Introduction – significance of ancient time
1. Commingling of cultures is a definite attribute of the period. Vedic texts ascribed to 1500-
500 BC. Sangam literature to period from 300 BC to 600 AD. Munda culture as distinct from
the Dravidian and Aryan kind.
2. Cultural Integration built into the common psyche of the public of the period. Tribal names
were enunciated in form of janapadas. However, the country would be named after the
majoritarian community, hence Aryavarta. Later names would conjure up like Bharatavarsha
or the land of the Bharatas,
3. Iranian words give Hindu, the name Hindu. S and H play causes them to call the Sapta-Sindhu
region as the Hindu, which maybe meant a district on the Indus. It neither indicated religion
nor community.
4. Samudragupta and Asoka’s image of a single integral unit India. This was respected by
foreigners as well. India as constituted geographically into a singular structure was respected
by even conquerors and cultural leaders. The post-Kushan rulers of Sind region would name
it Hindustan.
5. Looking at varna system as it evolves in the north, which would affect other communities
a. Clamour for restoration of an older culture. Sharma calls Indian society marked by
gross social injustice. Laws discriminate men against women.
b. Bringing of these facts into the present inhibits development of the individual and
the country. Barriers of caste and religion pull all of India’s posterity into a void.
Women’s role needs to be recognised
c. Understanding the past indeed helps us comprehend the obstacles that hamper
India’s future.

II. Modern Historians of Ancient India
1. 1776, Manu smriti as ‘A Code for Gentoo Laws’ when it was needed to administer Hindu law
of inheritance. Hindu pundits and Muslim maulvis would help in building a kind of
2. Asiatic society of Bengal would be established in 1784 by William Jones who would suggest
commonality between the Sanskrit, Latin and Greek languages. Abhijnanshakuntalam was
translated in 1789 by him and Bhagavad-Gita was translated by Charles Wilkins in 1785.
Similarly, other societies would emerge like Bombay Asiatic Society in 1804 and 1823’s
Asiatic Society of Great Britain.
3. William Jones’ bidding would see rise of Indological studies all over Europe. F. Max Mueller
would do the most out of England although a German. The British would realise the need of
understanding the local culture and hence work like Sacred Books of the East would emerge
under Mueller’s editorship. Understanding of the religion to find frailties inside it.
4. Certain generalisations were made about Indian culture and things like a lack of a historical
sense emerged. They would add that Indians were accustomed to a despotic rule. Came out
in V A Smith’s Early History of India, a pro-Imperialist history. Denigration of India character
was made into the tenets of these works.
5. Reactionary ways of seeing history emerged, which was upset by colonial distortions. This
way of history not only made way for reform and also a sense of self-government. This
included some through Hindu revivalism and other more rational bases like Rajendra lal

encircled by large pieces of stone. VK Rajawade and RG Bhandarkar in Maharashtra were not only writing histories but actively engaged in social issues like widow remarriage. DR Bhandarkar. 6. Multi shows a number simultaneously existing.6. RC dating. during the early Christian era.vertical and horizontal a. weapons. Archaeology as a source for proto and pre-history. Mound – elevated portion of land which can be single cultured. multi-cultured and major culture. b. Inscriptions – study called epigraphy. 7. Most coin mould made of clay came from Kushan period. b. Natural Sources and Historical Construction 1. a.ancient literature generally religious. Supplements of vedas include – shiksha(phonetics). also comprises Dharma sutras. Epics out of which Mahabharata or Shatasahstri Samhita (100. These were called megaliths. P V Kane’s work on social reform also showed in his history like History of the dharma shastras. Sign of trade and enables an economic history. b. Ritual literature like Shrautasutras(higher three castes rituals) and Grihyasutras(domestic rituals). Vertical means lengthwise excavating and digging. confined to a part of the site. a. first on stone. c. most famous being Panini’s Ashtadhyayi. d. c. Half-life is 5568 years. generally confined to one culture. nirukta(etymology). Cowries also use as coinage. jyotisha(astronology) and kalpa(ritual). few in number. They are generally very expensive. 3. ii. 7. It has 24000 verses. b. Literature as sources. H. . c. which is of a period. 5. Ramayana also has didactic portions added later. worked on political history to establish India had a sense of administration. chhanda(metrics). Single like Painted Grey Ware. rest of the vedas dated arounf 1000-500 BC. Major with one dominating with others of secondary importance. i. They are of one culture at a particular level. Stronger Hindu motives showed in works of RC Majumdar. c. These were called sutras. It can be divided to descriptive and didactic portions out of which the former of post-vedic period and the latter might be of post-maurya Gupta period. 2. Two kinds of excavations . Horizontal entails digging the mound as whole.000 verses) might be older. vyakaran(grammer). Coins – numismatics a. Nilakantha Sastri’s work on southern India was a first III. Excavations in drier semi-arid regions are in better shape than the ones in moist Gangetic plains. pottery. 4. e. Rig=1500 BC. Not older tgan 70000 years. Upanishads have philosophical speculations. Rayachaudhari. Some people’s graves In southern india also contained their tools.