PART II

1. Find the order for each DE listed below:

(a) (y 00 )4 + x2 (y 0 )3 = yex Second order

(b) y 000 + xy 2 = sin x Third order

dy
(c) y dx + xy = ln x First order

2. Determine if given equations are linear or not:

(a) (ln t)y 00 + 3y 0 − ty = sin t Linear

(b) 3t3 y 0 + 4y 2 = t2 − 1 It is not linear because of the y 2 term

(c) 2y 000 − 5ty 00 + 7y 0 + y = 2 Linear

3. Determine whether y(x) = xe−2x is a solution of y 00 + 4y 0 + 4y = 0.

y 0 = e−2x − 2xe−2x , y 00 = −2e−2x − 2e−2x + 4xe−2x = −4e−2x + 4xe−2x
−4e−2x + 4xe−2x + 4(e−2x − 2xe−2x ) + 4xe−2x = −4e−2x + 8xe−2x + 4e−2x − 8xe−2x = 0

Thus, y = xe−2x is a solution

4. Find the integrating factor for the equation y 0 − 2t−1 y = 2t − 1.

The equation is in the Standard Linear Form
(−2t−1 ) dt −2
R
µ(t) = e = e−2 ln |t| = eln t = t−2 = t12
2 2
5. Is the equation (2xye−x )dx − e−x dy = 0 exact? Support your answer.
2 2
M (x, y) = 2xye−x , My = 2xe−x
2 2
N (x, y) = −e−x , Nx = 2xe−x
My = Nx and M, N, My , Nx are continuous. Thus, the equation is exact.

6. Is the equation y 0 + xy 3 + xy 2 = 0 separable? Support your answer.

dy dy
y 0 = −xy 3 − xy 2 ⇒ dx = −xy 2 (y + 1) ⇒ y 2 (y+1) = −x dx
The equation is separable

p(t) and q(t) are continuous in the intervals (−4. 2). but do not solve the equations obtained after this substitution. −2). The interval (−2. ∞). (a) y 0 + x2 y = 3ex y 4 Bernoulli Equation y −4 y 0 + x2 y −3 = 3ex . Solve the IVP y 0 + 2y = te−2t . Find an interval in which IVP (t2 − 4)y 0 + y = ln(t + 4). Which substitution can be used to solve given equations. consequently the IVP has a unique solution in the interval (−2. Solve the given equations: dy (a) dx = xy 2 − ex y 2 Separable equation dy dy x2 2ex −x2 +C = y 2 (x − ex ) ⇒ = (x − ex ) dx ⇒ − y1 = 1 R R dx y2 2 − ex + c ⇒ y = 2 2 y= 2ex −x2 +C and y = 0 . q(t) = t2 −4 t2 −4 6= 0 and t+4 > 0.7. −2) and (2. 2) containes initial point t0 = 0. so p(t) = t2 −4 . Write. Thus. 9. y(0) = 1 has a unique solution. y(0) = 1 Linear equation R in the Standard Linear Form 2 dt 2t µ(t) = e =e t2 y e + 2ye = te−2t e2t ⇒ (ye2t )0 = t ⇒ ye2t = t dt = 0 2t 2t + C ⇒ y = 12 t2 e−2t + Ce−2t R 2 y(0) = C = 1 y = e−2t ( 21 t2 + 1) 10. v = y −3 ⇒ v 0 = dv dx = −3y −4 y 0 and v 0 − 3x2 v = −9ex x2 +2xy 1+2 xy (b) y 0 = x2 +y 2 = 2 1+ xy 2 y 0 0 v= x ⇒ y = vx ⇒ y = v x + v and xv 0 + v = 1+2v 1+v 2 8. Standard linear form: y 0 + t21−4 y = ln(t+4) 1 ln(t+4) t2 −4 . (−2.

y(0) = 1. Draw a direction field for the equation y 0 = 3 − y. The equation is exact ψ(x. Choose c=0. On this direction field sketch the solution to the IVP y 0 = 3 − y.2) where y is the solution of the differential equation y 0 = y 2 − x2 with y(2) = 0 using Euler’s method with step size 0.1 -0. ψ(x. 3y y − x2 y 3 = 23 x4 2 R v 0 − x2 v = 23 x4 Linear µ(t) = e− x dx = 1 x2 1 0 2x3 x2 v − 2 x3 v = 23 x2 ⇒ ( x12 v)0 = 32 x2 ⇒ 1 x2 v = 9 + C ⇒ v = 29 x5 + Cx2 2 y 3 = 29 x5 + Cx2 and y = 0 11. N = 2x3 y + 4y 3 . M. n xn yn fn = yn2 − x2n hfn 0 2 0 -4 -0. y) = x3 y 2 + y 4 The solution is given implicitly by x3 y 2 + y 4 = C 1 (c) y 0 − x3 y = x4 y 3 Bernoulli equation 1 2 2 1 2 − 31 0 2 y − 3 y 0 − x3 y 3 = x4 . My = 6x2 y = Nx = 6x2 y.85 .2 -0. y) = 3x2 y 2 dx = x3 y 2 + h(y) ψy = 2x3 y + h0 (y) = N = 2x3 y + 4y 3 ⇒ h0 (y) = 4y 3 ⇒ h(y) = y 4 + c. Estimate y(2. N. (b) 3x2 y 2 dx + (2x3 y + 4y 3 )dy = 0 M = 3x2 y 2 .4 1 2. v 0 = 23 y − 3 y 0 .16-4.1. MxRand Ny are continuous.25 -0.425 2 2. v = y3.4 0.41=-4. 12.

Newton’s Law of Cooling: dT dt = k(Te − T ) dT 0 dt = k(75 − T ) ⇒ T + kT = 75k (b) Find the general solution of this equation. Let T(t) be the temperature of the turkey in degrees F. T (0) = 75 + C ⇒ C = 110 T (30) = 150. T (0) = 185.013t T (t) = 75 + 110e . Use this information to complete the determination of the solution. 150 = 75 + 110e−30k ⇒ k = − 30 1 ln( 15 22 ) ≈ 0. 13. if the turkey is placed on the table in a room with constant temperature 75◦ F . A turkey is taken from the oven and is cooling at rate proportional to the differ- ence between its temperature and that of its environment. µ(t) = ekt (ekt T )0 = 75kekt ⇒ ekt T = 75ekt + C ⇒ T = 75 + Ce−kt (c) At t = 0 the temperature of the turkey was 185◦ F and was 150◦ F after half an hour.013 0. (a) Write down a differential equation that provides the temperature of the turkey as a function of time measured in minutes.