# Suggestions_October, 2016

CEP- 420 Course Name: Transport Phenomena
Q1
a) State Newton’s law of viscous flow. What is the physical significance of the viscosity
coefficient? Write down the generalized form of Newton’s viscous law and discuss the
meaning of each term in it.
Source: Bird et al., pp.16-18
b) i) Find the analogy among Newton’s law for viscous flow, Fick’s law for diffusion
transport and Fourier law for heat transfer.
ii) Write down the Fick’s law in terms of molar concentration and mole fraction, and
show how they are correlated
c) The following data are available on the viscosity of mixtures of hydrogen and Freon-12
(dichlorodifluoromethane) at 25C and 1 atm:
Mole fraction, xH2 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
Viscosity, x10 ,6 124.0 128.1 131.9 135.1 88.4
-1 -1
g.cm s
Draw a viscosity vs. composition plot. Find the viscosity of the composition at xH2 =0.35, 0.65
and 0.85. Also, compute the values by the following equations:
2
n
xi i 1 M   M 
mix    ij  (1  i ) 0.5 1  ( i ) 0.2 ( j ) 0.25 
n
 j 
x 
i 1 8 Mj Mi
j ij
j 1
,

and compare them with those obtained from the graph.:

Source: Bird et al. Problem 1A. 4B, Calculation of viscosities of gas mixtures at low
density, p.38

volumetric flow rate. c = 0. film thickness and the force exerted at the wall Source: Bird et al.2. volumetric flow rate. derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile. b) Derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile for an isothermal liquid film (with variable viscosity) falling along an inclined bed.300 g/cm3. 42-47 ii) From appropriate equations of changes. average velocity. derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile. film thickness and the force exerted at the wall Consult with Bird et al. iii) One method for determining the radius of a capillary tube is by measuring the rate of flow of a Newtonian liquid through the tube. Problem 2A. 1.s of CH3F at 370°C and 120 atm. The viscosity-variation obeys the following law:    0 exp( x /  ) Also determine the maximum velocity.55C. Kinematic viscosity of liquid. Pressure drop in the horizontal tube. p.4.3-1 to find the viscosity of methyl fluoride in Pa. Find the radius of a capillary from the following flow data: Length of capillary tube. Example 2. volumetric flow rate. Density of liquid- 0.2-2 Falling Film with variable viscosity. Atomic mass of fluorine is 19. pc = 58.50.4. Use the following values for the critical constants: Tc = 4. average velocity. deduce the momentum flux equation for the case in (i) and explain why and how different terms of the equations disappears.03 10-5 m2/s. p.9552  103 kg/m3.2. d) Use Fig. Also determine the maximum velocity. Also determine the maximum velocity.0 atm.42-46 ii) From appropriate equations of changes. 42-47 (old edition) Q4 . p. Flow through a circular tube. and the force exerted at the wall Source: Bird et al. p.22 Q2 a) i) Derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile for a viscous isothermal liquid film falling along an inclined bed. average velocity. Also determine the maximum velocity..70?1/2 ?? ?? Consult with Bird et al.62 b) For flow of a Bingham fluid through a circular tube. p. 2/3 −1/6 ?? = 7. p. Flow through a circular tube.829  l05 Pa and Mass rate of flow through tube. Flow of a falling film.02 cm. volumetric flow rate and the force exerted at the wall Source: Bird et al.997 10-3 kg/s Source: Bird et al. average velocity. 47-48 Q3 a) i) For flow of a Newtonian fluid through a circular tube. deduce the momentum flux equation for the case (i) and explain why and how different terms of the equations disappears.

(a) Show that the velocity distribution in the falling film (neglecting end effects) is .hr.6). A 60% aqueous solution of sucrose (C12H22O11) is to be pumped through the annulus at 20°C. 53-56 ii) A horizontal annulus. even though in this case the momentum turns out to be flowing in the negative r-direction. 56-58 b) i) For flow of a Newtonian fluid through an annulus. and an outer radius of 1.6 Velocity distribution and z-momentum balance for the flow of a falling film on the outside of a circular tube In a gas absorption experiment. Set up a momentum balance over a shell of thickness r in the film. 62 Q5 a) Fig. and the force exerted at the wall Source: Bird et al. What is the volume flow rate when the impressed pressure difference is 5. volumetric flow rate. a viscous fluid flows upward through a small circular tube and then downward on the outside (see Fig. Flow through an annulus. average velocity. pp. Also determine the maximum velocity. Also determine the maximum and the average velocity of each fluid Source: Bird et al. Note that the “Momentum in” and “Momentum out” arrows are always taken in the positive r-direction in setting up the balance. p. has an inner radius of 0. p. Flow through an annulus. Flow through an annulus.8 lbm/ft.1 in. derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile.39 psi? Source: Bird et al.a) For adjacent flow of two immiscible Newtonian fluids between two flat plates under the influence of a pressure gradient. derive the momentum flux (shear stress) and velocity profile. 2B. 2B.495 in. At this temperature the solution density is 80. as shown in the figure. 27 ft in length.3 lb/ft3 and the viscosity is 136.

