The Paleolithic Age

www.jagranjosh.com |

The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age in India spanned from 500,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C in the
Pleistocene Period of the Ice Age. It was the first part of the Stone Age. During this period, man relied
on hunting and had no knowledge of cultivation and house building. According to the nature of tools
and the change in the climate, the Paleolithic Age in India is divided into three phases; Lower
Paleolithic (500,000 BC to 50,000 BC), Middle Paleolithic (50,000 BC to 40,000 BC), and Upper
Paleolithic (40,000 BC to 10,000 BC).

Chronology

In India Paleolithic Age was divided into three phases:

• Lower Paleolithic extended from 500,000 B.C. to 50,000 B. C. In India its sites were
discovered in Punjab, Kashmir, UP, Rajasthan etc.
• Middle Paleolithic extended from 50,000 B.C. to 40,000 B. C. In India its sites were found
around Tungabhadra River Valley and Narmada River Valley
• Upper Paleolithic extended from 40,000 B.C. to 10,000 B. C. In India its sites were discovered
in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Central Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, southern Uttar Pradesh,
and South Bihar Plateau

Characteristics

Summary- Paleolithic man was a hunter and food gatherer. He used simple chipped and chopped
type stone tools for hunting and other purposes. There was no trace of knowledge of agriculture and
building houses, hence no settled life. With the change in climate the humidity from Lower
Paleolithic decreased to a reasonable amount till the Upper Paleolithic Period, which could have
probably led to the settled lifestyle. It has been found that people survived consumed on roots of trees
and fruits and lived in hills and caves.
Body-Paleolithic man was a hunter and food gatherer. He used simple chipped and chopped type
stone tools for hunting and other purposes. There was no trace of knowledge of agriculture and
building houses, hence no settled life. With the change in climate the humidity from Lower
Paleolithic decreased to a reasonable amount till the Upper Paleolithic Period, which could have
probably led to the settled lifestyle. It has been found that people survived consumed on roots of trees
and fruits and lived in hills and caves.

• Lower Paleolithic Age mainly spread in Western Europe and Africa and early human lived a
nomadic lifestyle. No specific human group was the carrier of Lower Paleolithic period, but
many scholars believe that this era was a contribution of Neanderthal-like Palaenthropic men
(Third stage of hominid evolution)

• Middle Paleolithic Age was mainly associated with early form of man, Neanderthal, whose
remains are often found in caves with evidence of the use of fire. He got his name from the
valley of Neander (Germany). Neanderthal was hunter of prehistoric time. The Middle

The culture has been referred as the Osteodontokeratic culture. and scrapers etc. Tools used in Lower Paleolithic era were mainly cleavers. points. and skinning the prey. From artifacts. Hand axes and cleavers were the typical tools of these early hunters and food-gatherers. The use of polished fine cutting edge tools and mortars and pestles used for grinding grain also came into existence. and horns Tools Tools have been discovered from Chhota Nagpur Plateau. and hand axes. M. Didwana in Rajasthan. The dead were painted before burial • Upper Paleolithic Age was characterized by the appearance of new flint industries and Homo Sapiens (Modern type men) in world context.e. Hence he had no community life and lived in hills and caves. In this era. tools made up of bone.P. Paleolithic man was scavenger but few evidences of hunting and gathering were traced. This period covered approximately one-tenth time of the total Paleolithic Period but in short span of time. These tools were mainly used for cutting. choppers. awls. Kurnool. There are evidences of appearance of bone artifacts and the first form of art for the first time in Africa.). Splintered stones called eoliths have been considered the earliest tools. hammer stones.C.) • The Middle Paleolithic Period was majorly dependent on flakes which were used to make bores. and burins. teeth. the primitive man made greatest cultural progress. Stones found were very small and were called microliths. scrapers. This was the last part of the Paleolithic Age which gave rise to the Upper Paleolithic culture.000 B. and from Bhimbetka (near Bhopal. use of needles to sew furs and skins which were used as body coverings • Tools used in Upper Paleolithic Age were majorly large flake blades. Narmada Valley. Geographical Location . The lifestyle of this man was not different from that of Neanderthal and Homo erectus. • Lower Paleolithic population preferred to live near the water source because the stone tools are abundant near the river valleys. These tools were found from Belan Valley of Mirzapur (U. These tools were made from large and small scrapers. This contained the core tool culture including the tools made by chipping the stone to form a cutting edge. Stone tools of this period are of the flake tradition. the first evidence of fishing is also seen in places such as Blombos Cave in South Africa. the first stone tool fabrication started (including the earliest stone tools found today) and was called Oldowan tradition which refers to a pattern of stone-tool manufacturing by Hominid (Homo habilis).P. etc. For example. choppers. i. • Weapons: The Paleolithic people primarily used hand-axes as weapons which were used for hunting as well as for protection. and Andhra Pradesh and are nearly 100. digging. A crude pebble industry is also noticed in this period. the tools used were still crude and unsophisticated during early period of this age. • Community Life: The early Stone Age man was a nomad and had no knowledge of house building and agriculture. old.

