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Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian dispute (1885)
Theophilus F. Rodenbough

Rodenbough, Theophilus F., "Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian dispute (1885)" (2011). Digitized Afghanistan Materials in English
from the Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection. Paper 261.

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Ameer of ICabal. . Abdurrahman Khan.The Ruler of Afghanistan.






nowin$hlie AJbc~ncdsof RUSSIATOWAR~S INDIA M O N G 0 L I A TURKEY JN A SlA .

AFGHANISTAN AND THE ANGLO-RUSSIAN DISPUTE. t h e greatest Christian nation finds itself allied with the followers of Buddha and Mahomet against Russia under t h e Banner of the Cross. In a religious sense it embodies a crusade against Oriental fanaticism . that upon a question of tem- poral gain. and it is a curious feature of the Anglo-Russian dispute.m~ of Asiatic Iife to the enlightenment and higher moral development of a Euro- pean age. In one scnsc this advance is a practical reestablishment or extension of t l ~ cinfluence of the Aryan race in coun- tries long dominated by peoplcs of Turlci or Mongolian origin. THROUGH THE GATES OF ASIA.. INuniversal history there is no more interesting subject for backgroun for the consideratioir of t h c political student than the d. in another sense it has resulted in a transition from the barbarism or rude fo1. I .. record of Russian progress through Central Asia.

Peter next turncd his attention to the countiy bordering upon the southern shores of the Caspian S e a . but the great cxpense of maintaining a large garrison so remote from Russia.. " -- _ . " i . however. voluntarily submitted to Russia. In the same year Abul-Khair.. in 1732. and Liltl~areffto the Black Irtish.. and a certain amount of industrial prosperity. supposed t o cxist in those regions. t h e detachment under Beltovitch being entirely dcstroyed after reaching IChiva. to restore the districts to Persia. induced thc Russian Government. in 1722-3. ancl the unhealthiness of t h e locality. Twenty years later a small strip of the kingdom of Djungaria. if as yet it has not been l 1 made to blossom as thc rosc. the I<han of the Little Kirghiz Horde. but failed in their object . on . but by military expeditions . who in 1716-17 sent two exploring parties illto the Central Asia11 deserts-13eltovitch t o IChiva. 2 APGHA NISTAN. with t h c consent of the Shah and of the Sultan he acquired. T h e descendants of the grcat Peter have opened up in Central Asia a new regioil whicll. Russia cornmenccd her relations with Central Asia as early as the sixtecnth century. taking advantage of Persian embarrassments. . Not only through embas- sies sent." has nevertheless profited by tile introduction of law. Mazanderan. -. the provinccs of Gilan. These expeditions were undertalten in search of gold. _ ~ _ -. these. order. Authorized gov- ernment expeditions commenced with Peter the Great. at that time were private ventures by roving Cossacks and other inhabitants of Southern Russia. and Asterabad.

was absorbed. . the robbcr-raids into Euro- d his pean Russia and Western Sibel-ia almost entirely ceasing. thc Irtish. and in thc intervening ia as district. stcppe between the Ural and Volga of the Calmucl<s. 3 the Irtish.3 THE G. road. With se o f the Central Asian Ithanates there was no connection ex- . rllzl11 . Petersburg to render homage. and were nearly destroyed on the goy. TfIROUGf.but as regarded the Turcomans. always selected undcr Russian influence and from time to timc appeared at St.4TE. by the cleparturc from the :r. inter- ersia. 011 good road to Southern tle "within the lines. that of complete ) t h e tranquillity.a n d cept that of trade.reat. course was discouraged.Y O F ASIA. had frequently aslted for Russian protection. and desiring to expel the . as they could not be trusted . who. Russian authority was as- sertecl and maiiltainecl over thc broad tract from the AItai to the Caspian. The lines along the Ural and 11-tish tirely gradually acquired strength. and toward the coinmcncement of thc reign of Catharine II.who a11d flecl into Djungaria. by the I<irghiz. it ~ssian is said." being simply bandits. in consequence of the dcvelopinent of trade :arch through Orenburg and t o sotne extent through Troitsk their and Pctropaulovslt. The connection between Russia and Central Asia at ntra1 this time assumed another character. . During Catharine's reign the frontier ilomads nba5. ~ ~ ettyl The Emperor Paul imagined that the steppes offered a a. This occupation was limited to a linc of outposts along the Ural.. became reduced in numbers. 111er11 Thc allegigncc of the Icirghiz of the Little and Central 'rsian Hordes was expressed in the fact that their Ichans were f t h e .

tvhilc a t t h e same time a fort was constructcd on the lower Yaxartes. T h c death of the Ernperor of Russia put an end t o this plan. "Thus. afterwards sta7zitsas*) until the most advanced of them touches some natural barrier. A t tllc time a treaty was concluded with Napoleon. and even the Chinese made raids into Russian territorywithout interruption. several advanced military settlements of Cossacks were founded. During the reign of Alexander I. and in 1845-6 thc orenburg and Ural (or Targai and Irgiz) forts were established. through tllc districts of the Littlc I-Iordc. A P G f I 4 NIS T AN. bark a t Astcrabad and march froin thence illto India by way of IChorassan a11d Afghanistan. Central Asia was suffered to rcst." says M. by virtue of which a combiilcd Russo-Frcnch army was t o "was inaugurated t h e policy which afterward guided us in the stcppe. f~ om Southcrn Russia . In 1846 t h c Great ICirghiz I-Iorde acknowledged ils subjcctinn t o Russia o n the farthcr side of the Ballcash. it was discovered that t h e system of military colonization was morc effectual in preserving order in the Orenburg district than by flying detachments sent.. In thc third decade of the present century. in the year I 800 he despatched a large numbcr of Don C O S S ~ C ~under ~ S . the foundation of advanced settlements and towns (at first forts. English from India. . Orloff." About 1840. as occasion required. then First Consul. * Cossaclc settlements. Veniul. however.

and between t h c Aral . Between Perovslcy and Vernoye there ltary were upwards of four hundred and fifty miles of desert j M. lents Here. and. I n 1852 . she prepared to swallow them. and. . in the midst of t h e Great Horde. Another row of forts was the planted on the Lower Yaxartes. and in 1854 far t o t h e eastward. more or less con- into tiguous t o natural boundaries (motntains and rivers).boa-constrictor. and. and of Tashkent in 1865.vard and Caspian seas there was a gap.arge I n 1847 the encroachlnents of Russia in Central Asia the had brought her upolr the borders of the important \vas khanates of IChiva and Kholcand. open t o the incursions of brigands. M. Finally. under the pretext of closing tural this $9 the side of I<hivn. favorable for raids into the Orenburg Steppe from . like some huge rtue . but cade not a close line." fort And this historian tells us that t h e Tashkendees declined the honor of becoming the Czar's policemen in this way. t o cut t h e matter short. limiting itself t o forming rgiz) a closed line oil the south of the Kirghiz steppes. evidently foreseeing t11e end. two hundred miles in nced width. was built Fort was Vernoye-the foundation of a new lime. culminating under Gen- n of eral Tchernayeff in the capture of Aulieata and Chemlcent ving in 1864.Veniulcoff says : "The Government intended and to halt in its conquests. left rghiz it t o thc sedentary inhabitants of Tashkent t o form a the separate khanate from the Kholtand so I~ostilet o us. a general convergent movement of the Siberian and Orcnburg forces the inevitable military expedition was followed by the a by customaly perrnallc~ltpost.

and furnished the Icrasno- vodsk-I<hivan caravans with camels and drivers. on the Attrek. on that point Bf thc east shore of the Caspian. pass . or the banlrs of the Attrelc. and estab- lished a comn~ercial linlc with the IChivan rcgion. P Here we inay glance at the tnethod by which Russia took firmer root on the shores of the Caspian. and as a base of operations against the Turcomans." car- ried the Czar's mails to Ichiva. Several military expcdi- I tions set out from this point." thus separating Bokhara and I<hol\rand. In 1869 the Shah had been rather officiouslyassured that Russia urould not think of going below the line of the Attrelc . and every year dctachmcnts I 1' of troops were despatched to keep the roads open toward Ichiva. made an ineffectual resist- ancc. Within five years (1870-'7s) the ilomads living within the routes named had become "good Turcomans. and urges " geographical ignorance " of the locality wheil the assurance was given. Thc fcw Central Asian rulers whose necks had so far escaped the Muscovite heel. 6 AFGHANISTAN. and the fact that part of her restless subjects. Tchernayeff. as Colonel Veniulcoff shows. But t h e colonizatioil scheme on the lower Caspian had once more brought the ~ u s s i a h to s the Persian boundary. 4 chose the Russian general. and in 1866 I-Iocljeni and Jizalch wcre duly I 4 "aiinexcd. the Icepet Dagh. yet. she now regrets having corn- mitted herself. In 1869 a military post and seaport was planted at Krasno- I vodsk. who were at I that time very troublesome. which presents the greatest facilities for shipping. as their Ichan.

Cnsp i a n . but becoming disturbed by ~g c o r n . :ion. was uItimatcly annexed uncIer the 1cc" of name of the Fergana Province. eight months of the year in Russian territoi-y aild four in d so far " so-called " Pelria ." equal. and after t h e usual and. TIIROUGZf TFIE G A T E S O P ASIA. grammes given by t h e civilized conqueror t o t h e con- But tllc quered barbarians. wliich Attrelc. General I<aufmaizn I llussia in 1573 pounced upon that important khanate. In Ichiva is indcpcndent." IS$ the T h e district of IChokand. i t is therefore ~ ~ difficult o t to imagine nl r e s i s t . In 1868 Russia seized Sainarcand. but nevertheless collects ancl pays I<rnsn 0. defined her subordinate relation to Russia. I t will doubtless interest . Ichudoyar Khan. yct. ltl estab. whose ruler. the probable change on the map of that quarter. was lor a number of . domestic dissensions. They are instructions in a polite form. 7 ir Khan. as years nominally independent. A s the distinguished Russian alrcady quoted cxpedi. to Russia a consiclerable contribution annually. a ~ i destablished over :. and the execution of ivhich is guaran- c(: Inore teed by the immediate presence of a military force. re duly The march continuecl towarcl Ichiva. n ~ l c las the lchanate of Bolthara a similar supervision t o t h a t in ) were at: Ichiva. pass count of the Russian advance. in 1868 and 1873. remarlcs : " T h e programme of thc political existence of chments Bolcliara as a separate sovereignty was accorded to her by i toward us in the shape of two treaties. But n o one . and thus.L 11'0 U 1d submitted himself to Russia in 1867. thc fact T o this point we have followed Colonel Veniukoff's ac- :I\'. Nominally.~vit11 i 11 1001~sat these acts as the treaties of an equal with an cat-- IIS. or pro- Icrasno. added anotller to the jewels of the Empire. iron-hand-in-velvet-glove introduction. .

was final. officers. toward India. I t was seen that where her T foot was planted it never went back. and that the conquest. and Mr. o She aimed mainly a t three things-the establisllment of n order and of confidence and t h e obtaining of some rcturn s for her own heavy expenses. I t was seen that a6 with forces comparatively small she never failed t o effect tv any conquest she was bent 011.and that she substi. 1884. iilcludi~lgLord Chelmsforcl. is tuted one far better in itself and of a simplicity which was well adapted to the people with whom she was dealing. Among other things. This security in possession was ct owing in grcat measure t o the fact t h a t the governments A she displaced were bad governn~ents. from some degree of anxiety caused su by the steady. F r o m t h e establishment of L order and of confidellce sprang a prosperity which en- . of the British Army. Sir F. Lieut. and many distinguished . the reader to continue the narrative from an English view. General Hamley said : dc "Probably England has never been quite free.-General Sir Edward Hamley. Charles Marvin. tl. gradual approaches of Russia through ta Central Asia. May IG. I-Iaines. once effected.8 AFGHANIS TAN. Lord Napier of Mag- dala. discussed the Central Asia11 question before an audience comprising such India11 experts as Sir Ilenry Rawlinson. and Colonel Malleson. exceptionally accurate and dispassionate in its naturc. during the present century. I n a lecture before the Royal United Service Institu- tion in London.

it is not t o be wondered at that we . TIIRO UGH TfIE GA TES OF ASIA. under ed ! autocratic. Prctexts. in 1878. there . though entirely inadequate to her expenditure. men and thirty- two guns on the frontier of Bokhara. And seeing behind this advance a vast ian country-almost a continent-which was not merely a ag. I t has ever beell the practice of Russia. but. to combine her diploinatic with her military machinery . in the direction of Kabul.eY watched with anxiety her progress as she bore steadily down toward our Indian frontier." General Hamlcy says that England became particularly suspicious of Russia in I 867 wheil she absorbed Tsrkcs- tan. Thus we bcheld her pressing solidly on. and we knew not where she might it~l. xrd were never wanting on yhich to ground a fresh absorption ian of territory. and this feeling mas intensified in 1878. 9 abled her t o obtain a certain revenue. unlike other nations. irrcspoi~siblerule. but a great European Statc. in her schemes of aggrandizement. A t the time that General Kaufmann sheathed his sword under the influence of the Treaty of Berlin. while the Treaty of Berlin was still pending. yet the British commander then operating in ts Afghanistan kncw that Kaufmann had proposed to marc11 ti. great Asiatic Power. such as it was difficult t o find a flaw in. the ambas- sador has generally been subordinate to the general. and menace the British frontier. Gcneral Icaufmann assembled a small army of about rz. and although upon the signing of the treaty all threatening movements ceased. wit11 interests toucl~illgours d 11 at many points.

who fled from the scene of his misfortunes. Find- ing that this scheme was impracticable a t the moment. There were still great natural obstacles between the empires of Russia and of India. with troops. another remonstrance met with thc reply that thc mission was " of a professional nature and one of simple courtesy. Shere Ali. nor was intended to be. the day after Stolietoff and his mission had started froin Samarcand. Not only the friendly state of Af- ghanistan. remained another representative of Russia-General Stolietoff-who had been quietly negotiating with the Ameer of Afghailistan. sent to Kabul. T h e real nature of this mission be- came kilowil from papers foulld by General Roberts at Kabul in 1879. eitllcr by the linperial Governineilt or by General I<aufinann. but on its northwestern border the neutral ." This denial was given on July 3d." and was not. Peters. For the moment England breathed more frccly. I-Iearing of this. the English Ambassador at St. These showed that Shere Ali had beell invited to form a close alliance with the Russian Govcrn- ment. illconsistent with the pacific assur- ances already given. A FGHA NISTA N. the terms of a " Russian treaty. Russia dropped the Ameer. therefore. General I<aufmann had advisecl Shcre Ali to try and stir up disaffection among the Queen's Indian sub- jects." whose characteristics have already been described. burg questioned the Russian Minister. promising to aicl him. After the envoy's arrival a t Kabul. eventually. and died soon after. who answered hiin "that no mission had been.

and evcn to some extent t o carry forward that base beyond the Oxus. On the part of Russia. and inllabitcd by warlike tribes of Turcotnans difficult t o reach through their deserts and likely to harass a Russiail advance to Herat to an embarrassing cxtcnt. For a long while these were unsuccessful. but early in 1884 it was cabled to Lonclon. 1880. and when the Khan of IChiva proffered his services for the settlement of their rclations with Russia. January 24. that the possession of this territory would at once free im Russia from much difficulty in case of an advance and give her the means of threatening I-Ierat as well as Kabul from her base in Turltestan. hitherto an independent province. T h e tales they brought back were well calculated to influence the minds of a wild and primitive people . The impression created by the gorgeous ceremonial was heightened by the presence of so many Asiatic chiefs and kinglets at the ancient and historic capital of Russia. that scction of the Teltke tribe in favor of peate accepted them. marlted thc beginning of negotiations with the Turcolnans for tlle acquisition of Merv. and . the success of General Skobeleff in capturing thc fortified position of Geok TCpC. and promised t o allow Russian merchants to reside among them. II territory of Merv. The immediate cause of this event was the effcct pro- duced upon the minds of the Turcoman deputation t o Moscow by the spectacle of the Czar's coronation. I t was seen ss. that "The Queen of the World " had accepted the White Czar as her future liege lord. T f I R O UGIJ T R E GA T E S OF A SJA . The chiefs tendered their formal submission to the Czar.

de . at the rcqucst of the I<han of I<l~iva. and a joint commission of Russian and English I officials was appointed early in the year I 885. . and a collision seemed I. I I Pending an adjustment of the new complication both nations prepared for the worst. pledged themselves to maintain the security of the routes from the Oxus to the Tcjend . Here we will leavc the subject of the Russian advance through the Gates of Asia and pass to the consideration of the present neutral ground of Afghanistan. Giers' explanation of this encroacl~mcntunsatisfactory. T o all intents and purposes it is equivalent t o the establisllmcnt of a Russian garrison in Merv. imminent. T h e English Government considered M. I2 AFGHANISTAN. 1 i This action alarmed the Afghans. I While the English inembers of the commission under 11 / Sir Peter Lutnsdcn were awaiting the convenience of their foreign colleagues. also accepting the responsibilities of Russian subjects by rendering tribute either in money or by military service. Tlle thorough way in w l ~ i c lRussia ~ seeks to bind her Asiatic subjects is sllown in the fact that in 1884.a Russian tutor was selected to instruct his children. the presence of Russian troops was reported on the disputed territory in the vicinity of I-Ierat. These later movements again aroused the distrust of I England. Soon after it was reported that the Russians had established themselves a t Saraklls on the direct road to 1 I EIerat and just ovcr the Persian boundary of Afghanistan.


On the north I3 D . I t is a m o u i ~ t a i i ~ o ucountry s . the butcher of Delhi (1738-39) . Men of renown and evcnts of world-wide interest have been conncctcd with its history. eigh- t e e n hundred years before t h e birth of Christ. in thc hymns of the Iildiail Vedas. " the divincly favored Maceclonian. ovcrloolted by lofty inountain rai~geswhich open o u t and sink toward the west and soutl~. f?om Persian I<horassan t o the valley of the Indus. of the great ruler.000 square milcs. ON THE THRESI-IOLD O F INDIA. 1000) . and yet earlier. the assailer . 6. the a~lllihilatorof t h e civilization of ancient Asia (1218-24). stretches thc coulltry of thc Afghans. of Shah Nadir. of t h e world (1398) . of Genghiz Khan. of Timul-. I t s records tell of the murder of Cavagnari in recent tiincs. and from east to west 736 milcs. D. the founder of Mongolian rule in India (1520). F r o m t h e Amu Daria and the Turcornail steppcs t o tile descrts of Bcloochistan." Afghan history dies away. of Alexander.000 fcct above t h e sea. Sultan Mahmoud (A. T h e territory of Afghanistan--which is dcstined to be t h e arena of a great international duel-covers an area of 12. of Baber Ichali. a high plateau. of the tragedy of Elphinstone's colnlnand (1838-42). or a tract measuring from north t o s o u t h 688 miles.

T h e Turnulc valley. Kabul.some of whosc peaks are rg. and forage is scarce in the minter. a1s Of the principal rivers noted here (the Helmund. and zoo miles. Icuram. I-Iar. including the Auran Mountains (7. and by several sinallcr ridges. 1 ern Afghanistan. t11c Suleiman range.000 fcet. JO i-Rrfd. running northeast from Icandallar. t o the south of Jelalabad. T h e country is othcrwisc open and easily n1 traversable. a t 80. T h e latter . These rivers are without bridges. Betwcen the Icabul ? and and Icuram rivers rises the snow-capped Sufeid Icoh. respec- tively. T h e Helmund terminates in the so swamps of Seistan. and I<( Herat rivers. I 50.000 feet. save in the months of April of and May. the and I principal peak of which. attains 1 the an altitude of feet ! ~ upc 0 t high . tl is followed by the great route to Ghazni and Kabul skirting n the Guilcok range-separated from the Hazaristan to its west by the parallel valley of the Argandab. of an average height Gii of 9. to the west of it. falls rapidly toward thc valley of t h e Indus. by the wall-lilte range of E the Hindu I c ~ s h . and the Gomal) the Ilelmund riv alone is navigable. but only on the main routes can water be readily obtained. ant Between the Hindu Itash and the Suleiman ranges there f Hc are several lesser oncs stretching toward the southwest. Fa. which reach to thc Amu Daria. TOthe south of this.000 feet). running parallel to the I-Ielmund across the ro Icandahar-Hcrat roads. el but (with the exception of the Helmund-provided wit11 st ferry at Girishk) are fordable. Farrah. in South. as also do t h e Kas11. t vall it is bordered by thc western ranges of the Himalayas.

I5 ~alayas. Threc routes from ICandahar t o Herat separate a t I~eigl~t Girishkon the Helmund. still loveliness of the sheltered glcns on the southern slope of that range strongly impresses rlahar. to its T h e eastern half of Afghanistan is generally cold and Iatter rugged. ICabul and there is no coinmunicatioil west of it bctwccn Herat 11. sorncwhat under cultivation. but sustains innumerable floclcs and herds. the source of tlle Turnuk. From Girishk also a road follows the Helmund to Seistail and Lasb I. ON THE THRBSITOLR OF ZNDZA. T h e scenciy is April often wild and beautiful. valley is also followcd by a routc which enters it from ~ n g of e Mooldur. which is 230 miles from ICandal~ar. Farrali. where it joins the I-Ierat road at Farrah o n the llnund river of that nainc. I-Iar. elevated flat-bottomed valleys. and soine of the defiles t o the casily north of the Iliildu Itash are said to bc of appalling tcr be grandcur. both of the soutl~crnmostpassing by thc town of :I1west. eespec. and meet at Sabzawar (280 rniles from ICai~dahar)011 t h e . and ICash down the river named Rash. or at Sabzawar on the Herat. joining the Seistan ss tlie route a t Lash. there Herat . while the soft. in the vicinity of t h e 1 with streams. cross the ICash at diffcrcnt points. T l ~ e in the southernmost of the routcs to Farrah also brancl~esfrom I. This debouches g o feet upon the Ilerat road abqut ten iniles west of ICandahar. the ancl Kabul. Soine of the ranges in the :il-tillg north and northeast are well tiinbered with pine and oak. T h e general aspect of Afghanistan is that of a series of :-id ges. save by impracticable mountain routes across attains the I-Iazaristan. South. the traveller who visits them. I11dus. and . Jowain.

Afridis. how- . Hazaris. Their sense of independence. Uzbclcs. [(affirs.000 may be real Alghans who profess the Suni faith and spcalc Inclo-Persian Puclitu. Thus the Duranis.000 fighting men living in the triangle-Kabul. Iihelat-i- Ghilzai . Jelalabad. Water and fodder abound. but 'fuel is de6- cient . I-Iindus. There are over four hundred inferior tribes ltnown. Ghilzais. Waziris. The western part of Afghanistan is a more fertile region. the mou~ltainous eastern border is inhabited by thc Momunds. with lofty rangcs. but comprising many pleasant valleys and pastures. Eim$~lcs. I<izilbashis. I n the more sheltered valleys considerable fruit is grown. The Duranis are numerically strongest and live in the vicinity of I<andahar. a serious matter. T o the south of the Gbilzais live the Puchtu- speaking races who chiefly defend only their own territory. Aralczais. of thesc about 3. Biluchis. Afghanistan is a genuine society of different nations. until 1747 they furnished the rulers of Afghan- istan. estimated at 30. abounds in mineral wealth. are near neighbors.000. Tajilcs. The population is approximately estimated at eight millions. Next in importance are the Ghilzais. Yusafzais. AFG((/IN(STAN. Zymukts. Tlle strongholds of the German self-protecting federa- tions ai-c here produccd on a large scale. but only grain enough for the actual consumption of the inhabitants. it is truc. interspersed. as the cold in the winter is extreme. Jats. although the greater part are of Persian descent. who have never been subdued. especially lead and sulphur. Arabs.


ltnown as the Hazaristan.I8 AFGHANIS TAN. they are the descendants of the military settlers left by the Tartar hordes that swept Central Asia under' Geilghiz Khan. The Persian-spcalring I<izilbashis ' k in Icabul. The L Hazaris and EimAks are in the central section of Afghan- istan. as already described. cxtending east and west from the I<oushan pass over the Hindu-ICtish range to Marchat on the Turcoman frontier. many of whose 30. between ICandal~ar and Herat. including Turks.000.000 fighting men are in the Ameer's regular army. they cordially detest the Afghan Govern- ment. I- Finally there is a million of foreign nationalities. and still maintain a quasi- independence . a large number of tribes occupyiilg sub-districts. Armenians. Within each district are. the last- named are I-Iindus. does not prevent them from selling their frieildship 1 for ready inoney to the highest bidder. Persians. and violent antagonists of the Moham- medans living around them. On the water- of the Helmund and Indus dwell the independent Pathails and Biluchis. comprise 3. Kabul in the east. but pay an annual tribute in money to its support. closely connected ' . who are ilot Afghans. Indians. with the seat of gov- ernment at the cities of the same names respectively. and Icandahar in the centre. The Tajilcs-about IO. Thus it is seen that modern Afghanistan comprises three great districts-Herat in the west. ever. and north and south ) from Sirpool in Turltestan to Girishk. and Icaffirs .000 of Shiahs.OOOmen -are chiefly in the Kabul and Ghazni districts.

rding : last- rliarn- . 1.rises 1 the vcl y.1clship is-atcr- ndent: bashis e IIO~ 11 the I lnen The 'ghan- 1vcst rgc t o soutll d aliar li tary mtral JLIasi- lvcrn- >port. .u-gc xtcd .

