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8/3(2016)103-111

**Carbon – Science and Technology
**

ASI ISSN 0974 – 0546

http://www.applied-science-innovations.com

RESEARCH ARTICLE Received:10/03/2016, Accepted:17/04/2016

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analytical study of the optimum mass flow rate of water in a natural circulation

solar collector

Dushyant Rathi *, Arbind Kumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra.

**Abstract: The work carried out in this project is based on analytical study. The performance parameters
**

of a natural circulation solar collector have been evaluated using the empirical relations formulated and

discussed in the literature. The study emphasizes on the method of evaluation of optimum mass flow

rate of water in a Solar Collector for a given inlet and outlet temperature of water flowing through the

collector. The mass flow rate of water in the collector has been evaluated using an iteration method. An

excel spreadsheet has been prepared to calculate the mass flow rate.

Keywords: Solar collector, Mass flow rate, Overall heat transfer coefficient, Heat removal factor.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Introduction: Solar energy can be effectively utilized for domestic purpose by employing a solar

collector. In a natural circulation solar water heater the circulation of water is directly proportional to the

amount of solar radiation received [1]. H. Buchberg et. al. have stated that for an effective solar collector

the distance between the tilted solar absorber and the glass cover should be within the range of 4-8 cm

[2]. Bukola O. Bolaji studied the system performance of a natural circulation solar water heater and

found that the performance is effected by both the flow rate and solar radiation intensity [3]. Problems

on heat transfer for a flat plate type solar collector were analysed by Wieslaw Gogol et al. and certain

quantities were determined that could describe the working of a flat plate solar collector better than the

collector thermal efficiency [6]. Study on various types of solar energy storage systems and types of

solar collector are presented with their pros and cons. For low temperature applications water is used as

the storing medium [7-8]. Suresh Kumar [9] in his paper proposed empirical relation for the temperature

of glass cover in a single glazed flat plate collector. Calculation of heat losses is necessary for the design

of a solar collector and it was found that the maximum heat loss is from the top of the collector through

the glass cover [10].

**2. Method: The work carried out in this project is currently based on analytical study. The performance
**

parameters of the solar water heater are evaluated using the empirical relations formulated and discussed

in the literature. The methodology to calculate different parameters that are useful for the prediction of

the performance of solar water heater and the heat storage system.

2.1 Calculation of overall heat loss coefficient of the solar collector:

U=Ut+ Ub+ Us (1)

2.1.1 The top loss coefficient, Ut [10]:

103

1.1.285 . 1708 < RaL cos β <5900 NuL = 0. 9. hcpg is then given by hcpg = (6) 2.157 (RaL cos β)0.3 The appropriate equation for NuL is then selected [3] NuL= 1 .2. Tech.252 .3 Calculation of radiative heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and glass cover.2 Calculation of convective heat loss coefficient. 8/3(2016)103-111 Ut-1 = [ hcpg + hrpg ] -1 + [ hw + hrga ] -1 + Lg/kg (2) The above analytical equation is valid only for solar collector with single glazing and the sky temperature is taken equal to ambient temperature.1.23 104 NuL = 0.446 {1-(1708/ RaL cos β )} . hrpg [10] 104 .1. India Carbon – Sci.. hcpg: 2.2.2.23 104< RaL cos β < 106 (5) 2.4 Convective heat transfer coefficient between the plate and the cover.229 (RaL cos β)0.1 ≤ єp ≤ 0.1 Mean temperature of air between the absorber plate and the glass cover is given by equation Tmean = (3) 2. The range of conditions over which equation (2) has been developed [11] are as follows: 323 K ≤ Tp ≤ 423 K 260 K ≤ Ta ≤ 310 K 0.1. Ltd. 5900 < RaL cos β < 9.95 5 W m -2 K-1 ≤ hw ≤ 45 W m -2 K-1 0° ≤ β ≤ 90° 2. RaL cos β < 1708 NuL = 1 + 1.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt.2 The value of product of RaL and cos β is calculated by equation (4) RaL cos β = g (4) 2.2.1.