Problem 2B.. The pressure changes from p0 to pL for a distance of L along the flow direction.3 Flow through a slit. It is understood that B << W. Laminar Flow in narrow slit. The flow direction is vertically downward. so that "edge effects" are unimportant. with B << W << L i) Make a differential momentum balance and obtain the following expressions for the distribution of momentum flux and velocity: ?0 − ?? (?0 − ?? )?2 ? 2 ??? =( ) ?. 2B. the outer one of which is . p. Fig. 3 (b) A Newtonian Fluid is in laminar flow in a narrow slit formed by two parallel walls at a distance 2B apart.63 Q6 a) Determine the velocity and shear tress distributions for the tangential laminar flow of an incompressible fluid between two vertical coaxial cylinders. The width of walls is W. ?? = [1 − ( ) ] ? 2?? ? In these expressions ? = ? + ??ℎ = ? − ??? ii) What is the ratio of average to maximum velocity in the slit? Source: Bird et al.vz  gR 2 4  1  r / R   2a 2 ln( r / R) 2  b) Obtain an expression for the volumetric flow rate Q in the film c) Show that the expression for the volumetric flow rate Q in the film simplifies to gW 3 Q if the thickness is very small.3.

The viscosity of the lubricant is 200 cp. Calculate the required torque in lbf.1. Fig. 3A.6-1. and describe how the relations derived in this problem lies in foundation of Couette-Hatschek viscometers. Example 3.29 g/cm3. 3. This instrument has an inner cylinder 4.104 ii) It is desired to measure the viscosities of sucrose solutions of about 60% concentration by weight at about 20°C with a rotating-cylinder viscometer such as that shown in Fig./ft3.000 cm in diameter surrounded by a rotating concentric cylinder 4. and its density is 50 lb. Then i) determine the minimum torque T to turn the outer shaft.1). 3A. Source: Bird et al. and the shaft is rotating at 200 rpm. Source: Bird et al.00 cm. Friction bearing. What will be the resultant angular velocity? .89-91 b) i) Torque required to turn a friction bearing (Fig.500 cm in diameter. The length L is 4. Use the equation of changes for the solution and explain why some of the terms in the equation vanish. The length of the bearing surface on the shaft is 2 in.5%. Problem 3A. End effect may be neglected. p. ii) determine the radial pressure distribution.6-3.. On the basis of past experience it seems possible that end effects will be important. and it is therefore decided to calibrate the viscometer by measurements on some known solutions of approximately the same viscosity as those of the unknown sucrose solutions.1. The viscosity of a 60% sucrose solution at 20°C is about 57 cp. and its density is about 1. Neglect the effect of eccentricity.. Determine a reasonable value for the applied torque to be used in calibration if the torque measurements are reliable within 100 dyne/cm and the angular velocity can be measured within 0.ft and power consumption in horsepower to turn the shaft in the friction bearing shown in the figure. p. rotating with an angular velocity .

End effect may be neglected. geometrically similar system.93-95 d) Steady Flow in an Agitated Tank: It is desired to predict the flow behavior in a large. Determine the conditions necessary for the model studies to provide a direct means of prediction. unbaffled tank of oil. 3. with ReI = ReII.6-1. Problem 3A.6-4.4. Example 3. Long-time average free-surface shapes.. p. and i) explain why some of the terms in the equation vanish and ii) find the shape of the surface of the rotating liquid. p..7-3. Find the shape of the free surface when steady state has been established. Use the equation of changes for the solution. 3. (b) A diagram of a Couette viscometer Source: Bird et al. Source: Bird et al. 3. We propose to do this by means of model experiments in a smaller. as a function of the impeller rotation speed. shown in Fig.104-105 c) A liquid of constant density and viscosity is in a cylindrical container of radius R.Fig. . The container is caused to rotate about its own axis at an angular velocity .7-3. The cylinder axis is vertical so that g = g=0 and gz=-g. Fig.

to flow in a horizontal. schedule 40 steel pipe (internal diameter 7.935 g/cm3 and its viscosity is  = 1. define mean hydraulic radius.95 cp.2-2. of water at 68F through a 1200-ft length of horizontal 8-in. 6. Also. p.2-2.00 psi. smooth. What diameter should the spheres be to have a terminal velocity of about 0. Source: Bird et al. At this temperature the relevant properties of water are  = 997 kg/m3 and  = 0. 6. Friction factor for tube flow’ is to be supplied Source: Bird et al.5 m/s? . Friction factor for tube flow c) Determine the flow rate. C6H5N(C2H5)2..183 Fig. Example 6.183 d) Glass spheres of density sph = 2620 kg/m3 are to be allowed to fall through water at 25°C.2-2. Example 6.2-1. in pounds per hour. b) What pressure gradient is required to cause diethylaniline.2-2 and assume that k/D = 2. a) Define and discuss the friction factors for flow i) in conduits and ii) around submerged objects. Part B 7.891x10-3 Pa..s. 6.5 cm at a mass rate of 1200 g/s at 20°C? At this temperature the density of diethylaniline is  = 0. p.3 X10-4 ‘Fig. iii) for turbulent flow in some types of non-circular tubes.) under a pressure difference of 4. circular tube of inside diameter D = 3. For such a pipe use Fig.981 in.

