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DOI:10.1007/s11770-008-0037-z

**Numerical simulation of downhole temperature
**

distribution in producing oil wells

Shi Ying1,2, Song Yanjie1, and Liu Hong2

**Abstract: An improved numerical simulation method is presented to calculate the
**

downhole temperature distribution for multiple pay zones in producing oil wells. Based

on hydrodynamics and heat transfer theory, a 2-D temperature field model in cylindrical

coordinates is developed. In the model, we considered general heat conduction as well as the

heat convection due to ﬂuid ﬂow from porous formation to the borehole. We also take into

account the ﬂuid velocity variation in the wellbore due to multiple pay zones. We present

coupled boundary conditions at the interfaces between the wellbore and adjacent formation,

the wellbore and pay zone, and the pay zone and adjacent formation. Finally, an alternating

direction implicit difference method (ADI) is used to solve the temperature model for the

downhole temperature distribution. The comparison of modeled temperature curve with

actual temperature log indicates that simulation result is in general quite similar to the actual

temperature log. We found that the total production rate, production time, porosity, thickness

of pay zones, and geothermal gradient, all have effects on the downhole temperature

distribution.

Keywords: oil well, downhole temperature distribution, heat transfer, numerical simulation

**Introduction by many researchers (Sagar and Dotty, 1989; Corre et
**

al., 1984; Stone and Bennett, 2002; Hasan and Kabir,

1991a and b; Song and Shi, 2007), mainly based on

The temperature log is used not only to study formation Ramey’s theory (Ramey, 1962). Ramay was the first to

temperature (Kutasov and Eppelbaum, 2005), but also develop a theoretical solution for estimating wellbore ﬂuid

to evaluate production well performance by analyzing temperature. He presented an approximate solution of the

anomalous temperature behavior. It can provide an wellbore heat transfer problem involving injection of hot

important basis for dynamic analysis and wellbore or cold fluids. The solution provides an estimate of the

technology diagnosis of production wells (Zhang et al., ﬂuid, tubing and casing temperatures as functions of depth

2004). Many analysts are paying more attention to the study and time. Fagley and Scott (1982) presented an improved

of downhole temperature distribution of production wells, injection-well temperature simulator. Their simulator offers

because it reﬂects production or injection history, contains an advantage over previous ones in that the wellbore water

extremely abundant information (Jin et al., 2003), and is heat transfer is modeled both before and after shut-in of

especially useful for interpreting problem wells. Numerical the well. Hasand and Kabir (1991) constructed an one-

simulations of downhole temperature distributions for dimentional radial heat transfer model with proper initial

various kinds of wells have been previously developed and boundary conditions. Frédéric et al. (1994) described

**Manuscript received by the Editor September 17, 2008, revised manuscript received October 24, 2008.
**

* This work was sponsored by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40830424).

1.School of Geoscience, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318, China.

