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Use of arsenic contaminated sludge in making
ornamental bricks

Article in International journal of Environmental Science and Technology · August 2009


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H. M.A. Mahzuz
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology


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. a sludge is got that will contain this arsenic district in 1993 (Ahmed and Rahman. 2002. Leist et al. 1995. Also another study found *Corresponding Author Email: mahzuz_211@yahoo. Dhaka. co-precipitation and adsorption onto investigators in treating arsenic contaminated waste coagulated flocs. Most of the focus has been on awareness arsenic contamination problem has been reported from building and the development of water treatment almost every part of the country. 2002. N. 2001. Bangladesh 3 Department of Chemistry. 2003. CEERS. A. Bangladesh at Barogharia union of Chapai Nawabgonj Therefore. Sci. 2001. Keywords: Compressive strength. 291-298. Voigt for health or other purpose. revised 30 December 2008. Eriksen and Zinia. Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. Alam. 2001). © IRSEN. Sylhet. firing shrinkage. In this paper. effort is taken in order to use of such waste. M. Dutre biochemical actions of arsenic are coagulation of and Vandeeasteele. 2003. Bangladesh 5 Nagar Homes Ltd. dulpori INTRODUCTION Arsenic in ground water was first detected in arsenic and iron can be removed from drinking water.. Sylhet... Alam. Here. Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. The land and 35-40 million people are at risk of arsenic disposal of arsenic rich sludge generated from the poisoning-related diseases because the ground water treatment processes is one of the issues that have in these wells is contaminated with arsenic (Alam et received little attention from the sponsors of the al. Bangladesh 4 Mollick and Associate Ltd. accepted 17 January 2009. 5M. 6 (2). ion (Fuessle and Taylor. 80 % of Bangladesh system removing arsenic from drinking water. adsorption onto sorptive media.. The solidification or uncoupling of phosphyrylation (De.Int. 2R. 2000. Bangladesh 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 2003).. complexation with co-enzymes and Kameswari et al. IAU Use of arsenic contaminated sludge in making ornamental bricks 1 *H. available online 1 March 2009 ABSTRACT: Arsenic contaminated sludge can be substantially found from the treatment of arsenic contaminated ground water. cubes. Tel... Pal. Shih and Lin. and iron. Tech. Mahzuz. Mahzuz et al. Basak. 2000). contains ample amount of Iron that is also not good 1990. 3M. Smith et al. This study showed that arsenic contaminated sludge could be used safely up to 4 % for making ornamental bricks. Results of different tests indicate that sludge proportion is the key factor for determining the quality of ornamental bricks/tiles. Lake of proper management and reuse of this sludge can create further environmental problem as there is probability of mixing with soil and water.. Bangladesh     Received 10 August 2008. Sylhet. Since then. The compressive strength of ornamental bricks mutually decreases with increase of sludge proportion. Dhaka. 1996). the quality of bricks or tiles may be fallen considerably. Using the available et al. 2000). tapper tiles. The three major adverse technologies and the users (Akhtar et al. S.. exchange and membrane technique) technologies.. M. effectiveness of using this sludge during the process of making ornamental brick has been analyzed and justified. J. It is found appropriate by many (oxidation. A. It also stabilization process would be the best practical evident that the arsenic contaminated water also technology to treat the arsenic waste (Artiola et al. Sanchez et al.. proteins. 4R.: +8808 2171 5257 that the recommended proportion of contaminated . 1994). Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. The detailed study was made upon the suitability of sludge in making bricks. Vandeeasteele et al. Because upper than this limit. Environ. Spring 2009 ISSN: 1735-1472 H. Islam 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