The principal gardens are always on the outsidc of the castle. They are ignorant. tive manners and customs and irregular military forces. like the cells of a honey-comb. and more modern of these. in no instance numbering lcss than 6. and cover .. the doors are gen- erally mere man-holes. having frequently turrets at the corners. AFGHANIS TAN. and occasionally armed with swivel-guns or wall-pieces. The better class. but each with its destine.table-lands of the mountain ranges. the walls surrounding are at least twelve feet high. hospitable. and con- h sists of woollen and camel-hair fabrics and clarified butter. Many of these render militaiy scrvicc to t l ~ Amcer. Their principal trade is with Herat. The farming population all live in small hamlets. have flat roofs. The better classes of these live in villages surrounding or joined to the castle of a Khan. divided about equally into horse and foot. who live in tents. and the top of the towers are loop- holes. encamping in winter in thc valleys.000 men. from which the water is carried by spouts. In the Bori and Ghazgar val- leys the houscs are of wood. and brave and ardent hunters. Thcse castles are encompassed by a rude wall. The notnadic tribes-like the EimAlts peopling the Heratic region-live principally in tents. In the Ghazgar valley they are all fortified. and in suinmer on the. as already described . e many are bandits in the worst sense. and often twice that number. and the herds of horses and camels belonging to the Khan are kept at distant pastures and attended by herders.


cess . Samson. These semi-barbarians are noted forthe length and ferocity of their feuds. instead of with they li the usual heavy chain. the Malik. Sometimes Easter two branches of a family w11o are neighbors become enemies. carried on Afgba by long shots. another method is to pay organ forfeit of a feast and some shcep or cloth . They burning his neighbor's corn." virtuc These feuds are a system of pctty warfare. ancl said: ' I have not an enemy! ' ancier. by the The distance between their " fortlets " may be two hun. and are well treated. I t was a pleasing exception to the rule. and burning crops. wild. when the neighbors step and r in and effect a reconciliation . They go out at opposite gates and wallc straight from their own fort in a line protected by its walls from thc fire of the their othcr. Three or four such houses usually constitute a village. Broadfoot relates that " once in Zarmat I saw a town 1 fort shut by rolling a stone against the door. stretched his arms out toward the are IIC line of distant forts. but they are given in marriage. neither party dare sleep. a fine old man with a plump. on that space no one ventures. Tllt T h e remedy is sometimes for both t o fight until an equal homer number are killed on each side. dred ~ a r d s and . sion. stealing cattle. nearly an acre of ground. good-humored face. On inquiring as to the cause of onsla such carelessness. until out of range.22 A FGIIANIS TAN. indep When the harvest is nearly ripe. Our space does not permit an extended reference to trool the manners and customs of this primitive people but a to th . acted just like an Afghan. then they turn around to their betwe fields. a few Afghan virgins are substitutcd for the sheep. in exceptional ular 1 cases.

their prowess in arms. and are followed by long 1the heir days of idleness. well-equipped. O N T H E TBRESfIOLD OF I N D a . and disturbances are a t times necessary to their very existence. but only bccause this is an ancient custom which has t h e force of law and is not a virtue which springs from t h e heart. they would be of great value to their allies and extremely troublesome t o their enemies. as partisan troops in their own country. Though full of duplicity. T h e love of rimes are war is felt much more among Afghans than by other Eastern peoples. a Ca town life does not soften their habits. they live there as lith they live in a tent. their independence. As auxiliaries. sion. )uses few characteristics m a y be briefly noted. I n reg- ular battle the Afghans can have but little hope of suc- ' cess . They boast of their descent. armed to the teeth and ready for the onslaught. by them to augment t h e means of resistance and aggres- I. and cap all by "An1 I not a Puktan?" The Afghan people. . There is no shade of difference between the character of the nomad and t h e citizen. although but little effort has been made 1 ics. one is nevertheless liable to be talcen in by their apparent frankness. T h e pride of the Afghans is a marked feature of their national character. mountainous country. occupied with the defence of their homes. organized. They are hospitable to strangers. have failed t o assist the Ameer in t h e formation and maintenance of t h a t indispensable instrument-an . fighting. their strength lies in the petty warfare peculiar to a wild. during which they live on the fruits of their depredations. Pillage.a0 bwn 1u11. easily mobilized army.

while he gets on his head the picturesque Indo- Afghan turban. says : " T h e Afghan's national costume consists of a long shirt. or. and dirty linen clothes . a sword. poniard. and had not had their short trowsers so tightly stretched by their straps that they threatened every moment t o burst and fly up above the knee. he affects a British red coat. T o be quite h In ?fzode one must carry about one quite an arsenal. T h e traveller VdmbCry. drawers. H e throws it over his shirt. hand- jar. near Herat. VAmbCry also describes a drill of some Afghan regulars. The strength of the organ- ized army in the service of the Ameer of Afghanistan is about 50. if he is a sol- dier. one end of the cloth pulled up in front so as t o resemble a small cockade. gun." M. and scouting purposes. and shield. consisting of two pistols. " The men had a very military bearing. Others again-and these are the drazr- monde-are wont to assume a half-Persian costume. who visited Herat in 1863. whether civil or military. courier. far better than the Ottoman army that was so drilled forty years ago.000 men of all arms. Weap- ons are borne by all. . they would doubtless be most efficient. AFGUANIS TAN." The adventurous O'Donovan thus describes an Afghan cavalrymail whom he met unexpectedly. These might have been mistalcen for European troops if most of them had not had on their bare feet the pointed Icabuli shoe. in 1880: " H e wore a dark-colored turban. Rarely does any one. For outpost. enter the bazar without his sword and shield.

tan is Ibkry.would Drgan. Veap- . ?s if nted S SO :ned . :e an land. long a sol- er his Indo. drill than ago. 6enz~. civil zield. in the ~de.ban . .

" and lcnown as Jezailcl~is." rifles. about five rupees per mensem. and seventy-six field guns. A PGXA NIS T AN. equipment. o o omen. early resented the British Government in that country in various their n diplomatic capacities. these the men were obtained by compulsory levy. H e had sabre. as ten years later the British Government supplied wit11 the Afghan Government with ~ o . and instruc. regular army of the Arneer consisted of sixteen regiments barely of infantry. pistols. and very recently surro (1555) it was announced that a present of Martini-Henry tiofis rifles and improved field guns had been sent t o Abdurrall. Thl tion of the troops' have doubtless improved since that Amec time. stated (some years since) that the cover. in the The infantly regiments numbered about 800 Inen each. I The actual fighting strength of the army of Afghanistan men i cannot be definitely stated. A Russian report of 1868 estimates the infantry sound at ~ o . who has rep. Major Lumsden.000 Th Snider rifles and one field battery. three of cavalry. His uniform was blue-black. The armament. with two very large brass exp& bucl~les. T h e cavalry and artillery were a sorl badly l ~ o r s e d . fl The broad blaclc leather cross-belt. and he wore long boots.crosscd his breast. summer. and ll Tk carbine. Their uni. was whent paid irregularly and often in kind .e Ju '' in hill operations. active and forinidab1.000 men. they man b y the Indian authorities. T h e pay. . two months' pay was refres: deducted for clothing. pose! ~ e s i d e s the regular army there is a paid irregular detac mounted force of about 20. and the horses were sent t o graze in marti. o o oEnfield and 5. troop: ' I A: form consisted of English cast-off clothes purchased at auction.

1t1y sounded very strangely. A n Afghan will throw himself flat. in the ground with his left clbow as he loads. mingling with the notes of war. Just as it is difficult t o understand the rapidity with ." *LI C. T h e late Gcncral Colin Maclrenzic. requiring great mobility. T h e Afghans are said t o be among the bcst marks- stan men in the world. in small detachments. They are accustomed to arms from r-cp. by reason of their peculiar tfy surroundings. which. says : " T h c Jczailchis are so called from their jezails or long rifles. troops. they form an important consideration . and scoop a hollow L1 I1 S . I must mention that 1vas whenever the Jezailchis could snatch five minutes to was refrcsh tl~emsclveswith a pipe. must vaiy with the character of t h e opera- 11-y tions. T h e Russian General Staff have also estimated the hat Ameer's force. and are most skillul in talring advantage of tl-te covcr. >00 T h e efficiency of this body. one of them would twang 'ere a sort of a rude guitar as an accompanime~ltto soine in martial song. 1 at "As a trait of Afghan character. at 66. in an account of his expcriences in the Elphinstone disaster of 1842.400 men ied with 30 guns. h these only require training to lnalre first-rate irregular u11 i. exclusive of t h e irregulars. Mcn lilre ~ c. for aggressive pur- poses their strength lies in partisan operations. behind a stone cnts barely big enough to covcr his head. live in a chronic state of warfare with ious their neighbors. F o r defence-particularly of their own section- ah. early boyhood.

o t ~the Kontl to Ali Musjitl . 13 CUTS. . S.C.Uorli in I'esi~wur of I<nntlal~nr. . 37 All Afg11n11Post-Chaise . . . . T h e IZt~ssia~l Lines of Atlvnncc from their Uasc of Supplies . . . . Sir P. . froru I'isllin. . . . . LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . Iilinibcr Pass . Fiiloniispiece. . . . .C. . . . . 93 . 89 Enlriurce Lo the Uolnn I'ass. . . . First hfarch frotn Umnian. . . . a Hoolcie i<l~elAfreedi 1 ' " Zool R ~ ~ t l d nall T l ~ City e r . . . '5 33 Castlc of Zohik. . n Dnhzr~l~gi Pozai 611x1. . 71 Detail of Elepl~cuitSaddlc . 67 Elephant wit11 Artillery . . . . Afgl~nnistanand Lhc Surrountli~~g Territories (Drawn fur this Work and Corrcclctl by Lhe Lalest hIiIitary Surveys) . . JCol)crts. 19 IClinn 33nz. .. . ' ' . Icr~nnrRiver . . . 39 Gntc of tbc Bnzaar nt R n l ~ d . . . V.from Gl~nzni .1i. . . from Ilntlur . T h e Asiatic Terrilorics Absorl~cdby Russia U u r i i ~ gtllc Past Two CcnLurics.Afgllnnistnn l . IChnn of Pest Llolali Jel~nndad(Lol~anir). 17 \trollie hlohnn~n~erl. . . . L11ro11ghw l ~ i c ltlte ~ M ~ u g l ~ aflows l> 125 Jelnlabail. . EnLralice to Ll~eI<hojak Pass.urge in the Tirl)and-i-Tarkcstall. a Shit~ivarri(hlusirinl~] 1 EIazarn ' ' . . . . . Mnhaz l<l~nn(A ?'ajiL). 83 Fort o f Ali h[nsjitl. .B.between finnclal~nra11t1Gllnzlli . ' . 87 T h e Isiil~olaTcpc. . . . I. Adant X l ~ c Afreetli hlousn. 81 \frntcli Tower in the ICl~aihcrPass .. . . . Encz' of Vol. 75 Noall's Valley. . . in Ll~c Khniber Pass . . fro111 I ' i ~ ~ c r IIill 's . . 57 Xl~clnt-i-Gltilzi. nri~11the Dntcs of thc Various Auucxntiol~s . . . . . Irik R~)ailLo l i a l ~ u l . . Going to t l ~ cFront . . . . n hixilbrsl~. 127 . n Iihumbhur I i l ~ c lAlrccrli Tooro Bar. . on t l ~ cI i a l ~ u lRiver. . . . 85 Fort of Uakkn. . . . .123 (. . on t l ~ el<oa(lLo Gnndnl~nr 97 Tlic Orilcr of hlnrch in Cclltral Asia . . 41) hIajor-Gcneral. . . . Ameer of I i a l ~ u l . Abtlttrral~ma~l Khan. from the IIeigl~tsn l ~ o r cLnln Cliecnn. 1 ' .

posil ing the so-called Key of India-the city of Herat: 1 a That which distinguishes Herat from all other Ori. and at the same time constitutes its main de. while outsi they adopt the rble of peaceful inhabitants. states eng that the city is nothing more than an immense redoubt. of : and as it is crowned by a wall 25 feet high and 14 feet lev thick at the base. General Fer- rier. arms in the villages they pass through. and is further protected by a ditch 45 feet in tho. whic A brief description of some of the more noted cities of quat Afghanistan may be appropriate here. the place could not hold out for twenty days against a European a r m y . Whether the place is really as strong as it loolts has been differerltly estimated. A61 and gives it as his opinion that. . so the dispersing of an Afghan army very together with its attendant masses of tribal levies in flight teriol is almost beyond comprehension. width and 16 feet in depth.28 AFGHANISTAN. supported by about I50 semicircular Ru: towers. as the line of wall is en. which large numbers are assembled in Afghanistan for Khan fighting purposes. hanc Sir Henry Rawlinson gives the following details respect. is the stupelldous character of the earthwork upon Her which thc city wall is built. it presents an appearance of k arrr imposing strength. the tirely without flanltiilg defences. and meet their the c pursuers with melons or other fruit in their hands. in 1846. who resided for some time in Herat. This earthwork averages tinu 250 fcet in width at the base and about 5 0 feet in height. we l fence. and M. hanc ental cities. men who have beell actually engaged in hand-to-hand combat dispose of their east .

I-Ierat might be rendered secure against any possible re- newal of the attack by Persia. and repairing the walls througl~out. beat off the con- tinuous attacks. hand. terior of the city is dominated from the rising ground 700 been yards distant and covered with solid buildings at the north- of t h e i r east angle. m a i n de- we have only to remember that in 1837 the Afghans of Irk u p o n 1 averages ci. clearing the glacis and esplanade. which would iilclude the expenses of deepening 1 is en. for nearly ten months. the wells and reservoirs inside the wall. all experience testifies to the defensibility of the position.. under Major Eldred Pottinger. was a 'lan a r m y L in n i g i ~ very acute observer.000 regular troops supported by fifty pieces of artil- lery." . and in many cases directed and even commailded b y icircuIar I Russian officers. at an outlay of edoubt. al- feet in thougli in its present state quite unfit to resist a European lance s s t r o n Ofg army. lnd AT. calculated in 1840 that. £60. although not a professional soldier. who. Major Saunders. of Timur. providing 2t h o l d flanking defences. the ditch.000. Herat.. while the water supply both for the ditch and let t l ~ e i r the city would be at the mercy of an enemy holding the d a while outside country. which could then alone be available-being quite inade- 1 cities of quate t o the wants of the inhabitants: but on the other / respect.. further rcmarlts that the whole in-. and of Ahmed Shah. possesses great capabilities of defence. t: " Not t o speak of the siege which Herat sustained af the /her Ori- hands OF Genghiz Khan. / i s t a n for Khaniltoff. s t a t e s engineer officcr. of a Persian army of 35. a British 5. I O N TaE TLYRESFIOLD OF INDIA. and might by a skilful adaptation of the resources of modern science ral F e r - be made almost impregnable. T h e truth seems to be that Herat.

eventually t o lose its identity in the environs of Sarakhs. T h e aqueducts are stated t o be superior to those of Bokl~ara. t o the north. and Turkestan gives it a spe. Four. is watered by a net-work of eight or nine large and many minor ditches. while a t one quarter of the greater distance runs the Her-i-Rhd or I-Ierat River. 1 cal j cia1 importance in a military sense. which. then decidedly. and Ispallan. i i The location of this city upon the principal thoroug11. and the vines have the merit of special excel- . This valley is tic about thirty miles long by sixteen in breadth. The natural ! rll WC fertility of the couiltry near Herat has been enhanced by irrigation. Persia. The Plain. orjzl&nh (as the Persians say). south of the walls. and comprises 8 nu extensive manufactures in wool and leather. The grain produced is abundant-beyond the requirements of town and suburbs together. for it passes between the Per- sian and Afghan frontier posts of Kallriz and Khs6n respectively. and may be considered t o mark the Perso- Afghan boundary at the Western Paropismus. it sweeps. I t is of political as well as of geographical importance. rising near the Kuh-i-Baba. 1 ler fare between India. first gradually. exclusive an of the ground taken up by the fortress and the walls. AFGHANISTAN. passing the city. in which the an city lies is rich in the possession of a river.Samarcand. of these miles separate the town from the northern C ba and twelve from the southern hills. the water. T h e bread. ne "The valley. I t is also the tin I principal mart of Western Afghanistan. pursues a westerly course till.

J. 3I lence. going to and fro. I t is. capable of subsisting an army of 150. and.400 feet. being absoIutely destitute of drainage . The city of Kabul. " Journeys Between Herat and IChiva. having suffered the horrors of a long siege. and VAmbery. within a short distance to the north. thirty-three years afterward." . on dry land. however. rapidly falling into decay.b O N THE THRESHOLD OF INDIA. On the rising of thc waters this state of things is inconvenient . can scarcely be considered void of purpose or prac- tical men for some time. stands in lat. *Sir F. barren of object. The ruins visible on all sides are not all useless or obsolete works. much of the legacy of past ages is disregarded and nullified by the supineness of a present generation.. Its altitude is 6. A s one conclusive instance may be cited the neglected ' PLil-i-Malan. from which the surrounding territory of Eastern Afghanistan takes its name. Yet. says t h e city was largely a heap of rubbish. with all this wealth of means and feet higher.. a t such time.' This bridge. 69" 6' E. is over- topped by pinnacles of the Hindu Kash about 14. for the river. is no longer fordable. and the Kandahar caravans. 34" 30' N. Goldsmid. near the point where the Kabul River is crossed by three bridges. when the city was captured by Dost Mohammed." * In 1830 Conolly was of opinion that the city was one of the dirtiest in the world. and long. and as the river has changed its bed. have difficulty in crossing. part of it remains. of twenty-three arches.

Kabul was the capital of the Mogul empire. or citadcl propel. W. The winters arc severe. t l ~ ccapital of Central Afghanistan. and by wliich are conducted the many canals and watercourses. and two miles t o t h e westward. 4. T h e energy and skill displayed in these extensive water-worlts cannot be too highly extolled. I n the days of Sultan Baber. there is a wide break in the dividing ridge. T h e city is laid out at right angles.000 British soldiers and 12. while the Persian quarter 01 the city is strongly protected on the southwest. Exactly opposite t o the city. of ICabul. and thrce hundred and seventy-one miles E. is about two hundred miles S. I t is said t o have been founded by Alexander of Macedon. which send to every street an ample sup- ply. it has been the scenc of many Anglo- Indian struggles. being separated into quarters by stone walls: the Bala Hissar. in the 1 following January. and lost by them. ICandahar. through treachciy. Icabul is fortified with- out and within . and is watered from the neighboring rivers through canals.000 camp- followers were massacrkd while retreating. which was origiilally a barren slcirt of the mountain. A FGEIA NISTAN. Brought from a point many miles . in 1841 . bcing on the east. of Herat. through which the road to I-Ierat leads. but the summers are very tern- perate-scld~m going above 80'. In modern times. Sir Michael Biddulph describes the surroundings: " I<andahar stands on the western side of a plain. talcen from the Argandab. I t was taken by the British in 1839. to supply the town and fertilize its environs.


would give to this place.conducts a vast body of water. This productive character of the i m m e d i a t e neighborhood of Kandahar. t h e chief canal. T h e J a t i gate in t5e south wall is the exit from the E-Iindu q u a r t e r .34 A PGZ1'A NIS TAN. as mucll prosperity and happiness as falls to t h e lot of a n y place in the world. and just government. along t h e canals and t h e river banlts. which is dis- persed along thc contours of the declining plain i n innumerable channels. Villages clustcr around t h e city on three sides . referred t o elsewhere. with its offsl~oots. orchards. I t has a floating population of about t h r e e thousand souls. I t was the scene of t h e stubborn defence by Sir Robert Sale in 1842. ~ 0 ~ 1 1 - fields. Our engraving is taken from the south and west. stretching for many miles in e a c h direction. while t h e road to P e s h a w u r commences a t the gate of that name on the east wall o f . A n d if we turn to t h e aspect of the country beyond the gap. distant in the Argaildab valley. about half-way bc- tween Kabul and the IChaiber Pass. and its commanding p o s i t i o i ~ within rcach of other fertile districts. spreading a rich fertility for inany miles in a fan-like form to the southeast of t h e gap. under a strong. presenting a vcritable oasis w i t h i n t h e girdle of rugged hills and desert wastes all a r o u n d . Tlze stream in t h c wcst is t h e Kabul River. w c see in the Argandab valley. T h c Kabul exit is on the west. a fair and beautiful landscape of v i l l a g e and cultivated ground." Jelalabad stands on the Kabul River. stable. and vineyards are seen in luxurious succession. gardens.

