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**Q.1 State and explain addition of forces (vectors)?
**

A. Addition of vectors

Two or more than two vectors are graphically added by “Head to tail rule”.

This rule states that “draw the first vector, connect the first vector head and the

second vector tail. Connect the second vector head and the third vector tail and

so on. At last connect the first vector tail and the last vector tail. This is the

resultant vector”R”. For example

A

B

R

B

A

R A B

Q.2 What is trigonometry?

A. Trigonometry

The branch of mathematics with the help of which we can calculate the sides

and angles of a right angle triangle

B

Hypotenuse

Perpendicular

O A

Base

In triangle OAB, m OAB = 90 0 and m AOB = , Then

3 State and explain resolution of forces (vectors)? A. Per AB Sin Hyp OB base OA Cos Hyp OB Per AB Tan base OA Trigonometric functions and their values are. For example Let a force “F” is acting along x-y plane.732 Q. 00 30 0 450 60 0 90 0 Sin 0 0.5 0 Tan 0 0.866 1 Cos 1 0.577 1 1. We know from trigonometry that Fy Sin F Fy FSin -------------. The vectors obtain are called components of the original vector.707 0.(1) Fx Cos F . if we draw a normal on x-axis and also on y-axis such as shown in the figure.5 0. Y F Fy X Fx The components of the force F are Fx and F y .866 0.707 0. Resolution of vectors The process in which one vector is decomposes to two or more than two vectors.

4 What is meant by rectangular components? A.(2) Squaring and adding equation (1) and (2) Fx Fy F 2 Cos 2 F 2 Sin 2 2 2 Fx Fy F 2 ( Sin 2 Cos 2 ) 2 2 Sin 2 Cos 2 1 Fx Fy F 2 (1) 2 2 F Fx Fy 2 2 For direction of “F” we have Fy Tan Fx Fy Tan 1 Fx Q. Fx FCos ------------. For example F Fy Fx The rectangular components of the force F are Fx FCos F y FSin . The components of a vector which are mutually perpendicular to each other are called Rectangular components.

For examples A boy holding a vase in his hand. Conditions of equilibrium are as under. the vase is at rest under the action of two forces.Q. greater will be the torque and vice-versa. (2) Moment arm of force The perpendicular distance between the force and the axis of rotation is known as moment arm of force.” Mathematically Sum of all forces = 0 F 0 Fx 0 Fy 0 Second condition of equilibrium According to this condition “If the sum of all the torques acting on a body is zero.” Mathematically Sum of all torques = 0 0 Clockwise torques = anti-clockwise torque. It is the product of force and moment arm of the force. It is denoted by “ ”. greater will be the torque and vice-versa. Q. The weight of the vase acting downward and normal reaction of the hand acting upward. Clockwise torque is considered negative and anti-clockwise torque is positive. Torque depends on the following factors.6 Define equilibrium of a body. Equilibrium The state of rest or uniform motion of an object is called its state of equilibrium. A. . Moment of force The turning effect produced by the force is called moment of force (Torque). then the body is in equilibrium state. First condition of equilibrium According to this condition “If the sum of all the forces acting on a body is zero.5 Define moment of a force (Torque). Mathematically Torque = Force moment arm of force F r FrSin The SI unit of torque is Newton-meter (N-m). State the two conditions of equilibrium. On what factors does it depends? A. Greater the moment arm of force. (1) Force Greater the applied force. then the body is in equilibrium state.

But if this cone is kept on its end. The stability of a body in equilibrium depends upon the position of the center of mass of the body. it will disturb the position of center of mass. When an external force is applied on the body. Center of mass That specific point of a body about which mass is equally distributed in all directions. Parallel forces Those forces whose point of action is different but the line of action are same are called parallel forces. A B c. Like parallel forces Those parallel forces which are act in same direction are called like parallel forces. Consider a circular cone which when lying from its base on the horizontal surface. 1. Q. 2. The cone will remain its stability forever (stable equilibrium). A. it will roll on the surface without changing the center of mass (neutral equilibrium). unlike parallel forces Those parallel forces which are act in opposite direction are called unlike parallel forces. For example Q P 3.7 Explain the stability of an object with reference to position of center of mass. For example Q P 4. it is in equilibrium.8 Define the terms. it falls and can not keep its equilibrium position due to change of the center of mass (unstable equilibrium).m C .Q. If the cone is kept on the side way.