rivers. UP • Bidwana in Rajasthan • Narmada Valley Middle Paleolithic • Narmada River Valley • Tungabhadra River Valley Upper Paleolithic • Andra Pradesh • Karnataka • Central MP • Maharashtra • Southern UP • South Bihar Plateau . and rock shelters.The Paleolithic people were entirely dependent on weapons and tools made from stone as they lived close to the hilly areas. caves. The important Indian sites of Old Stone Age are: Lower Paleolithic • Valley of Sohan in Punjab (now in Pakistan) • Kashmir and Thar Desert • Belan Valley in Mirzapur district.

to 4000 B. was the second part of the Stone Age. and also in southern Uttar Pradesh • Bagor in Rajasthan and Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh are examples of Mesolithic sites in India In Detail The Mesolithic Age (9000 BC to 4000 BC). . fishing. and food gathering and later on they also domesticated animals. central and eastern parts of India. animals. it has the characteristics of both the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age. It originated from the Greek word lithikos which means stone.C. This age was a transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age.000 B. A considerable number of painted rock shelters have been found in Bhimbetka. and food gathering while at a later stage they also domesticated animals. Madhya Pradesh • Mesolithic sites have been found in Rajasthan.C. fishing.C.000 B. fishing. it spanned around 9000 B. and human beings. This age is characterized by the appearance of Microliths (small bladed stone tools). which means Middle Stone Age. to 4. and food gathering initially but later on they also domesticated animals • The characteristic tools of this age were Microliths • The people of this age practised painting. which means Middle Stone Age.jagranjosh. This age was a transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age • The people of this age lived on hunting. Chronology In India. Characteristics The Mesolithic Age was a transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age. This age is characterized by the use of Microliths (small bladed stone tools).The Mesolithic Age www. The paintings depicted birds. south of the river Krishna. Thus. The word Mesolithic is a combination of Meso+lithic. it spanned around 9. The word Meso means middle.com | Overview The Mesolithic Age. The word lithic is related to the use of stone implements in a specified cultural period. Key points related to this period are as following: • In India.C. It has the characteristics of both the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age. was the second part of the Stone Age. It is a Greek word. Tools: The people of this age used microliths. The people of this age lived on hunting. The people of this age lived on hunting.

southern Uttar Pradesh as well as in central and eastern parts of India. Uttar Provides the earliest Pradesh evidence of burial. Mohrana Pahara Mirzapur. Geographical Location In India. and human beings. Their paintings depicted birds. Bhimbetka Madhya Pradesh It has more than 500 painted rock shelters. and characteristics are given below: Name of Location Characteristics Mesolithic Sites Bagor Rajasthan It had a microlithic industry and its people lived on hunting and pastoralism.Art: The people of this age practiced painting. Mesolithic sites have been found south of the river Krishna. Adamgarh Madhya Pradesh It shows the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals. Langhnaj Gujarat Provides the earliest evidence of burial of the dead. The list of Mesolithic sites. Rajasthan. their locations. . animals. Successor The Mesolithic Age was succeeded by the Neolithic Age.

