This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized

by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the
information in books and make it universally accessible.

https://books.google.com

-s
----- -f----
------
--------
------------
-----
*-------- ---
----
-----
-------
e*s--
* |. -
**#

-
-
-*

*
-
---
s
---
--
--
-
--
-
-- --
----------
.-
|-
t------
--

---
--
----

-
----- -.---
-- ---*------- --|
-s
--- ------
--
:- ---
-
---
:--
-.---
-
-
*

I UAEANACHAMPAIGN ACRICULTURE . UNIVERSITY OF |LLINCIS LIBRARY /...

are:. ***. .

JUNE. WELLHOUSE ITHACA. NEW YORK PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY . 1922 MEMOIR 56 CORNELL UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS WALTER H.

.

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 1086 Tenthredinidae. . . . . . . . 1079 Cosmopterygidae. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047 * . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 1085 Hymenoptera. . . . . . . 1066 Buprestidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046 Ecological summary. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . 1065 Thysanoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1063 Aphididae. . . . . . . . . . 1073 Arctiidae. . . 1066 Chrysomelidae. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1054 Acridiidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075 Geometridae. . 1067 Curculionidae. . . . . . . . .. - Biological notes on insects feeding on Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . 1075 Lasiocampidae. . . . . . . . . . 1077 Yponomeutidae. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072 Papilionidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1074 Lymantriidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1080 Cecidomyiidae (Itonididae). . . . - The relation of Crataegus insects to apple. . . 1079 Lyonetiidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and quince. . . . 1066 Elateridae. . . . .. . . . . . . 1077 Tortricidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052 Orthoptera. . . . . . . .. . 1076 * Pyralidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 1076 Sesiidae (Aegeriidae). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '-0 > → ©. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1068 Lepidoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063 Coccidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066 Coleoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051 Acarina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073 Noctuidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1066 Scarabaeidae.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054 Miridae (Capsidae). . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1078 Elachistidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072 Saturniidae. . . . . . 2% CONTENTS - PAGE The genus Crataegus. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | £) (8%). . .. . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1086 1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066 Thrypidae. 1051 Eriophyidae. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1080 Diptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1061 Membracidae: . . . 1073 Notodontidae. . 1080 Trypetidae. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1056 Cicadellidae (Jassidae). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054 Hemiptera. . . . . . . . . . . . as observed by the writer from 1917 to 1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1051 Tetranychidae.. . . . . . . . . 1054 Tingitidae . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pear. . .. .

. . . . . . 1133 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 Index of genera and species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Acarina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hymenoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 Coleoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 Lepidoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Orthoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108 Diptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1042 CoNTENTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 Thysanoptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 Hemiptera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE Literature cited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088 Catalog of insects injurious to Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 Odonata. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS

THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS

WALTER H. WELLHOUSE

This paper is submitted as a result of three years of study of the insects
that feed on the plants belonging to the genus Crataegus. The writer's
object at the time when the work was undertaken was primarily to learn,
by collecting and rearing, what insects occur on the trees of this genus in
central New York. As the interest in the work increased, it was decided
to widen the field and make the list more complete by including the insects
that other workers have found to be eaters of Crataegus.
There are three older lists of insects feeding on Crataegus which have
been helpful in the preparation of the present catalog. Kaltenbach
(1872) gives a list of 104 European species, Packard (1890) gives 46
American species, and Felt (1906) gives 28 American species. With the ex- .
ception of these three lists, the material included in this paper is gathered
from widely scattered references and from the writer's observations. Since
food-plant indices are very commonly omitted from entomological writings,
it is difficult to get a list of all the insects that feed on a plant. Such a
list can be obtained only by scanning the pages of a multitude of papers
containing biological notes on all orders of insects. Much of that kind of
work has been done in the preparation of this catalog, but, since it has
not been possible to see all papers that might contain accounts of insects
feeding on Crataegus, the writer does not claim that his list is complete.
The catalog contains 382 species, representing 9 orders and 55 families.
They are distributed as follows:
Acarina, 10 species: Thysanoptera, 1 species:
Eriophyidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Thrypidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Phyllocoptidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Coleoptera, 74 species:
Tetranychidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Elateridae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Orthoptera, 4 species: Buprestidae... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Gryllidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Scarabaeidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Acridiidae. . . . . ". . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 3 Cerambycidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Odonata, 1 species: Chrysomelidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Agrionidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Curculionidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Hemiptera (including Homoptera), 84 Ipidae (Scolytidae). . . . . 2
species: Anthribidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1
Miridae (Capsidae). . . . 12 Dermestidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Tingitidae . . . . . . . 4 Lepidoptera, 184 species:
Membracidae. . . . . . . 4 Papilionidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Cicadellidae (Jassidae). 18 Nymphalidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Psyllidae (Chermidae). 7 Pieridae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Aphididae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Lycaenidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Coccidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Sphingidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

*Dates in parenthesis refer to Literature Cited, page 1088.
1045

. . . . M. . . . . . . . . . . 1 Tortricidae. . . . . . . . . . Professor Z. . . . . . . 10 Nepticulidae. . . . . . . . . . . . Asia. 8. and red or yellowish fruit like minature apples in autumn. . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knight. . T. . 1 Cecidomyiidae (Itonididae). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dr. . . . . . . . 4 Nolidae. . . . . . . 1 Cossidae. . . . . . . . . . Dr. . . 7 Pyralidae. . . . . . . . E. 3 Yponomeutidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GENUS CRATAEGUS Crataegus is the name of a group of trees and shrubs commonly known by their sharp thorns. . Gross for able editorial assistance. Needham. 1 Trypetidae. . . Drake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The number of species reported from each continent is as follows: North America. . . . . . . . . . . . . under whose direction the work was done and whose kindly criti cisms and suggestions are appreciated. . . . . . . . . and was applied to the plants of this genus because of the hardness and durability of the wood. B. . which is intended as an aid to other workers who are investigating the insects of our deciduous fruit trees and related plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Dr. . . . . . . . . . . 3 Tenthredinidae. . . . . . . . . . 8 species: Sesiidae (Aegeriidae). . H. . . which have similar habits. . . . . .t . 3 Chalcididae. 11. . . . Metcalf. . . . P. . . . . . . . 2 Drepanidae. 5 Notodontidae. 6 Gracilariidae. . 12 Lymantriidae. . . . It will be noticed that the mites. 88. . . . . . . W. . . of the Department of Entomology at Cornell Uni versity. . . . . . The insects recorded from Asia and Africa are found also in Europe. . . 27 Elachistidae. . . . . . . Grateful acknowledgment is made to Professors Glenn W. Professor Carl J. . . . 1046 WALTER H. . . 30 The catalog includes insects that have been taken on the Crataegus trees in five continents. . . . . 213 species. . Herrick and James G. . are included with the insects in this paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. 15 Limacodidae. Leng. . . . . . . . 16 species: Psychidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . All but 45 of the North American species are believed to be distinct from those of the Old World. who has kindly aided in the determina tion of species of Crataegus. .. Europe. . . .. . . . . It is an ancient Greek name derived from kratos (strength). . . . . 7 Glyphipterygidae. . . . . . . . . Edith M. . . . . . . . . . . . and to Miss Lela G. P. . . . Wiegand. . Australia. and Henry Dietrich. . 1 Hymenoptera. . . . . . . . . 3 Gelechiidae. Some helpful references to entomological notes concerning each species have been included in the catalog. . . . . . . . . white flowers (pink or red in a few cultivated varieties) in May. . . . 7 Arctiidae. . . . . . . . . . . 1 Lyonetiidae. . . . . . . 6 Noctuidae. Dr. . . . . K. . A single Australian species is distinct from those of other continents. . . . WELLHOUSE Lepidoptera (continued): Lepidoptera (continued): Saturniidae. . . . . Patch. . . . . . . Dr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chas. . . also to Dr. . . . . . . . . P. . . . W. . . . . . . . . . 2 Lasiocampidae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Africa. . . . Lawson. . . . *. . . . . . . . . . . 203. . . . . . Forbes. . . . . Felt. . . . . . 1 Diptera. . . . 27 Cosmopterygidae. . . . 11 Geometridae. . . . . . . . . who have kindly aided in the determination of species.