2.Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

340

Here. The at any depth of the oil well. wellbore thermal exchanges due to conduction and We assume the downhole temperature distribution to convection and assumed that the produced fluid enters be axial symmetric. we develop a 2-D cylindrical coordinates for a wellbore with production temperature field model for production wells in cylindrical fluid flow and the surrounding formation with two pay coordinates with initial and boundary conditions. numerical simulations for such cases are formation (Hill. difference method to solve the temperature model. Heat transfer due to radiation formation. causing the fluid to reflect the actual production conditions of multiple pay velocity to increase. there is heat transfer between the fluids fluid temperature for producing oil wells. the formation temperature and thermal conductivity. For multiple pay zones. Shi et al. it more complicated with many inﬂuencing factors and the will mix with ﬂuids from lower pay zones which cause temperature difference between wellbore and formation its temperature to be higher than that of the adjacent is quite small. and logarithmic grid (1996) constructed a mathematical model in the injection spacing for the formation. 1995). we regard two-phase mixed zones. Dynamic As illustrated in Figure 2. Because of such temperature rare. production and formation conditions with multiple pay zones. the three-dimensional heat the wellbore at geothermal temperature. a new temperature model that takes into account the temperature ﬁeld models are solved simultaneously. radial grid spacing for the wellbore. Because temperature logs in producing oil wells are After the fluid in a pay zone enters the wellbore. Most temperature models focused on the can be neglected since it is comparatively insigniﬁcant. pay zone and adjacent formation two phase mix ﬂow as a weighted single-phase ﬂow. Although there have been calculations of wellbore difference. Using the wellbore temperature prediction of flowing fluid temperature profiles in the wells is recovery data after drilling mud circulation. Fig. the ﬂuid ﬂow over zone 1 in the borehole equals We also consider the variation of ﬂuid velocity in the wellbore the sum of flows of fluids 1 and 2. To describe temperature effect due to the ﬂuid decompression and the the subsurface temperature distribution. and insulating layer and Temperature ﬁeld model obtained the deepwater wellbore temperature distribution during circulation and non-circulation. they do not in the wellbore and the adjacent formation by way of consider the heat transfer between pay zone and adjacent conduction and convection. (2003) essential for solving and optimizing design problems in oil well presented a method based on a genetic algorithm to calculate production. Feng et al. Our results should be very useful for well and discussed the numerical arithmetic. It can also provide a reliable theoretical (ANN) that predicted the temperature of the ﬂowing ﬂuid basis for establishing oilfield exploitation schemes. Lee et al. 341 . (2008) developed a temperature distribution model for deepwater drilling pipe. Mixed ﬂuid Wellbore Adjacent formation Pay zone Adjacent formation Fluid 1 Pay zone z r Adjacent formation Fluid 2 Fig. and mixes with ﬂuid 2 from the lower zone 2. ﬂuid 1 from zone 1 enters the downhole temperature distributions are simulated for different wellbore. we used the ﬁnite in the wellbore is considered with ﬂuid ﬂowing upward. Hence. Farshad et determining pay zone locations. Figure 1 shows our 2-D temperature ﬁeld model in considering actual operating conditions. Hence. we chose equidistant frictional heating occurring in the formation. and al. annulus. transfer model can be simplified to a two-dimensional Using hydrodynamics and heat transfer theory and one. the change of ﬂuid velocity complicated heat transfer such as convection. 1 Schematic of ﬂow in a production well. 2 Schematic of two-phase ﬂuid ﬂow in the wellbore. Gao et al. For zones. The coupled wellbore. (2000) developed two artiﬁcial neural network models ﬁnding leaking layers. analyzing produced ﬂuids.