was the last and third part of Stone Age. The word lithic is related to the use of stone implements in a specified cultural period. and barley.C. to 4. and goats.C.000 B.The Neolithic Age www. and mat- impressed ware • The Neolithic Age is significant for its Megalithic Architecture • The people of this period lived in circular or rectangular houses which were made from mud and reed. Neo means new or recent. Mesolithic. rice.C.com | Overview The Neolithic Age started in India around 7.C. adzes. chisels. Gufkral (Kashmir).C. and Eastern part (Bihar and Odisha) of India • Some of the important Neolithic settlements are Mehrgarh (located in Baluchistan. a province of Pakistan • Jarf el Ahmar and Tell Abu Hureyra (both in Syria) were the major Neolithic sites in Asia In Detail Neolithic Age. which means New Stone Age. and celts • Pottery first appeared in this age and included grey ware.C.C.) and 2) Mesolithic Age (9.) • The major crops grown were ragi. Pakistan).) and succeeded by Chalcolithic Age (c.000 B. Burzahom (Kashmir).000 B. • The Neolithic Age was preceded by Mesolithic Age (9.jagranjosh. The people of this age domesticated cattle. horse gram. Southern part (Karnataka. They resided in pits near a lake side and had hunting and fishing economy • The people used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stones as well as bones.000 B. to 4. It was the third and last part of the Stone Age. It originated from the Greek word lithikos which means stone. The Neolithic Age is mainly characterized by the development of settled agriculture and the use of tools and weapons made of polished stones. The word Neolithic is a combination of Neo+lithic. It originated from Greek word Neos.000 B. and Andhra Pradesh).000 B. The term Stone Age was first used in the late 19th Century AD and it was divided by the historians into different periods which are as following: Paleolithic.C.C. cotton. to 10.000 B. to 1. . North Eastern frontier (Meghalaya). sheep. and Neolithic.2100 to 700 B. At some places they lived in mud-brick houses • They had common rights over property and led a settled life • The Neolithic settlements have been found in North-Western part (Such as Kashmir).). black burnished ware.C. and Utnur (Andhra Pradesh) • The oldest Neolithic settlement in the Indian Subcontinent was Mehrgarh which is located in Baluchistan. Tamil Nadu. The other two parts were 1) Paleolithic Age (500.000 B. They used axes. wheat.000 B. Chirand (Bihar). Key points related to the Neolithic Age are as following: • The time span of the Neolithic Age in India was around 7.

. The use of metal was unknown. sheep.000 B.C. and barley and hence were termed as food producers. and goats.000 B. Chronology The Neolithic Age started in 9.C. That’s why pottery first appeared in the Neolithic Age. rice. The Neolithic Age was succeeded by the Chalcolithic Age (c. Architecture: The Neolithic Age is significant for its Megalithic Architecture.2100 to 700 B.C.000B.000 B.2100 to 700 B.C.). horse gram. In South India.000 B. cotton.C. wheat. to 4.000 B. Tools: The people used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stones. in world context but in Indian context it was varying from 7. They domesticated cattle. The North-western part of Neolithic settlement used rectangular axes having curved cutting edge. black- burnished ware. Agriculture: The people of Neolithic Age cultivated ragi. hand-made pottery was made but later on the foot-wheels were used to make pots.C. to 4.C. Some Neolithic sites found in parts of Eastern India and South India are only 1. old. in world context but in Indian context it started around 7. The ring stones of 1-1/2 kg of weight were fixed at the ends of these digging sticks. and eating the finished product.000 B. They used stone hoes and digging sticks for digging the ground. found in Burzahom (Kashmir) and Chirand (Bihar). Housing: The people of Neolithic Age lived in rectangular or circular houses which were made of mud and reed.000 B. people were required to store their food grains as well as to do cooking.000 B.000 B.C. Characteristics The Neolithic Age saw the man turning into food producer from food gatherer. and mat-impressed ware.C. the Neolithic settlements are generally considered to be around 2.000 B.C. Weapons: The people primarily used axes as weapons. The Neolithic Age started in 9.C.000B. The pottery of the period was classified under grey ware.C. old while the Neolithic sites discovered on the northern spurs of the Vindhyas are not older than 5. The Southern part used axes with oval sides and pointed butt while polished stone axes with rectangular butt and shouldered hoes were use in the north-eastern part.C. the Neolithic Age is mainly characterized by the development of settled agriculture and the use of tools and weapons made of polished stones.) and 2) The Mesolithic Age (9. Preceded by the Mesolithic Age (9.C.C.) and succeeded by the Chalcolithic Age (c.000 B.500 B. They also used tools and weapons made of bone. People used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stone. It also witnessed the use of pottery for the first time.C. arrange for drinking water. Thepeople of Mehrgarh lived in mud-brick houses while pit-dwelling is reported from Burzahom. Pottery: With the advent of Agriculture. to 1. Technology: In the initial stage of the Neolithic Age. the first metal to be used at the end of the Neolithic Age. to 10.) which saw the use of copper.The other two parts of Stone Age were 1) The Paleolithic Age (500. the Neolithic site found in Kashmir.).

