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Similarity

DISCOVERY In geometry you learned that two triangles are similar if they have the same

PROJECT angles. In this case, the ratios of corresponding sides are equal. Triangles ABC

and A⬘B⬘C⬘ in the margin are similar, so

a¿ b¿ c¿

A ⫽ ⫽

a b c

c b

Similarity is the crucial idea underlying trigonometry. We can deﬁne sin u as

B C

a the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse in any right triangle with an angle

u, because all such right triangles are similar. So the ratio represented by sin u

A⬘

does not depend on the size of the right triangle but only on the angle u. This is a

c⬘ powerful idea because angles are often easier to measure than distances. For ex-

b⬘

ample, the angle formed by the sun, earth, and moon can be measured from the

earth. The secret to ﬁnding the distance to the sun is that the trigonometric ratios

B⬘ C⬘ are the same for the huge triangle formed by the sun, earth, and moon as for any

a⬘

other similar triangle.

In general, two objects are similar if they have the same shape even though

Thales used similar triangles to ﬁnd

they may not be the same size.* For example, we recognize the following as rep-

the height of a tall column. (See

page 482.)

resentations of the letter A because they are all similar.

x d d⬘ x⬘

**If two ﬁgures are similar, then the distances between corresponding points in the
**

ﬁgures are proportional. The blue and red A’s above are similar—the ratio of

distances between corresponding points is 23 . We say that the similarity ratio is

s ⫽ 32. To obtain the distance d⬘ between any two points in the blue A, we multi-

ply the corresponding distance d in the red A by 32 . So

d¿ ⫽ sd or d¿ ⫽ 32 d

Likewise, the similarity ratio between the ﬁrst and last letters is s ⫽ 5, so

x⬘ ⫽ 5x.

1. Write a short paragraph explaining how the concept of similarity is used to

deﬁne the trigonometric ratios.

2. How is similarity used in map making? How are distances on a city road map

related to actual distances?

3. How is your yearbook photograph similar to you? Compare distances

between different points on your face (such as distance between ears, length of

* If they have the same shape and size, they are congruent, which is a special case of similarity.

2 nose. The ﬁgure illustrates a method for drawing an apple twice the size of a given apple. Give conditions under which two rectangles are similar to each other. 6. Discovery Project: Similarity DP6 . (a) How are the perimeters of the triangles related? (b) How are the areas of the triangles related? sc sh c h sb b a sa 7. and so on) to the corresponding distances in a photograph. Do the same for two isosceles triangles. (a) If two squares have similarity ratio s. we can conclude that for any two plane ﬁgures with similarity ratio s. their areas satisfy A2 ⫽ s 2A1. Explain how If the side of a square is doubled. 2a a 5. its area is multiplied by what factor? 1 2 (c) A plane ﬁgure can be approximated by squares (as shown). distance between eyes. show that their areas A1 and A2 have the property that A2 ⫽ s 2A1. (b) If the side of a square is tripled.) . its area is multiplied by 22. What is the similarity ratio? 4. Suppose that two similar triangles have similarity ratio s. (Use part (a). Use the method to draw a tie 3 times the size (similarity ratio 3) of the blue tie.

its satisfy V2 ⫽ s3V1? volume is multiplied by 23.3 Discovery Project: Similarity 8. 9. the volumes If the side of a cube is doubled. King Kong is 10 times as tall as Joe. (b) If the side of a cube is multiplied by 10.DP6 . use the results from Problems 7 and 8 to answer the following questions. how much material would a shirt for King Kong require? . Assuming that King Kong and Joe are similar. by what factor is the volume multiplied? 1 2 (c) How can we use the fact that a solid object can be “ﬁlled” by little cubes to show that for any two solids with similarity ratio s. long. (a) If two cubes have similarity ratio s. a normal-sized 300-lb gorilla. show that their volumes V1 and V2 have the property that V2 ⫽ s 3V1. (a) How much does King Kong weigh? (b) If Joe’s hand is 13 in. how long is King Kong’s hand? (c) If it takes 2 square yards of material to make a shirt for Joe.

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