I t has svalls thirty-five feet high. and forms a station or an important line of com~nunicatiollbetweell the Indus and the Murghab. T h e town of Ghazni (the ancient Ghizni) is another historical landmarlr in a region famous for its evidences of former grandeur. 35 the city. I n the tenth century it was the seat of an empire com- prising the present territory of Afghanistan. it will always be a rendezvous for the natives. when the seat of government was transferred t o Lahore. T h e city is laid out in the form of a parallclogram inter- sected by two main streets crossing in the centre. T h e climate is not exceptionally severe. T h e population averages about ten thousand. and t h e roofs gencrally of wood. both in a military and commercial sense. but is not considered in any sense formidable by modcrn engineers. Peshawur is one of the most important towns. as it is commanded by neighboring heights. O N THE T?IRESHOLD 0fl INDIA. although in winter the mercury drops to 25" below zero a t times. I t is .726 feet. I t s decline dates from the twelfth centuly. and which had in the space of sevellty years absorbed thirty-eight degrees of longitude and twenty degrees of latitude. and a wet ditch. and its base is 280 feet above the adjacent plain. From 1839 t o w 1880 it bas been occupied alternately by the British and the Afghans. or elephant quarter. T h e norther^^ gate is Itno~vnas the Phecl Khana. T h e walls of the town and of its houses are of mud. in the Dcrjnt. I t stands about 230 miles northeast of I<andahar on the road t o Kabul . it is literally " founded upon a rock " a t a n elevation of 7.

with its colossal statues cut out in t h e rock. of Zohak. I t was ohce a rich and populous city. The pass. of Icabul. fallen from its high estate.496 fcet. \V. frontier of India. not unlike those found in the Zuni country in the westcrn part of t h e United States. the capital of a province of the same name on the N. The statues are found on a hill about three hundred feet high. and a winding stair may be ascended to the head. 36 AFGHANISTAN. I t h a s t h e usual bastioned dcfenccs. . E. I t is the centre of a fruitful district containitlg 1 more than onc inillion inhabitants. It is still used as one of the dcfences of t h e pass. muti- lated indeed by fanatical Mussulmans. they are clothed in light drapery. in which are a number of cells excavated in the roclr. and can boast of fair trade and a populatioii of about fifty thousand. The male figure is about 160 ieet. besides some detached works of more importance. T h e fruitful valley and pass of Bamian lie on the road leading from Kabul to Turltestan. like Inally other like places in that region. Bamian. a t an elevation of 8. was among the wonders described by the Buddhist monks w h o traversed Central Asia in the fourth century. t h e fe- male 120fcet. Eight miles eastward of Bamian lies the ancient fortress . conclusively prove. is the only known defile over the H i n d u Kash practicable for artillery. attributed to t h e fabulous Pel-sian serpent-king of t h a t name. in height . I t is garrisoned by tlle British. i but has. eighteen miles from the Ichaiber Pass a n d one hundred and fifty miles S. This valley was one of t h e chief centres of Buddhist worship. as gigantic idols.

city. and t fifty aini~lg 2 road vation 3indu ol the muti- prove. . fallen h. W. ss and IS the irks of . [i. .rtress :ingof 1 pass.N. was :s who t atues which u~llilte of the :hc fe- apery.

or wl~cregrazing does not abound. tain Yaldwyn and other oficcrs of the Indian Army. The camel is docile. simultaneo~~sly. thcy are fed with grain . moves both fcet on one side. On the march. better climbers. although the last mentioned do not thrive uncler thc transition. are short in the leg. capable of abstinence in an emcrgency. and certain trees and shrubs. I t is deficient in ~nuscularpowerbehind. has acute sight and smell.Its flcsh and milk arc ~v11oIesome articles of food. Elphinstone's ill-fated cxpedition in 1841 lost 800 out of 2. The of Afghanistan adapted to lnilitary trans- port purposes arc the camel.500 camels from this cause alone. Those'found in Afghan- istan are of the Arabian species. well adapted for the im. In grazing. position of loads and for traversing over flat or sandy adapts itself to rough roads. we learn that this beast of burden has been oftcn utilized by the British in Afghanistan. and more accustomed t o cold tban others of the species. They arc strong. thick- set. camels brought from India sometimes are poisoiled by eating the oleander bush and other plants which the native camel avoids. From certain professional papers.Y Td fl. and the donlcey. the ynhzi (mountain pony). by Cap. they are fond of green food. 011 thc camel. and cannot readily climb hills. and. with abundance of bair .38 APGHrlfl1. during progression. and the supply of camels raised in that country has generally been augmented by drafts from India. Their feeding requires as much care as that of cavalry or artillery horses.

we tilized by o f camels ~ e n t e dby 3d <lo not c. better lers of the LS t h a t of .tary trans- a i n pony). 500 o u t of march.een food. or 6th grain . capable )r the irn- or s a n d y sight and et on one rbolesome er b e h i n d . LI A f g h a n - )ng. by Cap- Army. 31.thick- e g . s brought 2 oleander ~1 avoids.

they s11ouId be watered daily. carrying t h e same weight of the supplies. if the stones a r e for not too large and sharp . the passage of a number of camels fect renders i t firm. as ladders. cam less. The: tain guns. ing laden at fcrrics. I n camp and when not at work they are arranged wh *Chopped slmw. They average about eqL one tl~ousandpounds in weight. in lin and 6h0osn-~. and can ford deep rivers with ease mai if the current is not too rapid. but. They are good goers in loose inch sandy soil. and eight feet in length from nose car 6 t o tail. They are very the enduring. For military purposes these animals a r e mil purchased between the ages of five and nine years. The marching power of camels depends on a easil number of conditions. tlie Arabian species can allo~ talre in five or six gallons. in slippery places they are use. . 1. depending certz upon its conditioii. where water and can be had. tent-poles. occupy double t h e distance. seven feet in height to rat t h e top of the hump. and cvcn light moun.this is given them in one ration at t h e end of t h e day. A string oi 500 camels covers about o n e foul mile of road. sufficient for as many days . making the longest marches at an avcrage speed tion of two miles an hour. I I IB I . and even over stony ground. Li they will not clrinlc cold running water. The theory that camcls d o not require niuch lattel watering is declared a fallacy. Camels must be un.250 mules. Tlle load of of la the camel varies from 300 t o 450 pounds. I t is admirably adapted for carrying quar long articles. as they have no hold with their feet. and m a y C b e used u p to the age of sixteen. When the bottom of t h e feet ford is shifting sand.

camels start- u 11. such as Kandahar to Girishk. whilst his to ration is only about that of one mule or pony. The can allowance of spare camels on service is ten per cent. R. will throw many camels and delay a convoy a re for hours. a few ose inches deep. . They can ford four feet of moderately running water. and . in every convoy of cry the Kandahar Field Force. YS . of Sappers iter and Miners. have been lc~lown t o arrive at camp ten n re miles off as late as 5 P. u n. the camels re- ase maining b y their bridges (two gang-boards eight by three the fect) until the last baggage camcl had passed. if the bed is good . I n per- 1cf s fectly open country. Camel-bridges were carried on the leading ise. b u t a yard of greasy mud. with a few shovels and picks.5RESHOLD 03 INDIA.M.. O N TJIB T." lay Captain Yaldwyn says: " A camel's carrying-power is . was ablc to get an exceptional percentage of of labor from the camels under his charge by attention t o ing certain details. it was 1 x 1 €3 found possible to march the camels on a broad front. 11a easily. or in circles heads inward .ed whilst the latter can only carry 1. Thus 500 3se camels only eat as much as 5 0 0 mules or ponies. camels.ut equal to that of two and a half mules or ponies.000 ~naz~fzds* the -- % ~rtrai6ndis 80 pounds. Martin. and all small cuts or obstruc- :ed tions were thus bridged in a few minutes . and says further. Lieut. of the whole convoy being a rough square . that "camels are very ing and bite cach other badly when grazing. 41 - 1 of in lines facing each other. ing at 3 A.M. E. the uch latter plan is the favorite lormation a t night. states that his company.

j I
former can carry 2,500. Again, 500 camels only re-
quire 125 attendants to be paid, clothcd, and fed, whilst
i 500 mules or ponics rcquirc 167 attendants." But, on the
other hand, the immense losses of camels from excessive
heat or cold, or over-exertion in mountainous or rough
roads, and other causes, greatly neutralize the force of
this comparison.
The jtnbz? is a hardy mountain pony used by the
Afghans for the saddle and packing purposes; they are
I very strong, activc, and sure-footed, and have been
frcquently used by the British forces in their military
operations. In 1839 Captain (afterward Gencral) Outram
relates that his ynbz~, " although but thirtecn hands
high, carried me and my saddlebags, weighing altogether
upward of sixteen stone, the whole distance from ICalLt L
in seven days and a half (an average of nearly forty-seven I

milcs a day), during which time I had passed I I I hours on fI
its back ; there was no saddle on the pony, merely a cloth
over his back."
They will carry from four to five maunds with perfect
ease, malting journeys of thirty miles a day. Those which
are ridden and which amble, are called yurgns. The
Afghans tie a knot in the middle of the long tails of their
horses, which, they say, strengthens the animal's bacl-
bone !
T h e Afghan donkey was severely tested in 1880 during
the operations of Sir Donald Stewart between Icabul and
Kandahar, and this class of carriage was found very useful


~ n l yre- in the conveyance of provisions. Afghan donkeys
, whilst will march with troops and carly loads of grain or flour,
, on the averaging ninety pounds, without difficulty. They lrcep
:cessive pace wit11 mules or ponies in a baggage column, as they
- rough avoid the frequent checks ~vhichretard the larger animals ;
o r c e of they browse on the line of march, and find their own for-
age easily in the neighborhood of camp ; they are easily
by t h e controlled and cared for, and are on all accounts the most
ley are inexpensive transport in Eastern countries.+
2 been T h e transport animals found in India and Turlrestan
nilitary will be described in the parts of this boolr devoted t o the
Dutram military resources of those regions.
hands In concluding this sketch of the "Threshold of India,"
>gether a mere glance at; the military history of the country will
Ka15t suffice. In fact, only so far as it may have a bearing upon
I-seven the present, has reference to the past any place in this
)LZTS o n volume.
2 cloth T h e early periods o i eventful interest to Afghanistan
have been already noted a t the opening of this chapter.
?erfect Its purely Oriental experiences were beginning to fade
wh icll with the death of Nadir Shah-variously termed the
The "Butcher of Delhi," and the "\Vallace of I'ersia," in I 747.
f their His progress toward India, from which h e was to tear its
back- choicest treasure and loot its greatest city, reminds one of
the Arabian Nights. A camp-follower from Jclalabad re-
zluring ported as follows: " He has 36,000 horsemen with him-
ul a n d self ** * -" After morning prayers h e sits on a throne,
useful 'k Lieut.-Col. E. F. Chapman, C.B.,R.A.


the canopy of which is in the form of a dome and of gold.
One thousand young men, with royal standards of red
sill<and the lance tops and tassels of silver, are disposed his
regularly ; and, at a proper distaqce, live hundred beautiful to
slaves, from twelve t o twenty years old, stand-one half on Mo
his right and the other on his left. All the great mcll G11,
stand fronting him; and the Arzbkgi stands between, in I
readiness to represent whatcver he is desired, and every-
body has his cause decided a t once : bribery is not so E
m'uch as known hcre. I-Ic has particular information !
given him of every thing that passes ; all criminals, great
and small, rich and poor, meet with immediate death. He
sits till noon, after which he dines, then reposcs a little ;
1 the
i by
when afternoon prayers are over he sits till the cvening
prayers, and when they are over he shoots fivc arrows into
i In:
the Khnk Tzjdah, and then goes into thc women's apart- wa
ments." * tlli
T h e splendor of the Robber Icing has departed, but his re1
deeds of blood and treachery have often been repeated in frc
the country of the Afghans. all
A succession of struggles between Afghan and Pel-sian
leaders for the controlof Afghanistan marked the next fifty I ist
years. I wl
Whcn the project of Russian invasion of India, sug-
gested by Napoleon, was under consideration in Pcrsia,
I s11
a British envoy was sent, in 1809,to the then Shah Sujah, in
and received the most cordial reception a t Pcahawur. th
* Praser's ' ' Naclir Shah. " re

Sir John Cam I-Iobhouse. Mahmucl. I<andal~ar. the " Lion of the Punjab. That Power was (1837) engaged in fomenting trouble in the western part of Afghanistan. in which John Bull has had t o pay. T h e last-named place fell into the hands of Runjeet Singh. superseded by his brother. led by Russian officers." This was the beginning of intrigues relating to Afghan- istan on the part. In 1823 his former kingdom passed t o Dost Mohammed. O N THE THRZSZTOLB 0 3 INDIA. in 1810. In 1850. literally. and the latter was pressed hard by the son of his Wazir to such an extent that I3erat alone remained to him. failing in which he threatened to turn to Russia. Ghazni. encouraging a n attack by 30. " t h e lion's share" of thc cost: in blood and treasure. 45 13ut Shah Sujah was. of England and Russia. Instead of acceding t o the request of Dost Mohammed. and Peshawur. the Court of Directors had nothing to do with. who in 1826 governed Kabul.000 Persians." T h e reason already mentionid was alleged as an excuse for . alleging in a proclamation that " t h e welfare of the English possessions in the East rendcrcd it necessary to have an ally on their western frontier who would be in favor of peace. President of the Board of Control in India confessed : "The Afghan war was done l?y~ ~ z y s s l f ." Dost Mohammed then applied to England for aid in recovering Peshawur. the British Governor-General-Lord Auclcland-declared war against that potentate. and opposed t o all disorders and innovations. upon I-Ierat.

hostilities. 1839. and Shah Sujah was proclaimed Ameer by British authority. was subjugated e7c route. By the following September the greater part of t h e English forces returned to India. and sixty thousand camels-advanced in two columns. Russian letters were found implicating the Czar's ministers. Twenty years latcr the factswere given to Parliament. one from Bengal. on the Bolan Pass. lilcc the Punjab and Lahore. I n November of the same ycar Dost Mohammed defeated the English in the Pcrwan Pass. Only five regiments of infantry and one of cavalry remained in Afghanistan. and Kabul August 6th. and nine thousand mcn were left behind t o occupy it. notwithstanding that the British political agent a t t h c Court of Dost Mohammed reported that ruler as "entirely English" in his sympa- thies. a simultaneous advance from Shiltarpur. and the other from Bombay by the Indus. The Anglo-Indian army-consisting of twenty thousand troops. Ghazni July z3d. They were declarcd. where sus- picious symptoms of discontent with the new order of things began very soon to show themselves. Icandahar was occupied April 25t11. Scindc. commcnced.46 AFGHANISTAN. On the 23d of February. This report was suppressed. which had hitherto been independent. During the summer of 1840 insurrections had to be put down by force in several places. Burnes. . From that time until the autumn of 1841 a sultry calm reigned in the country. was vindicated. and the English agent. fifty thousand followers.

consistiilg of General Elphinstone. or to defend them- selves. whose self-confidence and trust in the treacherous natives made him an easy victim. and Sir William McNaghten. neglected to take the most simple measures of precaution. A s there was no intelligent coilcert of action among the British leaders. Sir William McNaght en was murdered' by Altbar. although fully aware of the state of mind of the people. deliberately buried their hcads in the sand of their credulity. I n the centre of an insurrection which was extending day by day under their eyes and under their own roofs. the British envoy. Finally a force of the insurgents. made b y certain brave officers of the beleagured force. o r turned their arms against the Europeans. and taking pos- session of the Ichurd I<abul Pass near t h c city. not realizing the nature of t h e danger which for wecks was evident t o many of their subordinates. threw off the dis- guise thcy had assumed before the English. under the direction of the son of the deposed ruler. Altbar Khan. failed. . entirely cut off the retreat t o India which Elphinstone had commenced. uilfittcd by disease and natural irresolutioll from exercising the functions of command. these repre- sentatives of a powerful nation. T h e English commanders. T h e local control was vested in a mixed military and civil council. A few attempts t o force a passage. a t a coui~cilin sight of t h e garrison. the Afghan auxiliaries refused t o fight. the garrison melted away in detail. with a small but effective force.

preserved by the intense cold. held by 2. Dr. but the Mohammedan troops refused to march against their co-religionists. on receiving the news of the de- struction of the British. 1841. The news of this horrible disaster was brought to Jelalabad by the only mail who penetrated the Afghan environment. Brydon. blew up the . Only twenty of this entire force survived.48 AFGHANISTAN. the Indian Government endeavored to rescue the garrisons of ICandahar and Ghazni. an agreement was made by which the Afghan leader promised to ensure to the British forces a safe withdrawal to India. still withstood the storm lilce a rock of iron. and the entire Anglo-Indian contingent of sevcntcen thousand souls was destroyed.400 men under General Sale. Months after. obstructed the mountain passes. was cut to pieces December 23. T h e garrison of Ghazni. sacrificed to the murderous brutality of the Afghan insurgents. . General Nott. The horrors of Moscow wcre rcpcated in the IChurd ICabul. thinking to secure its safety b y capitulation. or dying from exposurc t o one of the most severe winters lc~lown to that region. the energetic officer com- manding at Kandahar. On January 6. 1842. On receipt of the news of this overwhelming catastro- phe. This was violated with Afgllatl readiness. heaps of dead bodies. as well as that of of the town. Jelalabad. and the Sikhs also showed great unwillingness. and the noblest attributes of 11~- manity were exemplified in the acts of the officers and soldiers of the doomed party.

com- he de- town. which tl forces !d with t ingent crificed lrgcnts.f dead ed the :peated of hu- :rs and . as cut 2.hazni. entire :er was etrated ~tastro- tie t h e :hat of s e d to IS also . .400 like a . >yillt-ers .

of the objects of the expedition-the deliverance of the of fait against such a suicidal act on the part of any Englishman . under General Polloclt. AFGHrl NIS TAN. great as it that w was. so far as might be. and the people were collected together and de. and Aurang- zeb failed to get through. This was the first time that the great defile -twenty-eight miles in length-had ever been forced by As ! arms. his object.. in 1587. which he also de- stroyed. 1842. . but re forty thousand men in attempting to force it. Timur Lang and Nadir Shah. in advancing to the relief of Jelalabad in ' sion tl April. would have been much more humiliating to England. in the sense of retaliation. for Ghazni. tains. Khaiber Pass. destroyed eveiy thing not necessary to. bought a safe passage through it from : would the Afridis. Another British force of twelve thousand men. Septcmber Gth. was organized at Peshawur.." had it not becn for the firmness of the gallant General . retrieve thc errors of Elphinstone and McNaghten. is said to have lost . successf~~l.and." General Polloclc carried the famous . and started. 1842. British stroyed lilte worms. t o punish the Afgl~ans.An eminent Ger- man authority wrote : " ICabul and other towns were from guns. Pollock's operations were. a t the head of their "It enormous hosts. The misfortune of Elphinstone's command. August 8. Akbar the Great.

were to be fillcd with graill and carried by the men in front of blown them. that we had simply been driven back across the inoun- tains. pursued even through thc last luranp pass into the plains by an implacablc enemy. and. but the double pay they received by no means . the General dis- . pursued as far atnous as the Indus by the Afghans. he ordered the legs . By t h e middle of December t h e nd de- British had started on their return march. 011 which. !\'ere. the impres- sion became universal in India as well as in Central Asia. disaster t from would have been diminished. traced the mutiny of 1857 in a great measure to the Af- ng one ghan campaign of I 842. on their saddles. ced by As Sir Henry Rawlinson wrote: ~f their ' l I t was not so much the fact of our &treat . Practically they . 5I or any Administration. the force of about eight thousand men moved in sh the as light order as possible. covered that the mounted men had in their ltit a spare t Gcr- pair of pai~taloonsapiece. 111 the forced march to Icabul." A very able I-Iindu gentleman. O N TIIE THRESHOLD 0 P INDIA. very loyal to the British. a t great personal risk. and by this hurried conclu- bad in sion to the war lcssened their prestige in Asia t o an t defile enormous degree. which Pollock made subse- under cluently. gained his point. H e said: " I t was a direct breach of tl1e of faith to take tlze Sepoys out of India. Aftcr loading the com~nissariat ors of ' camels to their utmost carrying capacity.otested were compelled to go for fear of being treated as muti- lishman neers. if not altogether overcome . ive lost but retreating as we did.

He rcconquercd Balk11 in 1850. and after a siege of tcll months re- duced the place. S l ~ c r cAli. occupicd by a rcbcl- lious faction. besides. and gained Icandahar by inheritance in I 855. alld were always fearing that thcir caste would bc dcstroycd. Persia rclinquished a11 claims t o Herat. only to find a tomb within its walls. Shere Ali now lcallcd toward thc Lion. Once. Thc Sepoys mis. for Afghan friendship. one of the Dost's sons. now in tlle dircc- tion of the Bear.52 AFGHANIS TAN. After the usual struggle for the thl-one. pcculiar to a change of dynasty in Afghanistan. The . with t h e regularity of a pendulu~n. the Kabul disaster taught them that Europeans were not invincible. The ncxt dccade was notable for a serics of diplomatic mnnceu- vrcs betwccn Englaiid and Russia. where the specd of his horse alone saved him irom capture. February 21. trusted thc Government from that timc forward. in 1857. With the aid of Grcat Britain. the Dost cl*ossed the Indian border with two thousand l~orsemen. r 849." T h e departure of the English forces was followccl by tile i-e~stablish~ncnt of Dost Mohammed's authority in Afghanistan. compensated them for losing caste.and narrowly escaped falling into thc hands of the British in the affair of Gujrat. In 185s a better unclcrstailding was clfectcd between the son of Dost Mohammed and his powcrful Eu~opcan neighbor. at the time of the Silt11 insurrection. but thc Dost had cvcntually t o besiege that city. and was recognized i n 1S68. in 1863. while he lost Herat to the Persians in 1856. prevailed.

rcspectivcly. The . exposure t o excessively severe winter weather. of Generals Urowne. 1~391 reason t o thinL that he could rely 011 Russian cooperation capture. with a forcc of forty thousand vecn the mcn. a British ambassador was turned back by the Afghan com~nandantof the frontier fort of Ali Musjid. and an inconsidcrablc proportion of killed iendship. The military benefits were those resulting from a long rm. [-Icrat to ' Roberts. The and arduous field expcricncc in a rough country. Biddulph. who. and wounded in action. and Stewart. t h e devel- le of the opmcnt of the usual weakness in t h e dcpartrneit of 55. t h e Dost W e shall have occasion later t o consider some of the a rebel. in erals Maude and Primrose. and one hand. powerful embassies. Tlie transport. . a consider- able sicklist. t h e suc- liar t o a ccssful surmounting of great natural obstaclcs. and on )wed by the 20th of November. war was declarcd ~ o r i t yin against Shere Ali b y the Anglo-Indian Govcrnmcnt.uropean This force moved into Afghanistan in four columns. that time thc Russian General Icaufmnnn was operating houssud on the northern border of Afghanistan with a forcc of l a n d s of fifteen thousand men and sixty guns. he dircc. details of the protractcd operations which followed.1 gained under t h e command. They e~nbraccd several admirably conducted marches. ON THE TaRESHOLD OF INDIA. of t h e same year. its walls. O n September 21. advances were received with presents and promises on t h e ~ r d . 53 3ys rnis. with unnecessary losses in animals. and imposing stroycd . with reserves under Gcn- ritain. lropcalis 1875. and the Amecr had !I. o n t h s rc. promptly invaded his dominion. military expeditions on the other. against the English. and promises. . A t rrec tion.

mur- dered at Kabul. In the same year the British Secretary for India. and independent. was comparatively feeble. A t this time appearcd t h e ." by the enemy. T h e fate of the gallant Major Cavagnari and his mission.d become moulded into the efficient machines essential to success in any military venture. interruption to these actual " field manceuvres. stimulating the Anglo-Indian force t o put its best foot foremost. all departments of the army 11a. the campaign had been a failure. in London. at the end of the two years' campaign. wrote to the Governor-General that : " I t appears that as the result of two successful campaigns. ancl of thc expenditure of large sums of money. made a deeper iin- pression on the Afghan mind than the British occupation of Afghan cities or the Afghan losses in battle. That volcanic region was by no means tranquil. although t h e chief rebel. Septeinber 3.-as a rule." this " fire- drill.54 A FGJIANIS TAN. 1879. Under this system. and a condition of anarchy throughout tlle remainder of the country. Politically. t h e British Government pre- pared to make a dignified withdrawal from Afghanistan. Yakoub IChan. all that has yet been accom- plished has been the disintegration of the State which it was desired to see strong. and had retircd t o t h e distant country of the Heri-i-rad. friendly. had becn driven out of Kabul by General Roberts. of the employment of an immense force." Early in the year 1880. the assuinption of fresh and unwelconle liabilities in regard to one of its provinces.

Abdurrahman was formally installed as A ~ n e e of r Afghani- lent. General Burrows. made a rapid march from Kabul on I<andahai-. exiled Abdurraliman Khan. ccess in formally recog~lized him as Amccr of that district. become and the British political officers. mur. Tash]tend. 55 is " fire. As hc Kabul his authority and influence increased. wherc General Primrose was in command. however. near the Helmund. In the meanwhiIe Yalcoub advanced wcstward from I-Terat k11e fate with a strong force. The rem~lailtof t h e European force took refuge in upa at ion I<andahar. hanistan. completely dispcrsed t h e native force. althougll 1 out of e distant x e d the . and the British army withdrew froin the country. and who was welcomcd warmly by the local sirdars on the northern frontier of Afghanistan. ON THE TNnESJIOLD OR INDIA. l e n t pre. encountered a British brigade. Sir appears Fredcriclc Robcrts. Soon aftcr. and relieved thc beleaguered garrison. and utterly routcd (eper im it. a n d after a successful and decisive battlc with the Afghans. stan. who had long resided at s a rule. acting under instructions. Surrounding the city. under bn. Yalcoub succeeded in effectually "bottling up" the British garrison for some time.

instruction. and mobili- 56 . with notes upon the strength and composition of t h e forces. (Unitcd Icingdom. will be attempted in this chaptcr. the inen are paid sixpence a day. twenty-five per cent. in England.) March. 1885. the first bcing for six years in the ranks and six on furlough. more especially thosc available for ficld service in Afghan- istan. in consideration of liability t o bc rccallcd t o the colors. T E E BRITISH FORCES AND ROUTES. A SICETCH of the military resources of Great Britain. not including India. abroad. and then. in S c o t - lancl. the furlough of short-service mcn is passcd in the a r m y rcscrve. nature of i m - portant lines of coininunication. Recruits m a y enlist eithcr for t h e " short-servicc " or " long-service" term . meails of transport and supply. and of certain strategic points in the probable theatre of operations. two per ccnt. T h e troops of the Standing Army. and tlic last for twclvc years in thc ranks. F o r purposes of administration. in Ircland. were proportionately distributed as follo\vs : forty-three per cent. and thirty-iivc per cent.-Thc military system of Great Britain is based ulsoil voluntary enlistment instead of the usual European plan of uilivcrsal liability t o servicc. O~gaalzizntio7z.

will be reat Britain is of the usual ce.B. omposition ol nature of im. thirty-fivc pcr 11. in Alglian.'J" ccl I<ingcl om.) ctl . I<ccruits '' long-scrvicc" 11. Great Britain. K. Roberts. S. Sir I?.~ and sis on hc r a n k s . tlic in the nrrny to bc recallod . nnrl ~nohili..Is follows: ccnt. rtain strategic tions.Genera1.C. . in Scot. 57 .DUTES.. V.C.

