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**Q.1 What is meant by gravitational force?
**

A. The force with which earth attract every other object towards itself is called

gravitational force. It is denoted by “ Fg ”.

**Q.2 State and explain Newton’s law of universal gravitation?
**

A. Statement

This law states that “Every object in the universe attracts every other object

with a force. This force of attraction is directly proportional to the product of

their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between

their centers.”

Explaination

Consider two spherical objects of masses “m1” and “m2” are placed at a

distance of “r” from each other.

r

m1 m2

Mathematical expression

Fg m1 m2 (1)

1

Fg (2)

r2

Combining equation (1) and (2) we get

67 10 11 Nm2/Kg2.3 Using the law of universal gravitation determined mass of the earth. The mass of the earth and radius of the earth are “Me” and “Re” respectively. M em Fg G 2 Re We know that Fg = W = mg So . we can write that. A. m1m2 Fg r2 m1m2 Fg (Constt) r2 m1m2 Fg G r2 Where “G” is constant of proportionality and it is called universal gravitation constant. its value is 6. Consider a body of mass “m” is placed at the surface of the earth. Q. m Re Me By law of universal gravitation.

M em Fg G ( Re h) 2 We know that Fg = W = mg M em mg G ( Re h ) 2 Me g (h) G ( Re h) 2 .4 How is the value of “g” changing by going to higher altitude? Write the relevant formula. mM e mg G 2 Re Me g G 2 Re 2 R g Me e G (6 4 106 ) 2 9 8 Me 6 67 1011 40 96 1012 9 8 Me 1011 6 67 401 408 101211 Me 6 67 Me 60 18 1023 M e 6 0 10231 M e 6 1024 Kg Q. If mass of the earth is “Me” and radius of the earth is “Re”. So the distance between mass “m” and center of the earth is (Re +h). Suppose an object of mass “m” is placed at a height “h” from the surface of the earth. Then by law of universal gravitation. A. The value of “g” is decreasing by going to higher altitude.

At the surface of the earth the value of “g” is: Me g G ( Re ) 2 It is clear from the above equation that the value of “g” decreasing by going to higher altitude.(B) r2 Comparing equation (A) and (B) mV 2 M em G r r2 Me V2 G r Me V G r If satellite is at a distance r = (Re + h). The value of “g” at sea level is greater than that of the hilly areas.(A) r As the gravitation force provide the necessary centripetal force.4 106 22 106 V 3753m / s . Scientists send artificial satellites which carries instruments or passengers in space revolving around the earth. During the circular motion satellite get the required centripetal force from the earth gravitation force.67 10 6. The value of “g” at the equator is greater than the poles.5 What is satellite? How they are moving around the planets. Satellites These are the objects revolving around the planets in stable orbits. A. mv 2 Fc --------. then M em Fg G -------. Q. Then the required centripetal force can be determined as. Moon is a natural satellite of the earth. Where h = 22 106 m 11 6 1024 V 6. Consider a satellite of mass “m” is revolving around the earth in an orbit of radius “r” with uniform speed “v”.

At a distance equal to the radius of the earth the value of “g” decrease by one fourth so the weight of the body also decrease by one fourth. To whirl the hammer with longer chain greater torque is required. Therefore it is not easy to whirl a hammer by a longer chain. Due to which the velocity of water is along the tangent to circular path and does not fall. 6. 7. The value of gravitational constant “G” is same everywhere. This gravitational force provides the necessary centripetal force to the moon due to which it revolves around the earth and does not fall on earth. 4. There exist a gravitational force between the earth and the moon. why it does not fall on earth? A. m1 m2 F G r2 Let for the distance r / = 3r the gravitation force be F / m1 m 2 F/ G (r / ) 2 . A gravitational force exists between the earth and the stone. The gravitational force between the two objects is given as. Therefore the stone is attracted by the earth and falls to the earth. 3. The mass of the earth is greater than the mass of the stone. what is the decrease in the gravitational force? A. We know that w = mg. Why it is not easy to whirl a hammer by a longer chain? A. Moon is attracted by the earth. 2. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. as the value of g decreases by going to higher altitude. it falls towards the earth? A. Explain why. Why is water does not fall out of a bucket when it is whirled in a vertical circle? A. The athlete could not provide the required torque. if a stone held in our hand is released. When the bucket of water is whirled in vertical circle.67 1011 Nm / Kg 2 . If the distance between two objects is tripled. 5. therefore the value of “G” on the moon will be 6. What is the value of gravitation constant “G” on the moon? A. What will be the weight of a body if it is raised above the earth equal to its radius? A. a centripetal force is providing to water.