(3) the well axis can be described as equation (13). (2) Initial temperature of the formation and wellbore is at wz wz wr wr wt wz the geothermal condition. we can obtain the seepage velocity for the We have made the following assumptions in our ﬂuid in the pay zone as model: ql Xl . The adiabatic boundary condition at wT o o ( U c )* ( U l clXl ) gradT div (Oc gradT ) . (10). Considering w wT w wT 1 w wT only the vertical component and ignoring the radial (O l ) (O l ) (O l T ) U l cl .T h o m s o n e ff e c t o n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e 2 S rD I 1 distribution in the wellbore and formation is neglected. The outer wt boundary of the formation is maintained at the geothermal where temperature when the value of r is sufficiently large. (5) wz wz wr wr r wr wt 4. 1982). we can express the top and bottom of the modeled borehole and formation. Fluid is not compressible. we assume that the heat transfer is solely parameters in the equation do not change with due to conduction. Neglecting the pressure effect and We further assume that no heat transfer occurs at the frictional heating from fluid flow. Because ﬂuid does not ﬂow in the interval between the Governing equations lowest pay zone and the bottom of the borehole.(6) component of the fluid velocity. as follows: vertical tube while the well is producing. The temperature ﬁeld for the adjacent formation 3. there is no heat transfer by convection. J o u l e . The thermal property of the mixture of the two. 2 2 6. The heat transfer in the interval We consider the heat transfers in the wellbore as is unsteady. (11) and (12). (8) the pay zones are treated as conduction and convection in porous media. (O l ) (O l ) (O l T ) U l cl . and the equations (1) and (2) can be simpliﬁed continuous medium conduction and convection in a into the equations (6) and (7). 1 1 boundary condition is given in equation (14). where phase ﬂuid is homogenous. i. r d rb 0. Frictional heating is negligible. Thus. (9) wz 342 . not convection (Fagley and Scott. (7) w (Ol wT w ) (Ol wT 1 w ) (Ol T )U l cl wT U l clQ z wT . temperature. 2. ( Uc) ** (1 I 2 )( U s 2 c s 2 ) I 2 ( U o co so 2 U w c w s w 2 ) . The heat transfers in T t 0 a bz . Downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells Assumptions of the model If we neglect the pressure effect in the formation while assuming the oil and water velocities are the same in the pay zone. Original temperature distribution in the formation For the adjacent formation regions above and below changes linearly with depth and the thermodynamic the pay zone. Ol z z max . Its Oc O(s11I ) (O w s w1 Oo s o1 )I . temperature ﬁeld in the pay zones as Their boundary conditions can be written as equations (9). we can express the wz wz wr wr r wr wt temperature ﬁeld model in the wellbore as w wT w wT wT (Ol ) 2 (Ol ) U l cl .e.. wT ( Uc) (1 I1 )( U s1c s1 ) I1 ( U o co s o1 U w c w s w1 ) . with oil and water velocities being the same in the pay zones. and only heat transfer by conduction is considered. Pay zones and adjacent zones are isotropic in can be written as their thermal properties and borehole radius remains w wT w wT 1 w wT unchanged with depth. Or O(s12I ) (O w s w 2 Oo s o 2 )I . the initial condition can We assume that fluids in the formation flow radially be written as through porous media. respectively. wz wz wr wr wt wz wz wr wr r wr wt wz (1) and the temperature ﬁeld model at the center axis(r=0) of Initial and boundary conditions the wellbore as w wT w wT wT wT (Ol ) 2 (Ol ) U l cl U l clQ z . fluid density is constant. (4) 1. 5.

(16). (13) wr r 0 Ol h 0. with the well wT wT * radius being 0. to investigate factors that influence the downhole °Tlc Tc r r temperature distribution. Fluid kg/m3 J/(kg · K) W/(m · K) °T1 z z T2 ¯ i z zi (17) Water 1000 4220 0. respectively. the wellbore and pay zone. ¯ b (16) wT wT Table 1 Thermal parameters for water and oil °Or wz z zi Oc wz z zi Density Speciﬁc heat Thermal conductivity ® . respectively. The parameters for the simulation °Oc wr r rb Ol wr r rb Ul clX r (Tc Tlc' ) r rb are given in Tables 1 and 2.148 deﬁnition of Nusselt number.8 Pefn . the thickness of the two pay zones are 5 m. wz Ol wT we have. We °Tlr Tr r r assume that the modeled region is consisted of a well. time Assuming the production time is 200 days. ﬁnite difference solution are given in the Appendix.rb r re 0.r d rb 0. wT Or z 0. Shi et al. (11) wz and non-dimensional deﬁnition of Nusselt number.8 100% 30% Effect of total production rate and production zones are 20% and 80%. The dynamic coupling boundary conditions at interfaces between the wellbore and adjacent formation. and the pay zone and Inﬂuence factor analysis adjacent formation can be described as equations (15). Details of the ® .8 100% 30% 2 2450 820 2. (14) d r re Here.023 Ref0. wz wT N uf 0. the heat transfer coefﬁcient Table 2 Formation parameters Density Speciﬁc heat Thermal conductivity Zone number Water saturation Porosity kg/m3 J/(kg · K) W/(m · K) 1 2650 802 2. we let n = 0.1 —— —— 5 2650 802 2.8 Pefn . T a bz . and (17).1 —— —— 3 2650 802 2.023Ref0. ¯ b (15) two pay zones. The ﬁnite difference method is used to solve the above wT set of second-order partial differential equations with the °h(Tlr Tr ) Or wr ' r rb prescribed initial and boundary conditions.622 Combining the Dittus-Boelter equation and the Oil 800 1920 0. Ol 0.we modeled We assume porosity and water saturation of both pay the downhole temperature distribution with different 343 .8 100% 30% 4 2450 820 2. and three shoulder beds.1m. wT h by convection is obtained as the following.3. We use these parameters ® . The modeled results follow. (12) N uf hd . Ol z 0 . (10) From Dittus-Boelter equation.rb r re 0. Or z z max .