The determination of species of Crataegus is as great a taxonomic problem to botanists as the determination of the parasitic Hymenoptera is to entomologists. The hawthorns furnish both food and shelter. The genus is not indigenous in the Southern Hemis phere except in America. This taxonomic uncertainty makes it impossible in many cases to recognize specific hosts for the insects that feed on the hawthorns. thorn apple. hawthorn and may. the writer has used it in this paper to represent all species of Crataegus. while a few species thrive in acid soils also. and thorn. in which Crataegus is included along with Malus. Crataegus is distributed over most of the temperate parts of the North ern Hemisphere. The genus is placed by many botanists in the family Rosaceae. as by washing on hillsides. in France (snellier. Wherever the roots become exposed to light. where it follows the unbroken mountain chain through the Tropics and grows in the Andes Mountains. in England. aubepine. The European species have been introduced into Australia and other European colonies in the Southern Hemisphere for cultivation. It is found as far north as Newfoundland. Amelanchier. which eat the 1ipe fruits and carry the seeds in their digestive tracts to other communities. Aronia. The two basic needs of an insect which it is possible for a host plant to supply are food and shelter. and Eriobotrya. thickets are commonly formed from the new stems which grow from the roots of a single tree. in Germany. in Italy. Sorbus. red haw. and a still further reduction of species is in progress. Mespilus. Other botanists have divided the Rosaceae group and formed an apple family. in America. • Many of them are now regarded as hybrids and varieties. Pyrus. spinalba. They are usu ally long-lived trees. a new stem may grow and a tree be formed from it. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1047 Among the popular names by which the genus is known most commonly are the following: hawthorn. and extends south ward to the Mediterranean borders of Africa and Asia Minor. by French Canadians). As the name hawthorn seems to be the one most commonly used by English speaking peoples. and individuals one hundred years old are not Uln(2Onllmon. and Sweden. Malaceae. ECOLOGICAL SUMMARY The ecological relations of the hawthorns to their insect fauna may be summarized in a general way very briefly. Weissdorn. Most species of hawthorns seem to thrive in any well-drained soil which is not acid and where rainfall is sufficient for the growth of forest trees. Norway. . white thorn. Cydonia. - Distribution is effected largely by means of birds and mammals. During the first ten years of this century about one thousand species of Crataegus were described in North America. Within the same community.

. grubs). . . . 19 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maggots. . Some are protected only by their position on the surface of the tree. . . . . . . . WELLHOUSE They furnish food for nearly all of the insects studied.. . . .. .. . . . . . 20 t Flowers (thrips.. . . . 235 B. . . . 190 October. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . .- Leaves. The more distinct groups of internal feeders (borers. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Roots (aphids). . . . mites. . . procure their food elsewhere and use the hawthorn branches merely to shelter their eggs from the weather and their enemies. . . . Still others are securely housed within the plant tissues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and others) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . The fact that so many species of insects feed at the expense of the haw thorns suggests the idea that these trees are in danger of extinction. . . . . . . . . Others are partially sheltered in rolled leaves. . . . Such is not the case. . . . . 292 A. bugs. caterpillars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Some indications as to why they so successfully withstand the feeding of the insects may be seen from a study of the following data. . . . . . ... . . . . . long-lived trees. The degree of shelter secured by those species living externally on the surface of the plant varies so greatly and so gradually that no distinct lines of division can be drawn in so general a statement as this. . . . . . . . . ... .. . . .. . . 37 cecidomyiids).. . .. . . (aphids. .. Miners C. . . . Internal feeders (borers). . Gall (tineids. leaf miners. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . bark crevices. . . . . . . . . . as may be seen from the following outline: Trunk and branches. . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . although the completeness of the shelter varies with the habits of each species of insect. . . . . . . . and cthers). . . . . . . . . . . .1048 WALTER H. . 40 species A. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . External feeders (scales. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 131 Time of feeding unknown. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . which are based on statistics given in the last sections of this paper: APPROxIMATE FEEDING PERIOD OF HAwTHORN INSECTs Species Species March. . . . maggots. . . . . 11 August. . .. 30 The other basic need of insects which a host plant may supply is shelter. . . . . .. . .. A few excep tions. . for the hawthorns when not weakened by drought or flood are very hardy. . . . . 80 June. . . which receive less complete shelter. . . . . . . . . . . . . External feeders (miscellaneous). . . . . . . and gall makers) are indicated above and are distinguished from the external feeders. sawflies). .. 12 Fruit (caterpillars. . 57 species Food plants including other related or associated groups. . . . . . . . beetles. * .. . .. . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . . and the like. Most of the insects included in this paper are sheltered to some extent by the hawthorn. . . . . . . . . . 1 Thorns (weevils). . makers weevils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Every part of the tree furnishes food for some species of insect.. . 23 July. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 54 September. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . however. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 124 May. . 1 .. . . such as the snowy tree cricket (Oecanthus niveus) and the damsel fly Lestes viridis. aphids. . . . 325 species . . . . . . . . 58 Food PLANTS OF HAwTHORN INSECTS Food plants restricted to Crataegus. 232 November. . . 117 April. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

which because of their thorns can continue to thrive and outgrow the danger of being eaten by the cattle. and elm. A host of bees. Rhamnus. A list of insects that visit the blossoms is given by Knuth (1908). 5. and the like. Prunus spinosa. flies. In the preparation of the catalog of hawthorn insects it became noticeable that some of the species which have more than one host plant have chosen only closely related hosts. Carpinus. or the medlar. numerous thorny forms such as Crataegus. of course. Where a shrubby growth has sprung up after the destruction of a forest. Hillsides or valleys where the soil is uncultivated and cattle are pastured are frequently dotted with Crataegus. This relationship between the period of growth and the ' of feeding seems to be one of Nature's adjustments for maint ining 3. The fact that a large majority of the insects feed on other host plants also. such as the apple. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUs 1049 It will be noticed that there is a direct correspondence between the time of feeding of the insects and the time of growth of the trees. 4. which may be described as follows: 1. and crab apple. Fence rows. such as that in a forest of oak. many other factors that tend to lessen the insect injury to the trees. and Prunus spinosa are frequently found. Just back of the willows and alders on moist alluvial soil beside streams. Rosa. when the trees make their greatest growth. and beetles visit the blossoms in quest of pollen and nectar. Berberis. Stream banks. at the time when droughts frequently check tree growth. The winter buds in some species of hawthorn become coated with a sticky exudation. wild plum. and then it increases slightly in September. 3. such as the stone flies and the chironomids. which attracts insects emerging in late winter. 2. The number decreases slightly during July and August. hickory.InCe. Crataegus grows to its greatest size and is associated with birch.18. the pear. such as the interrelations of the insects with their parasites and preyers. . In woodlands where the growth habit of the taller trees permits sunlight to reach the ground so that an undergrowth may develop. Crataegus. while many others have chosen their hosts from plants that grow in the same communities regardless of close botanical relationship. These transient members of the Crataegus fauna have been omitted from consideration in this paper. Deforested areas. willow. Prunus virginiana. Psylla mali Schmid. There are. Where shrubs are allowed to grow up along the fences. Rubus. but so little is known about them that the writer makes no attempt to discuss them. In each of these five communities insects will be found which feed on the various plants of the community. alder. Grazing lands. The greatest number of species feed during May and June. at the time when fall rains often cause a new growth. For example. lessens the danger of destruction of the hawthorns and is another of Nature's provisions for maintaining balance. and poplar. Crataegus is commonly found along with Corylus. Open woods. and wild cherry are frequently found closely associated. A study of these combinations of hosts and the habitats in which they grow has led the writer to believe that the hawthorns are members of at least five different plant communities.

