit or 200-300 centigrade.105 4 .E Project by ME-75. It is used for mixing the melted material and it also acts as a plunger which moves forward to inject the material into the plastic mold. Injection unit: The injection unit consists of a hopper used for feeding plastic granules into the barrel. 89. This screw is connected to a motor which rotates the screw.104. 1. This screw also maintains a pressure of ranging from 35Mpa to 140Mpa. their molecular property changes.

The mold is kept closed during injecting process and opened when the part is cooled. It holds the segments of the mold in proper alignment. 89. The material is superheated and mixed together to make sure that the plastic is fluid enough to fill each cavity of the mold. Trapped air in the mold can escape through air P.102.104. One plate is fixed and the others are movable so that the mold can be closed or opened. it is pushed through the nozzle into the mold by means of sprue or gates. It then enters the barrel and reciprocating screw pushes the material forward and it is heated by means of heating jackets. Cooling channels are provided so that material is cooled and cycle time is reduced. 2. Formation of pen by Injection molding process Initially the mold of piano pen is closed and raw material is fed by means of hopper.E Project by ME-75. The clamping unit is attached to a mechanism of hydraulics which close the plates with a certain pressure so the plates do not open during injection of the material with high pressure.105 5 . These plates are usually made up of metal and their melting point is higher than the melting point of plastic . When the material is brought to the right temperature. Clamping unit: The clamping unit consists of 4 plates. Sprue directs the molten material into the mold.

If the air is not allowed to escape the molten material will not completely fill the mold. and the manufacturers usually rely on cutting just by profile cutters. The mold contains a core which also acts as the ejector pin. a worker collects it from there and then cleaning and finishing process begins Initial Cleaning: As the part is removed from the mold by means of an automatic system(i.102. which P. the plates are opened and the ejector pin (core) is retracted and the finished material is separated from the core. the plates are closed again and the whole process is repeated. Continuous pressure is applied by the plunger to compensate for the contraction of material during solidification.vents that are grounded into the parting line of the mold. After filling the mold completely the material begins to cool down as it comes in contact with cold surface of the mold. 89. When the part is solidified. Meanwhile the Non returning valve is retracted and fresh charge is introduced into forward end of the barrel. but since it is time consuming so it is less desirable.105 6 . The extra plastic present on the surface of the body is completely undesirable and it has to be purged. that they are not hand filled. After the part is removed from the mold.104. Cleaning and finishing process After the mold cavity is expended and the pen drops down from the mold.E Project by ME-75. The workers also select random pieces from the pile of pens to find out if any part has been over filled during injection of material by an error or accident. And as we can predict from the surface of specifically piano ball pen.e part falls of the mold) and is then collected in container where workers gather them and sprue and runner are cleaned off from the part by means of profile cutters or small saws. The extra part is then further removed by means of a hand file.

105 7 . 89. P. voltage change. difference in humidity etc. The name of manufacturer (Piano) is then painted on the holder of the pen by using special stamps and is the piece is then left undisturbed for a while for drying so the name of piano becomes permanent. the injection point of piano pen is located at the back of the pen holder on the body of the pen.E Project by ME-75. Quality Control: The Quality Control unit is active during every part of the process but as pen is being formed in bulk quantity the manufacturer cannot check individually each pen. The selected pieces undergo special treatment and then brought them back to the chain. Further processing: The pen cover is then washed thoroughly to enhance the shinning of the piece and is then send to bath in a special plastic polishing material.104. If the point is rough above the tolerance level of the manufacturer the point has to filed by using small files.102. In some cases injection point also gives of unwanted rough patch. in order to enhance the transparency and glossy look of the cover. the hole has to be cleared by using small nails or in some cases small drills. The main task of the QC is to sort out the defected pieces which may have arrived during the injection process due to human error. In this case. The pen is then passed through a Quality Control Unit where the requirements of manufacturer or company are tested on their desired scale.may have caused the refill nib hole to get jammed. Assembly: The pen is then fully assembled and ink refill. spring along with clutch is then added into the body of the pen.

105 8 . High Density Polyethylene (HDPE): HDPE is used for making mostly caps. General-purpose polystyrene is clear. This polymer is useful in those areas.E Project by ME-75.The selected piece is then measured thoroughly in all dimensions to make sure that the piece is up to the manufacturer’s design. 89. plugs and adopters of ball pens of various models. 2) Complex parts can be easily produced 3) Cycle time is less 4) Economical process for mass production Materials used for making pen Plastic granules are used for making the shells of the pens. It is mostly used in the barrels of use .102. Following are the materials that are most commonly used for making the body of pen: Polypropylene (PP): This polymer is hard.The QC is active mostly during the last phase of the process when the pen is fully assembled.and .throw models. A random copolymer PP is also used in the barrel of Ocean Gel Pen model because of its transparency. where flexibility and strength both are equally needed. The workers randomly select the pieces . Why use injection molding? For producing piano ball pen. hard and brittle. injection molding is recommended because of the following reasons 1) Multiple pens can be produced in a single cycle. tough and easily moldable. Polystyrene (PS): Polystyrene is a very versatile plastic that can be rigid or foamed. Although we don’t know much about the quality department of Piano pen manufacturer but we can say by observations that they are more prone to errors as compared to that of a foreign manufacturer. It has a relatively P.104.

