# CHP # 2 KINEMATICS

KINEMATICS
The branch of physics which deals with the study of motion of material objects
without discussing its causes (forces) is called kinematics.

Q.1 Define motion and rest with example?
A. Motion
When a body changes its position with respect to its surrounding, we say that
the body is in motion. For example if a body "B" changes its position with
respect to another body "A", we say that body "B" is in motion.
Rest
When a body does not change its position with respect to its surrounding, we
say that the body is at rest. For example if a body "B" does not change its
position with respect to another body "A", we say that body "B" is at rest.

Q.2 Write types of motion with examples?
A. There are three types of motion which are stated as;
(1) Translatory motion
A type of motion in which each and every particle of the body move in the same
manner as that of every other particle. For examples
(i) Motion of the cars
(ii) Motion of the flying birds
(iii) Motion of the falling objects
(2) Rotatory motion
A type of motion in which a body rotate about a fixed point and the distance of
the body at any time is constant (equal) to the fixed point. For examples
(i) Motion of the wheel of a cycle
(ii) Motion of the hands of a clock
(iii) Motion of the wings of a fan.
(3) Vibratory motion
The To and fro motion of an object around a fix point known as mean or
equilibrium position is called Vibratory motion. For examples
(i) Motion of a swing.
(ii) Motion of a simple pendulum.
(iii) Motion of mass attached to a spring.

Q.3 Differentiate between distance and displacement?
A. Distance
The length cover by a body on different paths is called distance.
It is a scalar physical quantity.
It is denoted by "S".
Its SI unit is meter (m).

Displacement The shortest distance between two points is called displacement. Derivatives of the speed are. Speed The distance covered by a body in unit time is called speed. then the speed of the body is called uniform speed". It is denoted by "V". Mathematically Displacement Velocity  time   S V  t Its SI unit is meter/second (m/s). It is a scalar physical quantity.5 Define Velocity and its derivatives? A. (i) Average speed It can be defined as "the total distance covered divided by total time taken is called average speed". Q. Velocity The displacement covered by a body in unit time is called Velocity. Mathematically S <V> = t (ii) Instantaneous speed It can be defined as "the time rate of change distance covered by a body is called Instantaneous speed". It is denoted by "V". Its SI unit is meter (m). (i) Average Velocity It can be defined as "the total displacement covered divided by total time taken is called average Velocity". Mathematically S Vins  t (iii) Uniform speed It can be defined as "if a body covers equal distance in equal interval of time.4 Define speed and its derivatives? A. Q. It is a vector physical quantity. It is a vector physical quantity. It is denoted by "S". Mathematically . Mathematically Dis tan ce S Speed   time t Its SI unit is meter/second (m/s). Derivatives of the Velocity are.

(i) Positive acceleration It can be defined as "if the magnitude of Velocity increases with time. then acceleration is called positive acceleration". . then the Velocity of the body is called uniform Velocity".   S <V > = t (ii) Uniform Velocity It can be defined as "if a body covers equal displacement in equal interval of time. (iii) Average acceleration It can be defined as "the change in Velocity divided by time interval is called average acceleration".6 Define Acceleration and its derivatives? A. then acceleration is called negative acceleration". Acceleration It can be defined as "the time rate of change of Velocity is called acceleration". It is a vector physical quantity. For examples Length. etc. (ii) Negative acceleration It can be defined as "if the magnitude of Velocity decreases with time. Mathematically   V V f  Vi a = t t Its SI unit is meter per second per second (m/s2). time. speed. OR If the speed as well as direction of the body does not change in a time interval. mass. then the Velocity of the body is called variable Velocity. volume. Q. (iii) Variable Velocity It can be defined as "If the speed or direction or both of the body changed in a time interval. Mathematically  V  a  t Q. area.7 Define scalars and vectors with examples? A. Derivatives of the acceleration are. then the Velocity of the body is called uniform Velocity. It is dented by "a". Scalars Those physical quantities which are completely specified from its magnitude (number+proper unit) are called scalars.