1050 WALTER H. WELLHOUSE

feeds on Crataegus, Malus, Sorbus, Quercus, Ulmus, and Corylus, which
may all be found in the open-woods community, as may the host plants
of the flat-headed apple-tree borer, Chrysobothris femorata Fabr. On
the other hand, the leaf beetle, Cryptocephalus bipunctatus Linn., feeds
near the streams on such plants as Salix, Betula, Crataegus, and Corylus,
and Agrilus vittaticollis Rand. is found along the fence rows on Crataegus,
Prunus virginiana, and Amelanchier. No very distinct lines can be
drawn between the members of these communities, since many of the
plants and insects belong to more than one community.
THE RELATION OF CRATAEGUS INSECTS TO APPLE, PEAR, AND QUINCE

A more complete knowledge of the insects that feed on Crataegus is of
considerable importance as an aid in the control of insect pests of the
cultivated commercial fruits. It has for many years, since the days of
Walsh and Riley, been recognized by entomologists as the original native
host plant of a number of important insect pests which now attack the
apple, the pear, and the quince in the northeastern section of the United
States. In all probability new pests must be expected to attack the culti
vated fruits in the future as the population of the country increases,
since as a consequence less uncultivated land will remain where the insects
may feed undisturbed on their natural hosts.
The main commercial fruits of the United States, such as the apple, the
pear, the quince, and the cherry, are natives of the Old World and have
been imported by man into America. With them were imported a number
of foreign insects, such as the codling moth, the bud moth, and the sinuate
pcar borer, which continued to feed on them in this country. Many of
the pests now destructive to these fruits, however, are native to North
America and are not found in the Old World. Before the extensive plant
ing of the imported fruits these insects must have fed on native plants.
Among the most numerous of the native plants which are similar to the
apple, the pear, and the quince are those of the genus Crataegus, and the
members of this genus are widely distributed throughout many of our
commercial fruit districts. -

A young orchard which is set in the midst of hawthorns may be ruined
in a few years by the insects that migrate to it from the surrounding trees.
Well-established orchards may suffer from the attacks of new pests when
ever there is a failure of the crop of wild haws or a clearing of the land
occupied by hawthorns so that their natural guests must seek other
hosts.
It is commonly known among entomologists that the apple maggot,
Rhagoletis pomonella, was originally a hawthorn insect and that after the
apple had been cultivated in North America for many years this insect
selected the larger, juicier fruit of the apple for its home. It is still found
in the haws but is now known as an apple pest.

THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUs CRATAEGU's 1051

The apple redbug, Heterocordylus malinus, is another hawthorn insect
which has adopted the apple. It was formerly believed that the false
apple redbug, Lygidea mendax, was also originally a hawthorn insect,
but the observations of Cushman (1916), as well as those of the writer,
indicate that L. mendax is a wild-crab insect and does not feed extensively
on hawthorns. -

The quince curculio, Conotrachelus crataegi, is a very common feeder
in haws which has occasionally injured quinces seriously and has thus
gained its common name. Likewise the lesser apple worm, Laspeyresia
prunivora, has gained its common name because of occasional migrations
from hawthorn to apple.
Baker (1915: 10) considers the woolly apple aphis, Eriosoma lanigera,
to have been originally an elm-Crataegus feeder which has adopted the
apple and traveled around the world with it. The woolly aphis is undoubt
edly common on hawthorns.
Numerous other native American insects that feed on apple, pear, or
quince are included in the catalog of hawthorn feeders beginning on
page 1090.
The possibility that foreign hawthorn insects may be imported and
become pests in North America should also be considered. When intro
duced into a new environment away from their natural checks, these may
become more important here. Recent examples of this are three small
moths imported from Europe — the apple and thorn leaf skeletonizer,
Simaethis pariana; the hawthorn ermine moth, Yponomeuta padellus;
and the lesser bud moth, Recurvaria namella. These have attracted
the attention of economic entomologists in North America as apple and
cherry pests, while in Europe they feed commonly on hawthorns.
Since the catalog of hawthorn insects included in this memoir lists
their food plants and the continents where each species occurs, further
examples of foreign hawthorn insects that are now in North America
may be found there.

BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON INSECTS FEEDING ON CRATAEGUS, AS OBSERVED
BY THE WRITER FROM 1917 TO 1920 2

ACARINA
Tetranychidae
telarius Linn., Tetranychus (Red spider)
The leaves of all species of Crataegus observed showed attack by
Tetranychus telarius. The European hawthorns, however, seem to be
more often severely injured by these mites than the native species. The
h: £ects are grouped according to order and family, and arranged alphabetically by species within
the family.

1052 WALTER H. WELLHOUSE

injury is severest in warm, dry periods. The leaves at first become
grayish, due to the presence of a fine white web and the cast skins of the
mites attached to them. Later they turn brown and their margins curl
toward the surface on which the mites have fed. The adults hibernate
among the fallen leaves and a few were found in bark crevices on the trunk
in April. The tiny, round, white eggs are laid on the leaves. The mites
breed continually on the leaves from June to October.

Eriophyidae
Eriophyes sp. No. 1 (Hawthorn serpentine gall of Jarvis)
The species of Eriophyes here described produces long, green or red,
serpentine galls confined to the space between two of the larger veins and
extending from the midrib toward the margin of the leaf (fig. 102). The

FIG. 102. LEAVES OF CRAETAEGUs PUNCTATA SHOWING SERPENTINE GALLs
PRODUCED BY ERIOPHYES SP. No. 1

gall consists of a wavy projection on the upper side of the leaf and a wavy
incision on the lower side. In cross section the leaf appears convoluted,
with the galls projecting upward as loops or pockets in which the mites

which are found on hawthorns in Europe. 103. No. HAwTHORN MARGINAL GALLs beneath the leaf by a small slit. Eriophyes sp. 103). are produced by Eriophyes sp. 3 (Thorn leaf pouch gall) Many small. The galls become extremely abundant on some trees. FIG. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUs 1053 live (fig. but are generally - about two millimeters high and are rounded on top (figs. Eriophyes sp. The galls vary in size and shape. No. when the galls are swarming with the microscopic white mites. 104. The margin of the leaf is curled tightly downward for a dis tance of two centimeters or more (figs. The mites live within the curl.. 2. 2 (Hawthorn marginal gall) Galls very similar to those of Eriophyes goniothorax Nal. so that almost every leaf is deformed. No. are caused by microscopic white mites which live within the pouches. 104 and 105). CRoss SECTION They are fairly common on Crataegus punctata THROUGH CURLED EDGE but are not so abundant as the serpentine galls. They become most abundant during August. They may be found at any . The mites seem to prefer the shady branches of trees. found also on C. CRoss SECTION OF A CRATAEGUS LEAF. but they were Fig. standing on the upper side of the leaf and opening FIG. 105. The leaf does not become thickened in these galls. rather than those in bright sunlight. and the curled margin is paler green than the rest of the leaf. The galls were found most abundantly on Crata egus punctata. This gall is not very common about Ithaca. 106 and 107). pruinosa THROUGH THREE SERPENTINE GALLS and other native hawthorns. pale green pouches. - place on the leaf except on the larger veins. but was found in a few cases on Crataegus coccinea. OF LEAF .