the higher the porosity. temperature proﬁle. Downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells production rates as shown in Figure 3. The higher the porosity. 6 Effect of pay zone porosity on the temperature proﬁle. total oil saturation has little effect on the downhole temperature production rate is 16 m3/d. The result shows result shows that the longer the production time. and production time is varied.8. and their porosity is varied. The conclusion is consistent with shown in Figure 4. 5 Effect of pay zone oil saturation on Fig. the smaller the in Figure 6. we find that the curves the result of Ramey's equation. The modeled long production times. 900 900 920 920 940 940 Depth (m) Depth (m) 960 960 Geothermal gradient Geothermal gradient 980 16 m3/d 980 5d 25 m3/d 400 d 40 m3/d 1000 d 1000 1000 40 41 42 43 40 41 42 43 Temperature (ć ) Temperature (ć ) Fig.. the at 0. When the pay zone oil saturation is kept constant the downhole temperature. as geothermal temperature. the that the higher the total production rate. produced ﬂuid as a single phase ﬂuid. The result indicates that the variation of We now assume that production time is 400 days. This may be due to the fact that we assume the 20%. the wider the wider the separation between the downhole fluid separation between the downhole ﬂuid temperature and the temperature curve and the geothermal gradient line. we modeled the bigger the temperature profile anomaly. and the thicknesses of the two pay zones are all 5 m. For the same downhole temperature distribution with the result shown production rate. Effect of oil saturation and porosity of pay zone shown in Figure 5 for pay zone oil saturations of 10%. porosity of the pay zones is profile. However.4 Effect of production time on the on the temperature proﬁle. This indicates that porosity has an effect on seepage velocity in the pay zone. We obtain the downhole temperature distributions as 900 900 920 920 940 940 Depth (m) Depth (m) 960 960 Geothermal gradient Geothermal gradient 980 Oil saturation 10% 980 5% Oil saturation 50% 20% Oil saturation 80% 35% 1000 1000 40 41 42 43 40 41 42 43 Temperature (ć ) Temperature (ć ) Fig. leading to a smaller 344 . of 400 d and 1000 d overlap. 50%. the temperature proﬁle. which indicates that the Suppose that total production rate is kept constant at temperature in the wellbore does not change much over 16 m3/d. and 80%. 3 Effect of total production rate Fig.

