A Quarterly Publication of the Defense Systems Information Analysis Center

Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016


of a Half Century of U.S. Missile

of Additive Manufactured Parts in the
Aerospace Industry

Distribution Statement A:  Approved for
public release; distribution is unlimited.

2 / www.dsiac.org


A Historical Overview of a Half Century of U.S. Missile Development
4 WS Weapon Systems

VOLUME 3 | NUMBER 3 | 2016 Nondestructive Inspection of Additive Manufactured Parts in the Aerospace
13 Industry
Editor-in-Chief: Eric Fiore
AM Advanced Materials
Production Editor: Eric Edwards
Art Director: Melissa Gestido

On the Cover: 23 Advanced Composite Solutions for Dynamic Structural Applications
First CH-53K test aircraft achieves RQ Reliability, Maintainability, Quality, Supportability, & Interoperability
120 knots in West Palm Beach, FL
Sikorsky Photo

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35 Advances in Self-Sealing Fuel Tank Technology
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Austin, and The Johns Hopkins University.
SV Survivability and Vulnerability

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DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 3


ystems to as 3-D printing, has received a lot that is periodically advanced with block
S engineers of attention recently and is showing upgrades, new hypersonic technology is
earn their keep by promise as a tool that can be used to looking to once again disrupt the status
translating economically create one-of-a-kind or quo and transform warfare.
performance limited availability parts. The technology
Finally, Bruce Simon provides a review
requirements of has advanced to the point that it is no
of the 17th Annual National Defense
tactical systems longer limited to plastic parts. Ceramic
ERIC FIORE Industrial Association (NDIA) Science &
into affordable and metal parts are now being 3-D
Engineering Technology Conference that
and optimal design printed using a variety of different
was held in Tampa, FL, this past April.
solutions, solutions that often must techniques. But just how good are
During the conference, Government
meet particularly challenging operational these parts? In our article on the
leaders shared their visions for
requirements. The risk of inserting new nondestructive inspection of additive-
maintaining technological superiority
technology into a system is often traded manufactured parts, Michael Mazurek
during this period of financial austerity.
against cost until a substantial and Russell Austin discuss techniques
The call for action has been sounded,
improvement to operation capability that for inspecting such parts to answer that
and the need for industrial defense
outweighs the associated risks is question.
innovation has never been greater.
Ensuring our high-performance tactical And, as always, DSIAC stands ready to
In our feature article this quarter, Rick systems remain operational is no easy support your research and development
Luzetsky discusses one such scenario task, especially when these systems are analysis needs.
with the selection and application of involved in a fight. In our article on self-
advanced composite material technology sealing fuel tank technology, Kyle Bates
(based on fiber-reinforced thermoplastic discusses an interesting technology that
materials) that not only improves does just that. Self-sealing technology DSIAC ANNOUNCES
helicopter system performance but has been around for many years. In DEFENSE SYSTEMS
also significantly improves the aircraft’s fact, you may have experienced similar NEWS DIGEST
survivability. Mr. Luzetsky discusses technology first-hand if you have ever
how a U.S. Naval Air Systems Command discovered a nail in your tire. However,
Small Business Innovation Research the concept of self-sealing technology in DSIAC is pleased to announce the
program was leveraged to provide a fuel tanks has evolved considerably over biweekly release of the Defense
lighter weight, more durable, and highly the last five decades. Mr. Bates details Systems News Digest. The digest
reliable composite drop-in replacement the latest evolution of a newly developed is intended to provide readers with
helicopter drive shaft design solution. technology that is ensuring our tactical a compilation of the latest defense
The developmental risk reduction systems remain as survivable as systems-related information and
measures employed as part of the possible. technological developments in the nine
verification and validation process for DSIAC scope areas. As a recipient of
And you don’t have to be a rocket DSIAC Journal notifications, you will be
this effort are a textbook example of the
scientist to appreciate Eugene automatically subscribed to receive the
correct way to insert new technology into
Fleeman’s and Ralph Teague’s nostalgic digest. We hope that you enjoy this
a fielded system.
review of the evolution of missile information service, and please contact
Such new technology is not only helping technology. There is no clearer example us at www.dsiac.org with any questions
to improve systems performance of how technology has changed warfare. or comments you have about this or
and operational capability; it is also Missiles today can now fly further and any other DSIAC product. We look
helping to improve the operational faster and strike with greater precision forward to hearing from you.
availability of tactical systems. Additive than was ever imagined a few decades
manufacturing, more commonly referred ago. While the U.S. currently maintains
an advantage with tactical performance

4 / www.dsiac.org

1960 1970 1980

• 1956: Sidewinder Proportional
Guidance – Lethality (AT)
• 1960:
Polaris Al Fuel – SLBM • 1972: SRAM Low Observables
– Survivability (ST)

• 1957: SA-2 Two-Stage Hybrid
Rocket Motor – High-Altitude
• 1966: Talos Radar Seeker –
BVR Intercept (AT)
• 1979: Tomahawk Light Turbine
– Long-Range Strike (ST)
Intercept (AT)
• 1969: GBU-10 Laser
• 1957:
R-7 High Thrust – ICBM Guided – Precision Strike (ST)
AT = Air Target ST = Surface Target

provides a brief overview of missile
By Eugene Fleeman and Figure 1 (above). Transformed Capabilities
development over the past half century via Transforming Missile Technologies. AT: Air
James Ralph Teague Targets/ST: Surface Targets
and examines some notable examples of
how technology has driven the evolution
INTRODUCTION of these systems and how advances in In 1956, the proportional guidance
new materials and technologies might accuracy of the AIM-9 Sidewinder led to
ver the last 60 years or so, higher lethality and a higher exchange
O ongoing developments in missile
shape the systems of tomorrow.
ratio in air-to-air combat. A real-world
technology have provided the
A HISTORY OF demonstration of these improvements
Department of Defense (DoD) with a
TRANSFORMING was provided on the Sidewinder’s first
transformation in operational capability.
MISSILES combat application in September 1958,
With ever-improving range and accuracy,
TRANSFORMING when Republic of China F-86 aircraft
these missiles have largely replaced
WARFARE destroyed four People’s Republic of
unguided weapons in numerous military China MIG-17 gun-only aircraft, with no
applications—air-to-air (ATA) missiles losses.
As illustrated in Figure 1, missile
have largely replaced aircraft guns, air-
technology has experienced steady and
to-surface (ATS) missiles have largely In 1957, the development of the Russian
dramatic development since the 1950s,
replaced dumb bombs, surface-to-air R-7 high-thrust rocket motor provided
which has in turn helped to transform
(STA) missiles have largely replaced anti- the capability for the world’s first
the ways in which combat is fought. The
aircraft artillery, and surface-to-surface intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM),
following examples touch on some of the
(STS) missiles have largely replaced a capability that brought within reach
most noteworthy missile advancements.
artillery. This article, much of which is virtually any target (or any threat) around
based on previous author texts [1–3], the world.

the missile cruiser USS Long Beach successfully closing the bridge with no . Talos missiles were launched from direct hits on the supporting piers. Missile technology has propellant allowed the development of a when the United States attacked the safe high-performance rocket motor for Thanh Hoa Bridge in Vietnam. where capability was demonstrated during the In addition. In 1968. proven semi-active laser. developments in loss of 11 aircraft) but had failed to has in turn helped to radar seekers led to the first combat close it. high-altitude U-2 reconnaissance aircraft providing higher aircraft survivability. being flown by pilot Gary Powers. Light-Weight Strike (ST) • 1987: Archer TVC – Off Boresight Lethality (AT) • 1989: Hellfire Digital Processor – • 2002: SM-3 Accuracy – High-Alt Missile Defense (AT) Multi-Purpose & High Reliability (ST) In 1960. More recent examples two-stage high-performance rocket Vietnam MIG aircraft at a range of more of the growing use of precision strike motor provided the capability for high than 50 nautical miles. where that year. Kosovo (1998–1999). the application of solid aluminized guided weapons occurred in May 1972. Over experienced steady and the Polaris submarine-launched ballistic the previous 6 years. 9% of the strike weapons were guided famous international incident in May of precision guidance accuracy of the weapons. Also in One example of the value of precision- 1960. the first operational demonstration of a beyond visual range application of laser-guided bombs transform the ways in (BVR) surface-to-air missile. (dropped in four sorties) resulted in which combat is fought. The Operation Desert Storm (1991). a staggering 871 dramatic development missile (SLBM). WS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 5 1990 2000 >2010 • 1982: Sunburn Ramjet – Time-Critical Strike (ST) • 2000: JDAM GPS/INS – Low-Cost X Weather Strike (ST) • >Standoff 2010: Meteor Ducted Rocket – (AT) • 1985: Stinger Two-Color Seeker – Target Acquisition in Clutter (AT) • 2001: PAC-3 Accuracy – Ballistic Missile Defense (AT) • 2012: APKWS Guidance Kit – Low-Cost. weapons are their applications in stratospheric altitude intercept. the SA-2 Guideline (V-77) and successfully shot down two North loss of aircraft. when the Soviet Union used Guided Bomb Unit-10 (GBU-10) reduced 35% of the strike weapons were guided an SA-2 to shoot down an American the number of required aircraft sorties. which In the late 1960s. However. aircraft sorties had dropped unguided bombs on the bridge (resulting in the since the 1950s.

ATS. dropped in combat. and Operation Enduring well as made the U. SRAM provided the destroy Iraqi low-frequency early warning Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). which has B-52 and B-1 bombers with enhanced radar sites. destroying more than 90% of of a beyond visual range their targets. requiring a new competitive led to better target acquisition in clutter been produced. time-critical attack of ship targets. And as of is not easily achievable through a block color infrared/ultraviolet (IR/UV) seeker 2013. including block upgrades. higher speed. where 69% of the aerodynamic control missile obsolete. the advent of meteor-ducted observables Short Range Attack Missile flexibility and a multi-mission missile rocket air-breathing propulsion (SRAM) provided a higher capability for with higher reliability. and safety . U. However. to large off-boresight. showed the accuracy and range of and relatively small size cruise missile. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) and STA follow-on missile programs.S tactical missiles. As shown in Figure 2.S. TACTICAL MISSILE 297 Tomahawks were fired at long-range combat demonstration FOLLOW-ON PROGRAMS standoff. and long-range standoff.org weapons. and propulsion flight. with more than 20. STS. Apache capability with more than twice the targets killed per bomber.000 JDAMs have upgrade. low-cost Advanced Precision In 1979.S. Examples are shown in Figure 2 of the Stingers shot down more than 200 fixed. led to high lethality for terminal ballistic The driving requirements are the In 1987. with Block upgrades often incorporate enhanced missile survivability from high. The proven global positioning system/ the emerging new technologies in speed flight. demonstrated the capability to destroy a strike weapons were guided weapons. it usually has a 22 Sunburn led to the capability of long lifetime. reduced time for missiles during Iraqi Freedom in 2003. In 2001. in 2008. satellite. more than 250. as a capability for long-range/high-altitude improved response. Finally. the exo-atmospheric accuracy longer range of the AGM-88 High Speed provided a high lethality and exchange of the Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) led to Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM). strike weapon in 2000. kinetic hit-to-kill accuracy of the driving requirements for ATA. The initial operational capability (IOC) in adverse weather fire-and-forget precision eventually a capability is needed that 1985 of the ground-to-air Stinger’s two. demonstration of Hellfire’s Also in 1972. clearing the way for F-117 conventional rocket propulsion. the ratio in short-range air-to-air combat. AIM-9L Sidewinder missile defense in 2002. the frequency of (BVR) surface-to-air a follow-on program is every 24 years or The introduction and development of missile. logistics.WS 6 / www. Once a Ramjet propulsion in 1982 of SS-N. the Hellfire missile at a fraction of the making the Tomahawk a weapon of developments in radar Hellfire’s weight and cost. and enhanced helicopters used Hellfire missiles to range of the Advanced Medium Range bomber survivability. lighter weight. This capability Likewise. and better countermeasure resistance. with limited debris. seekers led to the first during Operation Desert Storm (1991). and longer range of the firing. guidance of the Joint Direct Attack and are also often necessary for new Munition (JDAM) led to a low-cost launch platform integration. In 1989. missile is in production. defended targets. the higher speed and maneuvering aircraft. high stratospheric altitude inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) electronics. and the SM-3 Freedom (2002). the development of low digital processor led to flight trajectory In 2010. survivability for standoff attack against aircraft. In fact. Introduced in Afghanistan in 1986.000 follow-on missile development. so for most U. and enhanced capability against AIM-120 AMRAAM. control (TVC) of the AA-11 Archer led to successfully destroy threat ballistic the autonomous seeker. the proven thrust vector missile defense. choice for long-range strikes. a greater number of salvo of Operation Desert Storm. In the opening demonstrated a standoff air-to-air missile survivability. and PAC-3’s were used improved maneuverability of AIM-9X. the Tomahawk’s lightweight Kill Weapon System (APKWS) in 2012 turbine led to a long-range standoff In the late 1960s.dsiac. wing aircraft and helicopters. sensors. the development of the lightweight.