malinus Reuter. M. ORTHOPTERA . femur-rubrum De Geer. WELLHOUSE . sometimes eat ing the entire leaf and sometimes eating only the apex or one side of it. femur-rubrum sometimes leave their herbaceous host plants to feed on the foliage of the lower branches of hawthorn trees. The young nymphs begin to Fig. bivittatus. Melanoplus bivittatus Say. FIG. where their red color and rapid running over the branches make them very conspicuous. 106. Heterocordylus (Dark apple redbug) Nymphs and adults of Het erocordylus malinus are very common on native hawthorns. The common grasshop pers Melanoplus atlanis. and 6 millimeters long. rather stout. Acridiidae atlanis Riley. M. . THORN LEAF PoUCH GALLs HEMIPTERA Miridae (Capsidae) communis Knight. Lygus One adult of Lygus communis was taken on June 21 and four were taken on August 2. puncturing the leaves of Crataegus punctata. **-* * 1054 WALTER H. They feed irregularly on the leaves. Horcias A few adults of Horcias dislocatus were found feeding on leaves of Cra taegus punctata in June. The older nymphs and adults have been observed feeding in August and September. M. 107 cross section through a Thorn Lear appear about April 15. when POUCH GALL . They are black. dislocatus Say. and M.

5 millimeters long. drilled a hole through the bark at the base of the twig. and begin ovipositing in the twigs about June 15. They are pale yellowish brown. communis very closely. and 5. pratensis Linn. . Adults appeared from June 10 to June 15 in rearing cages in the laboratory. and others were found in the field on June 18. Adults were found on the trees until late July. mendar Reuter. but are generally paler. They are brownish. Adults were found from June 2 to August 14. Diaphnidia - The pale green nymphs of Diaphnidia pellucida are rather numerous on the foliage of Crataegus punctata during late May and early June. as soon as the buds show green. but no nymphs were found in the field until the blossoms were opening on April 25. and are otherwise similar in appearance to the tarnished plant bug. turning about. Lygus Adults of Lygus pratensis which have lived through the winter are some times found puncturing the buds of Crataegus in April. The egg is deposited in a small slit made with the beak at the base of a young twig. and then. pale green. slender. and feed on the leaves and tender twigs. They run rapidly over the branches when disturbed. puncturing the leaves and fruit of native hawthorns. She chose a year-old twig. After the fruit sets they feed on the fruit also and cause very slight dimples where they puncture it. In the warm laboratory the eggs hatched on March 27 on Crataegus punctata twigs. Lygidea (Bright apple redbug) A few nymphs of Lygidea mendax were found feeding on the leaves and fruit of Crataegus in late April and in May. and a few were found puncturing the young fruit in late May. They are not so common as Heterocordylus malinus. thrust an egg into the cavity. They resemble L.. slender. They are delicate. spotted. One adult in a breeding cage oviposited on June 19 in a twig of Crataegus crus-galli. They become adult in late May and early June.. They puncture the leaves and the tender twigs but do not cause any noticeable injury. univittatus Knight. Lygus - A few adults of Lygus ostryae were taken puncturing the leaves of Crataegus punctata in late June. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1055 the blossom clusters have just begun to separate and before the blossoms show pink. pellucida Uhl. Lygus Adults of Lygus univittatus are rather common during late May and June. and about 4 millimeters long. ornatus VanD.. Orthotylus A few adults of Orthotylus ornatus were found feeding on the leaves of Crataegus pruinosa in June. ostryae Knight.

and C. Many of them remain on the leaves on which they were feeding before the leaves fell. The second-brood eggs are laid in late July and in August. punctata. producing at first a mottled effect due to the pale areas around the feeding punctures. cydoniae by earlier observers who must have seen it on the hawthorns. and the branches were bare by September 1. The injury is caused by the nymphs and the adults puncturing the under surface of the leaf and sucking the sap. It has been found by Drake in Ohio and by Criddle in Manitoba. No fruit matured on these trees. They appeared the last of May. Individual trees of C. C. The hawthorns with smooth leaves. and they remained feeding and ovipositing on that same leaf for several days. punctata showed an occasional branch badly infested and with leaves discolored. the species seems to be fairly common where its host plants occur. even when their branches were intermingled with those of trees that were badly infested. WELLHOUSE Tingitidae bellula Gibson.1056 WALTER H. and during early June were feeding on the new Crataegus leaves. A few scattered trees of this species in other directions from the city were also badly infested. with the basal end rounded and the apical end bent slightly to one side and capped with a rather broad cylindrical collar . the leaves were so discolored by the end of July that they attracted attention several hundred yards away. There are two generations annually at Ithaca. Corythucha (Plates LXXII and LXXIII) Although the original description of Corythucha bellula was published but recently (Gibson. pruinosa. Orna mental plantings of Crataegus in parks and gardens are rendered unsightly and weakened by this injury. in late September or in October. The adults of the second brood hibernate among the fallen leaves and in crevices of the bark. albicans and C. and also Alnus incana and Ribes oxyacanthoides. As a rule only one pair of adults was found on a leaf. and it has probably been confused with C. The first brood hatches in July from eggs laid in late May and in June. and the nymphs become mature in from twenty to twenty-five days. By the middle of August the leaves were falling. while later the leaf turns brown and falls to the ground. The host plants include those species of Crataegus that have hairy leaf veins. The writer has found the insect breeding in abundance on Crataegus neofluvialis and to some extent on C. In a large thicket of C. such as C. albicans and C. revealed no nymphs nor eggs. After emer gence from the nymphal skin in September. The egg is subelliptical. 1918). crus-galli. neofluvialis trees near the Cornell University campus. and the adults appear in late August and in September. the adults of the second brood continue feeding on the leaves until they fall. oxyacantha.

with ovi ositor at rest. chitinized parts within body shown by dotted ines. 3. Tip of abdomen of female. Adult. Tip of abdomen of male. 8. 7. Same with claspers exserted.MEMOIR 56 PLATELXXII CORYTHUCHA BELLULA 1. Eggs in position among hails in axil of leaf veins 1057 . Ovipositor. 4. with claspers at rest. 5. Lateral view of hood and carina. 2. 6. Same with ovipositor exserted.

leaving it with the egg cap on the outer end hanging out from the empty eggshell..5 mm. second segment with . hatched on August 15 and 16. the nymphs begin to feed at once in colonies near the eggshells. exclusive of the apical prolongation of the cap. is 0. The insect on emerging is limp. is often whitish. but occasionally they are laid singly. and adults may be found at the same time in July and August. When about halfway out of the eggshell the nymph splits the membranous sac and slips it off over the head.— Length 0. the earlier stages requiring three or four days while the later ones require five or six days. Eggs laid on June 2 hatched on July 9 and 10. Beak 4-segmented and extending back to sixth abdominal segment. In counting the number of eggs on one hundred infested leaves the writer found an average of forty-nine eggs to a leaf. while the eggs of the second brood. and is almost color less except for the eye facets which are bright red. Descriptions of the nymphal stages follow. Although the female has a well developed. laid on July 29 and 30. After emerging and drying. sawlike. the cuticula breaks along the median dorsal line from the front of the head to about the second abdominal segment. In molting. and 0. which is smooth. so that eggs. basal segment without spines or hairs. The body color soon darkens and the eyes a few hours later become black. The egg is without waxy covering over the chorion. During the fifth stage the nymph wanders about more freely over the leaf and in some cases goes to adjoining leaves.52 millimeter long. They are gen erally laid in small groups. or cone.15 mm. the eggs are not inserted into the leaf tissue. somewhat broader cephalad than caudad and more elongate than in the later stages. The conical egg cap is pushed up by the nymph as it begins to emerge from the egg still inclosed in the embryonic membranous sac. WELLHoUSE surmounted by a low cone with irregular ridges extending from base to apex. The cap. General shape an elongate ellipse. the basal two segments being shorter than the third segment. greatest width 0.21 millimeter broad at its greatest width. They molt five times. From the apex of this cone there arises in some cases a short. nymphs. The egg. The egg-laying period extends over several weeks. and eighteen days in July and August when the average temperature was higher. in the axils formed by the midrib and its lateral branches. Antenna 3-segmented. feeding from three to six days between molts. four-valved ovipositor. but often this is absent. Occasionally a leaf had seventy five or eighty eggs on it. blunt prolongation. some groups containing as many as eighteen or twenty eggs. At first almost colorless but soon becoming dark brown.1058 WALTER H. They are placed among the hairs on the veins and are in some cases glued together with an adhesive material. The eggs are laid on the under surface of the leaf. unsculptured. and of a shining dark brown color but somewhat lighter toward the base. This indicates an incubation period of about thirty-seven days in the cooler temperature of June. First stage.