.ooo. -f about = 349.ineerr I ~aralry.711 * Approximately. ETeomanry .496. AVAILABLE BRITISH L A N D FORCES. .365 .648( IHorse drti.106 61.I Army (E'r'p'n) 45. Independent States of India.Nepaul IW.06Fl1oz. fromlate returns (1S85). I 6n. $ Sappers and Miners.1.263 188.441 Volun~eers. [Native Contingent<.-. .116 1sur. t Cashmere 17.* Royal Grand Class. 1 Aggregate. I 443 503 Militia . Hyderabad&.S.488 -(Nativc) t:l~ 3.~R~yal -4rtil~er~. 209.0191 I I 1~1 1. but short of authorized "establishment " b y go. 10.r.400 4. I Agcirgak.l Infantry.8421 1. 1 11.ers.809 1.

as a rule. The . T h e officers on duty in the Adjutant-General's and Qunrtermastcr's departments of tbe British army are. T h e cavalry is divided into the Ilousehold Cavalry and Cavalry of the Line.-three regiments. and army reserve respcctively. These arc sub-dividcd as follows : for thc infantry onc hundred and two sub-districts undcr regimental com- manders . The brigade of an in- falltry sub-district con~prisesusually two line battalions. I n an artillcry sub-district are comprised a proportion of the . and infantry of the army reserve. T h e Royal Engineers then were and are organized into forty-three companies. The Line is composed of twenty-eight regi- ments. three of dragoons. for the artillery there arc twelve sub-districts. TNE BRITISH PO2CIi'S AhrD ROUTES. but must rcjoin their regin~cntsimmccliately upon ordcrs for I foreign service. Great Britain and Ireland are partitioned into tllirtecn military districts commanded by gcnernl officers. rifle volunteer corps. 59 zation. royal artillery ancl artillery of the militia. Of the line bat- talions onc is gellcrally at home and one abroad. thirteen of hussars. two militia battalions. as follows : seven of dragoon guards. and for the cavalry two districts. the brigade dep8t. detailed for a term of five years from the Linc. volunteers. I n likc manncr a cavalry sub-district illcludes thc yeomanry and army rcserve cavalry. Tile first named comprises the 1st and zd Life Guards and Royal Horse 'Guards. five of lancers.

but on occasion are carried on the limbers I and on seats attached to the axlcs. Undcr the class "field artillery. would come such large guns as are required in war for siege or other hcavy opcrations. in the horse artillery. T h e Line comprises 102 regiments (204 battalion^). Coldstream Guards. T h e artillery-under the title of the Royal Regiment of Artillery-is divided into three classes . A FGIIA NIS TAN. and which in India or Afghanistan would be drawn by bullocl<s. all tl~epe?=ronnelof a battery is mounted. in which the guns are somewhat heavier. and the Rifles. the Royal Horse Artillery of two brigades of twelve batteries each. For the non-professional reader it may be well to say that. . tlle Line. t h e Field Artillery of four brigades of seventy-six batteries. the Rifles four battalio~ls. T h e ii~lantryis composed of thc Guards. The Guards consist of thrcc regirncnts- Grenadier Guards. under the general term "field artillery" may be classed mountain batteries (only maintained in India). and Scots Fusilier Guards. in all scven battalions. strength of regiments varies from 450 to 625 men with from 300 to 400 troop horses each. and in an einergcncy may be carried on the " off" horses of teams. Bcsides these there are two regiments of Colonial (West India) colored troops. and the Garrison Artillcry of eleven brigades. arid served by gunners who are not I mounted. field 'batteries proper. 1naking a brigade total of sixty guns . the better t o act with cavalry or mounted infantry ." also.

for a pcriod not t o exceed eight weelts annuallj-. I i ni bcrs T h e Volunteers represent '' the bulwark " in case of in- u rgecy vasion . 46 brigades . T h e Yeomanry C a v a l ~ yare equipped as light cavalry.I 11s arc militia. b u t can be ordered a~lywherewithin the United I<ingdom. T h e voluilteer lorce is co~nposedof 278 battalio~lsof infantiy. subject t o the approval of t11e Queen.of garrison artillery and 1 5 battalions of engineers. all t h e of four details of control and recruitment are entrusted t o district ~rtillcr~ I commanders. commissioned b y the Queen. they are orgailized principally as garrison artilleiy I clcr Ll~e and infantry.L tio~ls. and 3 regi- tillcry" ments of engineers comprised in this force. There are 2 12 battalions of I r a l l y or infantry. The officers are lnaliing . drilI eight days per year. and afterward not less than nine clrills annually. is liable t o army service in case of an einergei~cy. There are thirty-eigl~tregiments. En- 1 Norse listment in t h e militia is for six years. as before noted. F o r instruction this force may be called . with u n i ~ rofl regular officers as instructors. The officers are coin~l~issio~lcd by tbe g u n s ns county IIIJ~ out. Recruits a r e required t o attend thirty drills. 8-. TZZ BRIT/SI/ PORCES AND ROUTES. and is rncnt of available for garrisoil d u t y in the Mediterranean. i L r C l10t and for t h e tcrm o f six years is entitled to £1 pcr annum. 61 T h e Militia is intended for local dcfcnce. and instructed b y tlle Gov- ilwn liy ernment. . when each mail xvith a horse receives seven pence a day. limited to one fourth of the active . I T h e mcn arc recruited. i ncd ill T h e Militia Reserve. and. armed. 25 brigades of garrison artillery. and are subject to call in case of riot and insurrection.

The European regiments serving in India arc in all re- spects organized and maintained. 1st " 2 Wing-subalterns. I Medical officer. T11ese officers must pass certain examinations before they can be as- signed to any of the following vacancies in any native regiment.. 4 Jemandars (lieats.1-geants). as in England. 40 I-Inviltlal-s (st. and among xvl~ichthe Anglo-Indian army is distributed. 4 " ' 3d " I Wing-offifiue~. exists a staff corps which supplies all European officers permitted to serve with native troops. 600 Sepoys (privates). EUROPEANS I NA'rIVES. The Ariny of India differs from that of the United Kingdom. ~ v l ~ cthe n govcrnrnent passed from the East India Company t o the Crown. z Sabadars (captains).).-major). 16 Drummers. r Second-in-co~urnnnd 2 " " zd " and wing oiiicer. This organizatioil clatcs from 1858. I Commandnnt. T h e mcn are paid b y the native officers in presence of the European " Wing-officer. I Ilavildar (serfit. In each prcsideilcy forming the thrce political subdivisions." who ." for the trial of offeilders and transaction of general regimental business. 4 0 Naiclts (corporals). 1st class. Three times a weck he holds a " clur- bar. but in the cl~ai-ac- tcr of its organization. not only in its composition. INDIAN REGIMENT. I Qt~arlermnster. T h e duties of the commandant of a native regiment correspond in general to those of a similar officer in a European corps. 4 " " 2cl" r AcIjata11t.

arc promoted fl-o~nt11c ranks. $33. - *Indian Army Regulations. each rcgiment is accompanied by a native village callcd a bazaar. but "no battalion parades sboulcl talte place 2 officer$ without tlle presence of a British officer. containing tradesmen of . TIIB BRITISH FORCES A N D ROUTES. The annual pay-roll of a native regiment of 720 comba- tants and 45 non-combatants alnounts to about $69. $ I 87. jemandar. Governmeilt every two years . or wing. When jt~ibutcd. Ill j poiiltment in the correspondi~lgEuropean corps. I .50 . $302 t o $32" adjutant. Ccrtain native in all ro officers of the engineers and artillery may be eligible t o ap- l and. $300. In each regi- ul be as ment there is a drill-sergeant and drill-corporal. who re- ly native ceive extra pay for their services. subadas. European officers wit11 native regiments : commandant. wing-officers.except one coat a i d one pair of trousers issued by tlie. medical officers. in consequence. always assigned as an aide-de-camp to the Viccroy. quartermaster. $7.114. Corporals are promoted from privatcs who kilow how to read and write in a t least one cl~aracter.86 .or \vho have displayed extraordinary cour- age. 2nd are of the sallle caste as thc privatcs. on detailed service. havildar. T h e pay per month of a scpoy is equal to $3. L ~ C Slrom T h e native officers are commissioned by the Indiall ast Illdia ' Government. and.50 t o $50. $17. a native officer is allowed to command fl oficcrs his company. battalion. gs a rule. 63 C United is rcspoilsible for 'all public property issued to his half I C cllnrac. ~nonthly." $.50 . $237.86. one is rlivisions. In consideration of the pay each sepoy is required t o provide his rations and clotl~ing. $620.

that there are but eight European officcrs to each regiment. The entire outfit follows the regiment into thc field. . and of these but six would be available t o lcad in battle : t h e quarter- master and surgeon being at such a time otherwise en- gaged. I attributed much the small loss sustaincd by the troops in Afghanistan to our excellent straight shooting. six British officers of a native battalion were placcd hors de co7?zbnt. would be unreliable leaders in such an cmergency. but its principal experience has been with light field guns against irregular troops.all kinds . Thc native officers. Colonel Gordon of the Indian army testifies : " With regard to native troops under a cannonade I may say that I saw our native infantry twice undcr the fire of the Afghan mountain guns. 1878. A t the action of Ali Musjid. so that on the first day after crossing t h c Afghan fronticr there was but one European officer to manage the regiment. is well set up. this bazaar is under strict cliscipline and is man- aged by the quartermaster. T h e Achilles heel of the Indian army consists in this." The cavalry of India has in certain instances borne an excellent?rcputation for efficiency in action. and in its instruction and discipline is modelled after the British systcm. November 21. T h e artillery comprises well-instructed native organizations. seldom having an opportunity to command in Peace. Ammunition was economically expended. and thcy behavcd veiy s t c a d i l ~ and coolly. the day before the occupation of that fort.

Cveilue of some ~ 1 ~ . ~ disposal of the Crown by the native Princes. and escorts. t o more than one lc fire of the third of the illcome of the British Government of 111clia.000 cxpcndcd. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0equal . \vIlo were easily offended and Iiltely to-decamp with their I a c c c l /rorsdt ' property in a night. trhcrc arc but . r t llc troops in ~nilitarjrpolice.000 European volunteers (inclucling 4. and distributed to the ti-oops in the field over four cl of these but or five distinct liiles of communication.000.000 square miles with 50. six I was severely taxed to furnish the necessary animals.IC and is tnan. ifi"s: "\VitI\ The feudatoiy chiefs of India enjoy an aggregate : 1 0 a Y say that I. During the first year the system was the Afglii~n under the direct control of the commissariat depart- 3 rnarlagc the ment. garrison. Large quantities of supplics T ~Acllitles c were transported froin the maill base of operations on thc . guards. and over roads the quarlcr.000 railway officials ailcl employCs) available for local defence. * I aggrcgatiilg nearly 600. throughout territorics 11 g. in the subsequellt campaign it was elltirely reorganized and superintcndccl by . Thc country on both sides of the Indo-Afghan frontier 11o p p o r t u ~ ~ i r y :aclers in such N o v c m bcl-21.-This esseiltial featurc of all vcll-illstructcd ence has been I ' wars will be briefly coilsidered in the light of the Anglo- Afghan War of 1879-80. but as this proved unsatisfactory. ' Besides the regular establishment there arc about fit: follorvsthc ' 10. Part of the transport was hired-and as in the case of the Urahuis camels-with thc services of the owners. I a i d moulltaill paths of va~iecl degrees of ruggedness.000 mcil with 4.000 rlccs borne an of inhabitants. . Indus. ~"1-y steadily They inaintaiil forces aggregating 350. : I l c d aftcr the j Trn~lsportand Sz$f@. I guns to perform thc duties of court ceremonial. hat: forst. o t llcrwise en. Thcse forces are unreservedly held at the i s lvell S C up.

was tried. 885 soldiers a n d one t h o u s a n d tons of stores were transported forty miles down t h e Kabul River. but d o not a b o u n d in sufficient quantities t o enable an army in Afghanistan t o dispense with camels. Green. between June 4-13.. i j vision of the transport corps. Tlle r a f t s consisted of inflated skins lashed together with a l i g h t framework. A system of " s t a g e s " or relays of pack-animals or carts was organized. and neglect. by which a regular quantity of supplies was forwarded o v e r I I tlle main lines. T h e mules. a n officer of engineers.B. lost one hundred 311d seventeen h o r s e s out of four hundred. donkeys. This gave better satisfaction. C. and. during a march of thirty miles. seven tllousand s k i n s I were used. Owing to t h e dryness of t h e I climate and intense heat of the summer the bullocli-carts were perpetually falling t o pieces. from Jelalabad to Dalrka. all of whom served to make up that excessive army of " followers " for w h i c h Anglo-Indian expeditions are famous. six hundred clicd of exl~austion. for six days in June. Immense numbers of camels died from heat. of rail carriage. from the heat. inspectors. T h e great number of a n i m a l s employed required a correspoilding force of a t t e n d a n t s . and native doctors. I n March. A s~iccessful experiment in rafting. AFGHANISTAN. the journey talringfive hours. irregular food. daily. A great d e a l o f road-malring and repairing was done under tlle super. 1855 Col. Drivers w e r e *Of a train of eighteen huadred nnloncled camels on the road froril Dadur to Jacobabad. and ponies gave the best results. with almost the regularity. with a large number of officers from t h e Line t o assist.* overworlr. if n o t II the speed. in all. .

by r rvardcd over larity. nteen horses out 5. ryness of tile bullock cart^ ~Ies.<+ovel. for whicl~ )rivers were tlie road Iran] d of cslta~~s~io~~. of officers satisfaction. T h e rafts w i t h a ligl~t ~ u s a n dskins ne thousa~ld :s d o ~ v ntl~e . ~t abound ill Afgllanista~l ~perimentill I.ilrork. of " stagcs" I ganized. A great deal sr tlie super. n servcd to 1. if not :r of animals f attendants. .donkeys.

1. although I there are many objections urged. 400 . (will1 onc pair) on fairly lcvcl gro~nicl. and aqueducts built for the coilveyance of a water supply. I Any prolonged military operations in Afghanistan must. on fairly lcvcl grou~~cl. from Dozan dowil to thc Bolan.000. such as the late cam- paign in Afghanistan. every four camcls. Sir Richard Tcinplc said (1879) : " That the amount of transport required for active service. 650 . caazels. nzefz. *s The great obstacle t o the satisfactory operation of the transport system was its ilovelty and cxperiinental charac- ter. fl FGfI. on hilly g ~ o u n d . $o~~ies. I t has been statcd that grazing was scarce in thc region of the Bolan : in 1879 more than four thousand bulloclcs t I were grazed there during the suinmcr. 200 . who - * T l ~ average e carrying power of c c r t n i ~Icinds ~ of Lrmsporl. required a t the following ratc : one clriver for each pair I of bullocl<s.4 NISTA N. cholera broke out in June and swept away three hundred cmployPs. arztles. and that its organization had t o be combined with its execution. every six donlreys. Grazing camps were established in the ncigl~borl~ood of t h e Bolan Pass for the bulloclcs. 50. cvery three mules and ponies.400 . . utilize hired transport.850 . to a ccrtain extent. onl~illy (wit11 two pails).175 . more than a mile in lcngth. in pounds. Besides which. and large quantities of foragc were cut for winter use. is as I follows : bt&ffoclr-caj*ls 1. ground. one of thcsc was of masonry. is so grcat that to hirc transport is 1 synonymous t o pressing it froill the pcoplc of tllc district from which it is hired. and impressment of the ineans of transport must lead t o impressincnt of drivers.

Pair naturally (having no interest whatevcr in the campaign in
and rvhich they arc called ~ ~ p ot on serve) rcndcr the most un-
willillg service and take the carliest opportunity of ren-
dering their animals uilserviceable in hopes of escaping a
clistasteful duty. This scrvice is frequently so uilpopular
h its
that, sooner than lcave t h c boundaries of thcir native
country, the impressed drivers desert, leaving their ani-
mals in t h e hands of thc transport authorities or take
them away wit11 them. * 'x. * For thc above reasons
I should recominend t h a t all transport for a campaign
lore ,
should be the property of Government."
llatl. ,
In commenting on this subject, Lord Wolseley relates
11 of
that when scrving in China wit11 Indian troops h e "awolce
one morning and found that all our drivers hacl bolted.
i tics
Our transport collsisted of carts suppliecl by the Chinese
Government, by contractors, and by the country generally.
I do not think that the carts had bccn carried away, but
all the rnules and men had disappeared except thrcc
drivers wllo beroilged t o me. I was very much astonished
t of
that thcsc lnen had not bolted also. I had a small de-
tachment of cavalry with me and a very excellent dufladar
.t is
in charge of it. I aslced hiin how h e had managed to
keep these drivers-having somc timc before said that
3 of
unless he loolred after tbein wcll he woulcl never get to
- Pekin. I l c replied, with some hesitation : ' I remcmber
is ns what you told me, and t h c fact is I tied t h e tails of those
ind, thrce inen together, overnight, and then tied them t o the
tent pole, ancl put a man ovcr them."'

T h e Elephant, like the stage coach, finds his field of
usefulness, as a meails of transport, growing smaller by
degrees. H e is still a feature in Inclia, and has becn used
for military purposes t o some extent ill thc eastern part of
Afghanistan. H e will dbubtless form part of t h c means
of transportation employcd by the British forces near
their present base, and in rear of thc Kabul-I<anclahar
line, and for that reason is ~loticcdl~erc.+;
The Superintendent of the Governincilt Elcpllailt I<hed-
dabs at Daltka has givcn us, in a rcccilt papcr, much infor-
mation concerning the elephant in frccdom and captivity.
H e does not claim a 11ig11 ordcl- of ii~tclligci~ce,
but rathcr
of extraordinary obedience and docility for this animal.
Vely large elephants arc exceptional. Twice round the
forcfoot gives the height a t t h c shouldcr ; few femalcs at-
tain the height of eight fcet ; " tuslters," or inalc cle-
phants, vary from eight to nine feet; the Maharajah of
Nahur, Sirmoor, possesses one standing tcn fcct fivc and
one half inchcs. The age varics from 80 t o 1 5 0 years, ac-
cording t o the bcst authorities, and it is recorded that
those familiar with the haunts of thc wild elephant havc
never found the bones of an elephant that had dicd a
natural death. I n freedom thcy roam in herds of t h i ~ t y
t o fifty, always led by a female; inaturc about twenty-
* The use of clcpl~antsin transporting ficlcl gtuls in Aighanistn~~
is cmphati-
cally disco~~ragcd by those who served wit11 it last; very icw flanltcrs were
employed to protecl thc Elephant artillcry usctl in the Karam vnllcy, n~ltlits
success can oi~lybe interpreted by snpposing Ll~cclircct interposi~ionof lJrovi-
clencc or the grossest stupidity to ollr iecl~lccuemy.

1s his field of
~g smaller by
las been used
:astern part of
of t 11e Inealls
1 forccs ncar

epllant IChcd.
r, m 11 ch infor.
~ n captivity.
CC, but rather

this animal,
ce round the
:w feinales at.
or male cle-
Mahal-ajah ol
feet fivc n l ~ d
r 5 0 years, ac.
ecordcd that
ephan t have
"lad died a
:rds of thirty
)out twenty.
list a11 i s crnp1tat1-
:w flanke~aeferc
rn vnlle)., nntl 117
~osilionof lJrovi- Elephant \villi Artillery ; on the Road Lo Ali Musjid.

orange groves. they cannot leap. and prodding thcm on thc back with sharp sticks. New elephants arc trained by first rubbing thcm down with bamboo rods. swim well. Thcy consume about 400 pounds of green. and Illore than IOO animals are sometimes secured in a singlc drive. In India the males only have tuslts . and by tying them with I-opes.%but call neither trot nor gallop . I n Bcngal and Southern India elephants particularly abound. and iron-smelting furnaces remaining ill what is now a l-~owlingwildcrilcss. when the sun is hot. thcy are taught t o kneel by taking them into streams about five feet decp. in Ceylon only the females. a range of three hundred square miles on the borders of Mysore. I n the Billigurungan Hills. Elephants are caught in stock- ades or kraals.72 A FGITA NIS TAN. and seem t o be increasing in ilumbers. five. . and are also given unhuskecl rice. their only pace is a wallr. The Governmcnt employs l ~ u n t i n gparties of 350 natives trained to the work. they rnadc tllcir appearance about cighty years ago . and a ditch eight by eight feet would be impassable. The total number of elephants rnaiiltaillecl is eight hun- dred. traces of orcharcls. They are fond of the water. of which one half are used for military purposes. and shouting at thcm. which inay be increascd t o a s/l//$e of fifteen inilcs an hour for a very short distance . or 250 pouilds of dry foddcr daily. *Elephants have been known to swim a river three hundred yards wide with the liind legs tied together. yet prior to that time this region was undcr high cultivation.

down the skids by levers and Lnclcle. There Llrposes. breast-strap. the load rests on the ribs . formed of stout saclring orange stuffed with dried grass. One is placed on each sidc of the elephant's . 6 x 5 feet ailci g inches thick. The ~vhole f Parties weighs 200 pounds. ~ v l ~ i secrns ch Lo bear the same relation t o t h e old gear that t h c open McClellarl "dowtt saddle does to thc ordinary British huntiag saddlc. but out of forty-four. the breast- p o u lids * There is no "elephant gun-dtill" laid dow11 in the In~peri.800 pou~lds(including their gear). reachiilg half-way dowil his sides and from 1Carance the neck to thc croup. THZ BRIT. sacliing. The gun is then lifter1 off Llle cradle and . aiicl encased in stout iclis. five died from exhaustion . The whole is girthed with a long w h a t is rope passed twice around thc body. ell rice. or of remaining under their loads for . and rctaiiled there by two iron archcs. or S region pad. rouild the neclc as a 11 s t o c k . taking each 4 feet long. spine. 1 5 inches wide. In the Abyssinian Expedition elephants travelled many hundreds of miles. and 6 inches thick.tlRegllations. or quilted cloth. made LC s u n i s of blankct covcrccl with tarpaulin. carrying from 1. PORCES AND ROUTES." 111 t11c An elephant's gear consists of agacEdeZ0. miles I& inches thick. 73 An elephallt is expccted to carry about twenty hours at a stretch. 011 this is placed thc g?~d~kl. is no sacldlc-cl'oth. aiid long - I '' sltids " m e placed against the crilclle upon wllicll the p n hull.iculal. A n improvement upoil this has been la11 1 0 0 made by our nuthority(Mr. they are capable of worlcing from' morning to night. and undcr t h e tail as a cruppcr. I t Y tying consists (sce illustration) of two pads entircly detached. Sanderson).500 to 1. . so as to fo1111 arrls witle an i~lcli~lccl plane to the ground.200 pounds with ease.~iccl. but when the gnn gocs illlo action the elephant is made Lo l.

mo poui~clsof storcs.100 men. I-Ie stated that experiments had been made by the ~nili- tary and railway authorities in loading and disembarking troops and war nzntc'rirl. and ended June. a cradle call also bc attached for carrying field guns. carrying 4. or bridgcs . there are rings to fasten the load to . 1878. it is said that 32 elephants could bc thus carried on onc train. 33. when the 10th Bellgal Cavalry left for Malta. and Delhi Railway. it weighs 140 pounds. and 800. I 12. Tbe moveinent of troops to and from the frontier com- menced in October. 80 horscs were loadcd on a train in 10 minutes .ooo men. they were indifferent to the motion. 8.ooomen.000 animals.000 animals.74 AFGHANISTAN. and 20. noiscs. 500 guns.000 pounds of militaiy stores. Punjnb. and that much experience had been afforded by the Afghan operatioils of 1878-9. Reccnt experi- ments have shown thc pi-acticabili~yof conveying cle- p l ~ a l ~ tby s rail in ordinary open cattlc-trucks. bcfore the Unitcd Scrvicc Iilstitutio~lof India. of the Scindc.000.800. ooo pouilds of storcs. strap and crupper hoolr into rings on the saddlc . The rnaxi~numnuinbcr carricd in any one month was in November-40. Thc grcatcst n~imbcr of special trains run in oilc day mas cight. 1879. During that period were conveyed over his road ~go. As an instance of rapid loading. With foot-boards it is convenient for riding. 300 animals. by Traffic Manager Ross. Thc excellc~ltrailway facilities for moving troops and supplies to the Indo-Afghan frontier wcre described in 1880.

rcyiiig elc. cndlc call !lit CXperi.and stitution or by Lhc mil. :r o f special roo ~ucn.8~.3co ~1 instilnce of SlDE R EVATION airy lclt lor ' I 10 minutes I i .aoomen.~b. Duririg c)o.Uld 30. 'i~flticrcorn. tiley mere is said tllat troops and cscribcd in L'~riij. :Ilc . i~cnibarkir~~ crioncc had 7s.. of nlilitaq )I OIIC 1n011tl1 i. thcrc DETAIL OF ELLPHANT SA. 79.0DLE 0 pounds.9.

could be brought to Lahore 1 in 10 days. and storcs cornpletc. 30 to 35 natives.76 A FGflANIS TAN. particu- larly in or near the Inclo-Afghan frontier. ordinary box-cars are always ready . Experience has shot1711 that t11c1-eis but little troublc t o accumulate large storcs of provisions for an army. 150 horses. T h e averagc time taken in loading up a squadron of cavalry. having in some cases to be picked up bodily and pushed into the car.800 pounds of 1 baggage and ammunition. could bc concentrated a t Lahore every 24 hours. Thc specd of troop-trains was about 21 miles an hour. Ross stated that in case of emergency. with gulls. the pack-ponies gave more trouble. 11 trains each way. and 10. providccl thcre is a force t o distribute it. This is thc rail- way leading to I<urrachee. this was the maximuin iluinbcr of trains capable of I 20 miles an hour wit11 35 cars. 2 regiments of cavalry. can be carried in a car. At this rate 3 batteries of artil- lery. could be run over the Lahore and Mooltan sectiol~. And by this line alone. 1 or 8 horses. the scaport nearest to Quctta. Compressecl food and forage . No accidents occurred. As the nativc troops prcfcr cars without seats. Great difiiculty was found ill loading camels. 128 meil. 92 followers. from the ordinary station platforn. allowiilg for crossiilgs and I other necessary halts. cotnprising 8 oficers.000 men.000 men). for which a sling and crane is required. 70. and 15 trains each . was from I hour t o go minutes. horses.way ovcr t l ~ cLahorc and Delhi sec- I tion . and 5 regiments of inlantry i (7. 1 Mr.