1949 – Raytheon AIM-9X (maneuverability). but none of these systems has a U. one new U. 1977 and 1986 – Vought Long Range STA. is manufactured by BAE and Examples of possible hypersonic missile incumbent contractor of the current comprises a guidance package added opportunities include a ducted rocket missile. This missile. of the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff and manufacturing development A hypersonic air-breathing missile Missile (JASSM). AGM-86. 1989 – TI Long Range STS. safety). Tactical Missile Follow-On Programs.S. weight). 1992 – Lockheed Martin Man-Portable STS. WS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 7 Short Range ATA. of the solid propellant M26 Army Tactical Unguided-to-guided missile conversion Other companies.S. air AIM120 AMRAAM. 1963 – Vought M26 and MGM 140 (response. 1999 – LM 1950 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 >2000 YEAR ENTERING EMD Figure 2. have invested heavily (MLRS) tactical ballistic missiles. lethality. 1981 – Hughes AGM-88 (speed. the and may also provide longer range. lethality. Javelin (gunner 1970 – McDonnell Douglas survivability. 1951 – Raytheon AIM-120 (autonomous.S. kits have offered great promise for Martin (Dager). missile program has a U. It is interesting to (EMD) acquisition milestone between would provide faster time-to-target note that in almost no case does a U. only international customers have and lighter weight of Javelin.S. a ducted rocket . improved accuracy (hit-to-kill) of the PAC.S. the engagement by as much as 75% for in developing comparable technology. range. 1983 – Rockwell JASSM (cost. 1972 – General Dynamics HYPERSONIC? Long Range ATS. such as Lockheed Missile System (ATACMS) and the MGM. 2000 and 2016. and 140 Multiple Launch Rocket System reducing the cost per precision strike Raytheon (Talon). 1983 – TI Anti-Radar ATS. and the ordered the systems so far and only Opportunities exist for a new start for combined robustness of lower cost. 3. M-47. range). U. AIM-7. a certain class of targets. However. weight). and reduced observables been able to surpass the engineering program in the post-2016 time frame. 1973 – Boeing Medium Range ATS. MIM-104. launch-and-leave). AGM-130. HYPERSONIC? range. observables. observabiles). AIM-9. 1966 – Raytheon PAC-3 (accuracy). missile follow-on program go to the APKWS II. speed. hypersonic air-breathing missile longer range. MGM-52. 1996 – Hughes Medium Range ATA. BGM-109. logistics. AGM-45. 1961 – TI HYPERSONIC? Medium Range STS. the higher gunner survivability (lower because of industry circumstances. to a converted 70-mm unguided rocket missile follow-on program for the air-to- that has been in use since the 1960s. Orbital ATK (GATR). program of record.

org missile follow-on program for the air-to. Missiles with aft inlets are faster launch response time and higher cruise missiles (BGM-109. the relatively small-size/high- STRATEGIC MISSILES firepower.S.dsiac. the Titan ICBMs were replaced by the solid time-to-target and potentially improved Russian SS-N-19 and SS-N-26. HARM. SLBM was replaced by Poseidon.S. the United Kingdom Meteor. PROGRAMS the Regulus missile. Minuteman also has Navire Supersonique (ANS) and Air Sol better guidance accuracy. missiles (BGM-109 Tomahawk. and had higher firepower. CALCM. In addition. . and In the area of naval strategic cruise JASSM). The liquid propellant Atlas and missile. which follow-on program for the current cruise United States has no high-speed air. which has survivability over the current subsonic BRAHMOS. Possible Current missiles use either a nose inlet follow-on programs during the Cold examples include a liquid fuel ramjet or aft inlets. using multiple surface defense suppression AGM-88 SA-6. the time Moyenne Portee (ASMP). 17/Kh-31. which would provide faster are the United Kingdom Sea Dart. SS-N-22/3M80.WS 8 / www. high-readiness. and independent reentry vehicles (MIRVs). COLD WAR U. missiles. Russian AS. there Except for the SS-N-19 Mach 2. the United States for a U. Examples of High-Speed Air-Breathing Missiles. AND FOLLOW-ON accuracy BGM-109 Tomahawk replaced breathing missiles are shown in Figure 3. has longer range and better accuracy. which interval to a follow-on program is likely United Kingdom Sea Dart GWS-30 Meteor France ASMP ANS AS-17/Kh-31 Kh-41 SS-N-22/3M80 Russia SA-6 SS-N-19 SS-N-26 China C-101 C-301 Taiwan Hsiung Feng III India BrahMos Figure 3. and a liquid fuel ramjet missile the Taiwan Hsiung Feng III. the Poseidon was replaced by Trident. Missiles with a nose inlet War. AGM-86 breathing missiles. Chinese C-101 and C-301.5 may be opportunities for a new start turbojet. French Anti survivability. the missiles use either ducted As shown in Figure 4. Kh-41. RGM/UGM 84 Harpoon. Notably. strategic cruise missile in rocket or liquid fuel ramjet propulsion. did have numerous strategic missile the post-2016 time frame. The Polaris For a strategic missile. and India propellant Minuteman. and high- Current supersonic/hypersonic air. AGM-86).

S. These technologies are defense funding (as a fraction of total programs. AGM-86. been since just before World War II. 1973 – Boeing AGM-129 (Survivability/RCS). . 1956 – Lockheed Trident (Range. Atlas. Accuracy). enabling technologies that PROGRAMS are now. A partial does a U. resulting challenge for DoD development ICBM. Another challenge is the relatively low This low emphasis on spending and number of current U. and multi-lens seeker domes have development poses a significant missile contractor consolidations. there are numerous MISSILE DEVELOPMENT high-payoff. summarized in Figure 7 and detailed in U. programs. 1968 – Lockheed BGM-109 (Firepower. Regulus. Going forward. Cold War U. was terminated. Polaris. including missile development development. WS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 9 to be longer than that of a tactical falling from 12 contractors in 1985 to 3 missile (and is often influenced by contractors in 1997. yet had follow-on programs. and will likely continue to be. missile follow-on to AGM-86 ALCM. of the current missile. 1958 – Boeing Titan. Readiness. Strategic Missiles and Follow-On Programs. Seeker Dome .S. current U. Minuteman III (EMD year 1966) and less creativity. federal funding) is the lowest it has the paragraphs that follow. ENABLING 129 reduced radar cross section (RCS) follow-on program go to TECHNOLOGIES FOR missile. 1955 – Convair Minuteman (Response Time. reduced dome error slope. Accuracy). 1955 – Martin Poseidon (Firepower MIRV).S. Survivability. and more vertical Trident (EMD year 1968) have not that in almost no case integration (fewer suppliers). For example. 1972 – General Dynamics 1947 – Vought ATS.S. HYPERSONIC? STS Cruise. 1965 – Lockheed SLBM. the AGM. 1983 – General Dynamics 1945 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 >2000 YEAR ENTERING EMD Figure 4. the incumbent contractor MISSILES CHALLENGES TO U. Accuracy). critical to ongoing missile system As shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the U. missile system -.S.S.Faceted/window contractors.S. Implications of the political considerations). It is interesting to note consolidations include less competition.

and (SAR) seekers have good effectiveness fixed targets. Aerodynamic surface planform shaping can reduce the shift of static margin aerodynamic center with Mach number and minimize flight control Figure 6. Seeker . hinge moment.g. a single central processor.Lifting body airframes provide enhanced maneuverability and efficiency. hypersonic missiles. pultrusion.dsiac. Using in-flight digital prediction of the trajectory flight and derived flight conditions (e. High gimbal effectiveness for internal carriage. vacuum- recognition (ATR) in countermeasures INS permits precision guidance of a assisted resin transfer molding and clutter. spectral.Integrated GPS/ additive manufacturing. Hit-to-kill guidance accuracy is also being improved. guidance provides a balance of missile composite and titanium materials will . Strap. and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) provide lower cost. & will be made of castings. capability.Multi-spectral/multi. Airframe . Multi-mode. angle of attack. High-temperature weather and ground clutter. Split canard control and free-to-roll tails also enhance maneuverability. Enhancements are also provided by configurations that maintain near-neutral static margin over the flight envelope. and multi-lens domes are seekers enhance off-boresight Inlets with low-drag and low-pressure also being developed. -.. multi. Increased usage mode imaging seekers enhance -. The Relatively Low Emphasis on Funding U. Defense Programs.Processing capability is ceasing to be a limitation for the application of processors to sensor Figure 5. and low drag at (IIR) seekers provide reduced parts surfaces provide higher volumetric supersonic speed. angle of sideslip) from the GPS/INS. Navigation. Missile Contractor Consolidations (1985–1997). resolution and response time. count and lower cost. Phased array enhances oscillation are in development for -. in improved guidance accuracy. Advancements in ATR technology will provide new capabilities of near real- time ATR and lower false-alarm rates. extrusion. Lattice fins have advantages of smaller hinge moment and higher control effectiveness. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronics. 3-D printed/ performance for automatic target Control (GN&C) .WS 10 / www. Synthetic aperture radar low-cost seekerless missile against (VARTM).S. data fusion and near real-time trajectory optimization to missiles. Major U. -. missiles will continuously optimize the flight trajectory to maximize performance parameters.org effectiveness and launch platform survivability.S. Multi-mode (command/ filament winding to reduce parts against surface targets in adverse inertial/autonomous terminal homing) count and cost. Guidance. Electronics . down and uncooled imaging infrared Compressed carriage aerodynamic low observables.

blast. • Titanium Alloy FLIGHT CONTROL However. Kinetic energy • Multi-Mode G&C (KE) warheads with higher density • Multi-Spectral • GPS/INS • SAR and boosted penetrators will be • In-flight Optimize • Strapdown • Multi-Mode developed for defeating hard and • Uncooled Imaging • α. Navy China Lake CL-20. WS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 11 DOME kinetic energy) to fit the target. will be pintle.Development of warheads will be developed that tailor burn-rate exponent propellants will be MEMS micro turbine generators and the type of kill mechanism (e. scramjet and Manufacturing • Moving Target • High-Temperature • Phased Array combined cycle (ramjet/scramjet) Composites propulsion may also be developed. Warhead . Reduced collateral • Multi-Mode • Central Processor • Low Collateral • MEMS damage submunition dispensers and • High-Density KE Penetrator autonomous submunitions will counter • Smart Dispenser POWER SUPPLY • Powered Submunition mobile. AIRFRAME • Lifting Body -. • High-Temperature • Composite Structure/ Based Turbine & Combustor Case and combustors will be developed • Liquid/Solid Fuel • 3-D Printing/Additive • Pintle/Pulsed/Gel Ramjet Manufacturing Motor for turbojet and turbofan missiles. such as the technologies will be developed for and composite materials technology U. Insulation . • Variable-Flow Ducted • High-Density Fuel/ • High-Burn-Rate The leveraging of 3-D printing/ Rocket Propellant Exponent Propellant • Scramjet • High-Throttle Fuel • Low Observable additive manufacturing will be used • Combined Cycle Control • IM Propulsion • Endothermic Fuel to reduce the development time. High-density • ATR • Phased Array • Hit-to-Kill liners that provide greater penetration WARHEAD ELECTRONICS will be developed for shaped charge • High Energy Density • COTS (SC) warheads.Higher energy density reduced weight. airframe shaping explosive charges. developed to maintain high specific . • Dedicated Roll low combustion efficiency. Low- • Faceted/Window collateral-damage warheads that • Multi-Mode • Multi-Spectral confine lethality to the target area SEEKER • Multi-Lens will be developed. and cost. Extrusion. ramjet. Improved • MEMS • IM • High-Power/Energy insensitive munition (IM) warheads will • High-Density SC Liner also be developed. higher volumetric performance. Composite motor cases will provide data collection and logistics health -. Thrust management monitoring. • BDI/BDA high-speed air-breathing missiles. the risk is high for scramjets • MEMS Health Data Collection • Low Observable Shaping and • EM/Piezoelectric Actuators Materials • TVC/Reaction Jet because of their low thrust margin. advanced lithium-air batteries will specific impulse. Propulsion . Low. and cooling for scramjets. Enabling Missile Technologies.Higher density INSULATION • Neutral Static Margin insulation will be developed to improve • Lattice Fins • Hypersonic • Split Canard • High-Density the volumetric efficiency of hypersonic • Low ∆xAC Wing/Low Moment missiles. High-density fuels and propellants will provide Figure 7. time-critical targets. and ducted rocket Pressure Oscillation • Single-Cast Structure propulsion will be developed for DATA LINK • VARTM. will provide reduced observables.S. and gel rocket motors. parts count. pulse.g. Control • Free-to-Roll Tails -. High-temperature turbines • Supersonic Turbine. shorter combustor cost/small-size MEMS sensors will provide a large reduction in the weight length. Modular multi-mode In the case of a pintle motor. high- -.Turbojet. air turbo- • Compressed Carriage • Low-Drag Inlet with Low rocket. reduce the cost of development test of the power supply. Filament Wind • 3-D Printing/Additive • In-Flight Retarget In the longer term. Also.β Feedback • High Gimbal deeply buried targets.. Endothermic fuels will provide higher be used in hypersonic missiles. Pultrusion. Power Supply . and • Blended Canard – Tail the requirement for a large/heavy PROPULSION booster. developed.