Thus. the formation temperature increases. and the densities of the matrix of the affecting the fluid temperature next to the pay zone.7 Effect of bed thickness on the Fig. Other All these factors contributed to larger temperature parameters used in the simulation are given in Table 3. The possible reasons are: (1) curve from the model calculation is compared with The actual production rate was not constant. Because the anomalies for thicker pay zones are more obvious. gradient We now assume that the pay zone thickness is 5 Assume that production time is 200 days. pay zones ρ s1 and the adjacent formation ρ s2. the thermal conductivities of the matrix of the pay (3) We neglect that the Joule-Thomson effect. (2) We actual temperature log in Figure 9. Shi et al. and the porosity and investigate of the effect on downhole temperature oil saturation of both pay zones are 20% and 20%. distribution when the geothermal gradient is varied. formation c s2. we notice Our temperature field model was applied to that the simulation curve is in general quite similar to producing oil well #1 in Daqing Oil Field to calculate the actual temperature log. except the anomaly at the the downhole temperature distribution.032 ć/m proﬁle Depth (m) 940 940 Depth (m) 960 960 980 Geothermal gradient 980 5m 8m 1000 1000 40 41 42 43 40 41 42 43 44 Temperature (ć) Temperature (ć) Fig. From Figure 9. As shown in Figure 8. the ﬂuid at the pay zone exit can mix very well with ﬂuids of higher temperature Effect of bed thickness and original geothermal from lower zones. 345 . larger anomalies are as the pay zone thickness increases holding the total formed on the temperature proﬁle.1 m. leading to higher downhole fluid temperature for thicker pay zone. flow velocity at the exit of the pay zone. and the production time is 100 d. production rate constant. respectively.025 ć/m proﬁle 920 920 0.032 ć/m geothermal gradient 0.8 Effect of original geothermal temperature proﬁle. total m. it experienced a pressure heats of the matrix of the pay zone cs1 and the adjacent drop which led to a sudden temperature increase. or 925 to to ﬂuid temperature increase in the pay zone as well as 933 m and 965 to 973 m for 8 m thick pay zones. The ﬂuid can mix sufﬁciently well with the ﬂuids of higher seepage velocity of fluid in the pay zones decreases temperatures from the lower zones. while keeping other parameters the same. we find that the downhole Figure 7 shows the downhole temperature distributions temperature increases as the geothermal gradient for two cases when the two pay zones are either 5 m or increases. Table 2 lists which can cause downhole ﬂuid temperature increase. The simulation pay zone is not as big. The well radius is ignore the frictional heating between ﬂuid and matrix 0. The in the wellbore. gradient on the temperature proﬁle Real data example The equivalent thermal capacitances (ρc)* in the pay zone and (ρc)** in the adjacent formation are the same as that deﬁned in the model. modeled result shows that the downhole temperature 900 900 0. This is because when geothermal gradient 8 m thick. the specific fluid exited the pay zone. The two pay zones are located at 925 to 930 increases. and production rate is 16 m 3 /d. leading m and 965 to 970 m for 5 m thick pay zones. As the zone λ s1 and the adjacent formation λ s2.025 ć/m geothermal gradient 0. anomaly near the pay zone.

except the oil saturation whose cw ——speciﬁc heat of water.0 Adjacent formation 1 996. production cs1——specific heat of matrix in adjacent formation. W/(m · K) Conclusions λ s2——thermal conductivity of matrix in adjacent formation. J/(kg · K) effect is minor. time. porosity.5-1004. 346 . insights for designing the exploitation scheme. In the model. 1100 Nomenclature 1200 Temperature (ć) λo ——thermal conductivity of oil.0-996.9 Pay zone 1 996. we considered the ¶ ——porosity fluid flowing through porous pay zones.2-996. kg/m3 that simulation curve is. kg/m3 temperature log.2 Pay zone 2 1004.0 0.9 Comparison of the modeled temperature curve λw ——thermal conductivity of water. except for the anomaly near the pay cs1——speciﬁc heat of matrix in pay zones. W/(m · K) λs1——thermal conductivity of matrix in pay zones.8-1020. quite similar to the ρl ——ﬂuid density in wellbore.2 0 100% 30% 0. kg/m3 temperature curve with actual temperature log indicates ρw ——density of water. the change of ¶1——porosity in pay zones fluid velocity in the wellbore with multiple pay zones. J/(kg · K) useful for evaluating producing oil well and providing so1——oil saturation in pay zones.5% 11.9-1003. J/(kg · K) temperature distribution. Total production rate. kg/m3 (ADI) finite difference method was used to solve the ρs2——matrix density in adjacent formation.8 45. W/(m · K) Fig. The comparison of modeled ρo ——density of oil. The simulation results should be quite cl ——speciﬁc heat of ﬂuid in wellbore.5 0 100% 30% 0.0 0 100% 0.8 16% 84% 26. W/(m · K) with the actual temperature log for Well #1.0 Adjacent formation 3 44. Downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells Table 3 Parameters for Well #1 Interval Oil saturation Water saturation Porosity Production rate Adjacent formation or pay m so sw ¶ m3/d zone 970.0 Adjacent formation 2 1003. J/(kg · K) zones is not as large. W/(m · K) λc ——thermal conductivity of pay zones.3% 6.4 970 Actual proﬁle Simulation proﬁle Acknowledgements 980 This work was sponsored by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. kg/m3 temperature field model. ¶2——porosity in adjacent formation and heat convection. in general. λl ——thermal conductivity of ﬂuid in wellbore. The 990 authors are thankful to Daqing Oil Field Company Depth (m) Limited for providing the temperature log data and also thank anonymous reviewers for their comments to 1000 improve the original manuscript. W/(m · K) We proposed a temperature field model to calculate λr ——thermal conductivity of adjacent formation. The alternating direction implicit ρs1——matrix density in pay zones. 40830424). thickness of pay zones and geothermal J/(kg · K) gradient have varying degrees of effects on the downhole co ——speciﬁc heat of oil.9 16% 84% 31.2 44. the temperature distribution with multiple pay zones in W/(m · K) producing oil wells.