5 cp and its density is 1.2865 g/cm3. Source: Bird et al. Determine also maximum and average temperature rise as well as heat outflow at the surface.. where k is the thermal conductivity. a 60% aqueous sucrose solution at 20°C flows through the bed at a rate of 244 lb/min. the viscosity of the solution is 56. ii) A copper wire has a radius of 3 mm and a length of 6 m.187 8. 295 . turbulent and transient regime..3-1.188-192 b) A tube of 146 sq. Friction factor (or drag coefficient) for spheres moving relative to a fluid with a velocity v∞ ‘Fig. For what voltage drop would the temperature rise at the wire axis be 10°C. Friction factor (or drag coefficient) for spheres moving relative to afluid with a velocity v∞’ is to be supplied Source: Bird et al.2-1 p. the Lorenz number k/keTo= 2. if the surface temperature of the wire is 20°C? For copper. What is the void fraction of the bed? Source: Bird et al.. At this temperature. When a pressure difference of 158 psi is maintained across the column.3-1. Example 10. Problem 6A. I amp/cm2 through an electric wire of circular cross section with radius R and electrical conductivity. height is packed with spherical particles of diameter 2 mm. p. Comment on the applicability of those expressions.. write down the expressions for pressure-drop as proposed by Blake-Kozeny. Ergun and Tallmadge.Fig. cross section and 73 in. 6. p. in. 193 9. How do they differ from D’Arcy law? Source: Bird et al. a) Derive the expression for friction factor for flow through packed column and then adapting it to laminar. Example 6.3-1.6 Estimation of void fraction of a packed column p. Burke-Plummer.23  10-5 volt2/K2. a) i) Derive the expressions for temperature and heat flux distributions (profile) for flow of electric current with current density. 6. ke ohm-1cm-1.

. Describe how could the flux equation be used for the determination of diffusion coefficient of a vapor? Fig. 305 e) A copper wire of 0.5 Btu/hr. and find the concentration profile of the species.12 in. inside the tube and temperature Tb outside Source: Bird et al. that this wire can carry without heating any part of the plastic above its operating limit of 200°F? The thermal and electrical conductivities may be assumed constant at the values given below: k (Btu/hr.6-2.5.cm-1): Copper .. Heat conduction through a laminated tube with a fluid at temperature Ta. diameter is insulated uniformly with plastic to an outer diameter of 0. Source: Bird et al.10. Example 10.F. p. and is exposed to surroundings at 100°F. The heat transfer coefficient from the outer surface of the plastic to the surroundings is 1.0.A-4 p. a) Develop a formula for the overall heat transfer coefficient for the composite cylindrical pipe wall shown in Fig.6-1 p. in amperes. 10.040 in. Plastic-0.. 10. 320 11. ke (ohm-1. 18.0 Source: Bird et al.6-2. Example 10. Plastic.ft2.2-1.F): Copper -220. i) Derive the diffusion flux equation for transport through stagnant gas film. Fig.1 x l05.ft.20. Steady-state diffusion of A through stagnant B with the liquid vapor interface maintained at a fixed position. What is the maximum steady current. 545-549 .

4-1. Example 18. p. The total pressure on the system is 755 mm Hg. a) Derive the flux equation for diffusion with heterogeneous chemical reaction of the type 2A A2.. ii) The diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 is being determined by observing the steady- state evaporation of carbon tetrachloride into a tube containing oxygen. p. and the temperature is 0°C. 18.1 cm. The vapor pressure of CCl4 at that temperature is 33. Also find the concentration profile in the gas-solid interfacial film Source: Bird et al. It is found that 0. as shown in Fig. Absorption of A by B with a homogeneous reaction in the liquid phase . 551-553 b) Derive the flux equation for diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction of the type A + B AB in a system as shown in Figure 18. Also find the concentration profile in the liquid phase Fig. The cross- sectional area of the diffusion tube is 1.. What is the diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14? Source: Bird et al.0 mm Hg.2-1.026 cm3 of CC14 evaporate in a 10-hour period after steady state has been attained.0 cm2. The distance between the CCl4 liquid level and the top of the tube is z2-z1 = 17. 549 12.2-2.4-1. 18. Consider both instantaneous and slow reaction.