E. Dedicated roll supports missile maturation throughout control surfaces will provide higher • Other (9. laser systems. Formerly a manager of missile programs at the U. • Antimissile Defense Systems tail flight control will provide divert versatility. survivability. deployability. in aerospace indication/battle damage assessment requirements trade studies and engineering from the University of Cincinnati and an M. and destructive power of these . Teague currently link will be developed for mobile and a 3. Second • Electrical and Electronic Equipment Edition. an M.740+) of attack and simplify the autopilot or enhanced missile system concept • Weapons (2. Tactical Missile Design.800+) the weapon system’s life cycle. effort should have a mission/scenario/ courses on missile design and system engineering emphasize physics-based prediction methods for -. Teague is also active as a technology antennas will be developed for higher will involve translation of customer advisor.000 provide a cost-effective method that and hit-to-kill missiles.to 9-month design development serves as a technology specialist supporting DSIAC. Higher aforementioned technologies—and must EUGENE FLEEMAN has more than 50 years of thrust motors to quickly accelerate be unbiased. military is to continue the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. of technologies to enhance the speed.Battle damage system definition.D. and a Ph. Dr. will be lethality. Evaluation of emerging DTIC SEARCH TERMS: Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and missile technologies will also require Missile Development Technology reaction jet control performance will advanced modeling and simulation to be enhanced for highly maneuverable RESULTS: 293. System engineering trades Reduced observable propellants will will continue to be important for missile be developed with higher specific concept development—including all the BIOGRAPHIES impulse and greater safety. creative.A. facilitating hit-to-kill • Computer Programming and accuracy. content. Flight Control . and radar characteristics.213+) [1] Fleeman.S. chemical. accuracy. responsible for sensors.300+) • Weapons Technologies (1. speed. High-bandwidth cycle is also recommended.WS 1 2 / www. 2006. and affordability (2. and iterative with government. academia. requirements to engineering design an Associate Editor for the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems magazine. and expert witness and has also been data rate and mission flexibility. from the University of North -. This determination related technologies. weapon system enhanced insight. he is an international lecturer on missiles and the author of more than 200 publications. systems.200+) capability transformation that missile [2] Fleeman. He provides data links will allow a seekerless development effort determining the short courses to the sensor community in detection and tracking systems. E. Boeing. EO. Missile Design and System invest in the research and development Engineering.S. Finally. Mr. Fleeman holds a B. control effectiveness at high angle Ultimately. Rockwell International. L. (BDI/BDA) will be enhanced by sensitivity analysis.dsiac. image processing.318+) future threats.S. He holds a B. consultant. and consulting experience in the design and development of missile missiles to hypersonic speed will be defined evaluations.org impulse over a broad range of thrust. L. E. miss distance.200+) half century or so. industry. developed for kinetic kill missiles. In-flight synthesis. American If the U. Phased array figure of merit. and technology assessment at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with more than 44 years of experience in sensor and related retargeting by a high bandwidth data and development roadmap. the main attributes of a new • Guided Missiles (2. biological and explosion detection systems. with the homeland defense sensing communities. Dr. and Georgia Tech.High-power Carolina. it must continue to [3] Fleeman. American Institute of Aeronautics and development has provided over the last Astronautics.300+) CONCLUSION REFERENCES • Export Control (1. Air Force Research Laboratory. such as detectors. Tactical Missile Design. responding to technology inquiries from the military and moving targets. Data Link . self-defense systems. missile with a hit-to-kill capability driving parameters for each missile EO/IR payloads. Software (1.099+) maneuvering at low angle of attack for defense against both current and to minimize radome error slope • Directed Energy Weapons (1. weapons. the conceptual development including three textbooks. His textbooks and short developed. piezoelectric actuators will provide be designed to efficiently evaluate the high bandwidth and high rate aforementioned technologies used in the performance with reduced weight. (1. improved IM propulsion will be In addition. hardware experiments must Missouri-Rolla. and accuracy of the conceptual design process. blended canard. 2012. launch platform continued development of data integration. • Ammunition and Explosives (1. weapon design. Finally. and optics.S.348+) design. American Institute of Aeronautics and *See page 30 for explanation Astronautics. 2001. encompassing material science to large- scale sensor system integration. in aerospace engineering from the University of Dayton. missile seeker design. Moving to technologies. in experimental physics from the University of density electromagnetic (EM) and Finally. and required sensor- against moving targets. L. agility. from New Mexico Highlands University.S. weapon concept design JAMES “RALPH” TEAGUE is a principal research scientist links with target imagery.

to transform the world [2].07 billion mature inspection and validation presents a revolution in traditional in 2013. the limitations of traditional casting years.9% growth technologies compared to traditional manufacturing methods by removing rate. And over the past 26 years. AM is quickly becoming a R manufacturing (AM) have the aerospace industry is leading to strong segment of the manufacturing allowed the technology to move from new structural concepts as well as a re. representing a 34. subtractive manufacturing processes. Consequently. astronauts aboard the . NASA has been promoting AM also provides designers and revenue from AM was 27% [1]. the average growth rate in worldwide Recently. the highest growth rate in 17 subtractive manufacturing parts. the McKinsey Global Institute for the next generation of space that not too long ago would have been released a report naming AM as flight. AM the AM market reached $3. creating fully formed metallic specifically in aerospace markets. AM ADVANCED MATERIALS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 1 3 By Michael Mazurek and Russell Austin INTRODUCTION considered either too costly or nearly among the technologies most likely impossible to machine. simple prototyping using plastics to evaluation of established part design. Without ecent advancements in additive the adoption and expansion of AM in a doubt. economy on a global scale. however. market penetration of AM products. components that can be integrated into The 2014 Wohlers Report found that is limited by the lack of robust and modern aerospace systems. In the development of AM as a tool engineers the freedom to create parts 2013. In fact.

viable when compared to traditional structures built on the Earth.000 and manufacturing techniques. Examples of the Increasing Complexity the gap to take advantage of the engineer designing a part. Titanium “Tube in a Tube” for a and because of the simplicity of the Cryo-Thermal Switch on ASTRO-H.200 and the Wait Time to 2 Weeks [4]. and comfortable with AM. springs. . The use of 3-D printing in space typically be fabricated using traditional overcomes a large logistics hurdle. The there is an onus on the engineer to NNWG helps researchers target overdesign to ensure launch survival. adding extra DETERMINING material just to survive launch can INSPECTIBILITY quickly increase one’s launch cost. subtractive manufacturing parts. replacing a broken screw. NASA believes that AM in space can Design Complexity circumvent this issue by needing only to transport bulk material (such as Before discussing the state of that shown in Figure 1) used to build a inspection technologies. and at the going rate of $10. NASA created its The current process of launching Nondestructive Working Group material into space must take into (NNWG) to help coordinate interagency account the tremendous forces applied cooperation on developing standards by the cargo. Group 1 sees containers using a 3-D ABS printer relatively simple parts that can [3]. due to the as different AM techniques and the lack of ability to certify AM parts and defects seen in the AM process. machining. these which could remove size and weight Take 3 Months to Build. benefits of AM. there is no desire to which guide the inspection selection take a chance in the risk-averse world process.AM 1 4 / www. Todorov et al. replacement parts to astronauts parts in this group are produced as a aboard the ISS. Manufacturing Would Cost up to $20. let us first structure in space that is optimized for examine the types of parts that can the space environment. in Design That AM Allows.000/lb to launch FACTORS FOR an object into space. But more than just proof-of-concept or rapid prototype. and because satellites for AM inspections. such as designer as he/she becomes more threads. not the launch be produced through AM. NASA wants Figure 1. five-step evolution of design complexity that is based on the skill growth and But NASA is making efforts to close increased technological comfort of the Figure 2.org International Space Station (ISS) have Figure 2 charts the growth of the already begun printing parts. [5] defines a of space flight. Often. clamps. standards produced by ASTM. as well environment. Traditional to push for even more AM in space. While AM Can Drop the parts are not seen as economically restrictions placed on satellites and Cost to $1.dsiac. Parts produced in this removing the need to be reliant on group have surface features that can launch facilities on Earth and the be easily accessed and can be served requisite launch window opportunities through traditional nondestructive and risks associated with supplying evaluation (NDE) technology. Nevertheless. of a higher launch weight. buckles. information and technology gaps and But the overdesign comes at a cost directs resources to bridge these gaps. all of critical structures. including new and probes can cost millions of dollars.

Generally speaking.033 g tool (note especially the cooling to produce the designs make the (4. Tool Insert and Injection-Molding Group 3 AM components are defined Component. Group 2 parts mark the efficiency of the tool. allowing for place emphasis on performance rather start of cost savings from subtractive than producibility. In a traditional part and reduce the NDE technologies the need for complicated tooling setting. the addition of complexity and produced without the need for comes with the cost of narrowing the traditional “line of sight” to create the technologies available to perform NDE features. the cost and skill required The original bracket weighed 2. shown in Figure 5) can be complicated However. A Heat Exchanger Produced Through Figure 3. Because of the Internal Conformal structures (as shown in Figure 6). Figure 4 shows an injection molding however. Group 4 parts can potentially be reduce the weight of a standard forged produced through traditional methods. consist already available. . but the AM redesign was channels moving through the operation economically unfeasible. In addition. AM DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 1 5 Group 2 parts begin to take advantage internal structures such as tubes or faster production rates. able to reduce the weight by 84% while component). Groups 1 the presence of highly detailed and and 2 are not dissimilar enough from embedded features. these parts would have to those that can image the interior processes. which are almost inspection technologies from what is entirely produced through AM. the manufacturing by reducing the need for internal structure of these parts (as excess materials and complex tooling. made to suit specific purposes and manufacturing. These parts feature can include thousands of individual Figure 5. However. The tight channels The engineer begins to incorporate maintaining an equivalent performance within the part increase the cooling organic and nonlinear shapes that in lab tests. Demonstrating AM-Produced Design (right) [6]. titanium engine mounting bracket [6]. of AM’s ability to produce more channels that previously would have these embedded features represent complex shapes and designs than necessitated the part to be made a challenge to the inspectibility of the traditionally fabricated parts without through casting. subtractive manufactured parts that they require any new or specialized Group 5 parts. as parts that cannot be manufactured Cooling Channels. The example in Figure 3 multiple individual subcomponents features. the Complexity of a Group 4 Part [5]. Examples of these parts include metallic lattice Figure 4.48 lbs). Side-by-Side Comparison of a Traditionally Made Engine Mount (left) and the Optimized Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). manufactured and then an assembly sourced competition to find ways to phase to produce the final component. comes from a 2013 GE Aviation crowd. of extremely fine features. And the ability to inspect on the part unless specifically made for these parts is greatly reduced due to the part. the Manufacturer Was Able These lattice structures can be tailor to Reduce Cooling Time From 14 to 8 s (Source: through traditional subtractive EOS and Salcomp) [7].

Beam Size 100–500 µm 100–150 µm the main form of AM for metals comes Powder Size 45–100 µm 20–50 µm in the way of powder bed fusion (PBF) . and the part becomes compromised. importance placed on the inspection NDE technology for Group 5 parts while SLM‘s range of materials process to find the defects before would allow the parts to reduce costs includes metals. and delaminations. are typically the result of poor process nodes in a relatively small space. though it should be this fact is offset by the structures’ in the form of a poorer surface finish noted that even the most stringent potential to reduce material costs while as compared to SLM. process parameters. Materials Conductive Metal Ceramics they are not well suited for industrial or structural use. the thermal parts. In both instances. (2) cracking The Titanium Lattice Ball Shown Here Has a Hollow Interior and a Complex Internal While the two processes are similar. layers of based or electron beam-based.org systems. EBM has a higher energy density controls. inexpensive in- home 3-D printers tend to use spools Extremely Fast. but build rate. Simple. Group 5 Part Complexity Includes Structures Such as Metallic Lattices. Limited by Galvanometer Scan Speed Magnetically Driven Inertia of polymer wire that are melted and deposited layer by layer. These defects and EBM can impact the final product. overall at a system level. Because EBM of process controls will not entirely maintaining the strength-to-weight ratio also requires the printing tray to be prevent the formation of defects in AM of bulkier forbearers. In PBF-manufactured with the process repeating itself over parts. As with traditional subtractive the increased complexity of these parts gradient in the part is minimized. there are typically four Figure 6.AM 16 / www.dsiac. EMB is part. industry. the subtle differences between SLM (4) surface roughness. (3) balling. classes of defects that can occur: Cannot Be Produced Through Traditional Means. ceramics. whether laser- (EMB). metal powder are deposited on the is the most common form of AM printing platform and then melted by manufacturing seen in the aerospace either the laser or the electron beam. and thus a faster even the geometry of the part to requires a long fabrication time. Table 1 provides additional Understanding the nature of the cost of manufacturing the entire final comparisons between the two systems. Although these parts are certainly novel and exciting. these defects can be is the lack of NDE technology that can resulting in a lower residual stress in detrimental to the performance of the provide a reliable validation of the part the final product. (1) volumetric defects. and Geometry (ESA Photo) [8]. with the layers being joined Defects Found in AM Parts either through the use of selected laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting The PBF approach. Atmosphere Vacuum Inert Gas depending on what type of material Energy Absorption Conductivity Limited Absorptivity Limited one is using. The plastic Energy Costs Moderate High parts formed in these machines are Surface Finish Poor to Moderate Moderate to Excellent often the only experience the general Feature Resolution Moderate Excellent public has with AM. Comparison of Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting Traits [5] Group 5 part. or The complexity of these structures and scanning rate. Characteristic Electron Beam Melting Selective Laser Melting AM Processes Thermal Source Electron Beam Laser AM covers a wide range of processes. with the tradeoff coming be produced. Metals. Polymers. A byproduct of preheated prior to use. meaning the polymers. manufacturing. Developing limited to standard metallic materials. For industrial purposes. and therefore there is a great for use in larger systems. However. defect types is necessary to deliverable is reduced even with the increased cost of fabricating the Table 1. Which and over until the part is completed.