4. Tech.1.1.1.3 Calculation of radiative heat transfer coefficient between glass cover and surroundings of flat plate collector.6 Calculation of bottom heat loss coefficient Ub = (10) 2. 8/3(2016)103-111 hrpg= (7) 2. hrga [10] hrga = (8) 2. hW [10] hw = 5.3 Calculation of solar flux absorbed by the collector: S = IbRb (τα)b + {Id Rd + (Ib + Id) Rr} (τα)d (13) 2.1 The effective pressure difference due to buoyancy forces responsible for a closed loop cycle in natural circulation system is made up of two parts as follows: ΔPt = ΔP1 + ΔP2 (15) 105 .1.7 Calculation of side heat loss coefficient Us = (11) 2.5 Calculation of heat loss coefficient due to wind.4 Calculation of optimum mass flow rate [4]: (14) 2.7 + ( 3. Tg [11]: (12) 2.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt. Ltd.2 Estimation of glass cover temperature..8 v) (9) 2. India Carbon – Sci.

© Applied Science Innovations Pvt.2 The buoyancy pressure in the collector [4] is calculated from the equation: ΔP1 = (16) 2. 106 . Tech.5. India Carbon – Sci. F’ F’ = (19) 2.5. FR: FR = (18) 2.4.1 Collector efficiency factor. 8/3(2016)103-111 Figure (1): Setup of a natural circulation solar water heater 2.3 The buoyancy pressure between the outlet from the collector and inlet in the storage tank [4] is calculated from the equation ΔP2 = )gH (17) 2.5 Calculation of heat removal factor. Ltd.2 Calculation of Effectiveness..4.

qu (23) 2.O.7 Instantaneous Efficiency can be calculated by using the formula (25) 3.Ta) (24) 2. 107 . From this equation it is evident that ṁ is dependent on the heat removal factor. the optimal mass flow rate. Tpm.. Tpm: 2. Tech. m= (21) 2.6. The convective heat transfer coefficient. 8/3(2016)103-111 = (20) where. [3]. If both the values differ then the obtained value of FR is put in the equation (14) and the iteration is carried on until the value of FR matches.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt. as proposed by Bolaji B. [4] is calculated.The glass cover temperature. For any mismatch in the value of Tpm. tfi. the value of Tpm is evaluated using the relations (22)-(24) and is compared with the assumed value of Tpm. ṁ is calculated. The calculation of Tg is done by assuming a value of the absorber plate temperature. Ltd. ṁ.1 The useful heat gain is given by qu = FR Ac [S – U(Tfi . The calculations and iterations were done by preparing a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. This is the first assumption in the iterative process. FR is evaluated using the relations (18)-(21). Results and discussion: The overall heat transfer coefficient has been calculated using the equations (1)-(11). The value of FR thus obtained is compared with the assumed value of FR. the entire iteration is repeated until the assumed and the obtained values matches.Ta)] (22) 2.2 Heat lost is given by ql = (S Ac) .6 Calculation of mean plate temperature.6. hcpg has been calculated by using the correlation (5) for Nusselt number as proposed by Buchberg et al. Hence from the equation (14). The instantaneous efficiency is finally calculated using the equation (24). By using this value of Tg.3 Plate mean temperature is given by ql = U Ac (Tpm . After this iteration is completed. All the calculations performed are for the location Ranchi (23°21’ N. The values of tfi and tfo can be taken from the experimental setup and a value of FR can be assumed. 85°19’48” E) on 1st September. Using this value of ṁ. FR and inlet water temperature. Tg [11] is estimated using the empirical equation (12). India Carbon – Sci. The mass flow rate relation is a heat balance equation given by (14).6.

FR: Figure 3 shows the variation of heat removal factor with time. Figure (3): Heat removal factor. 8/3(2016)103-111 3. FR is also found to reach its peak value of 0.3 Water inlet and outlet temperature: The variation of inlet and outlet temperature of water with time is shown in the figure 4. Ltd.13 kg/hr at time 3 p.1 Mass flow rate: The variation of mass flow rate of water through the solar collector with time as obtained is shown in the figure 2. India Carbon – Sci.m.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt. The mass flow rate as seen from the graph increases upto a peak value of 59.74 at time 3 p. FR Vs Time 3. and then reduces as the solar radiation and hence the plate temperature decreases..m. 108 . Tech. Figure (2): Mass flow rate of water through collector Vs Time 3.2 Heat removal factor.