8. The gravitational force between the earth and satellite provide the necessary centripetal force which produce the centripetal acceleration in orbit. Force of gravitation The force of attraction which exists between any two objects is called the force of gravitation. m1 m 2 F/ G (3r ) 2 m1 m2 F/ G 9r 2 1 mm F / (G 1 2 2 ) 9 r 1 F/ F 9 It shows that the gravitational force will decrease by one nine. . 9. 10. The gravitational force between the earth and mass “m” is M em F G R 2e M e ( 2m) F/ G 2 Re M em F / 2G 2 Re F / 2F If mass of the body is double the gravitational force will be doubled. Force of gravity The force with which earth attract a body towards its centre is called the force of gravity. What provide the force that produce centripetal acceleration in orbit? A. What is the difference between force of gravity and force of gravitation? A. A. If a mass in earth gravitational field is doubled what will happen to the force exerted by the field upon mass.

a) Mass of satellite b) distance of satellite c) mass of earth A.11. A satellite is moving around the earth. On which of the following does the speed depends. The speed of satellite in the orbit is given by GM e V Re h The speed of satellite depends on the a) Mass of satellite b) distance of satellite .

What will be the acceleration produce in the stone? Given data m 1Kg g 9.8N a g 9. Calculate the force of gravitation due to the earth on a child weighing 10Kg standing on the ground. Calculate the gravitation force of attraction between a stone weighing 1Kg and earth.8m / s 2 We know that Fg W mg F 1 9. Given data m 10Kg g 10m / s 2 We know that Fg W mg Fg 1010 Fg 100N 2.8 F 9.8m / s 2 . NUMERICAL QUESTIONS 1.

4 106 m G 6.67 1011 106 Fg 6.67 1011 Nm / Kg 2 Fg ? m1 M e Fg G ( Re ) 2 .67 1011 Nm / Kg 2 Fg ? m1 m2 Fg G r2 1000 1000 Fg 6.3.67 105 N 4. If the body is raised to a distance equal to the radius of the earth how will the weight of the body change? Given data m1 25Kg M e 61024 Kg Re 6. Find the gravitational force of attraction between lead spheres each of mass 1000Kg place with their centers 1m apart? Given data m1 1000Kg m2 1000Kg r 1m G 6.67 1011 (1) 2 Fg 6. A body of mass 25Kg is placed on the surface of the earth calculate the gravitational force.

43 10 Fg 244. Find the gravitational force between them? Given data m1 10Kg m2 100Kg r 90cm 0. Two spherical objects of masses 10Kg and 100Kg are 90cm apart.9) 2 .4 106 ) 2 1000.3N We know that W Fg 244.3N At a distance equal to the radius of earth the weight become one fourth so.67 1011 (6.96 1012 Fg 24. 25 6 1024 Fg 6.67 1011 (0. 1 W (244.75N 5.67 1011 Nm / Kg 2 Fg ? m1 m2 Fg G r2 10 100 Fg 6.3) 4 W 61.9m G 6.5 10 11 10 24 Fg 40.43 10241112 Fg 24.

81 Fg 8234. find the radius of earth? Given data M e 61024 Kg We know that W Fg mM e mg G ( Re ) 2 Me ( Re ) 2 G g Me Re G g 6 1024 Re 6.23 108 N 6.67 1011 9.08 1013 Re 40. 6670 Fg 10 11 0. The mass of earth is 6 1024 Kg .8 Re 4.39 106 m . Using the law of universal gravitational.8 1012 Re 6.57 1011 Fg 8.

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