Fifth-stage nymph - 1059 . First-stage nymph. Second-stage nymph. Fourth-stage nymph. 2.MEMOIR 56 PLATE LXXIII YOUNG STAGES OF CORYTHUCHA BELLULA 1. Third stage nymph. Egg. 4. 3. 7. 6. Egg after hatching. 5.

68 mm.and mesothorax beginning to increase in prominence. than those of C. greatest width 0. (Plate LXXIII. others with pointed tip.and mesothorax having lateral tubercles with a spine on each. sixth. Yellowish parts of prothorax increased in size. and possess more spinules. Pro.6 mm.) Fourth stage. Prothorax more prominent than in earlier stages.1060 WALTER H. (Plate LXXIII. one tubercle back of these on median line bearing two spines. Only the immature stages of several spiders were seen to prey upon them. giving the body the appearance of having two light bands across it. greatest width 0. these spinules present also on bases of round-tipped spines. arcuata. Minute spinules covering entire dorsum. Additional small spines on both dorsal and lateral tubercles. widely separated and each bearing two spines. except in an irregular band across abdomen just caudad of wing pads and on lateral thirds of prothorax.27 mm.— Length 0.2 mm.. A few new spines present on lateral margins of pro. each of these except the first bearing on each lateral margin a tubercle surmounted by a round tipped spine. The larger spines of both species which are mounted on elongate bases seem to have an eversible sac on the tip which gives them a trumpet shape when it is drawn in and a round tip when it is extended. especially on large tubercles of fifth and sixth abdominal segments and on thorax. Round-tipped spines arising from a base longer than the spines.) Fifth stage. covering it much more completely than in first stage. Metathorax and first abdominal segment without spines. and eighth abdominal segments. Nymphs of C. The only distinguishing char acters between the nymphs of the two species which the writer has been able to observe are the size and the prevalence of minute awl-shaped spinules on the dorsal surface. bellula are smaller. 6. A few more spines on tubercles. greatest width 0. Nine abdominal segments visible above. Corythucha arcuata. sharp.) In all stages of the nymphs the larger spines correspond exactly in position and shape with those so excellently described by Morrill (1903) for the oak lace bug.82 mm. and distal part of wing pads yellowish.96 mm. many of the sharp-pointed spines of the earlier stages now round-tipped: spines present in the earlier stages on lateral margins of segments covered by wing pads have disappeared.. minute awl-shaped spinules over dorsal surface. some with rounded tip and conical base. Bases of round-tipped spines several times as long as the spines.44 mm. (Plate LXXIII. two tubercles near posterior margin. Entire dorsal surface covered with minute spinules as in earlier stages. terminal claws. Wing pads now extending back to fourth abdominal segment at sides. Color dark brown. and the round-tipped spines present before having a slightly longer conical base in this stage. and a few additional small spines on tubercles. each bearing a round-tipped spine. The natural enemies of these spiny creatures seem to be few. with numerous minute spinules over dorsal surface.7 mm. 4. third segment with numerous long spines and hairs.Length 1. this segment bearing no spines nor hairs.. Legs armed with short. 5. fifth. pointed hairs and two bent. (Plate LXXIII. WELLHOUSE a few short hairs. where it is yellowish. 7. Antenna with four segments. greatest width 0.. 3. and those on fifth and sixth segments bearing two spines each. tenth abdominal segment visible from a lateral or ventral view.) SeBond stage. Body broader in proportion to its length than in first stage. and mesothorax having a pair of dorsal tubercles with one spine on each.— Length 0. two dorsal tubercles on second. (Plate LXXIII. Pro.) Third stage. . Head with five prominent dorsal tubercles.. those on second and eighth segments bearing one round-tipped spine each. and prothorax still more prominent. light-colored on the yellowish parts and dark on the brown parts. dark brown in color.— Length 1. two slightly separated just above base of beak.and mesothorax and of abdomen. Wing pads of mesothorax extend ing back over metathorax and first abdominal segment at sides.

mali LeB. pale green. but are not common. Philaenus The adults of Philaenus lineatus are 6 millimeters long.. obliqua Say. They are found rarely on Crataegus in late June. are slender. fitchi VanD. They are very abundant on the leaves of native . lineatus Linn.. They occur on native hawthorns in June and July. slender. The species winters in the egg stage.. Empoasca (Apple leaf hopper) The adults of Empoasca mali are 33 millimeters long. Specimens were found on June 23. The black nymphs were reared on Crataegus punctata leaves from June 14 to July 2. brownish yellow. with black wings which have a prominent yellow spot. The adults that survive the winter are comparatively few. so that the first brood of C. coccinea Först. and have the wings striped with alternate red and green. stout with a pointed head. 4 millimeters long. Cicadellidae (Jassidae) clitellarius Say. A few specimens were found on June 11. Graphocephala The adults of Graphocephala coccinea are 8 millimeters long. with dark venation. and is found on native hawthorns in July and August. Idiocerus (Black apple leaf hopper) The adult of Idiocerus fitchi is 6 millimeters long. and with a small black spot near the apex on the inner margin of the wing. They are not common. but are not common. lachrymalis Fb. Erythroneura The adults of Erythroneura obliqua are 23 millimeters long. curtisii Fb. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUs 1061 The webs of these spiders sometimes cover the infested leaves of a tree and entangle whole colonies of the lace bugs. Thamnotettix The adults of Thamnotettix clitellarius are of medium size. They are found on native hawthorns in July and August. 5 millimeters long. with the wings striped red and white. Euscelis The adults of Euscelis curtisii are small. is brown or grayish with oblique white marks.. and are brownish or grayish mottled. Idiocerus The adults of Idiocerus lachrymalis are 8 millimeters long.. bellula does little injury.. with many narrow yellow and black stripes. They are yellow. with a pointed head. They are found on native hawthorns from July 1 to July 15. but were not common.

and are brown or blackish with an elongate yellow spot on the base of the inner margin of the wing. Eutettia The adults of Eutettix seminudus are 4% millimeters long. and the adult emerged on August 15. Idiocerus The adults of Idiocerus suturalis are 5% millimeters long. WELLHOUSE hawthorns. The nymphs may be found on the under side of the leaves in late June and July. They hibernate among the fallen leaves under the trees.. August. Idiocerus A single adult of Idiocerus pallidus was taken on June 23. They are found on native Crataegus in June and July. and was similar in size and shape to I. They are 3 millimeters long. and the central part of the body and of the wings is greenish yellow. on Crataegus punctata. During warm days in winter they hop about over the leaves. Some individuals have pale pink stripes. and are slender with a pointed head. The species is rarely found. They are rather common on Crataegus punctata and C. and others reddish brown. whitish leaf hoppers known as Empoa querci are very abundant on both native and imported hawthorns. The adults likewise occur on the under side of the foliage in June. and white with a light brown band across the middle of the wings. The head. vanduzei Gill. 1919. They are common on the leaves of native hawthorns during June and July. the thorax. and the apical part of the wings are brown. fitchi but was almost white. - suturalis Fb. and are pallid except for the black inner margin of the wings. .. but are rare. They became adult in three weeks. rather stout. and late September or early October. and again in September. tomentosa foliage from mid-July to September. One nymph was taken on Crataegus punctata foliage. Idiocerus The adults of Idiocerus provancheri are 5' millimeters long. and hundreds of them were present under Crataegus punctata trees in March. and are pale yellowish white in color. pallidus Fb. provancheri VanD.. Eupteryx The adults of Eupteryx vanduzei are 23 millimeters long.. Nymphs in the rearing cages hatched from eggs in Crataegus punctata twigs just as the buds were expanding in April. Adults are found feeding on the trees in June and October. querci Fitch. They hibernate among the fallen leaves and become active on warm winter days.1062 WALTER H. seminudus Say. It was 6 millimeters long. Empoa The small.