Our ill- his is the rail. MecIicinc c e d up bodily was oftcn deficicnt and illiberally issued.. with gum. seventy-five milcs. and lias had charge of all inili- r I trains each taiy iatclligencc. but is sup- ittle troublcto plernented by the views of Lieut. 190 miles. these officers were familiar with thc I o l t a n seclioa.. 77 :-po 11i es gave will form part of the present British supplies. The inforlnatioll . cars witllout intermediate stations. Chapman. ill this way and through the ordinary mili- c r o s s i n g s and tary scouts.-D~iri~lgthc later campaigns in R f g l ~ a n i s t a ~ ~ 11g 8 officers. and wcrc also useful 11d Delhi set. mc taken ill I~ztclli. A. R. Maltin. and the Political Departmcllt o go miaut~s. with but one station. in sigllalling in that mountaillous country. for which emmcnt of India) has been undcr his coatrol. and notably in ~ o s c dthat they India. (which is a branch of the Foreign Departnlc~ltof thc GOV- -Is. dainuck. language and habits of the Afghans. THE BRITISH FORCES AND ROUTES. a political f troop-trail~~ officer was gcnerally assigned t o the staff of each in&- nts occurred. thc British Commanding Gencral has been invested witli 30 pounds 01 supreme political authority. upon a report made by Col. pcndellt army commander.' . who a r m y . E. Messagcs ght t o Lal~orc wcre sent from Kabul to Jamrud. Gencral's office for the information of thc Commanding ts of infantry General. with but four . and again between Kabul a i d Gun- 1 t o 3 5 natives. R. in obtaining supplies from the nativcs. scrved with thc same column. was silted and compilecl in the Quartermaster- teries of artil. Maps of the country were supplied to all ' lore every 24 officcrs. padicu. formation as t o the status of the Political Officer is based rest t o Qaetta.neclzcr. T h e I-Icliograph was used with markcd success cn .ins capabls 01 obtained daily. where the Roman inaxinl 'Inter armcs silent leges. R e says: p r o v i d c d tlicre " Thc old English respect for law and constitutcd civil )ocI and forage authority is olten carricd to extravagance.

but that thcy causcd great exasperation among soldiers cannot bc dcnied.78 11FCH-4NIS T A N . must not be ltcpt at a distance.--The observations of a par- ticipant {+ in t11c last British camlmigu in Afgllanistan will be founcl of value in thc study of futurc operations in that country. a. t11c Afghan tribcs wore oftcn ablc t o rnisc 1:ugc g:~thcrings on chosen . and usually obtaincd Ihc advantage of supcrior numbers bcforc risliing an attacli . That much valuable service was pcrforined by political officers therc can be no doubt. Of the Afghan tactics 11c says : " T h c enemy (generally spealiing. t l ~ o ~ gless h colnprchensible. oracle has spolicn and the behest must be obeyccl. Dicl any step appear to the military scnsc advisable. All enemy in sight who 1~ccamc'afterw:~rds hostile. political reason why it should not be ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ c r t aThekcn. bcing able to dispensc (for the time) wit11 lincs of com~nunicationand baggage and commissariat columns. '::' {. and the alnoullt of ltnowledge they possessed of border statistics was something marvel- lous.' while thc coulltry out of sight must not be cxplored. the susceptibilities of the sen- sitivc ' Tamlnizais ' having to be rcspectecl. T h e Politicals were by no mcalls silcnt. tllrougll political glasses they appear as ' cllildren of naturc. and the cxamplc of the War of 1839-40 causes thcm to be looked upon as a very possiblc sourco of danger. appears to have been clean forgotten." A7tgZu-AfgLa7t O]cmtiu~~s. rncc of Highlanders) vastly preferred thc attacli. there was a lnuch bcttcr.

T h e Afghans assembled a force out- nuinbering the British tcn to one. Tllc mounted ~ n c nare usually the first to leave whell thc fight is going against their side in a general engagement. 79 I Politicals groul~d. 0x1 chosen In the ICurain valley column. T h c English infantry formatioil was an objectionably IT h e enemy ly preferred 2 o f superior close one. the cavalry (principally native. was suicidal in n i c a t i o n and rcceivitlg t h e enemy's cl~asge-pr. we werc rarely (except whcn they chose) t o find thein at hornc. Trouble may As o f a par. but disapprovcd. Exposed t o a con- Lp1c of the stant fire of ficld guns. Thc prcsence of a tactically i~nrnovableartillery hinders the actioil of a11 Asiatic army. as at Ahmcd-Khcyl. Oc- ' g h a n tribes casionally shelter trenches were used. always bc expected froin the night attacks of certain b ai-ristan will t i o r l s in tl~at tribes like the Alizais and Waziris.actically a t a halt. llot so forinidable as t h e tribal gatherings. This observer says t h e regular troops of the Arncer were advisable. Martin says that the bayonets and rifle-barrels of thc iront ranlc were sometimes struck and jammed by 6zdZets fro7rs the rtTnr rnltk. T h e y could always attaclc u s . whcn the British divisioll was one hundred miles 1of them- hatmuch cers there from any support. THE 13KITISJI POXCES A N D RO UTES. T h e attaclc was inadc in a scries of rushes. T h e action of b e i n g able the English cavalry. rasp eratioll and oncc driving back thc infantry. twice dispersing the British cavalry. the Afghans stood their ground. with one rcgular squadron . under Gencral Roberts. bn as a very nlthough poorly armed wit11 n varicty of obsolete weapons -from an Enfield to a handjar or a stick. Ollc of the best spccinle~lsof thcir lasses tllq tactics was at Ahmed-Rlleyl. and Licut. on the Ghazni-Kandahar out of l-ltry road." ng marvel.

paclted on ponics. althougll a railroad within two hun- drccl milcs had a largc stoclr on hancl. a Gatling bat- tery. 011 account of the steepness of the hills. in the British army.cgirncntal reserve of ammunition was found to be Bl~t7zkcnrts~idgcs.but this must be a heavy ~ g were carricd on camels. althougl~Licut. Very little was done by tlle horse artillery with the I<uram column. There was great difficulty in gcttiilg tools and inaterials a t the opcning of thc campaign-particularly thosc rcquircd for road and bridgc work. was nevcr uscd howcvcr.80 AFGHANISTAN. tllat tllc mouilted arm is paralyzed for effective service. In thc case of tlle field artilleiy it was found necessary 011 two occasioils t o transfer t h e ammuili- tion boxes fro111 the bullocl<-cartst o the baclrs of elephants. and a battery of horse artillery) formed a brigaclc. but was never used indcpendcntly. T h e armament of tllc infantry ii~clucloclboth Martini and Snidcr rifles." I i l t r c n c l ~ i ~tools mixture of military aild civil-enginccr administratio11 and operation is lncntioncd :IS unsatisfactory in results. no confusion cn- sued. and in charge of n detachment of Highlanders. but. nor was it instructccl (altl~ougl~ well equipped) for mocleril cavalry work. T h e mountain artillery (native) was tlle most serviceable . T h e opposition to dismounted cavalry duty is still so grcat. recluiring two Kil~clsof ammunition. T h e art of camping aild rough fortification was well . A jolrc. as t h e scrvicc by pacli-mules was ainplc. Martin says : " In one case I heard a wl~isperthat LL 1.

pic.~ 1 opposition . Ill c . detachment ol I' . A (:r .. i~~l.I. c 1 .. .of a l . in the British . T h e rnoulltain :. ammunition sai .1 a brigade. 1 ~t l ~ c . Laclis of elephants. \~v~ 1i t h i i ~t~voli~~!! results.lyzcd f o r effectivt artillery with thc field i t wa. a f ~ t . :ransfef t h e alYllll~l~i. Tl~cri .\lis m u s t be a heavy u-piccl on camels.a t iand on t q q . ills. b u t was nstructcd (altl'ough . n o confusiona. ~ t l m i l ~ i s t i .cluclod both Martini . ~case ~ c I heard . . . ~ n c l~nntcrialsat ~IIP 1 1 .L Gatling bat. ~ grcak.l l m u ~ ~ i t but. e of .~ i f i c : t t \bras i o ~1\41 ~ . s c 1-cquiredlor ~ i l r . 11.

224 animals. illustrated British operations in Af- ghanistan under the most favorable circurnstanccs.800 European and 7. including cavalry horses . and furnished frequent patrols. 1880. 4.000 Indian troops .148 troops.unteered. and I 1. During the latter part of the campaign these outposts were manned by the native contingents of the Punjab who vol.82 AFGHANISTAN. to protect communications. 1. and dependence on t h c country for fresh meat and forage.000 doolie-bearci-s. The absence of timbcr on this route rendered it difficult to obtain fuel except by burning the roofs of t h e villages and digging up tlle roots of " Southern-wood " for this purpose.224 Indian ponies. 8. The manner of covering the movement . no wheeled artilIeiy was talcen . 2% ponies. trained to practical engineering work. and the final dispersion of t h e forces of Ayoub Ichan. T h e forces includecl 2. one regiment of native iA- fantry. 912 donkeys-a total of 10. for transport of supplies a paclr-train of 1." These were established about ten miles apart.s 10 mules. 30 days' rations. The rapid march of General Roberts from Kabul t o Kandahar in August.143 native followers. for t h e trailsportation of sick and wounded 2. which held the sentries. of certain things. T h e most approved permanent camps or " posts " were mud scrub flanlred by bastions at the alternate angles and overlooltiilg a yard or "kraal. practised. did the work of sappers and miners . The best defended camp was surrounded by bus11 abatis and flanlted by half-moon sul~gusof bouIder- stone work.589 yabas. and 43 donkeys .

ti o n s . .a total of d I 1. L f r c q u e l l t patrols. c ..o rlc.s surrounded by 6.rzgasof boulder.224 animals. of certain 'or Ircsh meat a~ld r c .5 S g yabfis. ~eIllOst approved sc7nis flanlted by lo0 k i l l g a yard or tell miles apart. 11 tc rcndered it g t h c roofs of the S outhcnl-wood" r l g t11c lnovemcnt . from Kabul to d i s p c r s i o n of tile o p c s a t i o n s in A[. a n d 43 donkeys. . TIle 3 I n d i a n troops. kl tI1esc outposts ts of the Punjab .510 c c y s . :um s t a n c e s . did the work : a t i o n of sickand . n e n t of native ii. 4.

and I<ohut . b y Qzlettn to I<andal~ar and thence t o f i ~ n t or . difficult. second. Bunnoo. which on its castern side . barren.M. Xoutes. fourth. and Doaba.A N J S T A N . from Dern IsnzniZ Khnfz through the Gulcir Surwandi and Sargo passes to Ghnani. From the Indus valley into the interior of Afghanistan there are only four lines of coinmunicatioil which can be called military roads : first. by Gl~aznit o Iinbzd. detaching one or more troops as rear-guard .84 A FG1. Mackeson. supplemented by a line of posts whicl~are from north t o south as follows: Jumrud.--For operations in Afghanistan the general British basc is the frontier from I<urrachce to Peshawur. Sulirnani range. third.--Thull. Baru. rested with the cavalry commander. from Pcshnwz~rthrough the Ichaiber Pass to Knbzd. the animals. at a mile from the column. once movemerlt had commenced. mulc traclcs ovcr the bleak. Abazai. moving at different gaits were chcclred as little as possible. These points are conilected by a railway running east of the Indus. Shub I<adar. Bcsidcs these there are inany stccp. one regiment on each flank. rarely reached t h e next-fiftccn to twenty miles distant-before sundown. also by fortified posts connected by military roads. over the Pciwar and Slluturgurdan passes t o Knbldl. which forms a natural boundary t o t h e Indiap frontier. With such a number of non-combatants the column was strung out for six or seven miles. and the rear-guard lcavirlg onc camp a t 7 A. froin ThzdZ. Michni. Usually t h e front was covcred by two rcgirncnts.

:st of ~diap from cson. tified . :rant each nore i. the le as the . neral Lwur.and istan In be 1 the r the from and Iahar sides r the side . the the In.

and after 7 miles reaches Jumrud (1. then on to Daklca (altitude 1. being closed ! in by precipitous cliffs. AFGHANIS T. and 44 miles further west passes through the great Ichaiber Pass. On the eleven miles' march from Daltlta to I-Iazarnao.4 AT. 31 miles long.463 feet). IOO to 225 feet wide and 60 feet long. a decp ravine about onc mile . Five miles furthcr it passes through the valley of LaIabeg I + miles I wide by 6 miles long. From thence it de- scends for 2+ miles to the village of Landi I<hana (2. the Khurd Khaiber is passed. aIong the roclcy beds of I I torrents. I 70 miles long. can. This pass. is shut in b y steep but not high slopes.979 feet). which froin both sides offers very strong strategical positions. however.. and the first part of the road along thc Kabul Rivcr is very difficult and narrow. This pass. they are not ii practicable for wheels.650 fect elevation). be turned by going t o the north through the Absuna and Tartars passes . is very precipitous and impassable for any large body of 1 troops. and 1 in some of the narrowest parts. I The Peshawur-Icabul road. Frorn Peshawur the road gradually rises. As iar as Fort Ali Musjid the Ichaiber is a narrow de- file between perpendicular slate rocks 1. overgrown with bushes. be- ! yond that fort the road becomes stiIl morc difficult.460 feet high . and then after rising for four miles it ]-caches the top of the Pass. was in 1880 improved and put in good order. which li@sin a gorge about a quarter of a mile wide . it is not inore than 56 feet wide.

31 miles to the llorth j . This pass. Lo Hazarnao.alabeg r& miles for four miles it )oth sides offers I thence it dc- 3 Ichana (2.and e rocky beds of ide.being closed is a narrow de- 2 feet: high . Five miles .463 xrter of a mile bet). )i-c difficult.fl west passes Pass. hut in by steep 0s. large body of nLwas in 1850 1 Peshawur the ?aches jumrud . they are not ' the road along W. be. the about one mile .

perished. more difficult than the IChaiber. that the greater part of Elphinstone's command. Hazarnao is wcll cultivated. and ascellding the Ichurd 1cabul-f (7. but beyond this thrcc spurs of the Safed ICoh range. From this city (elsewhere described) onward as far as Gundarnuclt the route prcsents no great difficulties . I t was here. tl~cnccthrougl~t l ~ cICotul defile.800 feet i altitude).) to the north rcaches the high plateau on which Icabul is situated . have t o li !I be surmounted.925 fcet alt. T11cre is a dearth of fucl and supplics "Tllc hcal at Jclalabad froin the end o l April is trcmcncloas-105' to 110" in thc sllncle. with an i~npcluous mountain torrent which the road (1842)crosscd twcniy-eight ti~ncs.397 fcct alt. running in a northeastern direction. 15 inilcs farther is Chardeh (1. all these.vineyards.) at the right of which is Assin Kilo. and 1 rich in fodder. I in 1842. . which is over 8&miles from Jela- labad. and on through the desert of Surlth Den- 1 ltor (1.892 feet altitude). it passes through orcl~arcls. Between Jelalabad "and Kabul two roads can be followed: the first crosses the range over the ICarkacha Pass (7. as already I rclatcd. arc impassable during the winter. and cornfields t o the Surlthab River . froin which thcrc are three roads t o Kabul- t l ~ cnorthernmost over the Ichinar and the third over the Sokhta passes. the other leads over the short but dangerous Jagdallalt Pass to Jagdallalt. from which t l ~ croad passcs through a wcll-culti- vated country. and in many places so narrow that two horsemen cannot pass each othcr.long.( 'The ICl~urd1Cal)ul Pass is abonl hvc milcs long. .

'cl as far (tics . 'rsemen ed. and . already ~nmand. . s~~pplics . ch Den- m Jela.00 feet ~Il-c~lti. i t s t o the -c Safed have to can be arltaclla Assin ling the reaches l e other Pass to Kabul- mer the Chaibel.

or Thull- J(uram-ICabul. a i d then inclining towards t h e west leads t o the ~ C L IfortS ~(Mohammeclr ~ Azim's). T h e total length of this route is about 175 miles.).ooo feet alt. thence it descends \ into the fertile Logar valley and reachcs Akton I ~ l i e l . one of the frontier posts I already mentioned. 2nd forage abound. up to this point. was taken by Gcneral Roberts in 1878-9. T h e Icuram valley is. and then climbs t o the Shuturgusdan Pass ( I 1. water. which is only fifty-one miles from Kabul. Winter only lasts with any severity for six weeks. I t extends from Thull. A short distance above the fort coinmenccs the ascent toward the Peiwar Pass (8.). and from the village of Peiwar-one of inany en route. wood. (which is covered with snow in the winter).b y this line of communication.000 feet. wcll cultivated and productive . T h c seconcl. the summits of which are covered with scrub timber and a luxurious growth . . reaching a plateau on which t h e snow lies for six months of the yeas . is covered with bouldcrs and is very difficult. On the farther side of the pass the road ascends t o the height of the Hazardaralht. a wallcd quadrangular fortrcss with flanking towers at an elevation of 6. twenty-four miles distant. rAute.of laurel. Ilere the road is confined by perpendicular chalk rocks.375 fcet alt. The road. of t h e usual Afghan fortified type-it lcads through a wind- ing defile to the top of the pass. some forty miles into the ICuram valley. and the Spring and Autumn are delightful. thiclcly bordcred with cedar and pine trees.


T11e third, or Dera-Ismail-I<han-Sargo-Ghazni, route
passes through a region less frequented than those men-
tionecl, and is not thought sufficiently difficult for
detailed description. Passing due west, through seventy
l e a d s to tlic of mountain gorges destitute of supplies or forage, .
i t debouches, through the Gomal Pass, into a more
prornisiilg country, in which forage may be obtained. A t
ed and
~ltivaf: this point it branches t o Ghazni, Kandahar, and Pishin
nd. Willter
respectively. A road exists from Mooltan, crossing the
lndus at Dera-Ghazi-Khan, Mithunltot, Rajanpur, Rojan,
Lalgoshi, Daclur to Quetta, and was utilized by General
:s t h e ascent
Biddulph, irom whose account of his march from the
twenty-four I
Indus to the Helmund, in 1879, is gleaned the following.
th cedar and i
i T h e inain point of concentratioi~for the British forces,
cry difficult, j either from India or from England via Kurrachee is thus
z Y O , of j ~ninutelydescribed.
)ugh a wind. ,i
" T h e wcstcril frontier of India is, for a length of
600 miles, bounded by Biluchistan and territories in-
~f w h i c h are
habited b y Bilucll tribes, and for 300 miles Biluch
country intervenes between our border and Afghanistan.
.oacZ ascends The plains of the Punjab aild Sind run along the boundary
of Biluchistan, and at a distance of from 25 to 50 miles the
Indus pursues a course, as far down as Mithunlcot, from
.I w h i c h the north to south, and then winds south-west through a
countiy similar t o that of Egypt. A belt of cultivation
and beyond that the clesert ++ *E ++this line of hills (the

an elevatioll of I 1,000 feet a t t h c Tukl-i-Sulirnan, and of
7,400 ncar Fort Munro (opposite Dcra-Ghazi-Khan), grad-
ually dimitlislles in llcight and dwitldlcs away till it is lost
in the plains ncar Icusmore, at a point 12 inilcs from the
Illdns. The strip of low-land country on t h e west bank
of t h e Ii~dusup t o the foot of the hills is called the
Derajat. I t is cut up and brokcil by torrcnts, the beds of
wl~icllare generally dry wastcs, and the country is, cxcept
at a few places where permanent water is found, altogether
sterile ancl hot. If we vicw t h e physical aspect looking
llorth and nortll-west from Jacobabad, we notice a wide
bay of plains extending betwcen the brolcen spur of the
Sulimani, and a second range of hills having a direction
parallel to the outer range. This plain is called the
I<achi, extencls in an even surface for 150 milcs from the
Indus at Sukltur, and is bouncled on the north by succes-
sive spurs lying between the two grcat ranges. The
Icachi, thus boundcd by barren hills on all sides b u t the
south, is one of the hottest rcgioils in the world. Except
where subject to i~lulldationsor withia I-cach of irrigation
it is completely sterile-a hard clay surface called P&t,-
and this kind of countrjr cxtcnds around to the east of the
spur of the S u l i ~ n a into
~ l t h e Dcrajat country. Subject t o
terrific heats ancl t o a ficrccly h o t pcstilcntial ~vind,tlie
Icachi is at times fatal cvcn t o t h e nativcs."
T h e range of inouiltains bouncling thc Icachi t o the
westward is a colltilluous wall wit11 impcrccptible breaks
only, and it bears the local names of Ginclari, Takari, and

ulimnn, alld
:i-I(han), grad.
ly till it is lost
nilcs from the
:bC \Vest bank
is called tile
tS, the beds of
is, except
"d, alto~ctller
lspcct looldng
n0ticc a wide
spur of tlie
"6 n clirection
is called the
ilcs from the
rtll by succes-
ranges. Tlie
sides but the
~ r l d . Except
I of irrigation

callcd Pdt,-
h c east of the
I . Subject to

:id mind, the

'Cachi to the
?tiblc breaks
, Tnkari, and Entrance to the Rolan Pass, from Dadur.
I 93

Notwithstanding the difficulties of the road.-the bot- tom filled with the pebbly bed of a inountaiil torrent. i t scems that after the conquest of the Punjab. leading to Icelat . This steep ramp forms for sixty iniles the road from Dadur. t o the Dasht-i-Bedowlat.94 AFGHANISTAN.225 feet. and the Bofalz entering ncal- Dadur. Kandahar. T h e Bolan is an abrupt defile-a rent in the range. : tlle Mzdfa opening opposite Gundana.-made it desirable that morc decisive measures should be adopted. leading to Quctta. Through this uniform rampart there are t w o notable rents or defiles. This inhospitable plateau and the upper portion of the Bolan are subject t o the most piercingly cold winds and temperature. this route has bcen always most in favor as t l ~ e great commercial and military cominunication from Persia. the proximity of certain disturbed portions of Biluchistan. from certain tribes of Biluchis-notably the Maris and Bugtis. In 1876 a forcc of British . the absencc of supplics and fuel. Bricfly stated. i n 1839-1874. and thc hostile character of thc prcdatory tribes. The causes which led to the establishment of a British garrison at Quetta are not unlilte those which are urged as good Russian reasons for the occupation of territory in certain parts of Central Asia. Kirthar. Central Asia. around. and Herat. elevation 750 fcet. and the annoy- ance suffered by various British illilitary expeditions. viz. and the sudden change from the heat of the Icachi t o thc cold above is most trying to the strongest constitutions. eleva- tion 6. and Khorassan t o India.