OR the letter is written as bold face For example a vector A can be stated as. This process is completed in the following four steps: 1. Scale 20Km/h = 1cm 100Km/h = 5cm W E 2. Representative line on the NEWS. Force. Draw the required line according to the direction. 4. torque. N 5cm 45o W E O S . Draw representative line of its velocity? Solution N 1. (i) Symbolic representation In this method a vector can be represented by a letter. A vector can be represented by the following two methods. Velocity. Draw NEWS or coordinate system. Select a suitable scale. For examples Displacement. 2. Example Al–Khalid tank is moving with a velocity of 100Km/h towards north east.  A . A. Draw NEWS system S 3. An arrow head is placed above or below the letter. etc. Vectors Those physical quantities which are completely specified from its magnitude (number+proper unit) as well as direction are called vectors. Draw a 5cm representative line on the NEWS.  A (ii) Graphical representation Graphically a vector can be represented by a straight line having an arrow head in the direction of the vector. Q. Momentum.8 How a vector can be represented? A. acceleration. 3.

Graph paper contains horizontal and vertical lines of equal distances. A graph is drawn on a graph paper. (ii) Draw perpendiculars on the x-axis and y-axis from both points. x  x2  x1 and y  y 2  y1 (iv) Divide y by x . y1 ) and P2 ( x2 . Required line 5cm 45o O E Q. (iii) Calculate the difference in x and y coordinates as. As shown below in figure. Graph It is a method to show the relationship between two physical quantities. A. We use Rectangular coordinate system for graph. The slope of a graph can be determined as follow. For example Distance-time graph shows that how speed or Velocity of a body changes. (i) Take two points P1 ( x1 . Q. 4.10 How we can determine the slope of a graph? A.9 What is graph? How a graph can be drawn. Mathematically y y  y1 Slope = = 2 x x 2  x1 . which consist of two mutually perpendicular lines XOX  and YOY  . this is the slope of the graph. y 2 ) on the graph.

Mathematically y y  y1 Slope Slope = = 2 x x 2  x1 Distance (m) y y  y1 Speed or Velocity = = 2 x x 2  x1 O Time (sec) Q. Distance.13 How the distance traveled can be determined from speed-time graph? A.Q. The speed is taken on the vertical axis (y-axis) while the time is taken on the horizontal axis (x-axis). After a time interval OC the speed of the body becomes BC. The slope of the graph denotes acceleration. Mathematical form As we know that B S V  C t S  Vt it is clear from figure. Mathematically Slope y y  y1 Slope = = 2 Speed (m/s) x x 2  x1 y y  y1 Acceleration = = 2 O x x 2  x1 Time (sec) Q. For example Consider a body moves with uniform speed. The distance traveled is taken on the vertical axis (y-axis) while the time is taken on the horizontal axis (x-axis). The distance traveled can be calculated from the speed-time graph by the area enclosed the graph.11 What is Distance-time graph? A. The graph can be drawn as. t = OC Speed (m/s) S = OA x OC S = Width x Length O Time (s) A . Speed. The slope of the graph denotes speed or Velocity.time graph A graph which shows the relationship between distance and time is called Distance-time graph. its initial speed is OA.time graph A graph which shows the relationship between speed and time is called speed- time graph. that V = OA.12 What is Speed-time graph? A.

Figure Y B a Vf A D t Vi X O C t Mathematical proof It is clear from figure that BC  OA  BD V f  Vi  BD -----------. we have BD Slope of graph AB = AD BD a t at  BD Put the value of BD in equation (1) V f  Vi  at . S = Area of rectangle OABC S = Area of the graph Q. The slope of the graph "AB" shows acceleration "a".(1) To find BD. After a time interval "OC" the speed of the body changes uniformly and becomes "BC".14 Prove first equation of motion ( V f  Vi  at ) by graph? A. Statement Consider the speed-time graph in which the initial speed of the body is "OA".

1 2 Q. Statement Consider the speed-time graph in which the initial speed of the body is "OA". After a time interval "OC" the speed of the body changes uniformly and becomes "BC". . Statement Consider the speed-time graph in which the initial speed of the body is "OA". The distance traveled by the speed–time graph can be calculated as. After a time interval "OC" the speed of the body changes uniformly and becomes "BC". The slope of the graph "AB" shows acceleration "a". Distance traveled = Area enclosed by the graph Figure Y B a at A D t Vi X O C t Mathematical proof It is clear from figure that S = Area of OABC But S = Area of rectangle OADC + Area of triangle ABD 1 S = OA  OC + (AD  BD) 2 1 S  Vi  t  (t )(at ) 2 1 2 S  Vi t  at 2 ( 2aS  V f  Vi ) 2 2 Q.15 Prove second equation of motion ( S  Vi t  at ) by graph? 2 A. The slope of the graph "AB" shows acceleration "a".16 Prove third equation of motion by graph? A.