Figure (5): Efficiency Vs Time Nomenclature: AP : Collector area. and its value is about 44. W/m2-K 109 . W/m2-K hcpg : Convective coefficient between the plate and the cover. Ltd. 8/3(2016)103-111 Figure (4): Water inlet outlet temperature Vs Time 3. W/m2-K hw : Heat Loss Coefficient Due To Wind. m FR : Heat removal factor F' : Collector efficiency factor hf : Heat transfer coefficient.m. W/m2-K hrga : Radiative heat transfer coefficient between cover and surrounding. η: The variation of instantaneous efficiency with time is as shown in figure 5. The maximum efficiency is achieved at 1 p.. m2 Cp : Specific heat. India Carbon – Sci. Tech.36 %.4 Instantaneous Efficiency. W/m2-K hrpg : Radiative heat transfer coefficient between plate and cover. m do : Outer diameter of tube.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt. J/kg-K di : Inner diameter of tube.

degree δb : Back insulation thickness. W/m2-K v : Wind speed. m єg : Glass cover emittance єp : Plate emittance : Efficiency ϴT : Angle of incidence. W Re : Reynolds number Rb : Tilt factor for beam radiation Rd : Tilt factor for diffuse radiation Rr : Tilt factor for reflected radiation S : Incident flux absorbed by absorber plate. W/m2-K Us : Side heat loss coefficient. Tech. K Tpm : Mean plate temperature. m L1 : Length of the collector. degree ϴz : Azimuth angle. m L3 : Height of the collector. m Lt : Length of tube. K U : Overall heat loss coefficient. W/m2-K Ub : Bottom heat loss coefficient. India Carbon – Sci.. m : mass flow rate. m L2 : Width of the collector. W/m2 Ta :Ambient air and sky temperature. W/m-K ki : Thermal conductivity of insulation. m Lg :Thickness of glass cover. m/s W : Tube centre to centre distance. 8/3(2016)103-111 Ib : Solar intensity beam. W/m-K kg :Thermal conductivity of glass cover. W/m2-K Ut : Top heat loss coefficient. K Tg : Temperature of glass cover. W Qu : Useful heat gain. K Tmean : Mean temperature of air between plate and cover. m Greek symbols β : Collector tilt/Latitude. degree ϕ : Effectiveness ρ : Density of water. kg/m3 ρd : Diffuse reflectance ρ1. W/m2 Id : Solar intensity diffuse. K tfo : Water outlet temp. W/m2 It : Flux on tilted surface. ρ2 : Reflectivity 110 . N/m2 δ : Declination. K tfi : Water inlet temp.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt. m δs : Side insulation thickness. kg/s NuL : Nusselt number Ql : Heat lost. Ltd. degree ΔP : Net pressure difference due to buoyancy force. W/m2 K : Extinction Coefficient of the cover material K :Thermal conductivity of air at temperature. W/m-K L : Plate to cover spacing.

O.. [4] Duffie J. Akhtar N.. degree Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge Department of Mechanical Engineering.. Mullick S.. Energy Convers.. J.O. [11] Mullick S. Edwards D. Eng. Catton I. 6 (2014) [14] Sukhatme S.. 8/3(2016)103-111 σ : Stefan–Boltzman constant τ : Transmissivity ν : Viscosity. Akhtar N. Mgmt 39 (1998) 1127-1138..M. [8] Kalogirou S.A.. Samdarshi S. Ain Shams Engineering Journal 3 (2012) 299-304... ASME Journal of Heat-Transfer 2 (2098) 182-188.FUTAJEET 2 (2000) 35-40. Institute of Heat Engineering 78 (1993) [7] Hasnain S.K....M. Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modelling: One + Two.. Jaworski A.C.Chand 8121926173 [13] Rosario A. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 3 (2013) 607-612. 978-0-07-463631-2 [6] Gogol W.Y. T. Beckman W.P. India Carbon – Sci... [2] Buchberg H. References: [1] Adegoke. Ltd.. Eng. [12] Rajput R. S.A. Bolaji B...K. Birla Institute of Technology. Wiley-Interscience publication 0-471-22371-9. Technol. m2/s Φ : Latitude. Solar Energy 66 (1999) 349-354. [15] Usmani A.H.© Applied Science Innovations Pvt.M. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 30 (2004) 231–295 [9] Kumar S. Prakash. [5] Garg H.. Intl.K. T. Mesra for their help in this study. [10] Mullick S. ***** 111 . degree Ѡ : Hour angle..O. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 110 (1988) 262–7.. Tech... [3] Bolaji B.A.J..P.C. C.C.H 0-07-451946-8.. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 1 (2006) 7-13.

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