They habited mainly the hilly river valleys. Kashmir. The people (the place of lived on a lake birch) side in pits. Jarf el Ahmar and Tell Abu Hureyra (both in Syria) were the major Neolithic sites in Asia. and Utnur (Andhra Pradesh). The first metal to be used following the end of Neolithic period was copper. and the slopes of the hills since they were entirely dependent on weapons and tools made from stone.C. Chirand (Bihar). Meghalaya (north-eastern frontier of India). Eastern India.C. and characteristics are given below: Name of Location Time Span Characteristics Neolithic Site Mehrgarh Baluchistan. 7. Some of the important Neolithic settlements are Mehrgarh (located in Baluchistan.700 B. South India. and Mirzapur and Allahabad districts of Uttar Pradesh. their locations. Produced cotton Pakistan and wheat and lived in mud- brick houses. Domestic dogs were buried along with their masters in their graves. Burzahom Kashmir 2. Chalco is a Greek word which means copper. Geographical Location The Neolithic people did not live far away from the hilly areas. They led a settled life. Gufkral (Kashmir). . rock shelters. They inhabited northern spurs of the Vindhyas. Successor The Neolithic age was succeeded by Chalcolithic (Chalco+lithic) Age which means stone-copper phase. Pakistan).000B. Burzahom (Kashmir).Community Life: Neolithic people had common right over property. The list of Neolithic sites. Lithic originated from the Greek word lithikos which means stone. Used tools and weapons made of polished stone as well as bone.

They Takkalakota. Karnataka 2. domesticated T.C. Practiced both agriculture & domestication of animals. . pottery. The people developed the practices of cultivation. weaving.000 B.C.000 Piklihal were Maski. to 1. Narsipur. Chirand Bihar 2. Limitation of the Neolithic Age Since the people of the Neolithic Age were heavily dependent on stones for making their tools and weapons. Used tools and weapons made of polished stone as well as bone. Kodekal.000 B.C. Used tools and weapons made of bone. Paiyampalli Tamil Nadu 2. Utnur Andhra 2.000 Pradesh B.C. This revolutionized man’s life and paved the way for the beginning of civilization. Their settlements covered only the slopes of the hills.C. domestication of animals. sheep. goats. Conclusion Considerable progress was made in Neolithic Age in terms of technology. B. and rock shelters. and writing.C. their production was never more than their basic subsistence. cattle-herders. Hallur. they could not settle far away from the hilly areas.Gufkral Kashmir 2. Moreover.000 B. Pikilihal. building houses.000-1. and cattle.000 B. hilly river valleys.000-1. Ash Sanganakallu mounds have been found. The people in Brahmagiri.

chisels. and rods • The people of Chalcolithic Age were expert coppersmiths. People practiced smelting and metallurgy. There are traces of a large number of children being buried which indicate lack of nutrition and outbreak of epidemics • People had no knowledge of mixing two metals hence couldn’t use bronze • People were not aware of the art of writing • In India. Almost 200 sites are discovered. and farming. coastal region of Konkan. Its settlements were found in Vidharbha. Ahar culture lay on dry zone of Banas River valley in Rajasthan. sheep. ragi millets.The Chalcolithic Culture www. Flat axe (Jorwe and Chandoli). 4 rectangular and 1 circular in centre of the settlement are found • Black-and-Red pottery along with OCP (Ochre-Coloured-Pottery) was used during this phase • People buried the dead in the floors of their houses in the north-south direction along with pots and copper objects. wheat. ivory carvers. Navasa and Daimabad at Ahemdabad. The cultures to use stone and copper implements were known as Chalcolithic which means stone-copper phase. Soangaon and Inamgaon at Pune. in Jorwe. and green and black grams • The major animals domesticated were cows. Chandoli. sheets made up of copper. For influential people large mud houses with 5 rooms. buffaloes. lime makers. and pigs • Traces of rice cultivation are also found • Cotton was produced in black cotton soil • Metals such as copper and its alloys were used to make knives. and Prakash and Nasik at Maharashtra • Ahar culture is placed in between 2100 BC and 1500 BC. goats. green pea. pins. bajra.jagranjosh. and bronze are found • Chalcolithic people could not make full use of domestic animals • They did not do much of cultivation as they lived in areas where black cotton soil was found • It was not a healthy period. Affluent people were buried with pots and jewellery • Jorwe culture existed from 1400 BC to 700 BC. The main occupations of the phase were hunting. fishing hooks. fishing. Key points related to Chalcolithic Age are as following: • The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. copper chisel (Chandoli) bangles. axes. It is also called Stone-Copper age • The Chalcolithic culture mainly had farming communities and they existed between 2000 BC and 700 BC • The major crops which were cultivated were barley. the Chalcolithic Age was mainly found in South-Eastern Rajasthan. lentil.com | Overview The first metal to be used at the end of the Neolithic period was copper which was used in addition to stone by several cultures. jowar. Western part of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and in South and East India In Detail . and terracotta artisans • Mostly mud made houses with single room are found.