A. 2000). syphilis. Therefore. After treating. sodium arsenate. 14 % moisture content. In Objective of the research agriculture. Some phenyl arsenic compounds such as arsenal acid 18 large scales arsenic and iron treatment plants are are used as feed additives for poultry and wine. leukemia. tuberculosis. when hypocrites capacity (> 90%) as well (Hemal and Zinia. Mahzuz et al. H. amoebic dysentery. But rapid urbanization is gradually making for the treatment of skin disorder. 2008. Arsenic tri-oxide is and aman season (monsoon rices) were 183 and 117 used in manufacturing of agricultural chemicals µg/kg. (Meharg and Rahman. calcium was carried to use this contaminated sludge in making arsenate and organic arsenic compounds are used as a product. Arsenic preparation was used Bangladesh. Sylhet. As medicine arsenic is used (Basak and Islam. glass and glassware. Shahjalal University of Science and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh. 2002). arsenic is used in the preparation at dyes.5 times higher in the boro Use of arsenic (winter) than the monsoon (summer) season. The the laboratories of the Department of Civil and total arsenic content of 150 paddy rice samples were Environmental Engineering and the Department of collected from Barisal. poisonous gas and transistor.. 2001). The time of completion arsenic concentrations varied from 10 to 420 µg/kg at of all the tests was from April to August. Small working actively in Bangladesh. Dinajpur. leprosy. All the tests were performed in parkperiod of time. Mean values for the boro (winter) fungicidal pests (Leist et al. 2003) and using it for beneficial purposes. industrial chemicals. Chromate copper arsenate.. It was found that Technology. pesticides. The the region and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. asthma. an groundwater used for irrigation was high and where attempt is taken to find a way to use the arsenic-iron these tube-wells have been in operation for the longest contaminated sludge. 2003). as a preservative in tanning and in the stringent and volume of generated sludge continues industry of textile and paper. and groundwater. the arsenic contaminated coming under increasing pressure to change. water sludge of arsenic-iron is produced. Homeopaths are also using arsenic as drug. At some places. (Dhaka University to increase. sodium arsenate Coagulation is the most common arsenic removal and zinc arsenate are used as wood preservatives. or low laying areas. A possible long. In this paper. as a component of As environmental regulations become more semiconductor. 2001). Kaunia and Chemistry. it is disposed off to nearby rivers etc. Keeping the above factors in mind. it difficult to find suitable landfill sites (Lin and Weng. etc. In another Incineration is costly and contributes to air pollution study.). Substantial amount of methyl arsenic acid it will definitely reduce the pollution of surface water. consistent Arsenic has found widespread use in agriculture with the much greater use of groundwater for irrigation and industry to control a variety of insect and in the boro season. recommended the use of an arsenic sulfide for the Landfills are commonly used for disposal of sludge in treatment of abscess. Each treatment plant amount of arsenic compounds continue to be used as generates about 60000-cft arsenic rich sludge per year drugs in some countries. 2008). 2003). of this contaminated sludge in brick making is up to 15 term solution appears to be recycling of the sludge %-25 % by weight. 2003). To solidified product is disposed off to a secure landfill determine whether this irrigation is good for site or it can be recycled as construction material like environment or not. which is likely to pollute surface Besides. it was found that the recommended proportion and landfill space is becoming scare. 2001). Bangladesh. herbicides. traditional sludge disposal methods are Hospital. M. (Rouf and Hossain. copper and lead alloys and pharmaceuticals. Comilla. Rice yields and grain arsenic concentrations were 1. 2001). arsenic compounds such as lead arsenate. It showed that can be shown to leach toxic pollutants within arsenic levels were elevated in zones where arsenic in acceptable limits (Rahmat. the research work copper aceto arsenite. a survey on arsenic levels in paddy bricks if it meets the specific strength requirement and soils and rice grain was undertaken. which has some economic values. 292 . respectively (Duxbury et al. sludge in brick making is up to 15%-25% by weight and diethyl arsenic acid are used as selective (Rouf and Hossain. technology (Johnston and Heijnen. One technique Arsenic contaminated groundwater is used that is available to treat hazardous waste is solidification extensively in Bangladesh to irrigate the staple food of that stabilizes and solidifies components of waste. (pesticides). They have sufficient removal since the fifth century BC. At present.

Environ. Then the basic strength.0 %. 1. sand and water with a which are made in the Khadim Ceramic Industry for ratio of 1: 2. 1: Different types of ornamental bricks 293 . the moulds were stripped was collected from arsenic.e. are shown in Fig 1.regia)..iron removal plant (AIRP) off and the cubes are further cured in water for 7 days.75: 0. Different types of ornamental bricks. Three cubes of each proportion of sludge were Upside Downside Tapper tiles Dulpori C.5 %. Sci. Int.291-298. 6 (2). Real estate companies Mortar in cube 6 shape is a measure to get use ornamental bricks according to the requirements compressive strength. Heavy metal content. 2. J. of Manikganj sadar of Manikganj District near the After 7 days. of cube is the mixture of cement. 1. It disposal of arsenic-iron contaminated sludge. A. various proportion of this research purpose. are used for decorative work. But total MATERIALS AND METHODS proportion of sand in manufacturing ratio of concrete The raw material (arsenic sludge) used for this study was not changed. 2). 2. These with a HNO3: HCl volume of ratio of 1:3 (aqua. M. the cubes were tested to check the crushing pourashava office (Fig.5 %.485. Spring 2009 ground water and the environment from uncontrolled physicochemical characteristics were examined. The mortar used in manufacturing of customer. the concentration of arsenic Ornamental brick and iron (Table 2) was determined by acid digestion Ornamental bricks are special types of bricks. H. includes determination of moisture content and pH. After 24 h.-5 Fig. et al. oven dried sludge (0. In the work. Mahzuz Tech. i.T.0 %.5 %) were mixed with sand by basis weight.

