STUDENT ID:158925.

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Page | .Ship Stresses and Use Ship Stress calculating Equipment.

--------------------------------------------------16 7. SAGGED CONDITION. ---------------------------------------------------------------05 3. --------------------------------------------------------------08 4. INTRODUCTION. CONTENT LIST 1. REFERNCE.----19 8. ALTERNATE HATCH LOADING.------------------------21 9. DIFFERENT STRESS LIMIT IN HARBOUR AND SEA CONDITION. STRESSES DUE TO LOADING IN STILL WATER. ----------------------------------------------------------------------04 2. HOGGED CONDITION.22 Page | . -------------------------------------------------11 5. ---------------------------------------------------------------------. STRESS CALCULATING EQUIPMENT. STRESSES WHEN IN SEAWAY. a) THE REQUIREMENTS.-----------------------------------------------------20 b) HOW EQUIPMENT HELPS CHIEF OFFICER. --------------------------14 6.

compression and shearing are densely related to each other.Static forces are those which are acting on ship when she is at port and no movement (stationary). Due to excessive stress. they are mainly related to motion of ship and action of wind and wave while sailing. Stresses are experienced at port while loading or discharging under static conditions. There are two forces which act all the time on ships that are Static and Dynamic . INTRODUCTION Ships are made up of mild steel each and every section. permanent deformation takes place which is known as Strain on that section. plating and girders are connected to each other to form a structure of ship as well as provide strength. Page | . These forces which are acting on vessel is known as Stress.Dynamic forces are those which ship experiences in her voyage at sea. Many stresses like tensile. Stress plays an important role in these forces. which is mainly related to weight and buoyancy .

the weight on ship so that there is no excess stress acting on ship’s specific parts.e in still water. In longitudinal stress includes Bending moments and Shearing forces.a) Stress Due to loading in still water While loading ship at port i.hence this kind of longitudinal bending is known as HOGGING. if the weight concentration is more at the forward and after part of the ship compartments . Q2. Depth and pressure are directly proportional to each other. When hogging and sagging happens at the same time shearing force also acts which is in vertical direction. even though there is no external factor affecting ship it is still getting stressed by loading conditions. In both hogging and sagging . Shearing force: when two force are acting in opposite direction. Hogging has less buoyancy in forward and after part of the ship as compare to amidships section and vice versa with sagging . While loading ship.then due to weight acting on ship it will submerge more in water as compare to amidships section .buoyancy and weight are acting with respect to each other. Cargo hold with cargo has less buoyancy as compare to cargo hold without cargo. Water pressure acts perpendicular to the surface of ship side which increases with depth. Loading in ship mainly done by chief officer’s cargo plan. In loaded conditions ship goes under longitudinal stress and transverse stress. Transverse stress: Transverse stresses acting on ship in still water are Water pressure and Torsion stress. Hence squeezing the ship’s sides inside and bottom plating upwards. The cargo hold with cargo and adjacent cargo hold without cargo have shearing force on there bulkheads acting in complete opposite direction. Bending moments: It is the stress acting on ship along the length depending upon the cargo concentration (weight) kept. Page | . Water pressure: It is the pressure acting on ship’s side plating when ship is getting loaded. which allows to equally distribute.it still affects the ship structure by longitudinal bending which is known as SAGGING. When ship is loaded at the centre with weight concentration at amidships section .

hence ship experiences torsion stress.which leads to safe passage at sea . When ship is loaded with heavy weights diagonally then the torsion stress is created. Page | .encountering the cargo load. It is mostly seen on container ships .Torsion stress: Torsion stress is mainly related to torque.hence TORSION BOX is introduced in container ships nowa days which prevents vessel from twisting. Torque is the turning force acting on the ship structure. wave stress and wind . Ships should always be loaded considering the sea way passage without stressing it in dock . In most of the ship torsional stress is negligible but it can be observed on ships which have wide breadth and open deck.