lentil. Chronology Chronologically. The Black-and-Red pottery among them was quite common. and pig were reared and killed for food • Remains of camels are also found. ragi millets. Tools and Weapons • Metals such as copper and its alloys were used to make knives. The Chalcolithic culture mainly had farming communities and they existed between 2000 BC and 700 BC. goat. Burials . Along with the use of copper and stone these people also used low grade bronze to make tools and weapons. axes. People ate beef but no traces of eating pork are found • People of Navdatoli grew ber and linseed • Cotton was produced in black cotton soil • Traces of rice cultivation are also found. jowar. It was also called Stone-Copper Age. The Ochre-Coloured Pottery(OCP) was also in use. Pottery Different types of potteries were used by the people of the Chalcolithic phase. Agriculture and Animals • People of Chalcolithic Age survived on hunting. chisels. 4 rectangular and 1 circular in centre of the settlement are found • In Inamgaon. cattle. fishing hooks. Houses • Use of bricks was extensive during the Chalcolithic people of Harappa but there are no traces of burnt (baked) bricks • The planning of the houses was simple which was either rectangular or circular • The walls of houses were made from mud and plastered with cow dung and lime • The houses mostly had only one room. fishing. there are several settlements. buffalo. Eastern India produced rice and Western India produced barley • The major crops cultivated were barley and wheat. Some are Pre-Harappan or early Harappan (Kalibangan in Rajasthan and Bhanawali in Haryana) and some are Harappan and Post-Harappan. and farming • Hunting was one of the important occupations • Animals such as sheep. and rods 3. green pea. green and black gram 2. and in South and East India. ovens and circular pit houses are found 4. but sometimes multi-roomed houses were also seen • For influential people. Characteristics 1. Western part of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In India it was mainly found in South-Eastern Rajasthan. large mud houses with 5 rooms.The first metal age of India is called Chalcolithic Age which saw the use of copper along with stone. This shows that their food included fish and rice. pins. 5. bajra.

and terracotta artisans • Ornaments were made from semiprecious stones and beads such as agate. There was a remarkable difference in the sizes of settlements. jasper. and silk thread is found from sites in Maharashtra 7. and birds were used • The Black-and-Red pottery came into existence for the first time • People from Madhya Pradesh. in Jorwe. Use of stone axes was also seen • The settlement was near hills and rivers and several objects made of copper have been found from different sites • People lived in mud houses • Almost 200 sites are discovered out of which Daimabad near Godavari Valley is the largest (20 hectare and accommodated about 4000 people). These children were mainly from affluent families • In Kayatha region. Maharashtra. Art and Craft • The specialty of the Chalcolithic culture was wheel made pottery mostly of red and orange colour • Pottery was painted in linear designs. and bowls-on-stand • The people of Chalcolithic Age were expert coppersmiths. children were buried with necklaces around their necks or with pottery of copper. • People buried the dead in the floors of their houses in the North-South direction along with pots and copper objects • In Navas. Chandoli. ivory carvers. lime makers. and Prakash and Nasik at Maharashtra • The Maharashtra settlement was near semi-arid area of brown black soil with ber and babul vegetation • People used tiny weapons and tools such as blade and bladelets made of stone. Flax. One as large as 25 hectares and one as small as 5 hectares are seen. Navasa and Daimabad at Ahemdabad. mainly in black pigment and was decorated with different shapes • Designs of flowers. animals. chalcedony. dish-on- stands. and carnelian were used • People had knowledge of spinning and weaving. vegetation. This suggested social distinction 8. and Bihar produced channel-spouted pots. cotton. A large quantity of bronze material is found from here • A hierarchical distribution has been observed in the Jorwe culture. Ahar Culture • Ahar culture is placed between 2100 BC and 1500 BC • The earliername of Ahar is Tambavati or the place possessing copper • The settlement was found in Ahar and Giliund in South Eastern Rajasthan • Ahar culture lay on dry zone of Banas River valley in Rajasthan • The use of microlithic tools such as blades and stone axes was altogether missing . Jowre Culture • Jorwe culture existed from 1400 BC to 700 BC • Its settlements were found in Vidharbha and coastal region of Konkan. Soangaon and Inamgaon at Pune. bodies were found with 29 bangles and 2 unique axes 6.