. Membracidae crataegi Fitch. but several nymphs • * - answering the description of this species * * * as given by Hodgkiss (1910) hatched on April 20 and lived through three in stars on Crataegus punctata foliage. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1063 vulgaris Fb. 108... . and during July and " August the species may become so . They are rarely found on the branches of Crataegus punctata and C. Ceresa The adults of Ceresa taurina are 8 millimeters long. MacRosipHUM GRATAEct . . abundant as to seriously injure the . are pale green. They are abundant on native hawthorns during the last half of June. bluish gray. tomentosa during June. . . Glossonotus (Hawthorn tree hopper) The adults of Glossonotus crataegi are fairly common on the branches of native hawthorns during July and early August. .. thorns at Ithaca. Fig. Aphididae corrugatans Sir. . . Macrosiphum The apterous females of Macrosi phum crataegi may be found from late May until October on the native haw. They are found occasionally on the branches of Crataegus punctata and C. They live on the under side of the leaves and curl the leaf margins downward... . . . and have the prothorax prolonged into a horn on each side of the head. and are without a hump. Ophiderma The adults of Ophiderma flavicephala are 8 millimeters long. . taurina Fitch.. Lamenia - The adults of Lamenia vulgaris are 4 millimeters long. crataegi Monell. Pemphigus (Woolly thorn aphis) A few colonies of the flocculent greenish aphids of the species Pem phigus corrugatans were found in early June on Crataegus punctata. . . . neofluvialis in late July and August. are brown with a yellowish white stripe on each side and across the rear end of the prothorax. . No nymphs were reared to the adult stage on Crataegus. and rather stout. flavicephala Goding.

the Crataegus coccinea trees at Ithaca began to show the terminal rosettes of curled leaves caused by Aphis crataegifoliae. . The black winter eggs are placed on the twigs and the smaller branches. 109. They are rather large. causes the leaves to curl downward. yellowish green aphids. 108). The rosettes turned red. - crataegifoliae Fitch. During the summer of 1919 the writer saw a small Crataegus prui nosa tree killed and a very large C. as the colony increases. lanigera Hausm. . The writer has not found the roots of Crataegus FIG. punctata tree almost entirely defo liated due to the sucking of sap by myriads of these aphids. after the leaves are well opened. It is after this brood appears that the species becomes so injurious. 1918. WELLHOUSE trees. Aphis In early May. they be come very conspicuous and cover entire branches by late summer (fig. The young aphids move to the lower surface of the leaves. ERIOSOMA LANIGERA. 109). In a favor able season such as the summer of 1918.. In late June an alate brood appears and migrates to near-by branches or trees to start new colonies. The entire life history is passed on Crataegus trees. ON HAWTHORN infested. No aphids of this species were observed the next year. with long cornicles. Erio soma (Woolly aphis) The woolly aphids first become noticeable in early June as small white spots on the tender twigs of Crataegus. and the aphids within them also were red. The infested . and their feeding. branches remained de formed and somewhat stunted throughout the season. and their most easily recognizable character is the presence of four dark green spots arranged in a rectangle on the dorsal side of the abdomen (fig. They begin to hatch in May.1064 WALTER H. although the aphids departed from the trees about May 20 to seek leguminous hosts.

whitish scale known as Chionaspis furfura is very common and noticeable on the bark of all Crataegus species which the writer has observed. white. | . perniciosus Comst. flat scales are sometimes very plentiful on the leaves in late summer. Lecanium (European fruit lecanium) The species Lecanium corni is often very abundant on the lower side of branches of native hawthorns. elongate. vitis Linn. this species seems to be unimportant as a pest of Crataegus. The winter eggs are laid on hawthorn twigs and buds. doing some damage to the young leaves and buds. Gen erally. The small. furfura Fitch. rough-barked trees. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1065 pomi De Geer. Pulvinaria (Cottony scale) The species Pulvinaria vitis is occasionally found on the twigs and branches of native hawthorns. prunifoliae Fitch. Chionaspis (Scurfy scale) The flat. Lepidosaphes (Oyster-shell scale) The oyster-shell scale is common on the bark of native and European hawthorns. but is not very abundant. The colonies increase during April and early May. however. but fair weather checks them again. Coccidae corni Bouché. and a few badly infested branches have been found. male scales are often very abundant on the leaves and bark of Crataegus punctata. Aspidiotus (San José scale) Although the San José scale is fairly common on all species at Ithaca. and occasionally a branch is found to be almost entirely covered with these scales. Whenever the weather becomes unfavorable for their enemies they increase rapidly and infest entire trees or hedges. Aphis (Green apple aphis) During June and July the succulent sprouts of European and native hawthorns are badly infested by green apple aphids. Rhopalosiphum (Apple bud aphis) The dark green stem mothers of the species Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae begin to appear on the buds of native hawthorns as soon as the bud scales have separated enough to show the green leaves within.. but before June they migrate from the trees to grasses and are not often found on the trees between early June and late autumn.. ulmi Linn. The injury caused by these scales is not noticeable. It is more commonly found on the smooth bark of young trees than on old. Lower or inner branches that receive a scanty supply of light appear to be killed by them.. The young. it does not seem to increase rapidly enough to become injurious.

The species is not common. Euthrips Nymphs and adults of Euthrips tritici are very common in flowers and flower buds of native hawthorns in April and May. Apeteticus modestus Dallas. Agriotes The beetles of Agriotes pubescens were eating the leaves of Crataegus punctata on May 23. while neighboring trees had none. Many flower buds fail to open.. On May 31. . WELLHOUSE THYSANOPTERA Thrypidae tritici Fitch.. There were commonly two or three to a leaf.. feeding on the upper surface and cutting small holes through the leaf. Limonius The beetles of the species Limonius dubitans occasionally are found eating leaves of native hawthorns in late May and early June. which were feeding on its body. 1919. They were exceedingly abundant in the Cornell University arboretum in 1918. and was attacked by an adult pentatomid. They are from 4 to 5 millimeters long. which died while being carried to the laboratory. six being seen on one tree on May 31. COLEOPTERA Elateridae dubitans Lec. and inside of them are found from one to a dozen or more of these thrips. Buprestidae aerosus Melsh. one of these click beetles was found on a Crataegus pruinosa leaf where it had been feeding. were eating the leaves of Crataegus punctata on June 6 and June 8. and very few hawthorns there bore fruit that year. and are brown and gold in color. As many as fifty of the beetles were found on one tree. The beetles of Melanotus sp. pubescens Melsh. Brachys The beetles of Brachys aerosus were found feeding on Crataegus punctata leaves in warm sunlight from May 30 to June 20. . The latter had its beak inserted into the beetle. Melanotus sp. Scarabaeidae elongata Fabr. The species is not common. Dichelonycha The beetles of Dichelonycha elongata were found feeding on Crataegus punctata foliage. A seventh beetle was killed by three adult pentatomids of the species Apeteticus modestus.. 1066 WALTER H.