Again. The made without using contaminated sludge. which gives the 294 . The total methodology of manufacturing was mixed with clay soil on basis weight (2 %. Sand property analysis In this research. sand and water maintaining the same ratio of strength. Three bricks of each proportion of sludge were 1: 2. Compressive strength of these cubes was strength value. Three standard cube samples were also four types of ornamental bricks were also made. four types of ornamental bricks e. 4 %. 3. various proportion of sludge use.75: 0. Dulpori. All 1999). Tapper tiles. strength of ornamental bricks which have different The clay sample for ornamental bricks was collected sludge proportions with the standard ornamental bricks from Khadim ceramic limited (KCL) located at Khadim to identify the safe numerical percent value for practical Nagar in Sylhet. ornamental bricks is represented in Fig. At first. the RESULTS AND DISCUSSION clay soil was taken to the brick manufacturing machine. A. 8 % and 16 %) and clay was prepared in batches (3 samples for each proportion).3-3. After complete mixing. For concrete sand. The sand used in making the cubes was subjected the ornamental bricks are produced following the to different experimental procedures. sludge 89°58’ 90°02’ 90°06’ E Dhalesshwari R Gazikhali R Saturia 23°54’ Nalai Garpara Dhamari beel Jaigir Atigram Ka lga Dighi Umanandour ng 23°52’ N a hat R Manikganj Narikuli sadar Krishnapur Paurashava R ari 23°50’ shw Ghior Gangdub R al e Nabagram Betila mitra Dh Kaliganga R 23°48’ Singair Putail Barguna Bhararia 23°46’ Balirtek Harirampur Borundi Manikganj hat sadar upazila 23°44’ Hatipara 1 0 1 2 km Icha mat iR Nawabganj (dhaka) 90°00’ 90°04’ 90°08’ Fig. g. FM range is 2. 2: Sludge collection area made and took the average of crushing/compressive standard rule of KCL.5 and 1" × 6" are studied. They were made following the same tested and took the average crushing/compressive procedure. This was done to compare the compressive also measured for comparison of compressive strength. CT. 5 %. standard samples of those strength value.1 (Mobasher. Mahzuz et al. only with ornamental bricks were then tested for compressive cement. arsenic-iron contaminated M. Use ofH. 6 %.485.

From the figures. Spring 2009 Collection of arsenic contaminated sludge 1. the density Unit Values No.0076 ornamental bricks may be affected. 8 % 16 %. it is seen that Sludge property analysis the percentage of shrinkage increases as the amount The specified physicochemical properties associated with the suitability of sludge in use of Table 1: Physical properties of naturally iron-rich Sylhet sand manufacturing of ornamental bricks were determined Serial Physical property parameter Unit Values and the findings are represented in Table 2. of brick can be assured according to the degree of firing shrinkage. Table 3 shows the 5 Uniformity coefficient. 25 % and 30 % sludge Brick firing Firing shrinkage test Compressive strength test Compare the test value with that of standard bricks Report and presentation Fig.19 Density of ornamental bricks 3 Effective size (d30) mm 0. Determine of the moisture content and pH 3. 6 %. No.e. 4 %. Mahzuz 291-298.78 3 arsenic mg/g 0. J.6 295 . et A.Sci. 6 (2). 4 iron mg/g 15.89 comparison between the densities of ornamental bricks Tab le 2 : Physico-chemical properties of arsen ic-iron made without sludge and those made using different contaminated sludge proportion of sludge. M. Tech. From the data analysis. Environ. i. then the quality of 2 pH .42 2 Effective size (d10) mm 0. Table 1 represents the various physical Shrinkage during firing is unavoidable. The quality properties of Sylhet sand. it can be Serial Physicochemical property concluded that up to 4% sludge addition. 1 Fineness modulus 2. al. Oven dry at 105 o C for 24 h 2. H. Cu 3. 3 %. But when 1 Moisture content % 73.. 7.32 The density of ornamental bricks decreases with the 4 Effective size (d60) mm 0. parameter of ornamental bricks is not much affected. arsenic and iron Determine sludge characteristics Crushed clay Prepare brick mixture Mixing: 2 %.74 increase of sludge addition. Int. 3: Flow chart describing methodologies unique values to define the sand to a specified Firing shrinkage of ornamental bricks category.43 sludge addition is more than 4%. 5 %. 20 %. Determine of heavy metal content.