for instance-has not changed for the better. If the no noise . if they reach them. t h e vil- :rritory lages are surrounded. TflE BRITISH FORCES AND ROGTES. retreat to. They ride upon mares which m a l e . British tion by single messengers is secretly sent back. confirm this staterncnt. tribes. the. but a t the same time securing a military footing he bot. of great value. d from and the temporary general Europeai~occupation of the . T h e Maris can put 2. 9 5* re two troops was marched to Kelat. which these bandits would not hesitate to. and. When they wish tb s most start upon a raid they collect their wise men together and :anding tell the warriors where the cattle and the corn are. the cattle swept away. They are the most Persia. and b y mutual agreement. Urhen they arrive at the scene of action a perfect watch is kept and informa-. : upper tory instincts. eleva. they travel only at night. in winter there is I . the women : seems and children hardly used-fortunate if they escape mity of with their lives. The highway. march is undertaken. call pull the lad- ions. countrywould afford an opportunity t o gratify their preda-. in ders over after them and fire away from their towers. :rcinglY utilize. :is and reports of spies.. Every :: urged thing being ready a rush of horseinen talces place. But the character of the lords of the soil :orrent.000 Inell into the field and change march roo miles to m a l e an attack. --the Maris. From here the Kandahar road leads for sixty miles British I through the Pass-a gradual ascent. excellent outpost troops in the world. ~ l the y ccisive i I Dadur is an insignificant town at the foot of the Bolan. sent forward. T h e villagers have their fortlets tor annoy. ostensibly t o protect an important coinmercia~ 1. pposite the Khan a political agency was established at ' 1g near Quetta.

interspersed with valleys. the ICujlalt-Icaltur Vale the passagc.not a mouthful of food in the cntire length of thc defile. there is a total absence of timber. under the name of IChoja Amran. This spur. SLIT- rounded by mountains which givc forth an abundant sup- ply of water. compared with thc rcgion to the south. which extend across the eastern portion of Afghanistan toward the Russian dominion. which defines the west of the Barshorvalley. the Gayud Yara Plain an antechambcr. the lands bordering on the hills are studded with villages. A study of thc Pishin country sllows that it is. on its northwesterll side supported on a limb of the Western Sulimani. and the cultivation of fruit-trees has becri neglected. is spread out into t h c broad plateau of Toba. Thc Barshor is a dcep bay of the plain. appears a very Garden of Eden. and Pishin proper the grcat snZZe. I t is a small oasis. . and there is an open valley within t h e outer screen of hills. From Quetta t o Pisliin the road skirts thc southern border of a vast plain. W e may imagine the Shall Valley the vestibule. the Pishin plains and those of Shallltot may be loolted upon as one feature. and there is much cultivation. Though intersected b y some very low and unimportant hills and ridges. Quetta. T h c Lora rivcrs cutting into t h e plain interferes somewhat with t h e constructioil of roads. and is then produced as a continuous ridge. A road striltcs off here t o the Ghilzai country and t o Ghazni. dividing Pishin froin thc plains of ICadani. grcen and well watered.

greell and % tllc sOutherl. . . villlcys.upported on a -.~ ""is.which defines ti the broad . ~udy Yara Plain . appcal.1 the defile. tlierc is a 011 n[ fruit-trees * n t t i n g into the ~ctionof roads. underthe .s a continuous lclani. Sur.r c a t snllc. south. 1 abundant sup- ril Is arc studded tioa . which anistan toward I'ishin coulltry . the Pishin cd upon as one :y tlic vestibule. a deep bay ol i t h i n the outer t~1tile Ghilzai ~ ~ t byt some d I gcs.

passed. From the Ichoja Amran. by which ~ the first wheeled vehicles. A thir- teen-foot cart road was made. The ascent from the east through the IChojak Pass is easy. t h e plains. are laid out lilte a sea. b y General Bicldulph in 1878-9. several thousand feet below. From ICandahar (elsewhere described)-which is consid- ered by General I-Iamley and other authorities. to Icabul. W. The Plain of Pishin possesses exceptional advantages for the concentratioil and rendezvous of large bodies of the passage of troops i n d r y weather.. but in flood $hey ':become serious obstacles and cannot be passed until (the . to the left the desert is secn lilte a turbulent tide a b o u t t o overflow the plains. and one running N. E. The rivers on . looking toward Kandahar. one of the most important strategic points in any scheme of pcrma- nent defence for India-divergc two maill roads: o n e a continuation of the Quetta-Herat route bearing N.renders it impossible to construct worlcs close a t hatld . Gen. Biddulph says: " T h e position of I C a n d a l ~ ancar ~ t o the slopes of the range to the westward of t h e city .the Quetta-Randahar route d o not present much impediment . the descent on the west very precipitous.waters retire. and the mountains run out into isolatccl promontories . which ever reached IChorassan 1 from India. and has already been utilized for that purpose b y t h e British. over the entire lcngth of 1 twenty miles.

and the road from Taktipul towards . unfit for cultivation. if held. fifteen milcs distant. T H E B R I T I S H ROXCES AND ROUTES. and follows the left bank of the Argandab as far down as Panjwai. well removed from the hills.-and while generally fit for grazing is. ovcrloolting t h e approaches. According t o the eminent authority just quoted. the great natural strategic feature of this route is the ele- vated position of A t t a Icarez. H e says: "On the whole road this is the narrowest gateway. in front of that place on the right bailk of the river. E. and this remarltable feature and the concentratioil of roads* here. add to security on that quarter. therefore. give to Atta Icarez a strategic * T h e roads which meet at Atta 1Carez are: the great IIerat higllway passing tl~roughIColccran and crossing the Argandab opposite Sinjari." T h e country between ICandahar and the I-Ielmund has t h e same general characteristics-plains and mountain spurs alternately.. and a t Rlthund Ziarut. except in a few spots. of ICandahar thc open plain affords situations for forts. Beyond the gap a group of detached momltains extends. there is a gorge which would. whence it lies along the open plain all the way to Atta Icarer . T o the N. at Panjwai. thirty miles on the road to Ghazni. T h e high ridgc and outly- ing hills dividing I<andahar and its suburbs from thc Argandab valley completely command all the level ground between the city and the pass. at a short distance. to cover thc road from Herat. Positions for defensive worlts must be sought. the road which crosses the Argandal. thirty-one miIes from ICan- dahar.

and Lash. as elsewhere in this 1 i . Abbaza is a village at t h e crossing of the I-Icrat road over the Helmund. and is a favorite military route. parallel. T h e plateau opposite Girishk is 175 I feet above the river. T h e Helmund has already beell described. From Girishk a road via Washir runs through the hills t o Herat . along the course of t h e river.gocs tl~roughFxrrah. but. Although not so direct. upon this )I I road stand the ruins of the ancient city of Bost in a won- derful state of preservation.ll Still another road. at certain times. here." General Biddulph examined this position carefully in 1879. 011 the west balllc lies the ancient castle of Girishk. bridges would be required for military purposes. I I I A road. it is an important route to Ilerat . There are numerous fords. this is said to be cool. well supplied with water and grazing. importance unequalled by any other spot betweell India and Central Asia. Rudbar. T h e land in the vicinity I of the Helmund is vely fertile and searnecl with irrigating canals. aild discovered a site for a work which would com- mand the valley of the Argandab and swcep the elevated open plain toward the west and nortl~wcst. to the soutl~. cxists. The country between the Argaildab and the I-Ielmuncl is roll- ing and inclining gradually from t h e hills toward the junc- tion of these rivers. forty-six miles west of A t t a Icarez. by Bost. be- yond which both roads blend illto one main roacl t o the j 1 I " I<ey. which i t commands.

H e seems t o me t o possess all the qualities of a great general. C. they have only fought against Asiatic and savage foes. Stewart. and i has been appointed t o the coillmand of one of the princi- I i pal divisions of the British forces intended t o oppose the threatened advance of the Russians on I-Ierat.-Sltobeleff : " For General Roberts I have a great admiration.--Perhaps the most prominent of mod- ern British commanders. H e has I I already seen service in Afghanistan and elsewhere. G. I. B~itishGe~zcml~. C. the remains of fortifications testify t o t h e former military importance of the spot.. I01 region. next to Lord Wolseley-is the young and successful soldier. I. They have not commanded an army against a European enemy.. but there is this to be said of a l l your generals.. C. General Sir Donald M. C. and we cannot tell. commanding the : Anglo-Indian Army of the Madras Presidency. That was a splendid marc11 of his from Kabul t o Icandahar. The citadel of Bost is built on the debris of extensive worlcs and rises 150 feet above the river.. E. Lieutenant-General Sir Fredericlc Roberts. what they are rcally made of." The Commander-in-chief of the Army of India. B. therefore. I think more highly of him than I do of Sir Garnet Wolseley. is also a vely distinguished and experienced officer-probably more familiar with tlie nature of the . B. to whom has been intrusted the conduct of the 13ritish forces in Afghanistan. G. THE BRITISH FORCES AND ROUTES. B. I t was said of him by one of the most brilliant military leaders of the age.

I02 AFGHANISTAN. For the first year of t h e coming struggle England must lean heavily upon her navy. and as the practice llas been t o fill up those corps ordered abroad with men transferred from other small regiments. Colonel Trench of the British Army says "the organization of the regular cavalry is very defective. probable field of operations than any other in Her Majes- ty's Serviee. t h e great latent power of Eng- land is indisputable. Colonel Trench says that the reserve cavalry have no training. which stood next dred horses and onc hundred men. and if filled up simultaneously t o a. I t is doubtful if more than seventy per cent. of the horses. of imperfectly trained men. time is given to render that latent power active. Nearly all the regi- ments of infantry are below the average peace limit. Demands for cavalry for the S ~ u c l a n ~ w e met r e by a heavy drain on the already depleted strength of regiments in England. and so long as superiority at sea is maintained. Lilce the United States. and that there is no reserve of horses. inaximum war strength will include more than fifty per cent. it inay come to pass that so-called " reg- ular" regimcnts will consist largely of raw material. of the enlisted strcngtl~and fifty per cent." and especially cornplaiils of the maladministration we have just noted. on paper. Allusion has already been made t o the notorious wealr- . could be p u t in t h e field now. The Fifth Dragoon Guards.

THE BRITISIf I"ORCi?S AND K O UTES. what may be expected from the strain of a great international campaign. 4: Captain Gaisford. llcre lian I'cr icld .~ eadvocated certain Alncrican methods. been : the case i n the numerous sinall wars in which her forces hlg. and endur- lose ltly ance. who cornr~>andedthe ICllaiber campaign." If this has. llaustible capital. A Levies in the Afghan jher 1 . not alone of the revenues which have ind gth been accumulatillg cluriilg t h e last quarter of a century. eg1. thc selection of tlansport employis who understand animals . 103 ness of the British transport system. rccommcnded refo~rnsin the system of transport and supply. have been engaged for the last twenty-five years. often issued. "I1y t jaVY cd* s in ICYt lull- La. and mole care in tra~lsporti~lg liorses by sea. but of patriotism. and tocut up the infc~iorhay . On the other hand. peculiar t o a race of conquerors. pllysical strength. Great Britain can boast of an inex- I . courage. as wiild nncl water-mills to crus!~ ral* ion and cleanse the pet~ificdand gravelled I)arley.

I THE RUSSIAN FORCES A N D APPROACHES.S. \vithin t h e last thirty years. such a successioll of extcnsivc altcra- I tions in organization. in 1874. that it is dificult for t h e observer t o keep pace wit11 t h e ~ n . is all that we can give hcre. and in tactical regulations. ros- pectively. No army in thc world has probably undcrgonc. t h e wholc military systcm was rc- modelled. as that of Russia. i IV. who 11:~vcnot . with cel-tain exemptions or modifications on t h e ground. while ever since t h e Peacc of Szn Stcfano. and by which she preserves and cxtends hc1- power. F u r t h e r ~ h a n g e sof importance were carried out after t h a t war. 104 . It~stitntion). Graham (j%z~v~raZ Roj/nC U. Once more. ' ~ T h e militaiy system of Russia is based upon t l ~ prin- c ciples of universal liability to scrve aacl of territorial dis- tribution. of age o r education. and have beell prosc- cuted with such fcverish haste. in administrative arrangcmcnts. This applies to the eiltirc lnalc population." in which all ovcr twenty. radical reforms have beell in progress.~lready * Sir L. T l ~ cCriincail W a r surprised it during a period of transition. A MERE glance at the ponderous military machine with which Russia cnforces law and ordcr within h c r vast domain. Annually thcro is a " lot- drawing.

105 drawn lots. 4 own expense. but go into the last reserve. Exemptions are also made for family reasons and le. must take part." Tlie ordinary term of service is fifteen years. 'I of this deficit of 3. 3.039. who issues orders through the War Ministry. head is responsiblc for the gcneral efficiency of the Army.-The Emperor is the Coinmander-in- tion. all s 1 was re- volunteers serve iliile years in the rescrve. Those who draw blanks are excused from service with the colors. and 231.000.-six with HES. or " OpoltscheniC. within on account of peculiar occupation or profession. res. talccs the Emperor's orders and sees to their execution. viduals who persoilally manage their estates or direct lents. torial dis. a reduction is made for men serving a t remote Asiatic posts . Men are permitted t o volunteer that war. Org-a?zizatio~z. RUSSIAN FORCES A N D APPROACHES. .961 were enrolled ." under a ~talready general officer who.I postponed two years. for various degrees of educatioilal acquire- ment. were the prin. thc colors and nine with the reserves . 1 a t scventeen (with consent of parents or guardians). Indi- :ve alters. with Chief. Reduction is also made. in the absence of the War Minister. whose mnd. 1!l the Guards or cav'alry must maintain thenlselves a t their :en prose. those joining Stefano. the War Office :hine with may se~lclsoldiers into the reserve before the end of thcir her vast terms. and their ow11 commercial affairs (with the exceptioil of venders : Crimean 1 of strong liquors) may have their entry into service Further . from eleven to thirteetl :ends her years and a hall. Jews. the greater number..000. is a " lot: There is also t h e " Imperial Head-quarters. T h e total contingent demanded for army 11tfor the + 4Ii a n d navy in ISSO was 235.

755 horses. divided into 20 divisions.I 06 AFGHANIS TAN. engineer. Cnvnlry: 56 regular regimcnts (4 cuirassiers.* 5 I brigades. ltept in time of peace a t 768 mcll (864 wit11 sub-olficcrs) per regiment. superviscs all financial matters in connection wit11 the army. civil and military. Cossack. I-Iis staff are detailed much as usual at a n American army head-quarters in tlie field. Artillcry . When war is declared a n army is formed of two or more corps. 54 batt.. artillcry. T h c gencral cominanding exercises supreme colt- trol. 29 regt. e T h e W a r Council. Thcre are in thc active army-Infn~zt~y : 768 battalions (192 regiments. Cossaclts. 2 hussars. t h e remainder. and judgc-advocate departments complete the list of bureaus. . 2 uhlans. with a duc proportion of light artillery and engineers t h e war strcngth of a n army corps is 42. who supervise tlle execution of all military duties. Fifly "parks " and 2 0 sections of "parlcs" supply e a c l ~infantry brigadc and cavaliy divisio~lwith cartridges. presided over by the W a r Minister. bcsidcs I4 batteries wit11 Cossaclc divisions.303 combatants. riflemen. 48 divisions). 30 horse-batteries of 6 guns cach . or 303 batteries of 8 guns each . mili- tary education. if the force cnters the enemy's country. and 108 guns. and the I-Iead- quarters Staff. Commissariat. 48 dragoons). one. There are also a Iligll Court of Appeals. T h e military forces are arrangcd into nineteen army corps : five coniprise three divisioils of inlantry . two divisions of cavalry. 10. medical. two divisions of cavalry and onc of infantry .


t . and provisions are taken for training recruits and supplying the losses during war. for the dcfencc of fortresses. carrying each sufficient tools and material for an infatltry division. The fortress troops. consist of forty-three battalions of twelve hundred men each in time of war. they are intended to supply 544 battalions. and one telegraph instruction company. each of whicI1 is mounted. T h e training of the Russian infantry comprises t h a t of skirmishing as of most importance . 1 4 . a i ~ dhavc two stations . four battalions of military railway engineers. T h e depot troops. and 34 companies of engineers. o r Zapas. 56 squadrons. two siege trains. T h e second reserve. organized in time of war. four mine companies .batteries. Henceforward the peace establishment will cotlsist of seven- teen battalions of sappers. six engineering or trains. thc whistle is used to call attention . A FCHA NIS TAN. and nine compznies of three hundred men each. a n d 34 companies of sappers. The whole is divided into six brigades. eight battalions of pontollicrs. so as to maintain tclegraphic communicatiotl for forty miles. If mobilized. 56 squadrons of cavalry. T h e reserve troops supply 204 battalioils of infantry. the touch is looser in the ranks than for." (( consists of " cadres " for instruction. each ten sections. for garrison service. 57 batteries of artillery. During 1884 the engineer corps was reorganized. con- sist of thirteen battalions and three hundred detach- ments. \ sixteen field-telegraph companies.

Woolleil or linen bandages are worn instead of socl~s. and a white kCpi." Lieut. this opinion. T h e Guai-ds. Lurnley. sergcant- majors wear officers' swords. Officers wear the same trousers in the field. Every thing has been made subordinate t o comfort: and convenience. who has had good opportunities. dyed red. but complaint is made of want of good instructors. Col. . T11e horse batteries have the steel four-pound gun. chamois-leather trousers. of t h e British arAy.Berdan breech-loader is the infantry a r m . * A Britisli officer. The field clothing is generally linen blouse wit11 cloth shoulder-straps. R great stimulus has bcen given to rifle practice in the Russian army. T h e entire outfit of the soldier weighs about fifty pounds. says : I n Russia it is believed that the field artillery is equal t o that of any other Power. says the infantry drill is sccond to none. are yet permitted to wear their old uniform with buttons. T h e artillery is divided into field artillery and horse artillery. Cossaclrs wear gray shirts of camel's hair. T h e dress and equipment of the infantry is noted for an absence of ornament. and togetlzer with musicians carry revolvers. T h e arms of the Turlrestan troops are mixed Berdan and Bogda11 rifles. of which the strength is given elsewhere. with fair results. alone. and lloolts arc substituted for buttons. and the horse artillery superior.

of the laying waste smiling Afghan valleys. coming and going under the fire of infantry. and equipped after the American plan. in -+ Asia. and the appropriation of choice positions under his nose : of stubboril contests with the Anglo-Indian infantiy. July grst. and only half horsemen : how- ever. 111 a war with England. and gave proof of an initiative veryremarlcable. organized. Every one lcnows that Russian dragoons are merely foot soldiers mounted. were not wanting in Lhc Russians. formed slcirmisl~inglines. In this manner she is doubtless prepared to talte the initiative in hcr next war. the use of large bodies of cavalry. inexpedieilt to oc- cupy:-thcse are a few of the surprises to which we may be treated if Russia gets the chance. which are the proper qualifications of cavalry. afford Lhe best illustration of the versatile qualities of the progressive military l~orsemun since the American war. the oJertsive action. Cossaclcs and Hussars dismounted on the got11. such as took place July 16th near Twardista. Lhe dragoons did not leave the field until all their cartridges were exhausted." . stunning blows at the enemy's depots. seems strange. not excepting Germany. in- structed. and Lhe spirit of enter- prise and dash. we may expcct to hear of wonderful mobility. of communica- tions destroyed by high explosives : especially.* * The bold operations of General Gourlco in the Russo-Turkish war of 1878. and conducting done an infantry fight against the enemy. protecting their buttery. the Russian cavalry will be conspicuous and extraordinarily effective. A11 Austrian officer says: "The Russian cavalry reconnoitred boldly and continuously. w l ~ i c lhave ~ put her before all other nations. in any European conflict in tlze near future. At Eslci Zagra. On the other hand. I t is not too much to say that. 1861-5. that it should conle to such a point as maltiog dragoons charge with the hayonel. the only weapoil a Bcrdan carbine. must be- come the main feature. From the wonderful reforms instituted by Russia in her huge army of horsemen.

was crossctl by tlic entire 4 t h Cavalry I. Peteraburg in 8 days- stmnge. continuonsly. alry school covered 370 versts in 4 days-60 miles n clay. in. O~lcssa. under time. IC I S . Z 1S f iV 0 'Z . In ortlcr t o ncquirc n tliol.and nunica. service . have becn dcprivctl of tlie Inncc (cscepting for tlie front rank) . ill bayonet .ly tilught nit11 of the tlic aid of inflntcd bags ticcl under thcln. Moscow tlistricts.~valry . T h c S~lprasl to oc.~itiingof both Ilorses f o r e all :~11cl men in tile direction of l o t ~ gm:~rclics.)ivision s~rimlning. 56 miles a tlny . the party was mentioned in orclcrs. without in- >f cnter.11 : how. a n d A month before.and t h e passage p e c t to of obstacles. o r 74 miles a clay. . both tlic officers ancl non-comrnissioncd officers of c. t h e Gunrcl rcgilncnts ~ i i l ~ srldopt t the same z e d . and presented to the Czar. 2 i n her Great stress is noiv I:liJ ~ I P O I I tile tr.lrches arc also madc to cover :nernyBS the greatest possible distn~lcesin tlie sllortcst possible .* -Indian Sivilnming \v:ls p1-actisec1 in tlic IVarsam. Forced m. It is asserted that g e s were the best Russian cnvnlry can trarcl 70 miles a day. In one division n regular pioneer Ogressive squa[lron has bccu formc~lfor telegraphic and hcliograpliic !n o s c e r sly.+ lncn of t l ~ c Russian Orcnl~urg Cossacks \vho in h'oren~bcr last in liatl \veatl~cr travelled 410 . I . rersts l~ctrrcenNiji Novporod nltrl hfoscnrr ill 5 days-a11ont 5 3 rl~ilcs . III Conflict Tlic whole of tile rcgulnr cnv:~lry of the li~ichas bccli picuous cotiverted into dmgootis artncd \vitl~ Ilcrdnii rifle . o n arrival an inspector ruportcd horses fresh and rcatly for ~g lines. and tlie Cossacks l u s t be. General Gourko recently inspected two sotnias of Don Cossacks who 'ere not had cleared 340 versts i n 3 days. change when orclered into the ficld.rgewjth n day. 7 oficers nnd 7 me11 of t l ~ ccav- i Z a p . tllc horscs l~cingrcgul:l~. new ~ n u s k e t r yrcguIations have llcc11 prescribccl.~iid l a n d .ough 1i110~lctlg~ of piottecr r s h e is duty. hen covering 635 versts from hfoscuw to St. jury. ery. a n d * Amoug o t l ~ c experi~nents r are noted that of 7 oficcrs aorl I.[re nttnclicd to tlie c n ~ i ~ l c ccanlpr for :L sliort course of instruction. in snow and it~tensccold.

although the average Russian troop-horse is noted for his hard mouth. always a t a gallop.563 m c n and 2 5 2 field guns. T h c Cossack (except of the Caucasus) is armed with a long lance (front rank only). a sabre without guard. In t h e mounted drill of the Cossaclcs there is a charge as skirmishers (or "foragers ") called the " lava. l and waving his erlormous whip. consistilig of tools for constructio~l or destruction. cloak with cape. as they desire t o repair a bridge or destroy a railroad : this outfit for each squadron is carried on a pack-mule . and I a Berdan rifle. writes that : " A big fine mail mountcd on a pony. high boots.503 sabres and 1 2 guns cach.!(! duty. 1 The uniform is blue. But this feeling is dashed with regret . The snaffle-bit is universally uscd. provided for in t h e Russian establishment. The mounted force. t h e Cossaclc presents a n almost ludicrous appearance to one accustomed. besides a ~zngashu or nativc whip. Those of the Caucasus have in addition 1 pistol and dagger.'' which is executed at a great pace and with wild yells of " I-Iourra ! " Lieut. dynamite is carried in a cart with the am- mullition train. o r an aggregate of 73. fur cap. t o our stately troopers. Grierson. with his body b c n t forward and looking very top-heavy. A feature of the Russian cavalry equipment is t h e pioneer outfit. even by tllc officcrs. comprises twenty-one divisions of 3. of thc British army.