m Ramey. ć /m logs–a generalized horner method: J. T 1、T 2——formation temperature at the coupling Investigation on the applicability of oil/water two- boundary between pay zone and adjacent formation. m an. Q. 2003. 347 .D.C. 1982. B.. S. Texas.D. and Scott F. 206 – 218.. ć wellbore temperature ﬁeld in deepwater drilling: Journal Tl'r ——fluid temperature next to coupling boundary of China University of Petroleum (Natural Science between wellbore and adjacent formation... J. 1962. C.. J. F.. A. 1994.B. and Kabir.S. ć Series)(in Chinese). A. W/(m2 · K) Tulsa.K. klahoma. F. ri ——radial distance from well axis at node (i.. Shi et al. 26(1). ć phase profiles interpretation based on temperature and z ——depth. m Frédéric. Xi’ pay zone. Thermal Simulation while drilling: SPE-13208. and Kabir. 469 – 487. 58 – 62. Michel. 2004. 2000. S.. M. rb ——well radius... 709 – 718... m/s ﬁelds:Acta Petrolei Sinica (in chinese). Annual Logging Symposium. Numerical 1538.. Gao. J. and Zhu. ć of formation temperature from bottom-hole temperature b ——geothermal gradient. and Morozov.. wells using artificial neural networds: Engineeing so2——oil saturation in adjacent formation.. temperature logging data of logging interpretation of Farshad. doi: 10. 96 – 101. H. Beijing. T r ——formation temperature at the coupling Dallas. and Bennett. 1991.. Guo. 32(2).SPE-22948. m temperature from borehole thermal recovery data: Δr ——radial grid spacing in the wellbore. Q. Wang.. m Kutasov.. 427 – 435. B. 2007.. ć Jin. Production logging: theoretical and Tc ——formation temperature at the coupling interpretive Elements: Petroleum Industry Press. and Zhao. and Martyn. Cao. J. T. With Multisegment Wells: SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Fagley. Yin. Calculation and analysis of between wellbore and adjacent formation. An Improved Simulation Engineering (June ). June 19 – 22. Feng. 695 – 708. ultra-deep viscous oil wells in Tahe oilfield: Journal of Predicting temperature profiles in producing oil Jianghan Petroleum Institute (in Chinese). C. and Cheng. Song.. Apr. 390 – 395 Δz —— vertical grid spacing. D. A. m3/d Determination of thermal properties and formation D ——thickness of pay zones. USA. Heat transfer during between wellbore and pay zone. 1989. Yan.. M. B. Numerical simulation of downhole temperature distribution in polymer injection well: Progress in Geophysics (in Chinese). L. 1991. computation of temperature distribution in a wellbore Stone. Texas. s Sagar. P. m Temperature model for flow in porous media and h ——heat transfer coefficient by convection at wellbore: SPWLA. 90 – 96. boundary between wellbore and pay zone..R. Z. N. Garber. G.J.M. m Geophysics. Tlr ——fluid temperature at the coupling boundary S.. Δt ——time increment per time step. Z. and Eppelbaum. m/s simulation and optimization for the ﬂooding temperature υ→r ——seepage velocity of ﬂuid in pay zones.. L. Y.. 1995.V. Z. wellbore and formation interface.. Tl'c ——fluid temperature next to coupling boundary Hasan. 2.1835 – 1846. qo ——oil production rate.T. 2005.. 66 – 68. Application of Wells: SPEJ (Oct). 17(1). Geophys.R. 22(5). W. Paper SPE 19702.. A. for Interpreting Temperature Logs in Water Injection Zhang. Computations. between wellbore and pay zone. 1 – 9.. 2002. 35th. I. Eymard. and Guenot.. Eng. X.. re ——a sufﬁcient distance far away from wellbore. Predicting Temperature Proﬁles in a Flowing Well: 1989 SPE Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition.. Y.1088/1742-2132/2/2/002. and Juliet.. ć two-phase flow in well bores: Part I – Formation Tlc ——fluid temperature at the coupling boundary Temperature: The SPE 66th Annual Technical Conference. H. D. H.. F. 2003. Sun. R. AND Hu.Y.. 68(6). R. Heat transfer during Prf —— Prandtl number two-phase flow in well bores:Part Ċ – Well bore Fluid Nuf —— Nusselt number Temperature: The SPE 66th Annual Technical Conference. j). S. m ﬂowmeter logs: Proceedings of the Second International zi ——the boundary between adjacent formation and Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. J. 2008.. qw ——water production rate.. S.D. Y.. Y. 1533 – Corre.D. and Dotty. N. R.. L. Y. N.. sw1——water saturation in pay zones.. Duchkov.. Nie.. 735 – 754. sw2——water saturation in adjacent formation. boundary between wellbore and adjacent formation. Numerical υz——ﬂuid velocity in wellbore. ć Dallas. ć Hill.B. Determination α ——formation temperature at z = 0. and Shi. Ref —— Reynolds number Hasan. A. 1996. 17(6).G.. SPE-22866.Jr. 1984. m3/d Lee. Well bore Heat Transmission: t ——time.. F. References Song.. H.R. J. H. s Journal of Petroleum Technology.