Colour pigments are mixed up with a high flow polymer vehicle.104.102.105 9 . plugs and knobs for many models. 89. Thermoplastics can be molded easily with heat. Colors were limited (typically red. where the locking mechanism lasts long even after repeated opening and closing of caps. normally LDPE or EVA and now-a-days colour masterbatches are made to be used as colourant and accordingly it takes an important role in making coloured plastic parts Some other materials include Bakelite: an early plastic (phenolic resin to be exact) used by a few pen manufacturers (like Parker). This is suitable for injection molding applications. This material is used for making transparent barrels for many models of ball pens. It is mostly used for the mechanism of the Pen. It is mostly used for making clips. It is an excellent choice for the electroplating application in different parts of ball pen. Masterbatches: These are color concentrates and available in the form of granules. Poly Acetal: This is a novel material because of its toughness and huge compressive strength. ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene): This is a terpolymer(a polymer made from the mixture of three polymers) and useful for its toughness and lower density among all engineering plastic materials. Elastomers are rubbers that can stretch easily. Styrene Acrylonitrile Copolymer (SAN): This material is used for making transparent barrels of expensive pen for its greater strength and clarity. yellow or dark P. It is used in the Grips of many models. TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer): It is a material that combines the properties of elastomers and thermoplastics. It provides a better comfort in writing.low melting point. Polycarbonate (PC): This is the toughest of all transparent plastic materials. Due to the hard and tough nature it is mostly used in the transparent caps of many models.E Project by ME-75.

It also depends upon the thickness of material. Also called ebonite or vulcanite. Injection machines are chosen on the basis of clamping force they provide. Platinum: an especially beautiful celluloid in charcoal gray with luminous silver gray 'grained' highlights. Used in the 1930's by European manufacturers like Montblanc and OMAS. Black Hard Rubber: a compound produced by mixing crude rubber with sulfur at high temperatures.105 10 . Carbon black was used to dye it and give it higher tensile strength.102. 2. The weight of the material depends upon the density of material and size of the material. If the final part is thick and larger in size then it material cost is increased. They are: 1) Material cost 2) Production cost 3) Tooling cost 1. The design of the machine affects the production cost. Production cost: The production cost of a material is calculated from the hourly rate and the time in which the part is produced. It was the preferred material for fountain pen caps and barrels until plastics became popular during the 1920's. Material cost: The material cost is determined by the weight of the final part that is required.brown) and tended to darken over time. 89.104. Celluloid offered more color variety and became the plastic of choice for pens. The hourly rate depends upon the size of the injection machine being used. The clamping is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure P. Overall cost The overall cost of the material is divided into three subgroups.E Project by ME-75.

104. 89. The numbers of parts produced also contribute to the tooling cost. 3.E Project by ME-75. The size of machine also depends upon the material that is being used.e. Cycle time includes the injection time. That is the reason they require higher temperature. A larger part increases the production cost.with which the material is injected. The production cost also depends upon the cycle time. If the required part is larger in size then the clamping force would be greater which increases the size of machine and production cost. Tooling cost: The tooling cost depends upon the cost of the mold. time taken by the molten material to solidify and resetting time. their molecular structure changes. P. If large parts are being produced then the size of the mold is increased which in turn increases the tooling cost.102. A large production quantity will require a higher class of mold that does not wear easily. By reducing the cycle time the production cost can be reduced.105 11 . once they cool. If the material used is thermo setting plastic then more temperature and pressure is required to eliminate the problems that are encountered with thermo setting i.

5 mm 1 Breadth = 154 mm 5 Core Length = 126 mm 1 5050-CR Dia = 8. 89.105 12 .102.5 mm P. Bill of Material: S no Part number Part name Part size Quantity 1 injection mold Height = 40 mm 5050-IM Length = 40 mm 1 Breadth = 177 mm 2 Main Mold(Left) Height = 30 mm 5050-MML Length = 126 mm 1 Breadth = 23 mm 3 5050-MMR Main Mold(Right) Height = 30 mm Length = 126 mm 1 Breadth = 23 mm 4 5050-SM Support Mold Height = 49 mm Length = 32.E Project by ME-75.104.

102. 89.104.E Project by ME-75.Views: MOLD: Isometric view front view P.105 13 .

102.105 14 .E Project by ME-75. 89.104. Top view P.

PEN: P.E Project by ME-75.105 15 .102.104. 89.

Isometric Front P.E Project by ME-75.105 16 . 89.102.104.

102. 89.104.105 17 .E Project by ME-75. Top Side P.

89.104.102.105 18 .E Project by ME-75.Clutch: Isometric Front P.

E Project by ME-75. 89.105 19 . Top Side P.104.102.