I t is the only army which provides regimentally for the 1 I persa7z7zel and ~n. II3 : II Transport a d Sz$pdy. in Afghanistan. I n each regi- I ment is a non-combatant company. and the hoofs well formed ancl hard as * I n 1878 the head-quarters baggage of the Grand Dulie Nicholas required five hundred vehicles and fifteen hundred horses to transport it. mounted on Kirglliz Ilorses. T H E R U S S I A N F O R C E S AND A P P R O A C H E S . M. T h e Kirgbiz horse is seldom more than fourteen hands.ntPrieZof this department. T h c intention of the systcm 1 I now developing is to reduce t h e quantity ol transporta- tion required. and rodc one horse into Irgiz. with the exception of its head. the most important aid t o Russian military mobility is the reinarltable Kirghiz Harsc. t 111 1869 a Russian detachment of five hundred men. halE of Lhis march was in deep sand.-The Russian system of trans- port is in a very experimental and unsatisfactory state.but they are officially in- dorsed in many instances. and only lost three horses . and. and agility of this little animal are almost incredible. in which all men re- quired for duty without arms are mustered. I n October. T h e accounts of the strength. wilh one gun and two ~. -1. After the Cnmcl.oclcet-stands. is fairly symmetrical . and is more highly prized than any other breed. Russia will. endurance. charge of this company.traversed in one month one thou- I sand miles in the Orenburg Steppe. . of which large numbers exist in t h e segion bordering Afghanistan on the north. I All military vehicles required for the regiment are under . H e is foui~din Turkestan. I depend upon t h e animals of the country for pack-trains and saddle purposes. speed. the legs are exceptionaIly fine. Nogalr (a Rnssian oflicer) left his detachment rn route. 166# miles in 34 11ours." Besides the wagons and carts used for I ordinary movements of troops.

day after day. preserved vegetables.9 blaclc bread. with a heavier rider. while Russia. and with bare feet traverses the roughcst country with the agility of a chamois. with ease. The supply of the Russian army is carefully arranged under the central horses. leap- ing across wide fissures on the rocks. but an ambler will bring LIZ. 14.8oo. with an issue of brandy in the winter. use tllcse horses. They are good weight carriers. in 1878. 14. For modern cavalry and horse-artillery purposes they are unsurpassed. Great Britain is said t o possess z. lincd with slippery boulders. over stages of 350 miles in 8 days. in the Kirghiz steppes alone. climbing thc steepest heights. an equipment a n d supplies for man and horse of nearly 300 pounds.3 ounces of meat.$ Icirghiz horses have been thoroughly tested in the Russian army. and an amble-x at the maximum rate of a mile in two minutes. The average price is £6.000 sadclle or quick-draught horses. *Moving both feet on a side allnost simultaneously.j miles (on a measured course} in 27 minutes and 30 seconds.) was rg. iron. f The mounted messengers (pony express) over the steppes. 1 I4 A FGIIA N I S TAN. I t is seldom shod. or picliing its way along mere sheep-tracks by the side of yawning prccipiccs. possesses 4.and tea. $ The greatest speed recorded (1853. This animal crosses the most rapid streams not over three and one half fcet deep. . ancl carry with them. The ration in the field was.? With a view of stimulating horse-breeding in Turkcstan. the governmeilt in 1851 offered prizes for speed. or covering hundreds of versts through heavy sand.000. I t s gaits are a rapid and graceful walk of five and one half t o six iniles an hour.

which they seem to regard as the highest occupation in life. and of the difficulties presented both geographically and by the national characteristics of the races that she would have to encounter in a n advance south of the Oxns. Thus it may possibly arise from their individual * A compressed ration of forage was extensively used by the Rnssians in 1878.we may consider. oE which ZO. Clothing is furnished by the supply bureau of certain regions in which there are large government factories . in 1880..who surveyed the region referred to.OOO were used by Russia in her last war. . Among the turbulent tribes dwelling in a n d around Kabul. a good deal has been already learned from the Afghans themselves.OOO. more or less directly. A division pro- vision train call carry ten days' supply ior zjo.-I-Iaving devoted a share of our limited space to an account of the roads leading t o Herat from India. thc Russian factor in the general game must be a matter of coilstant discussion. R. on their chances of success in mere faction fights. weighing 3+ ponnds . 115 Immense trains follow each division. both with the present mili- tary resources and position of Russia in Central Asia. forming consecutive mobile magazines oE food. This subject has been so clearly treated in a recent paper read before the Royal United Service Institution by Captain I-Ioldich. sets of uniform clothing. whose chief and lceenest in- terest always lies in that wl~ichbears. it is usual t o kccp on hand for an emergency 500. E. at intervals. Forage is now supplied for transport in compressed * caltes. that we quote liberally as follows : I n improving our very imperfect acquaintance. briefly? certain approaches to Afghanistan or India from the northwest. THE RUSSIAN FORCES AND APPROACHES. 5 days' supply could bc carried on the saclclle 1 with men.

t h e completion of good maps to aid in the right go\*cr~~nlent of tllnt which llas already been acqnired. and hlargillan. A t Charjui it is about the same w i d ~ h only . At Iiarlti it is said to be one thousand yards wide. But a t all these l~lncesthere are ferries. therefore it matters the less that in reality tve ltnow very little about it. rapid and deep. used for ferrying purposes. I t would no longer be a matter of pushing an advance . arising principally from tlie very different national characteristics of the southern races to those farlher north. Russian perceptions are of the keenest. and the otl~eron thu line of Ichiva.I 16 S T21A'. and there woiild be ample means of crossing an army corps. I)ut for the reflection that this one accoln- plisl~mentis probably the practical outcome of the education of half a life- time. xvhic11 may roughly 11e said to represent the frontier l~eltl(together xvitli a large extent of boiuldary soutl~of I<uldja) by the Army of Tasliliend. There is no doubt that in all nlatters relating to the acquirement of geographical l<nowledge. At IClioja Saleli. wl~ichis the furthest point supposed to have been reached by the Aral flotilla.~ra. But . and Cl~ikisl~liar. gives her tlie key to their future disposal. The Oxus is nol: a fordable river.l~. altcgetl~erestraordinary. These boats are drawn across the river by horses swimming tvilli ropes attached to their manes. Rnssia's bases of military operatiol~stowards India are two : one on the Caspian Sen at I<ras~~ovodak. With what lies north of the Osus we can have very little to say or to do . in the shape of large flat-botton~eclboats. of which there are said to be three hundred bet\veen IZilif and I-Iaznrasp. it is about half a mile wide. but once south of tlie Oxus. Bol. under Geiicral Iiaufman~i.4 11-1 interest in tl~eirr~ationnlpositiol~tllat there is no belter natural geograpl~er III the ~vorltlthan tlic tlfgllan of the Iiabul district. with R slow cnrrent. H e r surveying energies appear to be always concentmted on that which yet lies beyond her reacl~.under any circumstances it seems about as u~iIilielythat any British force mould oppose the passage of a R u s s i a ~army ~ across the Oxus as that it would interfere with the Rus- sian occupalion of the trans-Oxus districts . T h e meye fact of Russia having already thorougl~lyexplored all these regions. Russia is undoobtedly :~lready tlie dominant Power. wit11 outposts at Chat aud ICizil Arvnt. and at ICilif perhaps a quarter of a mile. many new coaditions of opposition would come into play.Samarcnnd. Tllcrc is often an ex- actncss about llis mctllod of imparting infor~llation (sometimes a careful little map tlralvn o l ~ twit11 a pointed sticlc on the ground) \ v l ~ i c would l~ strike o r ~ ca'. 11FGZI.rather Lhan in . Gilt betmccn this latter line and tile Oxus. where it bears 011 possible military operations. capable of containills one 11u11dredmen each. if we Lake inlo account both tlie Aral flotilla and the native material.

The same might snrely be said of the route by tlie Nuksan Pass into the valley of Cl~itraland tlie Kunar. There are certain routes existing bctween (lie Russian frontier a t ~ d India which pass altogether east of this poil~t. T11e mngc is a singularly well- deh~eclone tl~rongl~out its vast length . Faizabnd commands the Nuksm Pass. Most probably there would be 110 s e r i o ~ ~ local s opposition to the occupntion by Russia of n line extending from 13alkh eastwards throng11 IChulm and I<unduz to Faizrrbad and Sar- liadcl. I t would be n grcat mistake to siippose that this short list clisposes of all the practicable passes over the I-Iiudoo I<iisl~. with their families and l~onseliolclgoocls piled u p in picturesque heaps on their hardy camels.wl~ilefrom Balk11 two main routes diverge. 1)ncked 1111by something like nlilitary orgartization and a perfcct acq~ininta~~cc with the strategic21 co~lditionsof their country. But the occupalio~~ of such a line could have but one possible ol)jcct. bot it is not by nny lucans n rnuge of startling pcalcs and magnificent nltituclcs. and are con~lectedby excellent Intern1 road cornrnunications. tvhich . I<li~~lnl loolcs southwards to Ghozi and the Parwan Pnss into Rol~istan. the other t o Blaimaua and Ilerat. onc to Bamian and Kabul. to RIastuj and the ICuuar valley. abouncli~~g in warm slieltercd vallcys a ~ smiling ~ d corlicrs. in senrd~ of fresh pasturage. Each of tllesc places may be said to dominate a pass to 111cliaover thc IIindoo Rilsl~. and traversed by countless paths. Many of these paths are followed by Iiuchis in tl~cirn11111tal~uigrations southward.and tl~cnceover the Baroghilinto Icashmir . or over wild and rugged moootaills. T l ~ c r cis one whicl~can be followed from Tashkencl to ICashgar. Op- posite Sarliadd is the Bnroghil. but these routes have justly. spreading down in long spnrs Lo t l ~ enorth and south. and by allnost ~uiiversal consent. bccn set aside as i~lvolvingdificultics of such obvious magnitude that it wpuld b e unreasonable to suppose that ally army under competent leadership could b e committed to them. w l ~ i c l ~ wo111d )e to conceal the actual line of furtllcr advance.e ant1 powcrful people. or with lnrgc herds of sheepand goats. all of which places csn be rcacl~edwithoot great dificulty from the Oxus. dificnlties whicl~in themselves have never yet retarded the aclvniicc of a determined gcneral. and another which runs by the Terek Pass to Snrl~add. South of the Hiitdoo ICilsh we h1c1inost of the eastern routes to our nortl~westfrontier to converge in one point.thro~iglisandy and waterless deserts. vcry ncnr to Jel- alabad. but there would be the reception that any Cl~ris- tian foe would almost certainly meet at the h n ~ ~ of d sn warli1. and over the liarnkoram mngc. lcading eitl~erto I<nsl~mir01. afford- ing more or lcss pasture even in its highest parts. I t is rntl~cra c11ain of vcry ele- vated flattish-toppecl hills. who can unite with all the cohesioll of religious fn~~aticism.

to the Iralc Pass on the IIinrloo ICr~sh. but is not much uscd for trade. and it is known to be an easy pass. i t will probably b e found that the Icohistani. watcrccl by snow-cold streams from the picturesque gorgcs nnd mountain passes of the EIindoo ICiish and Paghman monntains.. who have lately fre- quently traversed it. Its length and intricacy alone. though somewhat deslitule of fuel and forage. are most bigoted Suniu Mohammedans. with their instincts of religious hostility. joins the IChyber route not far from Jelalabad. I t cannot b e much over eleven tliousand feet elevation. and of the fact that: the Nulcsan Pass is only open for half the year. T h e Panjshiris are Tajalcs. i s thc rcal barrier belween the north and the south. L ~ k ethe P nrwan ant1 the IihLlc. like the. ralller than the I-Iindoo Kfish. T h e Khblc leads from ICunduz via Ghori and the valley of the Indarab to the ]lead of the Panjshir valley. would surely place it beyond tile consideration of any gcncral who aspired to invade India after accomplishing the feat of carrying an army Lhrough it. b ~ i tnll this land of terraced vine- yarcls and orchards. via Bamian. but only three wl~ichnced b e regarded as practicable for a n advancing force. all the olhers more or less converging into these three. as we have saicl. I t is described as an easy pass. like the Parwan.lCohis- tanis generally. Its elevation is about thir- teen thousand fcet. the Iiaoshan (or Parwan. -this very garden of Afghanistan. West of ICafirstan across the Hindoo ICiish are. is not nearly so high as has been generally assumed. while the Unai is a notoriously easy pass. and who have ren- dered the position of Kabul a s the ruling capital of Afghanistan a matter of necessity . and tlle Irak. The next route of importance 1s that which leads from Balkh. is peopled hy the same fierce and turbulent race who ]lave ever given the best f i ~ l ~ l i nmen g t o the armies of the Arnirs. stretching away southwards to thc gates of Icabul. also called Sar Alang).and into the upper watercourse of the I-Ielmund River. and. T h e rich and highly cr~ltivatecl valley which they inl~abit. passes innumerable. indepcnde~~tly of the intractable nature of the tribes which border it on cither side. These are the KhLlc. T h e Iral. forms a grand highway into ICohistan and ICoh Dahman . This is the great trade route from the marlcets of Turlcestan and Central Asia generally to Kabul a n d India. I 18 AFGHANIS TAN. than to ourselves. and thence by the Unai over the Paghman range to ICabul. This route is a t present very much beticr known t o the Russians. I t is thc direct military rontc bctween Afghan Turlcestan and the seat of the Afghan Govcmment. T l ~ cSar Alanp o r Parwnn IJass lcads directly from ICunduz and Gllnri to Charilcar and Kabul. and appear lo . it is lialde to be closed for three o r four montl~sof the year by snow. During the winter of 1879-80 they were open till late in December. probably practi- cable for wheeled artillery.

or across the desert to Merv . and there is 1V. although they by n o means collverge on Kabul City. O r it could move outside Persian territory. direct to Merv . I n IZoh Dahman nearly every village of importance lying at the foot of the eastern slopes of the Pagllman (such ns Beratse. Farza. we may pass to the principal approach t o Herat from the northwest. From the Caxyian base a trans-Caucasian army corps could move (only with the concurrence and alliance of Persia) by the Mashed route direct . as a barrier or base or curtain. which has its co~lti~luation across the Shoreband valley and over the ridge of the Hindoo 1EEsh beyond it. 111. From t h e Taxhhelzd--Boh/za~a base a route exists win Charjui. whether regarded as routes to India or to Kandahar.) covers n practicable pass over the Paghnian. Also the well-known road by 13nZkk and Mamiana. any of them. wl~ichafford easy passage to men on foot and frequently also to " I<uchi " camels. 11. etc. must necessarily pass withill striking distance of a n army occupying Kabul. Having the official statement of a military engineer wit11 reference to the Oxus-Hindu-Itoslz line." or lines of watercourse. Snch a force would have. Istalif. first of all. the Oxus. . Between these main passes innu~nerabletracks follow the " durras. and a strong position a t Rabul itself. direct t o Ilerat. There are four distinct lines by which Russia could move on Herat -: again free from snow about thc middle of April. be readily made available for mountain artillery wilh a very small expenditure of construclive labor and engineering slcill. But between the IChilc Pass and the Irak. and would t h m have t o pass through Persian territory t o Saralihs. over the ridges of the I-Iincloo Ilirsh and Pag-hman. from Chi/2zkCzlinr b y the Bendessen Pass to Asterabad. thorougl~ly to secure its communication with the Oxus. the various routes across the EIindoo ICtsh. These passes (so far as we can learn) could.

thcn. thcilce by rail t o Bakh in 24 hours. and testifies to t h e ease and comfort of thc transit and t o the great number of vessels engagccl in tlie oil trade. if not inolestcd r 7 ~7-0z~tpby llostile cruisers. Mr. the journey would occupy 40 hours. t h e Imperial wnr filcamcrs wit11 ~ v l l i c l Wussin ~ kccps dowrl piracy. . Cust. 3. both on t h e Black and Caspian seas." t Lecture before I<. let us look a t Routcs I.I20 APG1. ) . 2. Cust says : " T l ~ e r ea r e Lhrce clnsscs of stealncrs on Lllc Cnspinn. * Mr. and tlle final rail tr. 310 miles from I-Ierat. herewith. would rcach Batam in from 2 to 3 days. with his wife. T h e successivc detach- ments would arrive. ancl IV. Institution ( L o i ~ d o ~IY~R. T h e S c c r e t a ~ yof tllc Royal Asiatic Society.000 inen a t a trip:% General I-Iainley says: " Wc may assume t h a t if on the railway (single track) t h c vcry rnoclcratc numbcr of 12 trains a day call run a t the ratc of 12 miles an hour. will soon reach Aslrabad. another 24 hours tlli-ougll the Caspian Sca to I<rasnovodsk. this. easily in two days a t Sai-alihs. t h e stcnmcrs of tlic Cnncnsus ant1 Mcrcuiy C:umpany. very ~ ~ x u u c r o u and s large vessels. having just been discussed. it is said. petrolcum vcsscls-each stcan~crwith n cnl~ncity of 500 men. S. which are available for military purposes.I. Refcrriilg to the small outline map of t h e trans-Cas- p i a ~regiou. passcd ovcr this routc in 1883. H e cstimatcs that they could easily carry 8.ulsportation to t h c prcsent terminus of the traclc beyond Kizil A r v a t . and 11. Routes 111. it will b e seen that troops could embai-lc from Odcssa in tlle flcct of rnercllailt steamers available. ancl. I. U.A fVIS TAN. a transfcr in lighters t o the landing at Micl~aclovsl~.

in six days a division would be assemblcd at Saralths ready to move on the advanced guard. Thus. in 36 trains. or." * The route from Tchikisl~liarvia Asterabad (where it strikes the main Tcheran-Mashed-Herat road) would be at1 important auxiliary t o the railway line.+' Yalatun * I n his plan of invasion. from Asterabad (through Shahrud. t F o r Llle first IOO miles Lhc road follows the Mnrghab. THE R U S S I A N J O R C E S AND APPROACIIES. a i d flouring in a channel mired to the dcplh cf 30 feet in the clay soil of the val- ley . I2I A division inay be conveyed. Gurinn) t o Hcrat . Thus.oco men might uildertalte the enterprise witl~outfear of disaster." . a t Shahrud. about 60 feet in breadth. 7. Also the ad- vance of a corps from Turltestan upon Kabul is cvcn morc practicable than before. Slcobeleff thought 50. the army corps from Bald would rcach Herat in 35 days. would bc con- veyed in 165 trains in 17 days. an excellcnt road running between thc two already described straight (viaSabzawar and Nishapar) t o Mashed. From Saralths to Merv the road is said to be good and fairly supplied with water. From Merv t o I-Ierat the well-worn expression " coach and four " has been used t o denote the excellcnt condition of the road. This forcc could be doubled from the Caucasus alone. There is also a more direct caravan track running south of this across the I<horassan. Aliabad. I t would then bc ZOO miles-another 17 days' march-from Herat. banlcs precipitous and friilged wit!l lamarislc and a few reeds.ia Asterabad. Icl~af. which Abbott de- scribes as " a deep stream of very pure water. add- ing a day for the crossing of the Caspian. complete. A n army corps. with all its equipments and departments.

and. From a tr~lnslationby Major Clarltc. in nlanyrespects.* From Penjdch. . a half sotnia (70 men) of cavalry marches in advance at a distrnnce frorn $ to I$ miles. then part of the artillcry . descends into the Herat valley. and inside." it ap- pears that the horses accompanying Central Asian delachmcnts a r c s o con- siderable that the lalter form. ren~ninderof artillcry and inrantry . well populatecl. A . then more inrantry . a sotnia of cavalry. an outer line of carts o r wagons . the road follows thc Khusk River. from ICotcnsko's " Turlcestan. j- - *Band-i-Yalalun. bchind the train. as it were. as a rear guard." Belorc closing the chapter on the " Russian Forces. T h e accompanying diagram is frolh The Jozrnzal Royrrl U~riiedScruice I?tsZifz6fiort(London). the train ." a brief clescrip- tion of the order of rnarcll custon~aryin Cenlral Asia may b e described as fertile. so a s t o be in view of main body. Bivouacs in the Steppe are usually cliosea at wells. immediately beneath it. Immediately in front of main body marches a detncli- ment of sappcrs and a company o r two 01infantry . First. the11 the troops . the distribution of the troops. Usually. As an Asiatic enemy nearly always attacks from every sicde. the cscort of the former. and ~ul~healthy. or " barilt which throws the waters of the M n r g l ~ a binto thc canal of Yalatun. all the mlirnals. R. anrl arc. during the march. must b e such that they may be able to repulse thc enemy no matter where h e may appear. similar t o those customary in the Indian country in America. whcrc the rivcr is so~netimesfordable. . ascending t h e Koh-i- Baber Pass.

.. . g . . . .- r . .If .. h . .. .

as well as the opiniol~sof those who. and Cust. As these lines are written* thc civilizcd nations of the world await with bated brcath the next sccne upon the Afghan stage. A t least 50. Rawlinson. Yet such an exceptional uncertainty attends t h c prcscnce of Englancl and Russia on tllc bordcr of Afghanistan. armcd and stripped.x-ned. t h e nature of tllc probable thcatre of operations in case of war. T h e ricl~nessof the available material made this especially difficult. Napier. enter the arena does a doubt cxist as t o their purpose. 124 .000 British soldiers arc drawn up in front of the Indus awaiting a signal from t l ~ c i rQuecn. Seldom when two gladiators. colnprising as i t did the rccord of ~-cccntcam- paigns in Afghanistan. are authorities upon Asiatic topics. and of the armics of tllc I'owcrs co~m. REVIEW OF THE MILITARY SITUATION. THEpurpose of this volumc has been t o give as much rcliabl~il~forrnationupon the causc of tllc A~~glo-Russian dispute. lilte VambCry. as could b e obtained and pl-intcd within a single fortnight. Vcniukofl.1885. Ncarly twice that llumbcr of Russia11 troops arc rnasscd on * April 18.


1885) Lhc Afghan troops a t l'e~ijdeh. from a study of the prescilt military situation. In case of war. ccrtain political elements. and alter a gnllnnt rcsisiancc on Ll~cpar1 of tlie ualivc gnrrison it wns ui- tedy ronlccl and illc town occupietl l)y the victors. a British force moviilg from ICa- bul to Ballth could also be threatened.I 26 A F G ~ I A N I STAN. for the purpose of flanking a British column moving from Quetta wcstward.but the Afglia~islost ncnrly 1. from Tur- kestail above this route. enable hcr to move from her base on t h e Merv- Herat line. By t h e main Herat-I<andal~ar route an advance from the east could also be directly opposed. nnoiher page has beell acldccl to Alglia~~isinn's blood-slni~iedrecord. it is a three-pronged fork-one branch runniilg cluc south to the sca and two branches clue east to India. altogether. or of raiding the rich valley of the Helmund . t h e crossing of the I-Tclinund b y either army would probably be contcsted. or near the northwestern angle of the Ameer's coun- try.* I t is ilnpossible to eliminate. available t o Russia. the first great battle would doubtless bc fought on t h e ICandal~ar-Ghazni-Kabulline. both via Ballth and Kabul. Thc first-naincd requires b u t passing comment and oidy as it relates to Herat. thc routes to India. planted on a routc which ca~lilotbe controlled without i t s posses- sion. AfLer conlront- irig encl~ollicr on tlie IC1111slc River for some weeks a lnrge Russia11 forccunder Gcncrnl IComarolC attacked (March 30.000 mc11. A s already explained. I t is apparcnt that the Russians near Herat stand prac- tically at "the forlcs of the road " . . * Since the everiis noted in our first chnptcr (page 12) Lranspircd. whether Anglo-Russian or Russo-Af- ghan. T l ~ cRussian cas~lalLies were inconsicleral~le. for military and co~nmcrcialreasons well understood.


you arc liot an Englisliman nor a Rus- sian. and then s l ~ ewill i t ~ t r i g ~with ~ e the native princes bel~indthe Indus.-Gcacrnl Sir. and when you send a n army to meet her. Hamley.of Cashmere. who said to l l i ~ n: ' From you I hope to get tile in1111 . scconrl. ancl. ~f Russia should advance. $ Gen. General 1-Iamley. in the discussion which followed.' I may fortify my own expericncc by what was told me by an Austrian gentlcnla~lwho visited Indta about seven years ago. the railway completed t o Kandahar. FIe paid a visit to the Mnl~oraja. she ~villnot stop until she has gnincd the ferlile country of Herat. the line of the Eastern Sulimani. E. most power to oppose Russia and t o maintain conficleilce in India. and a strong British force on the I--Ielmund and on the road to Kabul. 1884). and. I<. I3. and if I should lil~clRnssia stmtlgqr than England. Surely therc can be no question as to which of thcse two sets of circumstances would give us most influence in Afghanistan. at once the most practicable ancl desirable line for the defence of India. 128 APGHA NIS TAN." $ T h e same authority approves Sir Michael Biddulpll's recomlneilclatioil t o utilize the strong natural positions * Lieu(. Tell me which is t l ~ cstronger-the Engli\l~power or the Russian . but tltis would leave the seaporl of 1Curracllee unprotected . you will lind those native ~ r i l ~ c rising es in your rear. Colonel Malleson said: " Recently in India some influentin1 natives said to m e : 'Russia will continue hcr advance .-f l I e says : " We should have a strong British governor in I<andahar. . in case of a movement from Turlccstan against Icabul.* shows that this linc is. ' " . and new recruiting grounds open to us amid warlike populations. from Pishin northeast lo ICabul. I-Iamley's remarlcs were made belorc the Royal Unitecl Service In- stitution (May 18. 11e- cause it will lie neccssaiily my duty. Three lines had Ocen considered : first. to go for the defence of my throne on the side of Russia. C. of all proposed. the leading British military authority. a force on our side on its way to occupy that city.