These pots were used for cooking. storing. Use of lota and thali is seen • At some places where Neolithic phase transferred to Chalcolithic. copper chisel (Chandoli) bangles. Importance of Chalcolithic Phase • Chalcolithic area expanded throughout the country except for alluvial region and thick forests • People were settled mostly near hills and rivers • People used microlithic tools of stone and copper • They knew the art of smelting • They used painted pottery for the first time. barley. They lived in black cotton soil area which required iron tools for cultivation and there are no traces of plough or hoe • Chalcolithc phase did not show longevity. it was called Neolithic- Chalcolithic • Chalcolithic people were colonizers • In Peninsular India there was their large village and a large amount of cereal cultivation is known/seen • They grew wheat. Malwa Culture: It existed from 1700 BC to 1200 BC. sheets made of copper and bronze are found • People practiced smelting and metallurgy • People lived in stone houses 9. and eating. Mostly all used black and red. It shows Post-Harappan influence. Kayatha and Eran in Maharashtra. 10. • Flat axe (Jowre and Chandoli). drinking. wheel turned pots. It is found in Malwa. lentils. Inamgaion. Copper had its own limitations and its supply was also less • People were not aware of the art of writing and they could not gain any benefit from the technical knowledge of the Indus people Chalcolithic Sites in Indian Sub-Continent • Indus Region 1. Kayatha Culture: It existed from 2000 BC to 1880 BC. and Central and Western India. There are traces of a large number of children buried which indicate lack of nutrition and outbreak of epidemics • People had no knowledge of mixing two metals so they could not use the stronger metal bronze nicely. the dead were buried in north-south direction while in South India in the east- west direction Limitations of Chalcolithioc Phase The limitations of Chalcolithic phase were: • Chalcolithic people could not make full use of domestic animals as they used them only for food and not for milk (they thought that milk is for animals’ young ones) • They did not do much of cultivation. and rice • Fish and rice were the important foods • People from Kayatha. and Eran were well-off while the people from Chirand and Pandi Rajar Dhibi were poor • In Maharashtra. Mohenjodaro .

Telod 5. 2. Nagda 3. Hanumangarh 6. Navdatoli 2. Adkot • Narmada Region 1. Rangpur 2. Harappa 3. Amri 9. Channudaro 7. Suratgarh 5. Prashas Patan 4. Kausambi 2. Alamgirpur • Brahmaputra Region • Mahanadi Region • Chambal Region 1. Ashta • Rajputana Saurashtra 1. Lothal 6. Mehgam 6. Pseva 2. Jhangar • Ganges Region 1. Ropar 4. Paramar kheri 4. Tungini 5. Ghanta Bilaod 10. Bhagatrav 4. Pithadia 7. Bhilsuri 8. Takraoda 7. Bilawati 12. Hasanpur . Lakhabawal 5. Maori 9. Ahar 3. Maheshwar 3. Jhukar 8. Betwa 11. Rojdi 8. Metwa 6.

Nagarhalli • Karnataka Region 1. Umbraj 4. Anacji 6. Chandoli 3. Nivasa 5. Jware 2. Chanegaon 5. Karegaon 2. Prakash 2. Nasik 3. • Tapi Region 1. Maski . Hingni 7. Piklithal 3. Brahmagiri 2. Bahal • Godavari-Pravara Region 1. Daimabad • Bhima Region 1. Kopergaon 4.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.