Because the can be the site of initiation of fatigue molten powder resolidifies on the order cracks and the primary reason for of milliseconds. which are translated into reality powder suppliers have conducted Figure 8. AM parts are built by taking find the “Goldilocks” zone of scanning computer-aided design (CAD) models speed for a specific beam power and then slicing them into consecutive and a specific material. to have a bearing on the types of NDE minimize the occurrence of volumetric that can be performed on finished defects in AM parts. around the balling can experience powder material within them. In these cases. it does lack of fusion in the material. junctures of the stair step features can Balling. [9] found that beam power and and cracks are more often seen in SLM reduced surface contact. Fusion Between Layers. Resulting in Porosity leading to compounded defects as Issues [5]. Fortunately. Low-Energy Input Causes a Lack of are built around the balling defects. layers built . nonvertical face will be rough and give manufacturers to mitigate the risk of a stair-step-like appearance. the part grows. Generally speaking. provide the necessary parameters to Provided by Honeywell) [10]. occurs when instabilities for stress concentrations that can lead the second class of defects. Gong Of the two processes. And the volumetric defects. Moreover. the rougher surface of AM parts hydrophobic surface. wetting in its solid form [11]. Although the last class of defect. while the scanning speed are the main drivers of parts. Figure 10 compares spherical droplets. Thus. manufacturing and are the result of internal thermal stress gradients The most common defects seen in produced through the additive process AM parts are volumetric defects. in much the traditionally made test specimens of same way that water beads up on a steel. the surface tension of the newly Stroffregen et al. produce porosity. porosity part delaminating from the substrate is described as being spherical in or cracks growing between the layers. such as thin-walled tubes. Figure 9. These cause the melt pool to break into thin to part failure. the thermal or a lack of fusion of the powder stresses can grow. Due to extensive research in this area and Result of Residual Stresses in the Part During the Build Process (CAD Design of Test Article this layer stacking. as EBM systems use a heated volume occupied by the sphere itself porosity and lack of fusion in AM parts. Cracking and Delamination Can Be the through the 3-D printer itself. As each layer either porosity (as shown in Figure 7) of powder heats and cools. in Figure 11). any nonhorizontal. the third class of defect (shown create sharp corners. which are ideal Cracks and delaminations make up in Figure 9). while an excessively surface roughness. leading to the AM material. This defect derives SLM. layers. subsequent layers fatigue failure in those parts (as shown Figure 7. [13] found that melted powder exceeds the wettability when comparing AM parts against of the underlying layer. delaminations interlayer loss of adhesion due to the et al. of fusion can be more irregularly in structures with low geometrical shaped and may have unmelted stiffness. a low scanning speed will constructed. AM DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 17 implementing the proper quality defects are more in line with the monitoring process and inspection traditional defects seen in subtractive technique for the finished part. They discovered that at a given beam gradient in the part as it is being power level. is not inherently high scanning speed will produce a considered a defect in AM. production tray to reduce the thermal can grow into a volumetric defect. The Formation of Balling Defects as the shape while defects formed by a lack This type of defect is more readily seen Laser Scanning Speed Is Increased [5]. operators must parts. (as shown in Figure 8).and EBM-produced specimens to from problems of the liquid metal a traditional cast specimen.

dsiac. In-situ of poor melt can produce volumetric an effect the build process can have monitoring is important as a first.7 µm and post-production machining to refine the using near infrared (NIR) cameras the maximum height of the roughness surface and eliminate crack initiation to capture the temperature gradient profile (Rz) was 80 µm.2 µm (Ra) INSPECTING AM PARTS layers. real-time minimize the surface roughness of AM fairly limited in the types of systems tracking. defects in the finished parts. EBM (middle). Going beyond simple monitoring. and cooling rate) can be analyzed in real time to create metrics for feedback and real-time control of the system.AM 1 8 / www. Stroffregen also found that the mean parts. in-situ monitoring is include multiple cameras. The research team focused on using the layerwise monitoring as a means Figure 11. The most widely deviation for surface roughness for controls and slow build times or by used in-situ monitoring system involves AM parts (Ra) averaged 13.org Figure 10. Care must therefore be taken to Unfortunately. S-N Curves for As-Built AM Parts (Blue) Compared to Machined Parts (Red) [13]. the AM areas where insufficient beam energy parts had a max stress of 219 MPa In-Situ Monitoring imparted on the powder bed has while the machined parts had a max resulted in a “cold” spot where the stress of 49a MPa. between the newest layer of melted machined parts having respective material and the previously formed roughness parameters of 0. At 107 cycles.7 µm (Rz). to correlate the anomalies seen in . the parametric information provided by the NIR cameras (temperature. researchers at Penn State have examined the use of optical image analysis to perform layerwise in-situ monitoring of AM [10]. shape. As is a byproduct of the build process. Recently. camera systems can be improved to part. Surface roughness The NDE of AM parts occurs in powder has not completely melted. these locations and Figure 11 illustrates how much of post-production inspection. Higher Levels of Surface Roughness Can Produce Stress Concentrations. whether through tight process that can be used. Resulting in Crack Formation [12]. and Cast Ti-6AL-4V ELI (right). which can help improve the weld consistency in AM (as has been seen in the manufacturing of stainless steel straight wall samples) [3]. NIR cameras are able to detect and 1. in-situ monitoring and discussed previously. NIR on the overall performance of the final look capability for process control. two forms. compared to points. Surface Roughness Comparison Between SLM (left). and feedback algorithms.

A Single-Layer Measurement of the Ultrasonic Signal (top). the voids were clearly be taken to eliminate the source of seen in the scans.000 A-scans every numbers of A-scans the system could is also in development using laser ultrasonics (LUT). researchers plotted the scans laser power in SLM machines. Showing a Direct Moving beyond imagery techniques. (UT) monitoring of the build process. fabricate calibration blocks. Figure 12. Taking advantage of the high A newer form of UT in-situ inspection ability to perform 1. the signal detected at each position is acquired. As seen in Figure 14. thus indicating defects before they can affect the build that the SLM process can be used to process. using CT scans. the was conducted in the post-build phase alloy used for aero engine components. generate. The resulting surface displacement is then detected with a separate laser-based receiver. As the beams scan along the layer during production. which resulted in infer conclusions about the quality of the build time. and a temporal resolution tomography (CT) scans to features of 4 ns. and the signals are combined to form a B-scan image that can be interpreted . In-situ UT can be used to monitor the This technique takes advantage of record. a sampling rate on the microstructure of the Inconel of 250 MHz and 14-bit resolution. the SLM process. This type of with each one having intentional in-situ monitoring is useful in improving defects added to the build process in the process controls by identifying the form of spherical and half spherical where in the build the defects voids made of nonmelted powder. a 3-D Model Can Be Generated and Correlated With CT Scans (CAD Design of Test Article Provided by Honeywell) [10]. ultrasonic signal and the build time. simultaneous visualization of the radio frequency (RF) signals. the researchers varied align neatly with the porosity imaged by system with a bandwidth ranging from the laser power to monitor the effects the CT scan. a nickel with a total thickness of 20 mm. the parts manufactured to produce a 3-D CAD model that maps for testing were simple test cylinders. Figure 13. In-situ UT can also be used to monitor Correlation With the Welding Process and one of the more promising techniques the single-layer fusion process by Allowing a Determination in the Changes of the Ultrasonic Velocity as a Function of Build Height being developed is in-situ ultrasonic comparing the time-of-flight of the (bottom) [14]. 400 kHz up to 30 MHz. The waves then interrogate the layer for defects and arrive at the point of detection. The UT monitoring system used a the aberrations seen in the UT B-scan four-channel transmitter and receiver In another test. with the ability of AM to produce nominally against the build time to view areas the A-scans allowing an inspector to consistent layer thicknesses during of low beam power. LUT works by using a pulsed laser beam to generate a transient ultrasonic wave in the solidified layer. build time is approximately 90 min. the test part. and therefore measures can During the build. AM DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 1 9 post-production 3-D X-ray computed second. meaning that for a part Verification of the in-situ UT monitoring when producing Inconel 718. Because in-situ Figure 12 demonstrates how the monitoring is still a relatively recent individual layer images can be stacked development. the locations of defects. [14] average layer thickness was 40 µm describe the process of using in-situ UT (see Figure 13). Reider et al. In this instance. The SLM process was seen in the images between layer monitored in a layerwise fashion with melts. As Individual Images Are Collected of Each Build Layer. the areas of high and low porosity.

however. . penetrant the test. A Defect Profile Can Be Generated From the Returned Laser Ultrasound Signal (right) [15]. aerospace.dsiac. because AM relies POROSITY (30%) on the stepwise layer slice build-up 100% of the part.org 25% HIGH parts. the surface roughness is often greater than with subtractive LOW manufacturing. PCRT is used in the process. LUT in-line monitoring is still of inspection is often found to be a automotive. 50% POROSITY (3%) PT is based on using capillary action to 100% draw the dye into the crack. it has the potential to the AM part. illuminating any dye that Figure 14. the method Testing (PCRT). the detection identical to the inspection processes of Process Compensated Resonance of defects can be an autonomous subtractive manufacturing. AM parts can be inspected using line in the right image. at and preventing large-scale batch least without first performing post- Figure 15 shows a defect and the poor builds. By applying a inspection of parts. The B-Scan (left) Shows a Clear Indication of the Drop in Laser Power During the Build has become trapped in the cracks. whereby the excess dye is removed from the B-SCAN LASER POWER X-RAY-CT surface and an ultraviolet light is shone on the part. However. this monitoring processing machining and polishing. Time. thus determine the integrity of each layer In-situ monitoring can be a powerful making it an almost insurmountable [15].AM 2 0 / www. B-Scan of a Sample Specimen (left) With a Defect Located at Position -258. corresponding signal used to create does negate the need for post-build the defect profile. The surface roughness of the AM part presents multiple opportunities with advanced. To conduct able to mature. surface cracks in traditionally made determine whether or not the part is Figure 15. and power in development. With the Resulting Porosity Verified Through a Post-Build CT Scan [14]. For instance. but if the technology is greater function of the complexity of generation industries. tool for monitoring process control task to use PT on an as-built part. the AM part is excited ensure that all finished AM parts will be dye testing (PT) (such as shown at its resonance frequency and qualified without the need for further in Figure 16) is often used to find the frequency shift is analyzed to inspections. automated signal Post-Production Inspection for small cracks to form between the and image processing algorithms to layers as the part is built up. While most of the Beyond examining surface cracks with threshold level. seen as the yellow post-build inspection of AM parts is PT.

that a low-powered in evaluating in service engine blades. the process is fast and dense parts can employ a low-powered reliable. acceptable. power of CT scans. thus making resolutions down to the submicrometer of the Porosity in a Ti-6Al-4V Cube Produced by it a good gatekeeper test with the scale [5]. The Inconel penetration increases. and therefore submicrometer analysis quickly becomes an operation detection is a powerful asset. scanner should not be used in the If the mass and the stiffness of the inspection process. LUT is also of the defect within the body of the up to Group 4 complexities. However. however. AM DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 21 Figure 16. no defects or the parts that need defects are expected to be on a smaller of welds becomes higher. scale. Penetrant Testing of Ti-6Al-4V for a Liquid Rocket Gaseous Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen Injector (left) and a POGO-Z Baffle (right) Showing High Levels of Noise Due to the Surface Roughness of the Parts [3]. In a CT scan. PCRT is considered scanner with a radiation source with a global test and does not provide the a small emitter size and can achieve Figure 17. radiation source and the subsequent compiled and reconstructed by a the higher inspection capabilities infrastructure needed to support it. A Group 2 applying LUT to post-production increases. If The need for fast first-look testing is complex AM parts are to become important given that the most widely Figure 17 shows an example of the more prevalent in everyday use. that can take hours to perform. CT scanning This means the LUT systems can be scans can be a powerful tool. other NDE methods. where the images are inspected by this method. no matter the CT scans also produce high volumes complexity. and if showing promise in post-production part. the used inspection method is X-ray CT. CT do come at a cost. proven its effectiveness by allowing considered the best post-production inspectors to detect the exact position inspection method for AM parts As with in-situ monitoring. a radiation source microfocused CT scans are employed. and this method has porosity in the test cube. able equipment is expensive and needs a less expensive and therefore more to reach further into a part than radiation source to power the beam. The scans detected a slight . The benefit of the LUT as transmits X-rays through the part to even Group 5 complexity parts can be opposed to CT devices is the lack of a a collector. but as the parts underside in the span marked by the to scan a denser part. However. computer to create a 3-D image. the depth of the beam part might take 10 min to process inspection of AM parts. Inspection of less part is known. The resolution of the CT of data and therefore need intense Figure 18 demonstrates the work scan is dependent on the power of the computing power to return results in a performed by Levesque et al. which means a few gigabytes of data using dual piece was scanned from the substrate that a more powerful beam is able multicore processors. This is not become more complex and the number arrows. ability to identify the parts that have through powder beam methods. inspections. Inspectors are able ability to inspect the parts quickly and Industry has been using CT inspections to detect and locate all instances of accurately is going to be the limiting since 1972. the scan additional inspections. available to manufacturers. in scanner. 3-D View Generated by a CT Scan location of any defects. For AM parts produced Electron Beam Melting [5]. As the power of the beam timely and useful manner. PCRT has been employed to say. CT scans are factor.