Figure Y B a Vf A D t Vi X O C Mathematical proof t It is clear from figure that S = Area of OABC S = Area of Trapezium OABC We know that height Area of Trapezium = (sum of parallel sides of Trapezium)  2 AD S  (OA  BC )  2 OC S  (Vi  V f )  2 t S  (Vi  V f )         ( A) 2 But from first equation of motion. We get Vf  Vi S = ( Vi  Vf )  ( ) 2a 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2 . V f  Vi  at V f  Vi t  a Put the value of “t” in equation (A).

Write down (a) The maximum speed. He stated that earth attract every object itself with the same acceleration called gravitational acceleration. He concluded that all the objects reached at the same time towards the earth surface. (3) Is the distance covered by the body may be greater than the magnitude of displacement? (Ans) Yes the distance covered by a body may be greater than the displacement. . It is denoted by “g”.  V f  Vi  gt 1  S  Vi t  gt 2 2 2 gh  V f  Vi 2 2  CONCEPTUALQUESTIONS (1) The figure given shows the speed time graph for a pendulum. (2) Can a body at rest be regarded in a state of motion? Give example (Ans) Yes a body at rest can be regarded in a state of motion. For example When an object is moving on a circular path its distance covered is greater than the displacement at any instant of time. Its value is 9  8m / s 2 at the surface of the earth. When an object moves in a circle and complete one round trip its displacement become zero while the distance covered is not zero. (b) The time at which maximum speed occur is 0 3Sec .Q.17 What is meant by gravitational acceleration? A. Equations of motion for motion under gravity are. For example A person sitting in a train is at rest with respect to an observer in the train but this person is in motion for the observer outside the train. (Ans) (a) The maximum speed is 12m/s. (4) Is it possible that displacement is zero but not the distance? (Ans) Yes it is possible that displacement is zero but not the distance. (b) The time at which the maximum speed occurs. Gravitational acceleration An Italian scientist Galileo drop several objects fro the famous Leaning tower at the same time.

For example When a body moves in a circle. (6) Can a body have acceleration with zero velocity? (Ans) A body has no acceleration with zero velocity. a V 1 2 (9) Is the kinematics equation S  Vi t  at true if acceleration is not 2 constant? 1 2 (Ans) No the kinematics equation S  Vi t  at is not true if acceleration is not 2 constant.(5) Under what condition displacement is equal to the distance? (Ans) The displacement and distance covered is equal if and only if the body is moving in a straight line. Because it is a scalar quantity and scalar quantities can not be negative. the direction of linear velocity is tangent to the circle while the acceleration is directed towards the centre of the circle. Because acceleration is produce when the velocity of the body is changed. Mathematically   V a t 0 a t a  0m / s 2 (7) Can the speed of a body be negative? (Ans) No the speed of the body can not be zero. (8) Is it possible that velocity of an object be in a direction other than the direction of acceleration? (Ans) Yes the velocity of a body can be in a direction other than acceleration. .

(14) If an object is stationary is its acceleration necessary zero? (Ans) Yes if an object is stationary its acceleration is zero. (Ans) The acceleration of the body is zero. (Ans) Motion and rest are relative. if the velocity of the bus decreasing continuously. V a V V V (12) Is unit Kmh-1s-1 is same as Kms-1h-1 explain? (Ans) The unit Kmh-1s-1 is not the same as Kms-1h-1 . They are at rest with respect to each other. What will its speed be when it returns to its starting point. can its acceleration be westward? Explain (Ans) Yes a bus traveling eastward its acceleration can be westward. But in the unit Kms-1h-1. Kms-1 is the unit of velocity the change of which is in hour. Because the speed of the body is zero and direction is unchanged. Because the graph shows that velocity is constant.(10) By giving an example prove that rest and motion are relative terms. But due to the motion of the bus. Because in unit Kmh-1s-1. For example two persons are setting in a bus. (11) Give an example of an accelerated body moving with a uniform speed. then the deceleration is produce which will be westward. they are in motion with respect to their external surrounding. (16) A ball is thrown vertically upward with an initial speed of 5m/s. (Ans) The motion of a body in a circle with uniform speed have an acceleration due to change in the direction of velocity called centripetal acceleration. . Explaination A bus is traveling eastward. (13) If bus is traveling eastward. When the velocity of the body is constant its acceleration will be zero. what can you say about its acceleration. Kmh-1 is the unit of velocity the change of which is given in second. (in the absence of air resistance). (15) When the velocity time graph is a straight line parallel to time axis.