Dibolia - The green flea beetles of the species Dibolia borealis are 23 millimeters long. were found in August and early September eating holes in leaves of native hawthorns. cucumeris Harris. . They were found feeding on the leaves of Crataegus punctata from late June to early August. of the species Epitrix cucumeris. 1919). marginalis Ill. Xanthonia The stout brownish or black beetles of the species Xanthonia villosula are 4 millimeters long. were found feeding on Crataegus punctata foliage in June. where many of them die from the attack of a white fungous growth before spring. They hibernate beneath bark scales on the trunk and the branches. but are most abundant in late May and in June. The species is not common.. Epitrix *. of the species Systena marginalis.. Systema Yellowish brown. July. villosula Melsh. helxines Linn. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1067 testacea Kirby.. ". Haltica . on the following page. They feed on the foliage of native hawthorns and are frequently so numerous as to cause considerable injury. They cut irregular patches from the edge of the leaf. Feeding punctures are shown in figure 110. Tiny shining bluish beetles less than 2 millimeters long. - The metallic violet or green flea beetles of the species Haltica carinata are 4 millimeters long. They are not common. * carinata Germ. and when warmed in the hand in February they very soon become active. The species is not common. and August. Crepidodera The shining greenish flea beetles of the species Crepidodera helxines are 3 millimeters long. The beetles hibernate under bark scales on the trunk and the larger branches.. slender flea beetles 4 millimeters long. Chrysomelidae borealis Shev. June. They feed on native hawthorn foliage in May. as soon as it is expanded. They are found feeding in May. They feed on foliage of native hawthorns in June.. Dichelonycha The beetles of Dichelonycha testacea were found on Crataegus tomentosa foliage on May 29 and July 1. Occasionally they are so abundant as to completely riddle the foliage of a tree with the holes they cut in feeding (Wellhouse. . The species is fairly common.

The early months of 1919 were much warmer than those of 1918 at Ithaca.1068 WALTER H. round. a member of a very destructive genus of blossom weevils. 110. In June. stony seeds. and in late May and June. grandis. 1918. WELLHOUSE Curculionidae crataegi Walsh. nebulosus is to be found in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (Leconte. feeding on the pulp surrounding the large. the writer found ninety-six larvae in the soil beneath one Crataegus punctata tree. 1876). Some of them pupated in June and others in July. 1909: 104-110). A. exit hole. Anthonomus (Hawthorn blossom weevil) One of the most interesting and injurious of the insects found on the hawthorns is Anthonomus nebulosus. FEEDING FUNCTUREs of xANTHoNIA villosula about one-half of the en IN LEAVES OF CRATAEGUS PUNCTATA tire pulp of the fruit before emerging in the autumn. Its mode of life resembles in a general way that of the Mexican cotton boll weevil. The original description of A. pomorum (Theobald. A. 1918. The larvae develop within the haws. A larva commonly eats Fig.. and a more com plete description is given by Dietz (1891). and is almost identical with that of the European apple-blossom weevil. - nebulosus Lec. Conotra chelus (Quince cur culio) The square-shouldered brown beetles of Cono trachel us crataegi were found puncturing the fruit of Crataegus for feeding and oviposition in July and August. when it leaves the fruit by a large. It then burrows down two or three inches in the soil and spends the winter as a larva curled in a smooth-walled earthen cell. In the present account it is . They are very common on all the native hawthorns. 1919. and this probably is the cause of the great variation in the time of their appearance.

and C. Arkansas.75 to 4. During cool weather the beetles remain inactive. C. which are showing green. feeding ravenously on the buds. one large and the other small (Plate LXXIV. from 3. curved beak. but when placed on distasteful food they fly away. brainerdi. . oxyacantha. is 0. probably because there is not space enough for the full development of the larva within the bud. and Louisiana. Indiana. * The species has been found in New York. A few observations on the relation of temperature to their activities were made. The beetles continue to feed on the buds during suitable weather until the clusters have separated enough for oviposition in the blossoms. The beetles come out of hibernation and appear on the branches of the hosts about mid-April. Missouri. As soon as all the food within reach of the entrance hole is eaten. At that time the infested blossoms are brown and remain closed. It is not uncommon to see a beetle with feet braced and beak inserted up to the eyes in a bud while it hurriedly eats the tender leaves within.25 millimeters long. attempting to oviposit in every bud. New Jersey. and when it is raised to 78° the beetles rush about like mad. such as Crataegus punctata. They continue their activities on cloudy or rainy days and at night if the temperature is sufficiently high. no record can be found of its occurrence in Europe or elsewhere outside of this country. slender. with a long. The presence of the beetles may be detected by these dark round holes in the buds before the egg-laying period arrives. and therefore it seems probable that it is present wherever its hosts are found east of the Rocky Mountains. The smaller-flowered species. but they may sometimes be seen on the trees even after the beetles have emerged in June. As the young fruit begins to set. On badly infested trees fully fifty per cent of the blossoms may be in this condition and the trees present a scorched appearance. are not selected by the beetles for oviposition. Its hosts include a number of the larger-flowered species of hawthorns.3 millimeter in diameter. Although Dietz considers this species to be more charac teristic of the European fauna than of our own. Michigan. such as C. and these indicate that the beetles remain inactive while the temperature is below 50° F. generally with a whitish. page 1070). the beetle seeks another bud on the twig and repeats the process. pruinosa. nebulosus is a brown or grayish oval beetle. generally in the axils of the twigs with their heads down. V-shaped mark on the fore part of the elytra. C. The optimum temperature is from 60° to 70°. mollis. the infested blossoms com monly fall to the ground. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1069 sufficient to say that A. The injury caused by the hawthorn blossom weevil is most apparent while the trees are in full bloom. and turns dark as soon as the beak is withdrawn. The puncture in the bud is round. and the front femur having two teeth oh its apical part. Under most conditions they seem reluctant to fly.

4. Egg in blossom bud. and one normal blossom. Feeding punctures of beetles in hawthorn fruit.MEMOIR 56 PLATE LXXIV | ANTHONOMUS NEBULOSUS 1. Flower with petals removed to show pupa in its natural position 1070 . Three flower buds containing larvae. Flower with petals removed to show full-grown larva in its natural position. Adult beetle. 3. 6. Female ovipositing in blossom bud. 7. 5. 2.

At about this time it molts and changes to a white. cloudy weather. consumes all the internal parts of the flower but leaves intact the wall of the receptacle and the closed petals which form the roof of its house. and moves to another bud to repeat the process. and delicate. the beetle makes a hole in the top or the side of its house with its beak. and the length of this period probably influences the amount of injury to a considerable extent. The thorns of the current season's growth seem to be a very attractive food. the female makes a hole in the side of the calyx with her beak. The round hole at the base of a thorn does not heal during the season's growth. - After selecting a suitable blossom bud. If it is prolonged by cool. and emerges. After pupating during a week or a little longer. Then. she thrusts the egg into the hole with her ovipositor. After about a week the young. and do not shrink away as they turn brown. unsculp tured. drying and collapsing when exposed to the air for one hour. free pupa 6 millimeters long. 0. which soon hardens and seals the opening completely. and the presence of such holes will indicate at any time of the year the presence of the blossom weevils. After feeding for a couple of weeks the larva is dirty white. The corium is smooth. The act of oviposition requires about ten minutes when the temperature is 68° or 70°. as it grows. A hole is drilled near the base of the thorn. then eggs may be placed in more of the blossoms before they open.6 millimeter long. and lies in a curved position. It begins to feed a few minutes after emergence. turning around. The egg is pearly white. 0. and several smaller spines farther back on the head. with a dark caudal spine. It feeds on the anthers. and. two dark promi nent spines on the apex of the head. The petals become stiff as if they were starched. white. is from 6 to 8 millimeters long. is still legless. A clear liquid fills the hole where the egg is thrust in. choosing for its food the first young thorn or fruit in its pathway as it wanders along the branch. legless larva is found within the bud. curved. The holes become brown almost immediately. The writer has never found . but it requires an hour at 54°. It is of almost the same size and color as the anthers and is difficult to distinguish from them. In central New York the oviposition period is about May 15. prying and straining to enlarge the cavity within the thorn. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1071 The period between the opening of the blossom clusters and the opening of the blossoms themselves is the time of oviposition. generally the same size at both ends but when tucked in tightly between the anthers it may be narrower at one end to conform to the space it fills.36 millimeter wide. has a small brown head. elliptical. The beetles attack the fruit also and make several round holes in a single fruit before seeking another. and the beetle spends hours with its beak inserted in the hole completely up to its eyes.