for use. G. Klein. *See page 30 for explanation . B. Discipline Report.info/press/customer_case_studies/ salcomp. M. LUT is still being developed but [1] Wohlers. N. S. accessed 13 April 2016. of Inconel 718 Showing Indications in the Build [7] EOS. • Export Control (128) designs and less material needed to “Inspection of Additive Manufacturing Parts Using Laser Ultrasonics. M. Mckinsey coatings. 2011. ture.S. B. D. RUSSELL AUSTIN is a senior engineer at Texas Research Institute/Austin.space. As more improvements in the • Materials (161) [14] M. S. printing through new and innovative [16] C. Nondestructive Inspection NDE Additive for flight. M. Layerwise Monitoring of Powder Bed qualified by the same methods as traditionally made parts. focusing on nondestructive [4] Swanson. K. R. H. VA. Hanns A Stoffregen. L. Chui. R. no. Wright- tory. K. the aerospace Ultrasonic Characterization of Components Built by SLM Additive Manufacturing. vol. accessed Figure 18.” • Manufacturing (135) increase the economic impact of 3-D Intelligent Optical Systems.. E. T. in-situ monitoring seek to impose Koike. H.org Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) as well as indications of possible discrete porosities in the thicker areas of the REFERENCES BIOGRAPHIES part.” Washington.” 2014.” Ph. A. CA. Current developments for • Laminates and Composite Materials [12] P. C. Austin. 4. B. B. while post-production inspections can [13] K.” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. [3] B. J. A.dsiac. B. E. J. H. accessed 13 April 2016. P. in materials engineering from the Patterson Air Force Base. J.” http:// www. S. Hampton. Levesque. Laser Ultrasound B-Scan of a Coupon March 2016. automated defect detection. dissertation. 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AM parts in greater numbers and • Information Science (139) [15] M. B.-P.com/post/77131235083/jet-engine- bracket-from-indonesia-wins-3d-printing/. T. “Optical. “On-and Offline methods are developed. W. 2015. T. S.” Air Force Research Laboratory.” Vol. ultrasonics/acoustic emission to detect and locate damage in large structures. pp. 2013. J. Evgueni Todorov. “Wohlers Report 2014: Additive MICHAEL MAZUREK is a research engineer at Texas Research Institute/Austin. W. Jess Waller. He also serves as the Electronic inspections on complicated AM parts. maintenance. B. T. 2016. 10. • Aircraft (172) 2014. T. G. however. S. microwave/millimeter-wave [5] R. CONCLUSION [8] Chao. M. DTIC SEARCH TERMS: Fourth Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication for easily and quickly qualifying parts Symposium. San Francisco. T.” AIP Publishing. W.AM 2 2 / www.gereports. “The Effects of the aerospace industry because there Processing Parameters on Defect Regulairty in Ti-64Al- 4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and is a lack of standards and methods Electron Beam Melting. New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology. “Tooling: Additive Manufacturing Permits [16]. “America inspection of thick and/or lossy polymer materials. Simple AM parts can be [10] E. focusing on nondestructive has the potential to work in conjunction Maunfacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry: inspection technology development and advanced mate- Annual Worldwide Progress Report.com. the Texas Army National Guard. P. S. 2013. 2014. Gong. K.” Materials. M. O.” Proceedings of the Twenty.” 42nd Annual Review of Progress in produce those designs. S. B. D. rials development. [6] General Electric Company. His background includes low-frequency 2014. D. R. He has a B. Quantitaive Nondestructive Evaluation. and the Global Economy. W. 180. K. He is a member of the American Institute decrease the time needed to perform Global Institute. Applied RESULTS: 2.” http://www. multispectral imaging to detect damage to infrastruc- [2] M. • Mechanics (151) industry will be more likely to employ Germany 2016. “Disruptive production inspection methods to Technologies: Advances That Will Transform Life. of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the American Helicopter Society. 2014. L.” Center for Innovative Material Processing Through Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP-3D).eos. T. G. B. X. “Nondestructive Warfare Officer for the 36th Combat Aviation Brigade of Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing: State-of-the. 2011. “Fatigue Analysis • Nondestructive Testing (216) in Selective Laser Melting: Review and Investigation provide a final certification of the part Of. the ability to inspect it becomes [11] Attar.” Langley Research Center.html. limited. R. His research has focused on using with in-situ processes and other post. J. He started his career operating the infrared (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) thermography laboratory at Argonne National Labora- Structures.” Space.D. as the complexity of the part grows. 1776–1792. B. M. “In Line Inspection of Additive Manufacturing Metallic Parts Using Laser Ultrasonics. Munich. C. Fusion. B. E. A. OH. The Pennsylvania State University. M. “Simulation of Selective Electron Beam • Symposia (265) Melting Processes.

has he selection and application of application of composites to vehicles made their application to drive shafts a T advanced composite materials was applied to secondary structures. Unique properties of dynamic components. RQ QUALITY. One of the most (PEEK) composite using in-situ tape challenging applications has been to placement fabrication technology has . but reality. play a critical role in the quest for as these composites and applications improving performance of air and ground have matured. Initial unique manufacturing processes. RELIABILITY. such as composites provide designers with the transmission drive shafts associated capability to customize structural with rotary-wing aircraft. SUPPORTABILITY. coupled with weight over metallic counterparts. MAINTAINABILITY. The By Harry R. Luzetsky characteristics of components and development of composites with high structures while yielding a reduction in levels of damage tolerance. they have been expanded The use of an IM7/polyetheretherketone vehicles to meet ever-changing to primary structures. & DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 23 INTEROPERABILITY Photo Credit: Automated Dynamics INTRODUCTION requirements.

With composite drive shaft and have processes and techniques required for a concerted effort by ICI Fiberite to illustrated the ability to customize the the production of a flight-critical drive develop manufacturing processes. shafts thermoplastic under the name of Victrex. shaft designs tolerant rotary-wing drive shaft. thus raising the process. While were ultimately developed to support an evolutionary process. Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) Small were developed. In addition. ballistic. suspended. When were designed and fabricated.org demonstrated the ability to construct a experimental technology demonstrator were applicable to the design of drive composite damage-resistant. this work was design/material data were evaluated rapidly increasing. International Chemicals In 2010. Through Industry (ICI) introduced a PEEK shaft was reborn via a U. The results of expansion program includes addressing adhesion properties of APC-2 resulted this program have demonstrated identified design and data gaps. the number and types of the Comanche program was cancelled performance was validated. the Boeing Model 360. when coupled with the material technology readiness level (TRL) to a HISTORICAL properties. to identify any data gaps that would obstruct transition of the technology In 1981. and and techniques were developed to were pursuing potential applications the tail rotor drive shaft was planned to support this application. design tools were This material was a semi-crystalline Business Innovation Research (SBIR) validated. provided an ideal composite point that would support transition to PERSPECTIVE material for a drive shaft application.RQ 24 / www. composites being made available were in 2004. shaft.. an material was introduced a year later it was necessary to reconstruct the expansion program has been designed as APC-1 with a 52% fiber volume. material data were created helicopter was made by Boeing and used to develop preliminary design The 2010 NAVAIR SBIR (titled Helicopters in the 1980s with its allowables and methodologies that “Innovative Material Design and . however. Prior to initiating this program. and test shafts were created polymer with a maximum 48% degree of program. production. design processes and design allowables to transition the developmental shafts and it was optimized to yield APC-2 from previous Army research programs to a production configuration. work on an IM7/PEEK drive to a production environment. design data Boeing and other aircraft companies the RAH-66 Comanche program. Navy Naval a building-block approach. as well as (i. and compared to the APC-1. in. The counterpart composite platform. The such as frequency. medium-lift tandem-rotor cargo shafts. From this work. with the CH-53K as the target for a ground test vehicle to support crystallinity.S. system design tests. The first significant application of To support various developmental NAVAIR SBIR composites material to a military activities. and their platforms. Test shafts of composites to existing and future be constructed out of IM7/PEEK. ballistic-tolerant) thermoplastic developing manufacturing support existing epoxy-based composites.dsiac. This with a 63% fiber volume. design to meet unique shaft properties.e. In addition. situ tape placement was developed. The fiber and available data. Through helicopter. in superior impact and crack resistance the feasibility of a highly survivable developing inspection processes.

The justification in an engineering calculation software to identify any data gaps that would for this approach relies on the resin. Relationships were developed supporting a drive shaft design and analysis studies. In addition. design allowables and material of components and of properties developed through a series properties). package. of the following three distinct elements: where insufficient data from a single From this comparison. the allowables would have transition the work from Phases 1 and 2 capability to customize to be refined to better account for the in- to a production shaft with the required structural characteristics situ tape process-generated properties. it was determined that demonstrating the survivability capability used in accordance with MIL-HBDK-17 the existing design B-basis design of the IM7/PEEK drive shaft. Evaluation. level of material characterization This conclusion came from comparison (i. the To facilitate the laminate design of the Design Allowable Evaluation available data used in this process shaft. used to create the B-basis allowables. The data were grouped laminate theory with the Tsai-Wu failure evaluated to determine viability in as determined appropriate by batch criteria. manufacturing process of material property tests configured to development. database of adequate size to develop B-basis allowables. Low Cost. it was and represent a conservative approach. IM6. Test. advanced fabricate the drive shafts. Highly Survivable for the IM7/PEEK allowables was were used to manufacture the test Drive Shaft”) picked up on the initial limited. Design Process/Analysis to support initial design of a drive shaft Development and Expansion Due to limited data availability. The in-situ developed data were While conducted in two phases. as well as (CMH-17) guidelines for pooling daza allowables were acceptable for the ability to customize its properties development of prototype shafts as they to meet stringent design requirements. and and IM7 PEEK to develop a material Design Process Development Demonstration. metallic counterparts. Design Allowable Evaluation and (as long as all the pooled data possess require additional refinement.e. This evaluation recreated from data used in previous placement process used for drive shaft process was achieved by using classical Army experimental programs were fabrication. In addition. a process was required to quickly were taken from different fabrication evaluate different ply orientations B-basis design allowables (90% processes and were not exclusively and layups for their ability to meet the probability with 95% confidence) representative of the in-situ tape program objectives. RQ DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 2 5 Manufacturing Development for a B-basis design allowables.. current B-basis allowables are adequate 2. the compared with the preliminary B-basis shaft development work has consisted allowables and the respective database. it was determined fiber/resin configuration are available that while shear-dominated properties 1. There limited property database. coupled with an understanding of the of the laminate orientation and applied While a large database of material fiber contributions to the overall material torsion load to determine torsional information is required for establishing properties. the database Because autoclaving and press curing Lightweight. Supplementing this initial research Composites provide the However. tended to underpredict performance. it was necessary to cross- learned and material characterization content meant that the material property walk these values against the material efforts of IM7/PEEK thermoplastic and values would be changing with the properties produced using the in- furthered the technology to produce process evolution. They were developed in a require resolution to support technology dominated properties being the same manner permitting simple modification transition to a production application. Ballistic Design. the Verification the same resin matrix). To account for the situ tape placement process used to a highly survivable drive shaft. load capability. 3. The analysis evaluates . inspection techniques. ongoing processing specimens to develop the design industry research leveraging lessons improvements designed to reduce void allowables. necessary to pool data from AS4. structures while yielding provide a material property comparison and process validation through analysis a reduction in weight over between the in-situ process and data and test. to support transition to is an expansion program designed to production. From this were two phases for this program statistical regression techniques were evaluation.

which equates to approximately 0. composite driveshaft to be a direct replacement for the existing aluminum Drive Shaft Design shaft. placement (AFP) process. IM7/PEEK Drive Shaft. A minimum 15% weight reduction Verification over that of the aluminum shaft. The part composite design was to determine the is then trimmed to the desired geometry architecture required for a thermoplastic and is ready for use. then passed between a rigid steel roller From this analytical approach. The buckling and strength in the undamaged composite shaft was required to possess configuration. exceed 15% of 118% of 4. which which is heated as it passes through an relative to another).org the shaft configurations for torsional in performance was required. The first layer of material orientations for weight. torsion capability is placed onto a cold tool.213 lb/unit The ballistic and static torsion properties Figure 1. speed. This degree of damage during continuous operation and of was developed from previous test data -54 °C (-65 °F) to +71 °C (+180 °F) in and represents an estimate of expected a nonoperating or storage and transport damage from the ballistic threat defined capacity. This means the bonding mechanical properties and optimize torch stream and then consolidates/ itself is infinitesimally small (there is no the design (greatest properties for least compacts the laminate with a rigid steel flaw or gap between layers). Driveshaft Fabrication Using Automated Torsional loads must be fully reversible. Figure 2. Dynamics In-Situ AFP Process. laminate is considered complete. weight). which assume all constrained to 2. and normal (always make a right angle Several design configurations were IM7/PEEK) is applied to a mandrel to the neutral plane). the parameters were derived from the CH.5 inches. The natural frequency cannot for this program. The heating agent is nitrogen gas. The drive shaft configuration the calculation meant to simulate the would have to experience temperatures amount of damage expected from a of -40 °C (-40 °F) to +50 °C (+122 °F) ballistic event. drive shaft design from the tooling. and the strength of was processed with the in-situ tape electrically resistive heating element to bonding is as strong as it needs to be placement process shown in Figure 2.dsiac.8 gm-in at operating In the in-situ tape automated fiber normals remain straight (do not bend).e.25 inches The damaged configuration is developed and an outer diameter (OD) of by introducing elliptical damage into 6. There 53K helicopter platform. Analysis assumptions used Kirchhoff and unbalanced forces must be hypotheses. The laminate is built to the desired specifications and then removed As mentioned. Each Drive Shaft Design new layer is melt-bonded to the previous Parameters and Fabrication layer.RQ 2 6 / www.. with an inner diameter (ID) of 6. it was and the processing tool to consolidate possible to quickly assess different fiber the material. A typical IM7/PEEK composite roller. In addition. as well as torsional the same geometry as the existing shaft strength in the damaged configuration. it is non. layers are placed on top of the previous lateral stiffness. At this point. The goal of the is no post-processing needed. Subsequent (with and without ballistic damage). and frequency. The material is with special integrated properties). thermoplastic composite tape (i. shear-deformable (no lamina can slip drive shaft is shown in Figure 1. inch of shaft length. layers to form the laminate of desired thickness and fiber orientation. elevate the raw material temperature (the laminate acts as a single lamina up to its melting point. developed for this program to evaluate via an automated process that first perfect bonding is assumed for the the effect of fiber orientation on the heats the raw material using a hot gas laminate.269 rpm. with no reduction were validated through a series of . the unstretched (keep the same length).