it was seen that up to 4% of sludge 16.23 156.47 0.27 0.78 198.08 2.39 Results from compressive strength test of mortar 5.76 10.5 2460 2381 2406 2416 1. is always as high as that of ornamental bricks made without sludge. It can be mentioned that in sludge strength of mortar increases with an increase in 296 . it can be concluded that sludge mixing is 5.0 2303 2351 2367 2340 CONCLUSION 1. H. 4.37 of compressive strength of cube.37 0.29 0. the maximum of 4 % (%) Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Average of sludge can be mixed as clay material safely.37 5. Table 5: Compressive strength of cubes The compressive strength of the ornamental bricks made using sludge lost their quality with the addition Sludge in Compressive strength (psi) mixture of more than 4 % of sludge.47 0. it can be said that 8.89 7.93 280.23 4. Again.20 0.0 128.75 18.54 303.31 0.12 174.0 0.48 0.36 285.0 0. Since the utilization of waste glass in concrete can cause swelling of the clay is much lower than that of sludge.27 194. 0 2864 2812 2825 2834 0.85 4. Different measurements of both clay. But the required shrinkage increases rapidly adding 4 % or more strength value must be maintained.0 0.83 14. even when just 0.64 not recommended in the manufacturing of mortar.3 when they were manufactured of cubes done using 2.5 1"× 6" sludge.14 9.43 297. tiles (%) Even at small proportion of sludge mixing the 0 5. Also.01 compressive strength of the cubes can be hampered.65 4.17 304.17 0.63 sludge was substituted as sand.04 285.0 0.0 101.sludge mixture and cube and ornamental bricks were carried out to evaluate the Table 6: Comparison of compressive strength (psi) factors that could affect the ornamental brick quality.33 194.0 128.5 2268 2287 2706 2278 This work tries to demonstrate a feasible way of 2.43 278. Use of waste as an aggregate on mortar may be an of sludge is added in the mixture.35 0.6 Arsenic sludge is not suitable as raw material in 16.08 10.0 5.5% 4.51 0.0 2161 2025 2146 2111 using arsenic contaminated sludge as a clay substitute 2.21 304.39 than 4 %.35 0.85 4.0 6.41 0. it is Sludge in clear that desired strength was not found when sludge Tapper mixture Dulpori C.46 281.T. From Table 5.46 187.0 12.5 1"× 6" shows that desired strength can not be found in cubes tiles (% ) 0 128. In this study. Sludge in Tapper The results of compressive strength tests on the cube m ixture D ulpori C .9 4.T. the firing effective management option.23 0.87 Therefore.46 0.77 253. Compressive of shrinkage. compressive strength of the ornamental bricks made using sludge.31 of cement increases with increase of arsenic (V) content (Minocha and Bhatnagar.26 0. Table 3: Comparison of density (gm/cm3 ) proportion of up to 4 %.5 1822 1772 1308 1797 to produce quality ornamental bricks.72 5.40 0.21 5. the proportion of sludge to the mixture (Table 4).0 6.60 212.55 4.18 addition. 2004).0 10.77 13.03 From the Table 6.41 0.04 280. A.50 0.17 194. Mahzuz et al.34 settling time of cement.36 8.50 0.31 285.0 0. 2007). M.60 6.40 4.52 4.0 98.37 Presence of arsenic (V) reduces the initial and final 6. 2. Based on the results 5.5 1"× 6" was mixed with clay soil in the manufacture of cubes. the firing shrinkage of Sludge in ornamental bricks is below the bricks made without Tapper mixture Dulpori C. Thus.45 0.23 18.41 11. 6.07 8.25 4. compressive strength 16.2 arsenic contaminated sludge.17 194.18 5. But it increases when sludge addition is more tiles (%) 0 0. cubes made using the arsenic contaminated sludge were Table 4: Comparison of firing shrinkage (%) tested for compressive strength.36 manufacturing of mortar in cube shape.0 119.T. cracking and weakening due to expansion by alkali– an addition of sludge to the mixture widens the degree silica reaction (Park and Lee.0 4.0 109. For example.0 0.

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