.ln l l c 1~:s- tifics : " TVith a llower lilcc Russi:~closirlg 011 i t . a n d form a fitting tcrmi~lationto this slictch : " I do not undervalue thc many influctices ~ v h i c lwill~ always opposc any policy cntniling expcnsc.lni. by 11o-.-n~ill losc no tiinc.trorlg political influences such as might have been usctl to con- strain tllcm. o~. i l s to ~~fcr]l. on the IIclmund. I h t if tllc prescnt qucstion is fo~lnclto he . betn.ncar Girishl. it is in vain to think that Alghatlistan will I>c lolls i ~ ~ ( l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d ~ n t cvcn in namc. an aggrcgatc of tribes-not a n:ltion. llolcliilg Pcrsia and Persian rcsourccs subject tcl its lvill. Magnanimous trust- fulncss in the virtue and guilclessncss of rival states. thc Afgllan tribes.crficlio~~s to n proverb.ccll tll. in siding tvitll thc grcat power which promiscs most lavishly.iI. whcn tlle moment occurs.lrrl against a tcrrible inenace to our IntIinn IS~npil-u?any cost to be incurred can hardly he ad~nittetl:is a reason which ought to influence our course. dis- trust and denunciation of a11 who woulcl chill this inverted patriotism by words of warning.t.: clc\-il :{. mcrcenclry nl~clI.ld the clccp sca.IIolv shall we gu. Ilouncl to us by no traditions. IL is bctwccn liarnmcr ancl a~l~. or u ~ h i c lcan ~ lay strongest hold on thcn~. The qualities of the lamb may .." T h e burning words with nrhich Gcncral IIamIcy closctl his lecturc onc yiar ago arc singularly true 11sc a still inorc cxprussivc metaphor. refusal of all lncnsurcs demanding expense which do not promise n pccunin~y return :--such is the kind of libcrality of sentirrlcnt which may ruin great nations.

be vely excellctlt qualities, but they arc specially inap-
plicable t o dcalings with the wolf. Do those who s l ~ r i n k
from expense thinlt that the presence of Russia i n Afgllan-
istan will be illexpcnsivc t o u s ? Will the weakness
which will be t h e temptation and the opportunity of R u s -
sia be less costly than effectual defc~zce? When me e n t e r
t h e councils of Europe t o assert our most vital interests,
shall wc spealc as we havc bee11 accustomccl t o spealr,
when our free action is fettercd by thc ilnrniilcnt perpctua
menace t o India? Thcse are questions which, now p u t
forth to this linlited aucliencc, will, perhaps, ~vithin t h e
experience of most of us, be thunclered in the ears of t h e
nation. England is just now not without serious per-
plexities, but none are so fraught with possibilities of mis-
chief as the storm which is now gathering on the A f g h a n


ANDERSON, Capt. " A Scheme for Increasing the Strength of the Native
Armies," etc.
ARMYLIST, Dritish Official, 1685.
DIDDULPII,GCII. " Tlle March from the Indus to the FIelmund." *
DELLEW,1-1. 'CV., C. S. I. " A New Afgllan Question." t
D E X G O U GLieut-Col.
~, " Mounted Infantry." t
(From the IZussian.)
BISCIIOBB, Major. " T h e Caucasus and its Significance to Russia." (Ger.) t
BI.UX~ELI., Col. "British Military POXV~I- with Referenee to WarAbroad."*
BAIEER,Col. " T h e Military Geography o l Central Asia." *
COLQUHOUN, Capt. " On the Development of the Resources of India in a
Military Point of Vicw." t
CANTLEY,Major. "Reserves for t l ~ eIndian Army." t
CALLEN,Major. " T h e Volunteer Force of India," etc. t
CAVENAGH, Gen. " Our Indian Army." *
CI-IAPMAN, Lieut-Col. " T h e March from Kabul to ICandahar in 1880." *
CLARICE,Capt, " Recent Reforms in the Russian Army." *
Cusr, R . , Sec. R . A. S. " The Russians 011 t l ~ eCaspian and Blaclc Seas." *
DAVIDSON, Major. "The Reasons why Diffieulty is Experienced in Recruit-
ing for t11e Native Almy." +
DALTON, Capt. " Skol~eleff's Instructions for thc Reconnaisance and

Battle of Geolc-Tepe." *(From the French.)
ELIAS,Capt. " A Strcak of the Alpllan War." *
ESME-FORDES,Lieut. " Cavalry Reform." t
FURSE,Major. " Various Descriptions of Transport." *
GAISFORD,Capt. " NewModel Transport Cart for Ponies and Mules." t
GLOAG,Col. " Military Reforms in India." t
GOWAN,Major. " Progressive Advance of Russia in Central Asia." t
" The Army of Bolthara." .I. " Russian Military Manceuvres in
the Province of Jaxartes." (From the Russian.)
GRAHAM,Col. " The Russian Army in 1882." *

1 Unless olhcrwise designated, the authors named are oficers of the British Army,
and nearly all Llle works are in the Library of the Military Service institution of the
United States, (Governor's Island, N. Y, H.).
* Jonr,mZ Royel Uniled Service I?zsiitrrtios (London).
1. Journol of the U~riiedService lirstil~ctionJ India (Simla).

732 A FGH.4 NZS TAN.

GORDON,Capt. " B e n p l Cavalry in Egypt." f
GRIERSON,Lieut. " T h e Russian Cavalry,".(. and " The Russian Mounted
Troops in 1883."
GREENR,Capt. " Sketclles of Army Lift in Russia." (New Yorli, 1881.)
GRIFFITHS, Major. " The English Army." (London.)
GRIEY,Majar. " Militaly Operations in Afghanistan." t
GERARD,Capt. " Rough Noles on the Russian Army in 1876." 1
GOLDSUID, Gen. " From Baminn to Sonmiani." :l' " On Ccrlain Roads
between Torltistan and India." 9
RBYLAND, Rfajol: " Military Transport Required for Rapid Movements." *
~IOLDICEI, Cnpt. " Detwecn Russia and India." *
HENNHI~EN, Gen. " Stndies on llte Probable Course and Restilt of a W a r
belwecn Russia and E~lgland.".I (From the Russian.)
HILDYARD,Lieuto-Col. " The Inlendance, Transport, and Supply Service
in Contincntal Armies." :(.
EIASILYNS,Capt. " Notice of the Afghan Canipaigns in 1879-81. F r o m an
Engineer's View." *
HAMLEY,Lieut.-Gen., Sir E. " Russia's Approaches to India." (1884.) *
JOURNAL of the Military Service Illstitiltion of thc United States.
RELTIR, J. S. " The Statesman's Year-I3oolc." (I,ondon, 1385.)
ICIRCHI-IAMMHR, A. " T h e Anglo-Afghan War." (From tlie ~ e r m n n . )
ICOTENSI~O." The I-Iorses ancl Camels of Central Asia." .(. " Turliestnn." *
(From tllc Russian.)
LITTLE, Col. " Afghanistan ancl England in Inclia." 1, (From the Getman.)
LEVERSON,Licut. " March of the Turlcistan Dctacllment across the
Desert," etc. * (From Lhe Russian.)
MARTIN, Capt. "Tactics in the Afghan Campaign," " Notes on the+
Operations i n the ICnrrum Valley." 1 " Horse-Breeding i n Aus-
tralia and India." 1. " Notes on'the Management of Camels iu the
rot11 Company Sappcrs nncl Miners on Field Service." t
" British

Infantry it1 the Ilills and Plains of India." 1.
MORGAN,n. " A Visit to I<ulclja, and the Rosso-Cllincse Frontier." *
MOILTON,Capt. I ' Gourko's Raid." t (From the Frcnch.)
M A C I C E ~ I ELieut.-Gen.
, " Storms ancl Sunshine of a Soldier's Life."

MosA, P. " T h e Russiau Campaign of 1879," etc. t (From the Russian.)
M E D L ~Col., " The Dcfence of the Norlhwest Frontier." t
NEWALL, Licut.-Col. " On the Strategic Value of Casllmcre i n Connec-
, , tion with he Defcnce of Our Nortl~~vest Frontier."f
O'DONOVAN, E. " T h e Mcrv Oasis." (New York, 1883.)
PRICE, Capt. " Notes on the Sikhs is Soldiers for Our Army." t

Veleriilary-S~~rgeon. r 33 PITT. and War hlaterials." ." I<oss. " Army Transport. " Cavalry in Modern War.I Sr. G. hlajor. " Transport by Rail of Troops. .Capt. " T h e Tribes of Turkistm. JOHN. LIST OF A U T I I O R I T E S . " T h e Armies of Asia and Europe. '' T h e Elephant in Freedom and in Captivity. " A Transport Service for Asiatic Warfare. " Notes on the Camel.ieut.Lieut. Guns.Capl."+ TEMPLE. " T h e Education of Native Officersin the Indian Army." * SANDEKSON. I-Iorses." TROTTER. "Camels in Connection with the Soutll Af- rican Expedition.Col. " A n Historical Parallel-The Afgllans and Mainotes.-Col. (Delhi Rnilu7ay). " T h e Races of the Madras Army." (London. D . 1884. Col." 1.) UPTON. " T h e Progr.f." (New York." STRONG.Lieut. 1878.) YALDWYN. 1878-1879. TYRRELL. P. " Persia : I t s Physical Geography and People.I SHAW. TRENCH." .) VENIUILOFII." .Majov.Capt." ." etc."+ STEEL. 1.ess of Russia in Central Asia." t (Prom the Russian. Gen.


5 Auran. 91. supply. 4 Alexander. I Askabad. 107 : organization. 116 Bombay. mountains. . agent. 6 Catharine TI. 115 Aryan. Czar. routes. INDEX. 3 Auckland. 6 8 . 99. za Strcnfth. trans- port. sea. 64 . 4 pie. Lord. Beloochistnn. pass. 3 Billigurungall. city. river. 120 Catmuclcs. 96 Barrt.zg Bnrshor. Russian : Burrows. village. A Aulicnta. 48 operatious.117. 6. eity. 78 Bunnoo. 64. a r m y .dcr of Mncedon. city. 100 Bori. 117 Al~med-Shah. 1x9. 127 Altai. roads. 4 . rar Altrcck. a Afghanistan : Baber Khan. 3. 32 Beratse. hills. race. supply. mil.119 Aral. Gen. 14. mountain. 5. 7. 50 Ayoub Khan. 118. military post.. 46. Major. sa. 13. 84 Akbnr ~ i h a o47. 38. 46 Al:xar. trans- port... pass 1x9 Alexander I. n g Berlin. Dr.94 Bendcssen. 11911a6 Bamian. 28-36. 8 j u Abul-Ichair. Balich.117 military history. 86 Biddulph. river. gg Akton Khel.. 85 . clty. riv- Bakd. 16 . Gen. roo Aurangzeb. 16-25 . valley. clly. city. 13. city. 1 1 4 . loo Caspian. 121 Cnshmere. 32. pass. the A ~ n c e r 26. BIaharaja. 13-55 Alimecl-liheil. rno.r2g Atta Icarcz. Ballcash. Browne. go BntIlm. 14 Abazni. 13. 68.1r6. 5. gg Army. 13. valley. 36-43. 45 Cavngnari. 50 Alibnr. province. 52. 116. zo river. routes. 59. reg . Llle Cleat. fort. 113 . Slr M. moontain. 2. 3a Territory. . 88 Camcl. Capt. 113 Aslerabad.. 13. 64 Burnes. pass. lzo Behovitch. state. rzo. 7a Allahad. 50 Alchunt Ziarut. 55 -4bsuna. mountain. 191 Amu Daria (Oxus).. 55 Strength. animals. 82 Abdurrahman. 14 . Gen. 46 Argendab. g1. 53. 9 4 9 5 Bolchara. British : Bost. 34. rivcr. 3 Assin I<illo. g Ali Musjid.. 36. 54 . 58. . village. city. 46 Army. 26-27 . pass. post. valley.. 79 Bnroghil. rnr ers. roo Broadfoot. cities. 84 . 13 Bengnl. 53 Rrydon. city. 84 Abbazn.9. mil. organization. 99. 84 Indinn : 62. 1x0. city. post. sca. 6. IW. 1 4 Rolan..

13. 45 F Hodjcni.. 84 Conolly. 3 I-Inzarnno. 18. 92 Chapnlan.. 2. rlistrict. 'DO. 14 Chitral. city. province. vlllajic.3s. yabG. 13. forL. city. puss. 13. khirgiz. province. 48.t. IS. 116 Gourico. g1 Hazarasp. 8. 94 129 Delhi. city. 091 1 0 0 8 I151 117* Irg. 9. Capt. 120. 15. city.92 Gnisford. 92 Hnznrdarakht.8G IIamiey. province. 70. Col. 117. 36. Daslit-i-Bedo!vlnt. 1x7 Horse.94. 119. river. nlountnin.8 Dakica. 126. 28 India. city. 20 Iatalif. 45. . IS. mountain.38. 31 Gnntiamuclc. 98.. 119 I Fergnna. ElphirlsLone. g. 9. Gen. 13 Indus. 117 Gujrnt. 109. 31. Gen. city. 41. 14 Dcra Ismiiil I<lian. 86. M. 991 "7 Gltilzai. l'errier. city. On Llie thrcslloid of. island. 3 Genghiz Rilan. 14. town. Col. city.4G. 45. 72 Gindari. 88 Gilnn. 17 . gI.. 66. 14. town. ciLy. 14. 118 Gaynd Yara.Lord. 4. 127. 54 Dera Ghuzi Khan. 30 Elephant. 43. 128 Dozan. 50..38. 118 Gordon. range. 68 IIerat. mountain. Moliamrned. mounLain. 14 Ellenborough. SirJ. 7 Inderabad.. a Jamrud.. city. river. 11 Irtish. 104 Chelmsfo~d. J 96. 1 2 2 Guleir Surwai~di. 8 Green. G Roldich. 65 Cliemkent. 121 D 1-1 Dadur. 35. wlley. Sir F.91. Gen. 91. river. river. '38. 18. 30 Gluirgnr. Sir L. s Griersnn. C. 113 Fnrrali. 84. 24. town. 112 0 Chitishliar. 120. s r . 84. 14. Col. 29. 12. 113 Geolc Te(16. river. fort. 2 Gundnus. 47. 18. 14. 116. ~nountain. 66.. 28. Iar... 77 Girishk. 50 I-Iindu I<iish. city. city. go Djungaria.. 127 Guikok.pass. town. 15.. province. 92 Cust.14. 14. Gbori.46. Dost. town.95 I-Iaines. 88 115.50. 30. 84 Hclmunrl. ~ I . 91. 121.pass. 115 Iraizabad. 103 Irak. 116.4G. 70 I-Iimalayas. roo Farzn.5a1559 6. 52 118. iliilitary post. GG. town..27. 136 Ceylon. 13. 65. 128 Charikar. village.119 Grallam. village. city. no.1. I I I Charjui. 20 Ispalinn. 15. 128. Capt. 1x9 Eslci Zagra. valley 118 Jt~gdnllaclc. 77. river. Major. district. 18. Mr.. Gen. A FGH-4 NIS TAN. 123 Gurian. 88 Cossaclcs. 1x0. 96 J~rcobndad. town. city. 88 Dnaba. 64 Chat. a. 1x15 Derajat. 18. E 32. 5a Clarke.118. 1x9 Glinzni. town. Lord. gr I-Inraristnn. gG Irgiz. 99. I S . 127. 76 'Iar-i-Rnd. Licut. city. IZS . 84.. city. plain. 55. 1 x 0 I-Iobhouse. 4a . city.

mountiin. 117 Lumsdcn. 86 1 0 1 . 6. 34966. 36. city.489 5% 551 709 82. 951 981 999 Landi I<l~ana. 117. GCII. gG Jumrud. 115. 5. 117. 121. forl. g. pass. 85. 85 Kuldja. valley. 42 Lalgoshi. 94. pass. 6. L~khnreif. 120 rr n Runar vallev. 16. fort. town. rzz Mnshed. 118 Michaelovsk. r w ICarakoran. 14. 841 913 94. 76. 14. 121 Margilan. 14. 122 Mooktur valley. 117. Col. city. town. 84. 73 Kohut. city.. 30 Jizakh. 116 Mnhommed Azim. 4. 1-31 IZhirtar. post. 94 I<ussun. 18.province. 50. C.7g. m o ~ ~ n t a i 117 n.15 . zg &Iackeson.. 32. 84 Merv.Gcn. ra7 Lar!i Jowain. 5 0 . 4. Icotensko. m o ICoh-ilBaber. 1. district. 119 Mahmoud. 96 I<afristan. 88 Mnhomet. 16. 118 Kabnl. valley.46. 34. 99 Mithunlcot. 15 Lorn. 118. 118. 8. cily. 3 4 . 7. 7. town. 42. 31. 117 Lumley. go. 45 I<hinar. go ICarlci. 84. 35. 98. 91 ICnndahar.0 118 Ruh-i-Uaba. 2 ICnrkncha. go Ichoja-Saleh. province. 119 IChokand. 27 IChanilcoff. 45. 5 4 ~ 5 5 . 94 IChurd-ICabul. ICrasnovodsk. 1x9. 33. 41.26 ICashmir. city? 116 Mnimnna. mountain. 4 3 3 4 8 ..86 ICusmore. rag Kaulu~ann. g5 Ichniber.. river. Col. clty. city. town.88. fort.vlllage. 116. 15. 11 ICash. . 77. . city. fort.. 84 IChaf.126 M o ~ u l32 . mil. 122 Michni. Gen. 96 ICashgnr. .7.mountain ridge. trlbe. i n r McNaghteo. plains. 31. 117 Kilif. Martin. I Khiva. 116 I<hulm. 126. pass. river. 11. pass. l~rovince. village. 84. 11.. TI7 I< 118. go. 117 Maris. ~ 0 7 G 686. rr8 Maclcenzie. 94. pass. 12. vnlley. 30 ICnclani.Jelalabad. 47. 14 . 47. Gen. 31-35. 53 ICizii Arvat. province. 42%45%46. 86 ICnlat.119. M. sultan. 116 Maude.119 McClellan. province. 30 Lalaberg. Lahore. 96. tuwn. 91 IComaroif. 7 Malleson. 4r. 118 L Icahriz. Sir P. mountain. province. 18. 116 London. 116. 92 ICachi. 7 0 .6 Rujlak-ICekur. 101. 126.. Sir W. leuram. 14-16. city. 127 36. C. 16. n I<oh Darnan. 90 127. river. plains. military post. city.126 Rol~istau. 80 I<iiurd-lthaibcr. 13. s ~~ 2 . 12. 14. . 98 Malta. 86 Marvin. 94 Mastuj. province. pass.116 ICeiat.127 ICl~oja-Amran. 5 . 74 KBorassan.. g8. 44. Lountain. town. city. city. 1x6. river.. city.. 84 Icokirnn. 76 46. saddle. g.Gen. 13. city. village.. 70. 15. city. 6. 88 Logar. rzo Mazanderan. IT.88. fort. Licut. 92. .50 ICiialc. 53. province. 8 2 . 7 7 . valley. 8 IChusk'.. town. city. river. 117.

fort. 69 Sulimuni.. 14. 123 Napoleon. 4 Pollock. 120. 43.clty. 4. Maharaja11 of. 50 p l y . city. fort. 48 Sarnhks. 111 R a ~ u n p u r city. (See Amer. town. valley. 46. 10 F i t . 8. 111. pass. 84.~o. 35. mountains.. 118 Sirpal. 46. 1z.. Mnjor. Sir H. IS. Gen. gz St. 2 Petropanlovsk. A FGHAiLrISTAN. 123 Nnhur. 53. 45. 90 S a j a h Shah. pass. 116. railway manager. Lorrl. Crnnd Duke. organiza- tion.76 Mysore. 1x7. gg Pishin. 7. 44. Sir K.. 121 Nuicsan. district. river. town. 1x1 Samarcnncl. 1 2 1 Paropislnus. 44. ga Robcrts. town. 5. Tel~crnayeff. 44 Surkh Dcnkor. 82. 46 13 Shul ICadar. 107 . . 52 Oxus. 29 Tnsl~kenti. 4 Shahrud. Emperor. pass. 12z.11.. Gcn. r I r Persia. town. 11. river. torvn. 4 . 43. 5 Scistan. 55 T e l ~ c m n121 .. 118 Sargo.. I'ctcrsburg. 105. routcs. 51. M. zg OIDonovnn. 18 Rogan. 79. Sir D. 96 . 48. 30. rnountaln. province. town. Capt. 85 Poltinger. za N O ~ Rnr. 4a Shere tlli. 72 Rudbar. go Sarhadd. 7. I I r Paul. river. LO\VII. 91. town.. 86 Ferrvnn. 45 Panjshir. city. . city. ~ o x &furchat. 35. tolvn. Ior. 2 . 51 Turtarn. pass. g o . 112. 30 Stewart. fort.. gq Rnwlinson. 101: Par\\-an. province.. pass... 98. 28. ra .tlpul. 3 . go Paghmnn. 113 Sirle. 46 Pekin. gr Millla. village. roo N I<ussian Arrnu : strengtil. province. puss. ~ . 88 Pciwzr. 3 Takwir.113 San Stcfano. 53. 74. 6 . 104 Nott. Samson. Shurtargurdan.30. mountains. town. 38 Nijni Novgorod. mountnins.34. 120 Saundcrs. 84 Tai. province. 124 Munro. city. 3. town. 54. 8. 121 Ross. 55. Riajor. Gen. s- Pctcr t h e Grc:lL. 127 Penjdch. city. puss. 121 Nicholas. 8.. 18 Panj\vni. 117.. ga Pcshawur.55. 11. 70 Napicr.Gen. 116 Nishupcr. Gcn. lnountnin. 34. 91 R Moscow. .4. 53. village. gr Murghab. 14.44 Sabzawar. gG. 24 Scindc. pass.. Gen. 115. Gcn. 118 Stoiictoff.. 113.45. 84. pluin. Gen. 115 . Shah. gr Orenburg. sup- Nadir. Surhhab river. 126 Suprnsl. gq Skobcleff. rrg Primrose. Mooitan. fort. Darin) Shikapur. 1z7 Targui. 84. 117. 88 Pcrovslcv. ciW. 15 Orlorf. transport. 42. 3 Sufed ICoh. 118. c l a y . town. 119 Singh Kunjit. so. 6 Tejcnd. 50. 114. 117 Odessa. 30.. I. 121 Outram.

50 W Trench.. 69. M. 41 Ural. g. 3 Timwi. Col. lzz Unni. 54. IOI Turnalc.. river. 68 Vernoye. province. 5 Terek. 36 . city. valley. Ioa Warsaw. 36. 118 Yaidwin. M. pass.. IZ2' 12' Wolseley. INDEX. Lord. 43. Khan. loo Turlcestan.4. Temple. rivcr. 1x0 Yakoub. 1x7 Volga. 31. 55 Yalatun.71124 Zohak. 6. fort. town. mountains. 3 Washir. 1x1 Troitslr. 3. 13. 14 Twarditsa. . town. 1x3. Capt. 5 z VambBry. town. fort. 4 Yaxartes. 4. 22 Veniukoff. river. 124 ~ u r r n a t district. 38.. 30. 5. Sir R. zg. 115. 24..



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