By Adam Hollingworth

Respiratory Equations
Partial Pressure of Gas
• Partial pressure of gas = concentration x total pressure
Eg dry air had 20.93% O2
@ sea level pressure = 760mmHg ∴ Po2 @ sea level = 20.93/100 x760 = 159mmHg
• When air inhaled it is warmed & moistened
Water vapour pressure = 47mmHg ⇒ total dry gas pressure = 760 – 47 = 713
∴ PIO2 inspired air = 20.93/100 x 713 = 149mmHg

Alveolar Gas Equation
• Allows relationship between fall in PO2 & rise in PCO2 which occurs in hypovent can be calculated
F= small correction factor (~2mmHg)
PAO2 = PIO2 – PACO2 R = respiratory quotient (~0.8)
+F ! determined by CO2 prodction/O2 consumption
R ! ie metabolism of tissues in steady state
PIO2 = composition of inspired gas

Fick Principle
- = application of Law of Conservation of Matter
- uptake (or output) of a substance by a tissue must be equal to difference between amount entering
tissue (flow x arterial concentration) and the amount leaving the tissue (flow x venous concentration)
- rearrangement of the formula:

flow = uptake / A – V concentration difference)

Blood flow/min = O2 consumption/min
Conc of O2 in pulmon artery – Conc O2 in pulmon vein

Eg cardiac output:

CO = 250mls O2/min
200mls O2 (art o2 content) – 150mls O2/l (mixed venous o2 content)

= 250/50
= 5 L/min
O2 flux or Delivery
Do2 = CaO2 x CO
Measurement of VQ Mismatch
• In practise use alveolar-arterial PO2 difference
• Need to calculate predicted PAO2 & use alveolar gas equation:

PAO2 = PI02 - PACO2 • Measured arterial PCO2 used for PACO2
+F • PIO2 = inspired alveolar PO2
R
• Then A-a difference = PAo2 (predicted) – PaO2 (measured)
• Should be <10

• Eg pt breathing air at sea level has 149 – 60 = 74 mmHg predicted PaO2
o Inspired Po2 149mmHg 0.8
o a measured PaO2 of 50mHg ∴ 74 – 50 = 24mmHg A-a difference
o measured PaCO2 of 60mmHg ! high ∴ VQ difference
Resp Equations - 1

CaO2 = arterial blood O2 content C vO2 = mixed venous blood content. Mixed Expired PCO2 (PECO2) = Volume of Tidal Volume (VT) PaCO2 Shunt Equation Qs = shunt flow Qt = CO Ccʹ′O2 = O2 content of end capillary blood.8 o F is ignored as so small Mechanics of Breathing Boyles Law • PV = K • Pressure x volume is constant (at a constant temp) Compliance • Change: ∆volume / ∆ pressure Surface Tension Laplace’s Law: 4T or 2T T = surface tension R = radius r r ! when only one surface is involved ie liquid lined alveoli need to change law: Reynold number: D = density Ra = 2rvd V = average velocity R = radius n N = viscotity Poiseuille Law R = resistance R= 8nl r = radius N = viscocity πr4 L = length • double length ⇒ double resistance • half radius ⇒ x16 ↑ resistance • viscocity & not density effects pressure-flow relationship Bohr’s Method • Calculates physiologic dead space Volume of Dead Space (VD) Alveolar Expired CO2 (PACO2) . Qt-Qs = flow through the lungs Qs = (Cc O2 – CaO2) ʹ′ Qt (Cc O2 – CvO2) ʹ′ Resp Equations . By Adam Hollingworth o R = 0. 2 .

9 O2 Concentration of Blood Oxygen concentration of blood: (ml O2/100ml blood) Hb – gm/100ml = (1.8 x 10/15 = 13. 3 .003 PO2 Po2 mmHg 100 Bicarbonate • bicarbonate formed by CO2 + H20 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3- Carbonic anhydrase Resp Equations .39 x Hb x SpO2) + 0. By Adam Hollingworth Diffusion Capacity of Lung • Diffusion capacity of lung for CO = Volume of CO transferred (ml/min) / Alveolar Partial pressure of CO (mmHg) DL = VCO PAco Pulmonary Vascular Resistance • vascular resistance = input pressure – output pressure blood flow Water Balance in Lungs net fluid out = (Pc – Pi) – o(πc – πi) x k Pc = capillary hydrostatic pressure Pi = interstitial pressure O = reflection coefficient ie effectiveness of capillary in preventing proteins across it πc = osmotic force of blood πi = osmotic force of interstitum Hypoventilation • alveolar ventilation and PCO2 relationship: PCO2 = CO2 production x constant Alveolar Ventilation O2 Saturation • O2 saturation of Hb = percentage of available binding sites which have O2 attached ! calculated by O2 combined with Hb O2 capacity x100 O2 Capacity • O2 capacity = 20.8ml O2/100ml blood in norm Hb ie 15g/100ml ! ∴ if anaemia of 10g/100ml capacity would be 20.

4 .03PCO2 • bicarbonate concentration determined by kidney • PCO2 by lung Resp Equations .1 0. pK value = 6. By Adam Hollingworth pH • pH resulting from solution of CO2 in blood & dissociation of carbonic acid given by Henderson- Hasselbalch equation: H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3- or pH = pK + log HCO3.

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