S. Q P 6.NO Object Centre of gravity 1 Sphere Centre of the sphere 2 Uniform rod Centre of the rod 3 Rectangular plate Intersection of diagonals 4 Triangular plate Intersection of medians . opposite in direction but does not cancel each other are called couple. Center of gravity It may be define as “that fixed point of a body at which the whole weight of the body appears to act is known as center of gravity.5.” Table of center of gravity of regular shape objects. Couple Those two forces which are equal in magnitude.

in which case (A. Conceptual questions 1. B or C) the x and y components of the force equal to one another? A. Why does a helicopter has a second rotor on its tail? A. . in order to provide an anti toque to the helicopter. It is clear that the value of Sin45 and Cos45 are equal to 0. In figure (a) the force on the suitcase when resolved it will have only vertical component. The torque depends upon the force and moment arm of the force. A. the center of mass is uniformly distributed due to which center of gravity in this position can not be changed easily and hence she is in stable position. The door rotates about the hinges. then the moment arm of force become zero. 3. The center of gravity of foot is half way along the foot from head to toe. The main rotor of the helicopter provide a torque. The glass in figure (c) is the most stable due to plane surface area of stability. A girl is seated safely and steadily in a canoe but when she tries to stand up. 2. A. Why it is better to use a long spanner rather than short one to tighten a nut on the bolt? A.707. it is almost in contact. 6. When girl is seated in canoe. Therefore in B the x and y components of the force are equal. But when she tries to stand up. 5. Therefore it is better to use the long spanner than short one. the canoe capsizes. The torque also becomes zero and the door will not open. because it is acting along y-axis. 4. the center of gravity of her body changes and then she loss her stability and fall. Why is it more difficult to lean backward. When we keep the foot on ground. In the long spanner the moment arm for the rotation of the nut on bolt increases which decreases the required force to tighten the nut on the bolt. Which of the glasses is the most stable? Explain your answer. due to torque. Explain why door handles are not put near hanger? A. 8. the second small rotor is mounted at the tail of the helicopter. If we lean backward it is not possible to exert a backward force on the foot and hence we will loss our balance and will fall. If the door handles are put near the hanger. there is no horizontal force on the suitcase and why? A. 7. Explain this in terms of center of mass and stability. explain? A. In which of the following case or cases.

A B C Similarly draw two plumb lines from point B and C. The gravitational force acting on the satellite is always directed towards the center of the earth. Take a card board of irregular shape. Does this force exert torque on satellite? A. Drill a few holes A. . so this is a central force. A B C Now suspended the card board from point A with the help of a nail on the wall and draw a plumb line from the suspended nail. How you would determine the center of gravity of irregular shape body? A. For the central force the moment arm is zero and hence torque is zero. A B C 10. The center of gravity of irregular object can be determined experimentally. B and C near the edges of the card board. The gravitational force acting on the satellite is always directed towards the center of the earth. This point is called center of gravity of the object. The three lines meet at the same point.9.

A force of 100N is applied perpendicularly at a distance of 0. Given data Weight of 1st kid = W 1= 300N Weight of 2nd kid = W 2= 350N Weight of 3rd kid = W 3= 250N Length of see-saw = AB = 6m AC = CB = 3m CD =? . calculate moment of the force? Given data F 10. Two kids of weighing 300N and 350N are sitting at the ends of 6m long sea-saw.000N r 15m ? We know that rF 15 10.50m to turn a nut of the wheel of a bus.000 150000Nm 3. A mobile crane lifting some material of the building of 10000N. Where would a third kid sit so that the see-saw is in equilibrium in the horizontal position? The weight of the third kid is 250N (ignore the weight of see-saw). Find the torque acting on the nut? Given data F 100N r 0 50m ? We know that rF 0 50 100 50Nm 2. The see-saw is pivoted at its center. Numerical questions 1. This weight produces turning effect on the arm of the crane which is 15m.

How much weight is placed at 80cm to the left of the pivot so that it balance a mass of 3 2 Kg placed at 100cm to the right of the pivot? 100cm 1m 1 2m 80cm W1 W2 . A D ? C B W1 W3 W2 We know that Clockwise torques = anti clockwise torques W1 AC W3 CD W2 CB 300 3 250 CD 350 3 900 250CD 1050 250CD 1050 900 250CD 150 150 CD 250 CD 0 6m 4. A student carries out an experiment to balance a regular 4m long plank at its mid point.

Given data m1 3 2 Kg W1 m1 g 3 2 10 32N r1 1m r2 1 2m W2 ? We know that Clockwise toques = Anti-clockwise torques W1 r1 W2 r2 W1 r1 W2 r2 32 1 W2 1 2 W2 26 6 N .

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