Thermocouples The test fixture was modified to accept sequence. pump. conditions were achieved and present appropriate actuator arrangement during the ballistic event. and Rotating Actuator End 32. Figure 5. deflection. characterize the performance of the supplied by the NAVAIR China Lake Test a data acquisition system (DAQ) was shaft. Actual Test Stand With Shaft. Of the tests conducted. the worst-case flight scenario during The ballistic test fixture design an impact event. a test shaft was used to were used to verify that the appropriate a composite driveshaft. digital inclinometer was used to support measure applied torque) and a digital The two exceptions required thermal measurement of shaft rotational angular inclinometer (used to measure shaft conditioning prior to the ballistic event. and a readings from the load cells (used to temperature dry (RTD) conditions. Schematic of Range Setup. Throughout the Camera load application. generated comparing reacted torque 2.000 in-lbf/min rate until failure of slotted shaft realized lower torsion Test Fixture Shot Lineso as to levels with the load applied the test shaft occurred. (actuators. Torque was applied through designed and fabricated to record two tests were conducted at room a rotation disc via actuators. The orballistic impact load was set at minimize damage potential.000 in-lbf of torque to simulate Figure 6 shows the actual test setup. Testing on a a 20. Schematic of Test Stand With Shaft. Rotating or Actuator End Viewing Actuator Movement Angle Direction in Blue Velocity Screens Test Fixture Shot Line Camera Gun Barrel Figure 4. as a function of angular deflection to test fixture (shown in Figures 3 and 4) failure tests was included. . RQ DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 27 ballistic and static tests that used a ballistic and post-damage torsion-to. In addition. all but Facility. and the evaluate the fixture functionality. and controls) to The range configuration illustrated Shaft/Fixture support the loads (introduction rates in Figure 5 shows the orientation of Design verification testing of the ballistic Fixed End and magnitude) required for both the the test fixture in the range with the damaged shafts included the following: hydraulics nearest the gun barrel to 1. with the load Viewing incorporated an actuator system to apply application set in the direction that Angle Velocity and maintain a predefined torsion load would cause the damageScreens from the during test and to increase loading at event to close on itself. angle). Gun Barrel Figure 3. The extent of ballistic damage was characterized by a nondestructive Shaft/Fixture inspection (NDI) coin tap Fixed End methodology. A plot was which the slot would open. To exercise the capabilities of One shaft was conditioned at +180 °F the fixture prior to beginning the test and the other at -40 °F. the angular deflection close the slot as compared to one in of the shaft was measured.

event to determine approximate the calculated properties for the drive weight reduction due to material loss shafts underestimated the actual test from the ballistic impact. 4. 7. used to determine potential shaft out-of-balance.dsiac. . When considering specimens with 5. with a 20. D. and 8) the calculated properties until failure of the test shaft. design allowables. test shafts. In each of the developed designs. at installation the degree of damage varied for the into test fixture (start and end). The post-damage shaft was tested similar degrees of damage (TP3. test data. which was results by approximately 50%. These include: was recorded continuously during the post-damage test as a function • Conservatism built into the B-basis of applied load. the 4. and E). and between the calculated properties and after the ballistic impact event. consistently underpredicted by approximately 31%. 3. Those with a lesser 6.RQ 2 8 / www. Both normal and tumbled projectile conditioned specimens were taken events were used to damage the at several intervals prior to test. Post-impact stiffness was measured Several factors attributed to the using the angle of inclination as differences between the model and test captured by the inclinometer and results. and test events. Ballistic Test Results for Normal (C) and Tumbled (D and E) Impact Events. during.org A B C Figure 6 (A and B). 6. resulting in a larger deviation moment arm before. prior to the ballistic event. Drive shaft lateral stiffness was degree of visible damage were capable E measured by the angular inclination of supporting an even greater torsion of the fixture load application load. Thermal measurements for 8. As shown in Table 1.000 in-lbf/min loading rate 5. The weight of the shafts was measured properties of the test drive measured to the hundredth of a shafts were greater than that calculated pound before and after the ballistic in the design process. Figure 7 shows typical including at removal from the damage for each event type although D conditioning chamber. Typical Range Setup. Figure 7 (C.

both cases tested above • The estimate of the damage in the shaft (no damage present).200 NA 63.200 NA 92. the failure the design limit torque. Damaged Shaft Torque-to-Failure vs.500 49.603 9% damage for both tumbled round shafts TP12 44 A 258.555 88% than the straight shot shafts although TP4 44 B 287.630 76% was more localized to the impact zone TP11A 44 A 258.600 41.664 125% shaft shot straight on. There was no apparent shaft. RQ DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 2 9 modes were extremely similar (as Table 1.300 NA 58.200 NA 110.000 and 70.500 49.000 NA 31% decrease in load-carrying capacity at TP10 44 A (Spare) 258. As the actual occurred at the bolt pattern at a static apparent degradation in mechanical damage deviates from this condition. . drive shafts Test Number Specimen Torque Torque Torque Torque Delta Specimen Of Type impacted with tumbled projectiles Undamaged Damaged Undamaged Damaged (%) Designation Plies (Layup) (in-lbs) (in-lbs) (in-lbs) (in-lbs) (TP11A and TP12) exhibited a higher TP3 44 A 258. The visible TP8 44 A 258.800 53.100 44.500 49. In progressive failure where every increase reality. There was no analytical model. Figure 9 (right).500 49. Even after this decrease.200 NA 86. although at this point the shaft entered torsion failure point for the shaft.814 30% static ultimate torque than a similar TP7 44 A 258. As with the room temperature In torsion testing of an undamaged tested shafts.5° of deflection.200 338. Design/Analysis Correlation illustrated in Figure 8). Layup.200 NA NA NA approximately 4.500 49. Projective Configuration. mechanical properties produced using carried between 60. and design architectures.616 55% defined by the tap test) was larger. the shaft still easily • The application of the Tsai-Wu first. and the failure analytical process. composite laminates often can The effect of elevated and depressed in applied load resulted in increasing support greater loads than that which shaft temperature did not adversely deflection and lessening reacted torque.639 27% the nonvisible delaminated region (as TP5 36 C 197.500 49. shafts. ultimate torque level of more than performance for either conditioned so does the torsional load from the 338.500 49.000 in-lbs ply failure approach to define the the in-situ tape placement process. Calculated Calculated Measured Measured As illustrated in Figure 9. Damaged Shaft Torque-to-Failure vs. damage to the body of the shaft. all of the shaft this measured failure level was 31% • The degree at which the B-basis configurations performed above their greater than that predicted by the design allowables represent the respective design limits.200 NA 67. TP6 36 D 229. Figure 8 (left).700 NA 64.543 32% Note that TP11A experienced an initial TP1 44 A (Spare) 258. In considering the various calculated value.000 in-lbf. may initiate failures in the laminates affect the torsion performance of the on an individual ply basis.200 NA 53.

org) today. and temperature & Engineering (R&E) Gateway is your were examined in these tests. a balanced design was • Polymers (836) developed and the frequency response BIOGRAPHY • Fiber-Reinforced Composites (747) of the resultant fabricated shaft was HARRY “RICK” LUZETSKY is a subject-matter expert • Mechanical Properties (681) correlated against the analytical at the SURVICE Engineering Company. both • Laminates and Composite Materials of the margin of safety associated with static and dynamic. (CAC) holders can log in.dsiac. with more than predictions using both stiffness and rap 30 years of experience in composites and more than • Symposia (527) 20 years of experience in survivability. UTAS With access to more than 4 million is acknowledged for its performance of frequency failure afterwards. Automated Dynamics for its program management withstood a ballistic event under load and fabrication efforts to turn engineered designs into viable composite drive shafts. it success of this program and previous Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics became necessary to modify shaft research work has laid the groundwork properties for frequency response to for IM7/PEEK and its derivatives to RESULTS: 6. and Sikorsky Aircraft and continued to meet performance and United Technology Aircraft Systems (UTAS) for requirements when they were torqued to their general support and guidance. we stand ready program was designed to produce to help you find the information you the necessary data to transition the need for all your R&E projects. • Mechanics (525) Mr. be considered in numerous air and This modification required reduction ground vehicle applications. These shafts successfully leadership and guidance in the execution of the program). and qualified applicants can register for a free DTIC With these results. The program met all performance and gate requirements as defined in the statement of work ACKNOWLEDGMENTS THE DTIC R&E GATEWAY: and supporting documentation. Leslie Leigh for her TECHNICAL INFORMATION test data. unlike its metal are provided. prototype shafts account to try this incredible resource. He is the lead engineer for SURVICE’s • Thermoplastic Resins (470) role in the development of the thermoplastic drive shaft and is a co-author of a pending patent on an advanced The NAVAIR SBIR program validated fuel containment technology. and fiber reinforcement structural composite faraday cage enclosure for electron. test. Mr. *See box below for explanation the potential of an IM7/PEEK drive ics. the layup. A number of candidate shaft designs The author wishes to acknowledge the following organizations and individuals for their invaluable YOUR GATEWAY TO were fabricated based on coupon-level involvement in this program: NAVAIR for its sponsorship of SBIR N101-097 (especially Ms. offering advances (1.dtic. expertise in design. For example. the same analytical process for the • Plastics (993) ballistic shafts. Luzetsky holds a B. shaft for application to a helicopter drive train. were delivered to support operation of Contact DTIC (www. Common Access Card counterpart. in materials engineering from Drexel University. manufacturing process.mil) or DSIAC a ground test vehicle and an expansion (www.RQ 3 0 / www. The resource for both historical and the candidate shaft designs all far exceeded latest scientific and engineering the minimum weight reduction (15%) information. The effect of varying measurements and preparation of the shafts for use on records. could be tailored.170 improve overall drive train properties. technology to a production variant for the CH-53K. Information Center (DTIC) Research projectile configuration. the . results from 33%. Using offered by traditional materials.440) the proper frequency response. and research and development.org DTIC SEARCH TERMS: During evolution of the designs. the Defense Technical the ground test vehicle. In particular.S. In addition.819) the shaft design in favor of developing in performance at lower weights than • Composite Materials (1. Luzketsky has helped develop and assess survivability features for numerous aircraft and has been active in • Laminates (486) CONCLUSIONS composite design for vehicle performance and survivabil- ity improvements. at the end of exhibiting weight reductions of up to each article in this volume. it was demonstrated simple key word searches that were that the frequency response of the performed in an R&E Gateway search composite drive shaft.dsiac. Furthermore. With a specific testing.

and through S&T. the Honorable Stephen Welby. win the the crossroads we are at today as well General Atomics. move S&T capabilities forward and to sustaining U. that “we get the most Department of Defense (DoD) superiority trends in Table 1). and the communities Electromagnetic Spectrum of interest (COIs) to streamline and Space Domain make available opportunities for Resilient Comm.S. Flagg. Flagg are us. ENERGETICS DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 31 NDIA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE REVIEW Dr. Deputy Assistant we must assure that our military retains By Bruce Simon Secretary of Defense for Research. sector innovations and DoD needs. stating that. Technological Superiority Trends Relative to Competitors market from the private sector. therefore. One of the conference’s goals. Better Engineering Technology Conference in close our 40-year technological Buying Power 3. technological superiority We have to ensure that what we do is bring together industry. Resilient Basing . technology (S&T) community leaders. Presenters included superiority gap (see the technological words of Dr. surprise through S&T to ensure Assistant Secretary of Defense for NDIA S&T Chairman James Chew. challenges presented by U. PNT cooperation and collaboration. and accelerating delivery of overhead and more on actual research. cost and cycle time. such as the third offset strategy. Our vision is private sector. preparing for an uncertain more efficient. ISR. adversaries. as we come out of 15 years his past April. mitigate Research and Engineering. discussed Director of Strategic Development for current and anticipated threats. superior and global access to these OASD(R&E). the Air Domain Maritime Domain Combatant Commands (CCMDs) and Undersea Domain their requirements. We must bring in young engineers and And bringing together the laboratories. opened the conference current and future fight. many ask what S&T is doing for The issues outlined by Dr. In particular.” We must plan more jointly policymakers and science and and include the COIs in the process. In particular.S. and academia is crucial.0 is making sure. who discussed issues and initiatives to reject the idea of decline. As the global access change. with less spending on the Services to face emerging future. framed the issues further by critical assets.S technical capabilities to the warfighter. We need to change what we fight supported by the DoD’s Better Buying Industrial Association (NDIA) Science & with and how we fight as our adversaries Power Initiatives. for our buck. FL. DSIAC attended the T 17th Annual National Defense of war. was Near Term (2020) Mid Term (2025) to bring together DoD planners. program remains strong. in the Tampa. there is a to technology and talent by competitors lack of coordination between private is challenging U. the technological superiority. there is no obvious outlet for innovations to get into the military Table 1. Melissa Flagg. Our mission is to create technological Likewise. academia. and provide as the offset strategies that require big by stating that although the DoD S&T affordable options.