Q2. arise from the motion of the ship it self. Yawing: The rotational motion of ship about vertical axis.(fluctuates) Page | . water pressure on the ship side and bottom plating keep increasing and decreasing. 6. As compare to still water conditions ship is more stressed at sea. 5. 2. http://marineengineeringonline. cargo load and weight of her own experiences so many stress.so as ship experience pitching . racking stress and torsional stress. Ship among waves has three linear motions.swell. Water pressure: Pressure and depth are directly proportional to each other .com/types-of-stress-on-ships/ 1. When transverse stress acts on ship she goes under stresses such as . Rolling: The rotational motion of ship about longitudinal axis. 4. The Dynamic force. Pitching: The rotational motion of a ship about transverse axis. due to sea wave . In seaway passage Dynamic forces acts on ship. wind .b) Stresses when in a seaway. Water pressure. When ship is in a sea-passage on voyage from one place to other . Surging: The forward and aft linear monton (along X axis) of a ship. Heaving: The vertical up and down linear motion of a ship. Swaying: The side to side linear motion ( along Z axis) of a ship . 3.

In seaway passage when ship experience hogging and sagging at the same time shearing forces are acting on their respective bulkheads. There are localized area on ship which goes under several stress in seaway passage like. Shearing forces are experienced on cargo hold bulkheads. This stress is experienced on ship side due to centre of buoyancy and gravity acting on it which results . Torsion stress: Torsion stress is nothing but the torque acting on ship. When ship experience wave or swell on the starboard bow followed by pattern of CREST . Crest of wave lifting the section upwards and trough pulling downward .hence two forces acting in opposite direction creates shearing force on bulkheads. PANTING and POUNDING. Which acting along the ship’s length . Even though ship is correctly loaded .due to action of wave . crest results in extra buoyancy and trough resulting in less buoyancy . Panting: Panting is mostly experienced in forward and stern of the vessel. Shearing force: Two forces acting in opposite direction is known as sheearing force.ship experiences Hogg and Sagg. Torsion stress acting on ship results in diagonal bending of the ship which is called as torsional bending. the centre of buoyancy get affected and hence centre of buoyancy keeps on changing.TROUGH and CREST hence extra buoyancy at bow and quarter part of the ship n less buoyancy at midship section.e flare and at the stern . Waves acting on ship’s one side resulting extra buoyancy on one side of ship as compare to other side in transverse section. Longitudinal stress Longitudinal stress also acts on ship in seaway passage on greater extent as compare to still water condition. Panting is the in and out movement of ship’s side plating at bow i. resulting torsional bending.which is consist of Shearing and Bending forces. hence hogging and sagging takes place . Bending moment: As wave is followed with pattern of crest and trough . Page | .Racking stress: When ship rolls in seaway passage . When crest is acting on forward and aft part of the ship it will float up with extra buoyancy and midship section with trough will experience less buoyancy .transverse section into diamond shape.

squeezing them inside and as released outside This in and out movement of ship plating is called panting .ship experiences pounding at forward part. pressure is exerted by water on bow region . The area where more pounding is experienced is just behind the bulbous bow and collision bulkhead . Page | . bulbous bow cuts water and make way which results in so much stress in forward part of the vessel.Due to fluctuating water pressure as ship moves in forward direction. the forward part of the vessel emerges out of the water and slams on the water it is known as pounding. Pounding: In heavy weather when ship is pitching.it happens at stern as well . If the vessel is kept to be too much trim at stern or little ballast or when speed is more . Equal and opposite reaction .as ship moves forward.

Due to fluctuation of buoyancy and excess weight stress becomes tremendous on ship . Forces which she experience at sea are . Vessel is exposed to many external factors which affects the ship . Water pressure.vessel experience limited force . Bending moment . Stresses which act on ship are bending moments . Page | . Swell or Waves with CREST and TROUGH puts ship under all above stress. In still water .shearing force .even though she is loaded in safe limit for sea going condition .water pressure and torsional moment. there is no external factors acting on ship rather than the cargo she is carrying in loaded condition . Torsional stress. Q2. Shearing force. vessel undergoes stresses but it is less stressed in still water as compare to sea-going conditions. which is obvious more aas compare to still water or harbour conditions.c) Different stress limit for harbour and at sea conditions Vessel always is stressed due to some forces acting on it but stresses at seaway and at still water are completely different from each other. But is sea conditions more stress are added to above stresses mentioned in still water. In still water . Panting and Pounding.Racking force. which are static forces in static condition(stationary).