covering a distance of 850m in 25s before stopping at point from where it started. S = 0m Time.(Ans) The body returns to its starting point with the same speed of 5m/s in the absence of air resistance. S =?    S = S 2-S 1  S = 15 -10  S = 5Km ---. (2) A race car travels around a circular track. find (a) Distance traveled b) Its displacement Given data S 1 = 15Km S 2 = 10Km a) Distance. S =? S = S 1+ S 2 S = 15+10 S =25Km  b) Displacement. Determine the average Velocity of the car during this period of time. Given data Distance. V  =? S  0m We know that   S t  25sec V   t  0 V   25  V   0m / sec .towards east of starting point. t = 25s S=850m   Average velocity. NUMERICAL PROBLEMS (1) A bus travel 15Km towards west makes u-turn back travel a further distance of 10Km. S = 850m  Displacement.

(a) Find the acceleration (b) How much further distance will the bus travel before coming to rest. find how far it goes before stopping? Given data Vi  20m / sec a  3m / sec2 V f  0m / sec S ? We know that 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2 V f  Vi 2 2 S 2a 0  (20) 2 2  400 S   66  67m 2(3) 6 (4) The speed of a bus is reducing uniformly from 15m/s to 7m/s.(3) A truck moving at a speed of 20m/s begins to slow at constant rate of 3m/s2. while traveling a distance of 90m. provided the acceleration remains constant? Given data Vi  15m / sec V f  7 m / sec S  90m (a) a? We know that 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2 V f  Vi 2 2 a 2S (7) 2  (15) 2 a 2  90 49  225  176 a  180 180 a  0  977m / sec2 .

how much further will it go before it is brought to rest? Given data 72  1000m Vi  72Km / h   20m / sec 3600sec 36  1000m V f  36Km / h   10m / sec 3600sec S  200m Re tardation  a  ? S ? When Vi  10m / sec V f  0m / sec To find the retardation first . (b) Vi  7m / sec V f  0m / sec a  0  977m / sec2 S ? We know that 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2 V f  Vi 2 2 S 2a ( 0) 2  ( 7 ) 2 S 2(0  977)  49 S  1  954 S  25  07m / sec (5) Brakes are applied to a train traveling at 72Km/h after passing over 200m its velocity is reduced to 36Km/h at the same rate of retardation.

how much time will it require to change the velocity from 10m/s to 20m/s? Given data a  3m / sec2 Vi  10m / sec V f  20m / sec t ? We know that . 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2 V f  Vi 2 2 a 2S (10) 2  (20) 2 a 2  200 100  400  300 a   0  75m / s 2 400 400 Now to find the further distance traveled 2aS  V f  Vi 2 2  Vi 2 2 Vf S  2a 0 2 (10) 2 S  2( 0  75)  100 S   1  50 S  66  67m (6) A motor cyclist is moving on a road with an acceleration of 3m/s2.

2m/s 2 after 2 minutes. find the velocity of the cyclist and distance covered. V f  Vi  at V f  Vi  at V f  Vi t  a 20  10 t  3 10 t   3  33 sec 3 (7) A cyclist starts from rest and moves with uniform acceleration of 0. Given data Vi  0m / sec a  0  2m / sec2 t  2 min  2  60 sec  120sec Vf  ? S ? We know that V f  Vi  at V f  0  (0  2)(120) V f  0  24  0  24m / sec We also know that 1 2 S  Vi t  at 2 1 S  0  120  (0  2)(120) 2 2 1 S  (0  2)(14400) 2 S  1440m .

(8) A body is thrown vertically upward with a speed of 20m/s. How high will it rise? (take downward g=10m/s2) Given data Vi  20m / sec g  10m / sec2 V f  0m / sec h? We know that 2 gh  V f  Vi 2 2 V f  Vi 2 2 h 2g 0 2  ( 20) 2 h 2( 10)  400 h  20 h  20m .