In a third offset strategy. surveillance. Such a set of capabilities would provide development. innovation. • Operate battle networks much less full breadth of the battlespace. in a budget constrained labs and engineering centers that of technology-enabled operational and environment. real-time long- • Develop new forms of distributed range intelligence.S.S. rapidly advance new technology globally with reduced forward presence. system concepts.dsiac. numbers to an arena where the United and deploying advanced weapons and States possessed an asymmetrical capabilities that demonstrate many of The DoD anticipates that the capabilities advantage. and speed achieved nuclear parity. advantage.Experimental (DIUx) • Leverage dispersal and new forms Long Range Research and Development of operational sanctuary to increase Planning Program. sought to create an should serve as a nexus survivability. enabled by unique U. including industry.S.” precision weapons. and technology ideas. Welby stated. and the joint battle networks and near-peer potential competitors operations. will enable the Joint Force to: deterrence. advantage and therefore bolstered asymmetric advantages that are Mr. Welby went on to note that neither of technological superiority. and global partners. strengths and when President Eisenhower sought to capabilities. and agility and ultimately ensure Mr. occurred in the 1950s. across warfighting domains. the combined effects of conventional ecosystems and the DoD. and maneuver and close combat reconnaissance (ISR) sensor capabilities techniques that combine kinetic. informed by studies such as the 1973 Unit . and Development Centers (FFRDCs). conventional deterrence. technical capabilities electronic warfare. Mr. competitive technological and warfighting capabilities. A third offset strategy overcome the Warsaw Pact’s numerical So what has changed? Mr. There are 63 each case. These projection operations in Syria. There must be decisive strategic and operational operational advantage by identifying . conventional strike systems. a significant force multiplier by improving increasing symmetry in the national Mr. labs are the centers for driving science solely about technological advantage. The Defense Innovation to seize and maintain the initiative. forces to more effectively organizations that might shift the nature (UARCs).S. Welby would also ensure that our conventional advantage by leveraging U. Federally Funded Research opportunities for synergistic effects mix of technologies. collaborating “effectors. are pursuing advantage into the future. This growing symmetry • Fight and deliver effects from a distributed posture at extended The second of these offset strategies ranges. speed.S. deterrence posture remains as strong superiority to introduce battlefield such as Russia and China (and countries in the future as it is today and would nuclear weapons—thus shifting the axis to which these nations proliferate establish the conditions to extend that of competition from conventional force advanced capabilities). Welby concluded that we must the efficiency and effectiveness of security environment suggests that it engage all parties. nuclear pointed out that today’s competitors. enduring advantage by pursuing a new approach to joint operations—leveraging between innovating • Achieve mass in the form of ensembles of many low-cost. precision. it was the right combination would seek. creating is again time to begin considering the academia.org The first of these offset strategies.S. This strategy. This approach provided the same technological strengths that delivered through a third offset strategy stability and offered the foundation for provide the technological basis for U. advantage. arose in the late 1970s and 1980s with the recognition that the Soviet Union had • Leverage range. capable of supporting real-time precision between U. to maintain and extend provide expertise and enhance our organizational innovation that provided U. that permitted these capabilities to be is particularly seen in the capabilities synchronized and executed over the demonstrated during Russian power. and cyber-enabled targeting. The DoD these two original offset strategies was As was true of previous offset strategies. Welby vulnerable to cyber and electronic integrated systems-of-systems provided also explained that the emergence of attack. to and rapidly project conventional power of the competition to U. the basis for a third offset strategy.3 2 / www. Welby noted. and operational concepts. and military University Affiliated Research Centers permitting U. Mr.S.

DSIAC is continuing to collaborate with transformative capabilities and the IACs are a way to get an in-depth the organizations and representatives bringing ideas to DIUx. Robert Baker. discussed He also explained the process that the and Programs. newly formed Defense Innovation Unit force application. He explained that duplication and explore collaborative Secretary of Defense. China.S. Chew. current budget. We must create with a common emphasis on the generation. Kurt Kratz. Mr.dtic. Emerging the IACs are a collection of subject. Science & Engineering Technology and development activities intended For the industry defense and innovation Conference. emerging threat mitigation. Dale Ormond. He also are now being sought or acquired by needs to have demonstrations and put said that the S&T budget submission unsophisticated militaries and terrorist developmental items into the hands of has 0% growth and that this is a good groups. ongoing to reduce technological uncertainty marketplace. to Congress. opportunities. goes. with these and other organizations in the Mr. and we must make critical of the Defense Technical Information greatest benefit from S&T resources and finance decisions. . and how industry conference participants (with System’s Associate Vice Chancellor for we make decisions. and anticipated threat capabilities and presented their S&T program overviews. spoke about using prototyping government. As far as Better Buying Power information analysis centers (IACs). Wyatt. acquisition process and the need to Col. Mr. addressed how disruptive technologies that were Joint Chiefs and Services use to procure the President’s FY17 budget submission once safely possessed by advanced capabilities on behalf of the CCMDs. OASD matter experts (SMEs) from industry. it. robotics. noting that sustains and extends U. autonomous systems. that the five main challengers today advantage.5 billion. We must mitigate current In addition. Steve Butow. and ISIL. Butow. He explained look at government needs across who participated in this year’s NDIA that prototyping is a set of design warfighting labs and program managers. thing because the rest of the defense closing the technology gaps by pursuing He advised industry to be tied to the budget has dropped. Dr. joint planning and coordination process. In particular. affordability work more affordably. and we need to protect programs.mil). Deputy Administrator that warfighters are receiving the systems. explained the . we must concentrate on anti. Deputy Director. the challenges of the Welby). and the technological surprise. he said that we must eliminate Mr. Iran. Plans National Guard Element. that is. the overarching framework of DoD’s S&T are Russia. He discussed the complicated and the DoD. the respective Services as well as the issues of S&T oversight. and the needs of the CCMDs and the roles of nexus between innovating ecosystems integration of operations and analysis. Ormond also discussed Reliance 21. North Korea. representing the Lead meet the needs of the CCMDs quickly. Other competitor nations are operators to help adjust to their needs. Mr. DIUx seeks and supports have demonstrations. learn about classified needs. to improve the quality of subsequent covers the CCMDs’ unclassified needs Mr. strategic Mr. Better Buying Power (see www. OASD (R&E). He said that S&T is 2. Principal Director. autonomous learning the S&T budget. Mr. The offset strategy proper clearances) to use the combatant Federal Relations). to identify opportunities and systems. Ormond. Center (DTIC). Industrial engagement is Capabilities & Prototyping. joint coordination. DIUx. and academia that provide to accelerate the adoption of resources for partnerships. Michelle decision-making. Deputy Assistant including DSIAC.Experimental (DIUx) should serve as a spectrum. Baker also spoke to the need the innovation of disruptive technology for technological superiority. the electromagnetic Research. For industry. OASD (R&E). Wyatt also identified the focus areas community. efficiencies that provide data to ensure and unmanned and autonomous Mr. Through the third importance of defining future needs S&T executive committee (led by Steve offset. spoke of the tools of the efforts.7% nations have proliferated widely and Ormond stated that the S&T community of the DoD’s top line budget. S&T investment and funding long-term modernization labs and to work with the joint staff to is $12. He stated that one role of the access area denial systems. crucial. Kratz also urged Atchison (the University of Texas talks about prototyping. human machine collaboration. cost. Mr. And the for FY17. DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 3 3 more industry partnerships. (R&E). and capabilities. Mr. the COIs. which include asymmetric Mr. and others will help is how to offset a cost disadvantage with commanders’ reading room at DTIC to continue to advance DSIAC integration a force multiplier that we can employ. Earl Wyatt. there is a portal that discussions with Col. and the need to protect COIs is to defend S&T investments— biotechnology.

as well as common the SURVICE Engineering Company 2013 (approved for public release. easy-to-calculate was to develop and document unique one-dimensional values for various • “Ballistic Equations: A (and potentially perishable) technical aerodynamic functions for projectiles. and practices that are (or should be) used in conducting . This monograph is intended Vulnerability/Lethality Analysis. September anomalies. examining and taught by the author. computational methods. SURVICE Monograph 14-002/DSIAC.dsiac. Government release. May 2013 (distribution August 2014 (approved for public challenging given the inherent authorized to U. SURVICE Monograph 13-001. Government agencies and their Monographs now available are as calculations not otherwise possible. This effort any one of them. ballistic-related penetration and blast. This monograph is intended to serve fracture mechanics.g. The purpose physical processes.” SURVICE is also given to mathematical org/store). contractors). from DSIAC. analyzing. and improving acceleration. under the sponsorship of the former distribution is unlimited). by TR-2014-001. this ability is particularly James Walbert. and experiences such as range as a function of velocity. approaches. tools. variability in the fundamental physical agencies and their contractors). Extensive coverage from the DSIAC Store (at www. Thus.dsiac. the analyst must detonated under ground combat time series analysis. technical training. and/ velocity. To obtain copies or find out more about with a more complete understanding August 2014 (approved for public these and other publications available of the subject by defining pertinent release.” analysis is the ability to estimate the Effect on Combat Systems. Survivability/Vulnerability Information and the natural variability inherent in The approximations in this monograph Analysis Center (SURVIAC). and Methods for Evaluation from senior-level subject-matter experts time as a function either of range or of Parameters Relevant to to support personnel/community velocity. terminology. effects of threat-target interactions. Blast Effects. 3 4 / www. please visit www. and field assessors TR-2014-002. using first-order concern for those responsible for ballistic data. assuming there are data on Crater Formation. The Technical Monograph Monograph 13-002. and development. The methods have possible outcomes given a range of these systems.org TECHNICAL MONOGRAPHS NOW AVAILABLE ON THE DSIAC STORE DSIAC is pleased to announced that five • “Projectile Aerodynamic ground combat system vulnerability/ Technical Monographs are now available Approximations Derived in Closed lethality studies.” SURVICE or information archiving. provide simple. and text focuses on the fundamental dispelling myths that surround these methodologies. documenting seek to bound the problem and its systems has long been a source of numerous methods for analysis of solution set (e. misuses and misinterpretation of data. testers.. by James Walbert. by James Walbert. This document is a only increased in recent years as the well.S. by James Walbert. In the absence of Monograph 15-001/DSIAC- continues today under the sponsorship actual data or full three-dimensional TR-2015-001.dsiac.org. and penetration The use of large explosive charges as an introduction to the topic of mechanics. However. Compilation of Equations information. processes of detonation physics. describing the fundamental physics of blast and Based on a training course developed other detonation products. Form From Limited Data. designers. follows: • “Time Series Analysis and Its Critical to combat system survivability • “An Overview of Blast and Its Application to Ballistic Data. these August 2015 (distribution authorized The five SURVICE/DSIAC Technical approximations enable trajectory to U. distribution is unlimited). this various aspects of mitigation. And this concern has applicability beyond ballistic data as initial conditions. compilation of equations and methods use and size of these charges have • “An Introduction to Ground that form the basis for a number of markedly increased in modern combat Combat System Ballistic analytical tools designed to provide zones.” first-order estimates of the effects of to provide survivability analysts. such as pressure and estimates) and find a range of developing. by Fred Malinoski counterexamples and statistical initiative was started in 2013 by and James Walbert. distribution is unlimited). of DSIAC. insights.S. mathematical and statistical methods. and drag as a function of Penetration. phenomena.” SURVICE Monograph 14-001/DSIAC. models.

and it also survived combat damage far more effectively. SURVIVABILITY AND SV DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 35 VULNERABILITY ADVANCES U. it was not until a concerted had to be scrapped after landing safely. And some technology that was previously untested survivability (and that is so designs that resulted from this effort can in combat and barely a decade old. elements. higher and faster. aircraft often taken for granted) is the self. Navy IN SELF-SEALING FUEL TANK TECHNOLOGY advanced in virtually every way. By commonplace in aircraft today that it is still be seen in the fuel tanks of today’s World War II. The fundamental technology had become far more sealing fuel tank [1]. including the self-sealing .S. effort started in the late 1930s that a coffins” (as shown in Figure 1). military aircraft. however. INTRODUCTION Stories abound of World War II pilots Although the earliest iterations of self- returning with aircraft so thoroughly sealing fuel containment date back to P ilots of World War I often called the aircraft they operated “flying perforated by enemy gunfire that they World War I. The grim One significant component that was truly effective and reliable self-sealing nickname was a reflection of aircraft largely responsible for this leap in design was established. World War I Aircraft in Flames Falls From the Sky (Source: National Wold War I Museum). The new By Kyle Bates generation avoided enemy fire by flying Figure 1.

are largely unchanged.20 Goodyear. the sealant layer swells into the has been a renewed effort to improve hole and stops the flow. But this technology was enabled by advances small hole is just the beginning of in rubber material processing. a small residual hole less than the The inception of effective self-sealing diameter of the projectile. Goodyear Navy engineers were discouraging at a high velocity. started out as spin-off companies from Firestone and Metal Tank .S. and several smaller ones. respectively.13a companies. layers that are impervious and insoluble . confronts the deceptively complex current self-sealing fuel ballistic dynamics of a bullet perforating AN ELEGANTLY SIMPLE a fuel tank. containment technology from its and easily produced in large volumes. and U. travelling innovations coincided with a rise in at 3.12 surprising that two of the companies Neoprene . still moving B. employing aircraft—is elegantly simple. Rubber Company [1]. Goodrich Company. When it reaches the back wall of the leading up to World War II. lightweight. to fuel. This unloading generates a high. An ever-present desire self-sealing fuel containment technology. begins to unload its by the same pressure wave. there through. It is therefore not Composition . When a bullet perforates the However. the bullet erupts sideways through U. Goodrich [2]. These the challenge.000 ft/s. The bullet. The bullet. Zodiac Copolymer . blasts a jet of fuel back through the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. This gash that is often torn further by the provided by each of the four largest pressure wave. Vulcanized Rubber . and now followed Tire and Rubber Company. 23 The fundamental design consists of a layer of soft rubber “sealant” that Figure 1 Figure 2 swells in the presence of fuel and that is sandwiched between two polymer Figure 2. the velocity wave of pressure in the fuel that tank.” Assigned to B. during composite lay-up and fuel begins to leak the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. over the last decade. Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren.dsiac.24 The self-sealing technology that was Unvulcanized developed through that effort and that Rubber . known as hydrodynamic trailing wake of hydrodynamic ram.Acrylonitrile tanks for modern military aircraft. Each of these Fabric . commercial and military applications inside. Cover . is reflected back on the wall milliseconds the material and leaves an elongated VA. Sponge Rubber .SV 3 6 / www.org mechanism. begins to the demand for rubber materials in tremendous kinetic energy on the fuel tumble as it travels through the fuel.13b sealing fuel containment technology Polyisobutylene . began testing fuel tank designs after the bullet tears through.23 has persisted through multiple wars— Rubberized Cord Fabric .21. rubber manufactures at the time: ram. In 1940.11 that currently produce many of the fuel Butadiene . F. to reduce aircraft system which are inexpensive.10 Aerospace and Meggitt.S.13b committed significant resources toward Tear-Resistant Flexible the research and development of self. weight has pushed inception through select examples of modern advanced designs. Figures From a 1941 Patent for a “Self Sealing Fuel Tank. This article reviews self-sealing fuel This simple composition and design.Rubber (see Figure 2). F. Initial fuel tank prototypes tested by entrance wound. and despite dramatic changes in the 22. it leaves limits. When a normally oriented tanks to their physical AND ENDURING DESIGN bullet pierces a fuel tank.