Their difference expressions are written as 1 1 k 1 2 2 Ul cl k 12 1 1 k 1 ( )T 2 i 1.kj Ti . j i .kj 1 . Downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells Appendix The ﬁnite difference expressions An alternating direction implicit (ADI) difference described as follows. j 1 )Ti . j ( )T ( )T 2 j . (A-1) ( 'z ) 2 Ol 'z ('z ) 2 Ol 't Ol 'z ('z ) 2 1 U cX 2 2U c U c X 1 ( l l z )Ti . (A-3) ('z ) 2 Ol 'z ('z ) 2 Ol 't Ol 'z ( 'z ) 2 1 U cX 2 2U c U c X 1 ( l l z )Ti . j T k 1 2 i .kj Ti .kj11 ( 'z ) 2 Ol 'z ( 'z ) 2 Ol 't Ol 'z ('z ) 2 1 1 k 1 2 2 Ul cl k 12 1 1 k 1 ( )T 2 i 1. j ( )T T 2 i 1. j ( 'r ) 2 i 1.kj 1.kj11 ( l l l l z )Ti . j 1 U cX 2 2U c U c X 1 ( l l z )Ti .kj 1 . j Ti .kj 1 ( l l l l z )Ti . j 2 The finite difference equations for the pay zones are written as 1 U l clX l 1 1 k ri Oc 1 1 2( U c )* k 12 T 2 i 1. j 1 U l clX l 1 ri Oc k 1 1 2 2( U c )* k 1 ( )Ti 1.kj1 Ti . (A-2) ('r ) 2 Ol 't ('r ) 2 2ri 'r i . j ('r ) 2 2ri 'r ('r ) 2 Ol 't ('r ) 2 2ri 'r i. method was used to solve the set of second partial The finite difference equations for the wellbore are differential equations. 2j ('z ) ('z ) 2 Oc 't ('z ) 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) 1 Ul clXl 1 Ul clXl ri Oc 1 1 2( U c)* k 12 1 ri Oc k 1 ( )Ti .kj11 ('z ) 2 Ol 'z ('z ) 2 Ol 't Ol 'z ('z ) 2 2 Ul cl k 12 1 1 2 k 4 2 k T 2 ( )T T 2 (A-4) ('r ) 2 Ol 't ( 'r ) i 1. j 1 )Ti . 2j Tk ( 2 i . j ('r ) 2 ('r ) 2 Ol 't ('r ) 2 i.kj11 ( l l l l z )Ti .kj1 Ti . j 1 U cX 2 2U c U c X 1 ( l l z )Ti . j ( )T 'ri ( 'ri 1 'ri ) 'ri 1 'ri 1 ( 'ri 1 'ri ) 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) Oc 't i . (A-6) 'ri 1 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) Oc 't 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri 1 348 . 2j . (A-5) 'ri 1 ( 'ri 1 'ri ) 'ri 1 ( 'z ) ( 'z ) 2 Oc 't ('z ) 2 2( U c)* k 1 1 1 2 1 1 k T k 1 ( 2 i . j 1 Ti 1. j ( )T ( )T 2 i 1. j i 1.kj 1 ( l l l l z )Ti . j ( )Ti 1. ('r ) 2 2ri 'r The finite difference equations for the well axis are written as 2 k 1 4 2 Ul cl k 12 2 k 1 T 2 i 1.