International Association Of Classification Societies is technically based organization of 12 marine classification societies.homogeneous loading(unevenly distributed ). Category II ships:- Ships with small variation in the distribution of cargo and ballast. Chemical tankers and Gas carriers . 90% of the world’s cargo carrying ships tonnage is covered by classification standard. dealing with stresses.000 dwt and above. a) Requirements.regulation 11 also says about stress monitoring equipment. Requirements for stress calculating equipment is stated by IACS. Exception given in category I (with uneven distribution of cargo or ballast) Page | . It is instrument which is either analogue or digital which can be easily and quickly understood and gives idea about over all situation on ship and cargo. torsional moments where applicable . where combined stresses due to vertical and horizontal hull girder. Category I ships:- Ships with large deck openings . At specified read out points. shear forces. still water bending . Q3. It recommends that fitting hull stress monitoring system on bulk carier of 20. Ships liable to carry non. Ship less than 120 meter in length . which will lead safe operation of ships carrying dry cargo in bulk. Stress calculating equipment. These requirement applies to all sea-going vessels of all classed of 65 m length and above which are constructed on and after 1 st July 1998. MGM108(M) Hull Stress Monitoring system. In SOLAS Chapter XII .in any load or ballast condition should not exceed specified permissible values of that ship. It is a non- government organization but plays role within the International Maritime Organization. For further information about obtaining values can be found in operational manual which is provided with loading instrument.

shear force limits for all read out points. It also help to keep shearing (SF) and bending moment (BM) of ship in safe limits. The loading instrument is to be checked for accuracy at regular intervals by the ship’s master by applying test loading conditions. At survey conditions it is to be done in the presence of the surveyor. implying changes in data of ship . understood by user. and an English translation copy. b) How it helps Chief Officer. Approval of loading instrument :-  Verification of type approval if any  Verification that final data of ship has been used  Acceptance of number and position of readout points.  Acceptance of hull girder bending moments . If modification. This kind of above information about stress is given through the equipment.  Acceptance of relevant limits for all read out points. Operation manual and instrument output must be prepared in language.  Acceptance of limit for mass of cargo and double bottom content of each hold and in any two adjacent holds as a function of draught. Stowage plan is made by chief officer which gives information about trim and list which is an important as per ship’s point of view.  Checking proper installation and operation with agreed test conditions and copy of operational manual with it . which helps the chief officer to plan a safe loading / unloading plan considering ship’s stresses acting. Page | .Ships on same trading pattern where loading manual gives guidance.so in the loading instrument and approved by class society.

It gives following thing which mainly help chief officer : It gives online loading or unloading rate from individual tanks and as total rate. It helps calculating drafts as per the loaded or discharge cargo rate and resulting easing stress on ship or gaining stress. It gives list during loading or discharging hence rate can be used to minimize stress on that particular part of area on ship. While discharging cargo shifting of weights are done to get desired trim or list. Lodicator equipment gives values of SF and BM as percentage allowed but chief officer should keep this to minimum. Tankers are required to comply with damage stability criteria. Lodicator has become an important instrument on board it is a navigational safety instrument as well. Oil tankers by MARPOL and Gas carriers by IGC Code.wedge calculation is done through lodicator hence by keeping all stress acting on vessel within safe limit. hence lodicator gives values whether complying or not. REFERENCE Page | . Most important at discharging last cargo (topping on). Chemical tankers by IBC Code. Vessel has to comply with intact stability requirement as per SOLAS. It gives cargo quantity on board by ullage tables in lodicator. The reason to keep it minimum is to avoid cracks developing in ship over a period. Even if cargo to be load equally or to receive lesser .

http://www.uk/files/hn/DF0LF34.pdf 6.slideshare.sqa.iacs.http://www.org. http://marineengineeringonline.org.com/types-of-stress-on-ships/ 3.flagadmin.net/rishivrmn/ship-stresses 4. https://www.http://www.uk/document/public/Publications/Unified_requirements/PDF/UR_S_pdf1 58. 1.pdf 2.PDF Page | .com/blog/detail/5-loadicator-tricks-that-can-ease-your-life-during- cargo-operation 5. https://www.myseatime.com/middleware/filemanager/userfiles/LIBRARY/InternationalConventi ononLoadLinesLL1966.