Fuel tank in the realm of polymers. propagation within the tank. Rather than was effectively reduced by filling fuel Engineering Company. pushed current self-sealing fuel tanks that the risk of fuel vapor deflagration recently developed by the SURVICE to their physical limits. The the course of 60 years. these early withstand the force of impact associated the way of materials science. these changes in fuel Figure 3. . Department of Defense (DoD) initiatives to use The first change addressed the volatile more synthetic and renewable fuels fuel vapor that resides in the ullage are also driving innovations away from space within the fuel tanks. This unique production process were implemented to reduce the last two decades in response to a enables application onto the exterior likelihood of fire as a result of a ballistic number of factors. However. and often vulnerability by establishing standards were created. The technology. abandons the trying to squeeze weight out of fuel tank tanks with low-density reticulated traditional principle that relies on designs that have been optimized over polyurethane foam. Exit Holes Through an Alumininum or sparks caused by impacts to metal chemistry can diminish the efficacy Substrate (left) and Entrance Holes Through the Opposite Side Spray-Coated With BattleJacket components. A used in self-sealing fuel tanks. for improved survivability. during the South East A new wave of fuel tank design is that the system is applied by spray Asia conflict. the Military specification MIL-DTL-27422. fuel vapor can result in catastrophic In addition. losses was fuel system fire or explosion. High Impact the mechanisms that brought down so manufacturers were able to meet the Technologies LLC (HIT) has developed a many pilots and aircraft during the World standards by improving their fabrication design that reimagines the classic self- War I. Much has changed since 1939 in pressure wave. Engineers determined Another (patent pending) approach. any additional promotes condensation of the fuel sealing mechanism is self-contained and lightweighting may depend upon the vapor and disrupts the combustion functions independently of fuel or air invention of completely novel designs. The foam material swelling from the absorption of fuel. vehicles are increasingly requiring self- This finding led to key changes in aircraft sealing and blast-resistant fuel tanks fuel tank design [3]. an ever-present desire structural damage as the burning vapor to reduce aircraft system weight has rapidly expands. exposure. The vapor the traditional self-sealing approach. The system has impact or vehicle collision. consists of layers saved untold lives not just in World guiding requirements were pioneered by of a custom polyurethane elastomer War II but in each of the armed conflicts Dr. called BattleJacket® manufacturing processes that ultimately Crashworthy fuel system design and the (shown in Figure 3). The beads which remains today as the guiding readily swell as they absorb leaking fuel INCREMENTAL CHANGES document for crash-resistant and and expand to seal ballistic perforations. manufacturers have ballistic-tolerant fuel tank requirements This self-sealing function is analogous to made incremental improvements to the and verification testing protocols [4]. Engineers had not anticipated Engineers also significantly improved When the first self-sealing fuel tanks the challenging dynamics. new survivability measures innovation has occurred over the coating. can be ignited by incendiary rounds Unfortunately. one provided by the soft rubber sealant fabrication processes and materials in traditional self-sealing fuel tanks. Material (right) [5]. small fuel-imbibing beads. SV DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 37 failures. remarkably effective design features and the fuel tank wall composite lay-ups. particularly development tests shed some light on with a modest crash of 65 ft. ground Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles. The wars in Iraq of existing fuel tanks. Over the years. Harry Robertson and documented in that sandwich a middle layer containing since then. An Air Force and Afghanistan have highlighted the been successfully deployed in theater on investigation team identified that the vulnerability of fuel systems in some fuel tanker trucks and Mine Resistant single most important cause of aircraft ground vehicles. The Navy and rubber company processes and incorporating layers sealing approach with modern materials engineers persisted and established of woven fiber reinforcement within to achieve a similar self-sealing function. they employed the most the entire back walls of prototype tanks to make fuel tanks “crashworthy”— advanced materials available at the were blown out by the hydrodynamic meaning that the fuel tank can time. In response. In the NEW APPROACHES differentiating feature of the HIT design 1950s and ‘60s. The combustion of the of the traditional sealant materials.

Layers Are Depicted in an “Exploded” View for Visibility [6]. February 1946. • Attack and Fighter Aircraft (137) *See page 30 for explanation . Atkinson.robertsonfuelsystems.. [5] High Impact Technologies. it is effective for from Johns Hopkins University and a B. Patent No.com/ • Transport Aircraft (160) about/. the technical feasibility. Jr.S. He has worked in the area of self- approach is increasingly seen as an old sealing fuel tank research.” http://www. reliability of the original designs while undermine the self-sealing capabilities providing warfighters with critical of conventional self-sealing systems. 1998. Functionality of SURVICE’s Autonomous Self-Sealing System. but repeatability • Fuels (184) [2] Dasher.” http:// • Fuel Tanks (141) www. • Test and Evaluation (180) Joint Aircraft Survivability Program [3] Ball.survice. Goodrich. “The Story of the Self- and medium-caliber threats typically Sealing Tank. Their simple a ballistic impact breaks the cells. He serves as the lead engineer for SURVICE’s technology that is ripe for innovation. Robert E. and Dale B. development for the promising Tactics (164) [4] Robertson Fuel Systems.S. even while the rapidly polymerize. 72/2/516. “Self-Sealing Fuel Tank. the and reliable technology has endured reactants flow together and begin to for more than 60 years. 4 November 1941. Edward H. in Engineering tanks will need to combine the steadfast use with nontraditional fuels that can Science from Loyola University in Maryland. Monterey CA. development.pdf. P. Bates holds an M.S. But the legacy self-sealing within seconds to seal the damaged Engineering Company.” U.S. The next generation of self-sealing fuel Mr.965. accessed 1 May 2016. 2. F. encountered by aircraft. Survivability.SV 3 8 / www. The U. “BattleJacket. prior to World War II were a landmark within the wall of the fuel tank. accessed 1 May 2016. has not yet been fully achieved. “Advanced Autonomous Self-Sealing Fuel Containment Technology reactants are contained separately Fact Sheet. Strategy and Postgraduate School.dsiac.org 3 4 1 2 Base Liquid Liquid Thin Separation Layer Incipient Reactant Product Solid Polymer Foam Elastomer Reactant Reactant Layer “A” Cell “B” Cell Figure 4. Naval Institute Proceedings.438. When in aviation survivability. The test specimens • Aircraft (412) demonstrated an ability to seal REFERENCES normally oriented and tumbled small. • Vulnerability (314) [1] Eckelmeyer. in discrete cells that are embedded accessed 1 May 2016.” Naval • Military Operations. but it has also indicated the need for continued • Helicopters (476) development. Because the mechanism 2008.840 an ounce) with critical weight reduction. The reaction forms BIOGRAPHY aircraft that use them have changed a solid foam material that expands KYLE BATES is a senior engineer at the SURVICE radically. “Legacy of Service & technology. and testing since area.com/BattleJacket-sell-sheet. two liquid CONCLUSIONS [6] SURVICE Engineering Company.hit-usa.com/uploads/ The self-sealing fuel tanks developed attachment/advanced-autonomous-self-sealing.pdf.” B. “A History Office (JASPO) is sponsoring continued of the Survivability Design of Military Aircraft. • Survivability (246) Vol.” http://www. in materials science engineering contained fuel type. autonomous self-sealing fuel containment system and operates independently from the is a co-author of a pending patent on the technology. DTIC SEARCH TERMS: increased survivability in air and ground Recent ballistic and crash impact Self-Sealing Fuel Tank Technology vehicles as well as project managers testing of prototype specimens built to (who must now count every fraction of MIL-DTL-27422 standards has confirmed RESULTS: 2. As illustrated in Figure 4.

..org/external/ Salt Palace Convention Center https://www........... Enterprise................. CT Boulder....... http://www.......... NC https://www.............aspx 3rd Annual Additive Manufacturing for Automated Vehicles Symposium 2016 18–22 July 2016 ..........org/meetings/6100/ Building 4516 https://www..166006270......... Huntsville......... AM3D Additive Manufacturing + 3D 2016 MSS Active E-O Systems AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum and Printing Conference & Expo 26–29 September 2016 Exposition (AIAA Propulsion and Energy 21–24 August 2016 Venue TBD 2016) Charlotte Convention Center Springfield...org/standardsdev/ Pages/default.....aspx mss/meetings/list_meetings......... CA Symposium Venue TBD http://www..aspx Summit 7th Annual Integrated Air and Missile Defense Symposium ....... tKey=2725786f-db61-43ab-bfc9.. ..thecamx.............. http://www..ndia.......1106410592..... IL http://www... CA Military Helicopters 2016 12–15 September 2016 25–27 July 2016 http://www.......... MD summit/ .. VA 25–27 July 2016 Charlotte... Pages/default.org/emevents/ 16–18 August 2016 Washington.. Defense and Aerospace Hilton San Francisco Union Square 19th Annual Space & Missile Defense 26–28 September 2016 San Francisco. http://www....militaryhelicoptersusa...jsf Salt Lake City...........ndia...................aspx 28–30 September 2016 ...asme...additiveconference.. TN 2nd Annual Integrated Air and Missile http://www.............org/ Gaylord Opryland Hotel & Venue TBD Convention Center ..... UT conference .org/resourses/events 1c1ace803b853b.org/external/ Conference Center Pages/default................ http://www.... 1462975418 SEPTEMBER 2015 Materials Expo (CAMX) 26–29 September 2016 ..... AL additivemanufacturingfordefense... DC Additive Manufacturing Conference http://www.ndia.............aspx Aberdeen Proving Ground................org/events/am3d. Naval Submarine Base New London Venue TBD 2–3 August 2016 Groton......jsf Bethesda. Venue TBD Washington........ AL Nashville...... Insentive Munitions and Energetic Anaheim Convention Center Materials Technology Symposium Anaheim.sensiac...airmissiledefenseevent..... 20–21 September 2016 14 July 2016 NDIA Annual CBRN Defense Conference Crowne Plaza Washington National Johns Hopkins University and Exhibition Airport Laurel.......sensiac.........auvsi........... visit: event-summary-04cbcb98aa8348da80 dsiac........org/ events .....................org/meetings/6300/ ..aiaa-propulsionenergy............ The Composites and Advanced org/?_ga=1......aspx ............ DSIAC Journal • Volume 3 • Number 3 • Summer 2016 / 3 9 CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA 2016 Joint Undersea Warfare JULY 2016 AUGUST 2015 Technology Fall Conference 2016 MSS Tri-Service Radar Global Explosive Ordnance Disposal 19–21 September 2016 11–14 July 2016 (EOD) Symposium & Exhibition U....S....com/ events/additive-manufacturing-2016/ For more events. ....... DC event-description?CalendarEven Von Braun Center http://www..org/meetings/6240/ https://www.........com/ 643eee0fc5d4&Home=/events1aa/ https://smdsymposium....... CO Bethesda North Marriot Hotel & http://www.org/meetings/6950/ SAE 2016 Aerospace Standards Pages/default.................... MD 2–4 August 2016 Arlington....................ndia............. mss/meetings/list_meetings...... ..sae...... VA http://www...... 13–14 September 2016 com/ McCormick Place Chicago.......org/meetings/6550/ Defense com/ Pages/default...ndia.... MD ...............

• Answering technical questions. DSIAC SCOPE AREAS INCLUDE: • Advanced Materials • Reliability. tools. and • Directed Energy Interoperability (RMQSI) • Energetics • Survivability and • Military Sensing Vulnerability • Non-Lethal Weapons • Weapon Systems . • Performing customer-funded Core Analysis Tasks (CATs) under pre-competed IDIQ Delivery Orders. • Participating in key DoD conferences and forums to engage and network with the S&T community.4695 Millennium Drive Belcamp. electronically cataloging. and disseminating Defense Systems scientific and technical information (STI) to qualified users. Supportability. Maintainability.org DSIAC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES INCLUDE: • Performing literature searches.dsiac. preserving. and training based on the needs of the Defense Systems community. • Providing referrals to subject-matter experts (SMEs). MD 21017-1505 DSIAC ONLINE www. • Collecting. • Providing requested documents. • Developing and deploying products. • Autonomous Systems Quality. • Fostering and supporting the DSIAC technical Communities of Practice.