We obtain the tridiagonal linear set consisting of the coefﬁcients of these equations. (A-7) ('z ) ('z ) 2 Or 't ( 'z ) 2 1 k 1 2 2( U c)** k 1 1 Ti . Shi Ying graduated from DaQing Petroleum University in In order to facilitate accurate representation of the radial 1999 with a Bachelor’s degree. The solution can be derived by the tridiagonal forward and back substitution algorithm. Δri+1 = ri+1–ri and Δri = ri – ri–1. and the radial geophysics. j 1 1 k 1 1 1 1 2( U c)** k 12 Ti 1. Chinese Academy logarithmic grid spacing in the formation.1.cn 349 . E-mail: yingshi@mail. majoring in reservoir radial gird step is 0. 2j 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri 1ri 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) Or 't 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri 1ri 1 2 2( U c)** k 1 T k 2 i .01 m in the wellbore. The finite difference equations for the adjacent formation are written as 1 k 1 1 1 1 2( U c)** k 12 1 1 k 1 Ti 1.kj 1 . j ( )Ti 1. heat transfer terms and consider the variation of heat Currently she is studying for her characteristics in the wellbore and formation. we let ee =1. we used PhD at Institute of Geology and an equidistant radial grid spacing for the wellbore and a Geophysics. (A-8) 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) ri 'ri 1 where. 2j ( )Ti . radial distance from the well axis at node (i.iggcas. j). The vertical grid spacing for the ac. j 1 ( )T T k 1 ('z ) 2 ( 'z ) 2 Or 't i . j Ti . Shi et al. 2j . j 1 ( )Ti . The size of the of Sciences. 2j ( )Ti . Here. distance ri from the well axis is ri =rbeei in the formation. j 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) ri 'ri 1 'ri 1 ('ri 1 'ri ) 'ri ('ri 1 'ri ) Or 't 1 1 1 k ( )Ti 1. and ri denotes the wellbore and formation is equidistant with a size of 1 m. j ('z ) 2 i .

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