- A number of natural enemies of the blossom weevil have been observed. from the larva of the weevil. and from these fruits five adults of this species emerged on July 15 and July 18. and then remain quiescent among fallen leaves on the ground until the next spring. LEPIDOPTERA Papilionidae turnus Linn. quadrigibbus Say. the adult parasites emerging on June 16 and 17. D. and the remainder of the year is passed in the adult stage. pick open the brown blossoms to eat the larvae and the pupae. The time of their development in different latitudes is dependent on the opening of the hawthorn blossoms in those latitudes. Soon after oviposition the beetles die. Fruits of Crataegus punctata were put into rearing cages on June 25. but the writer has found none feeding on apples in the field. they disappear from the trees. and pupa) are completed within the closed blossom in from twenty-seven to thirty-five days. WELLHOUSE the beetles eating leaves or tender twigs. when they feed for about a month on the buds before ovipositing. but they sometimes feed on the succulent globular leaf galls of cecidomyiid larvae. larva. Pierce. Papilio (Tiger swallowtail) The green larvae of Papilio turnus.1072 WALTER H. Those kept in breeding cages remained hidden in fallen curled leaves and hollow twigs on the ground all summer and winter without feeding until the next spring. dried leaves on the ground beneath their host trees. W. especially sparrows. Tachypterus (Apple curculio) The four-humped brownish beetles of the species Tachypterus quadri gibbus were found occasionally feeding on the fruit of native hawthorns in June.. The adults feed on thorns and fruit for two or three weeks after emerging from the blossoms. as warm July weather comes. The species is not very common. says the beetles emerge in late March and early April in Lou isiana. A search for their hiding places in the field revealed a score of the beetles inclosed in curled. Habrocytus piercei Cwfa. After feeding for a week or ten days the beetles may be found in copula tion on the branches. . and a week or so later. They will puncture and feed on young apples in the cages when fresh haws are not to be had. were found feeding on the foliage of native hawthorns from June 20 to August 2.. In New York the eggs are laid about mid-May and the beetles emerge from the blossoms in June. The life cycle may be summarized as follows: The immature stages (egg. with their peculiar eye spots. Various birds. Pierce (1912:77) found the weevils to be para sitized by Catolaccus hunteri and Sigalphus sp. The writer has bred another chalcid. in a letter to the writer.

They were feeding on the foliage of Crataegus punctata from August 15 to September. with an abundant covering of yellowish white hairs and a few long pencils of black hairs. - luteicoma G. An egg cluster which was probably of this species hatched on June 19. The Species is not common. punctata leaves for a few days and then died. Acronycta The larvae of Acronycta luteicoma are black. Hyphantria (Fall webworm) A single colony of larvae of Hyphantria textor was feeding on Crataegus pruinosa on July 31. Acronycta The larvae of Acronycta americana are green.. each large and creamy white with a dark blue dot on the distal end. Arctiidae caryae Harris. . and are always covered with a mass of dark.. They are very characteristic and conspicuous. caryae and are found occasionally on the foliage with them. tesselaris A. then green. The species is not common. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1073 Saturniidae to Fabr. with tufts of white hairs on segments 3 to 6 and tufts of black hairs on the other segments. A cluster of eggs may consist of a dozen or more. and September. They are at first dark. They were found feeding on the leaves of native hawthorns in late June and July. dactylina Grote. and R. They were found feeding on Crataegus punctata leaves from June 23 to July 22. but are not so COInnon. The species is not common. 1918. stinging spines. Noctuidae americana Harris. textor Harris. August. Halisidota (Hickory tussock moth) - The black-and-white-tufted caterpillars of the species Halisidota caryae are fairly common on native hawthorns during August. Acronycta The larvae of Acronycta dactylina are entirely covered with yellowish white hairs and have three long pencils of black hairs. The larvae feed in colonies on the foliage during July.. and S. Halisidota f The caterpillars of Halisidota tesselaris are similar to those of H. and the young larvae fed on C. Automeris The eggs of Automeris io are not uncommon on the under side of haw thorn leaves in late June and in July.

has a dorsal line of green or brown with faint yellow and red lines. The species is not very common. and S. Acronycta The larva of Acronycta occidentalis is hairy... It feeds on the leaves of Crataegus punctata from June 29 to July 22. with a dark head and dorsal stripes. There are few hairs on the body. The remainder of the body is at first whitish but in later stages is reddish. The moth emerged on July 23. WELLHOUSE occidentalis G. but they are not generally injurious as is Datana ministra. It was feeding on Crataegus punctata leaves from June 9 to July 1. and early September. Schizura (Red-humped apple caterpillar) The brownish. the latter had forty-six infested trees while the former had only three. Larvae of this species were feeding on Crataegus punctata foliage from August 13 to September. One larva constructed a silken cocoon among dead leaves on the ground on June 2 and the moth emerged on July 18. red-humped larvae of Schizura concinna feed on leaves of native hawthorns during July. and is sparsely hairy. has a hump on segment 12. . and R. manteo Doub. August. On July 27. Amphipyra The larva of Amphipyra pyramidoides is green. Acronycta The larva of Acronycta superans is green. 1918. with a black dorsal line widened into a spot on several abdominal segments and with the last segment angularly elevated. The species is not common... The species is not common. Only one larva was found. Occa sionally they defoliate several branches of a tree. and is found feeding on native hawthorn leaves in May. Heterocampa The larva of Heterocampa manteo is bright green marked with red. superans Guen. a count was made of the infested trees in several thickets where seedling apples and hawthorns were growing together.. when it wandered away to find a suitable place for spinning its cocoon. Although the hawthorns were much more numerous than the apples. The species is not common. with a white dorsal and two yellow lateral stripes. They seem to prefer apple to hawthorn. radcliffei Harv.. and pupated in a silken cocoon among leaves and decayed wood on the ground.1074 WALTER H. One larva taken from a Crataegus punctata tree on August 15 continued to feed in the cage until September 2. pyramidoides Guen. It was found feeding on the foliage of native hawthorns in late June and in July. Acronycta The larva of Acronycta radcliffei is greenish or black. Notodontidae concinna A.

gray-haired caterpillars feeding on a branch in July and August. They become full-grown and enter the soil in September. Epicnaptera The large larva of Epicnaptera americana is gray with white spots and two red bands above. and 8 on pear. americana Fabr. it was noticed that the colonies of larvae were commoner on hawthorn than on the other trees. Very few trees have escaped without at least one colony of these yellow-necked. however. THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1075 ministra Dru. only the old egg masses of Malacosoma americana were found on the twigs of hawthorns about Ithaca. 15 on apple. The species is not common. with its bright red head. The light brown moths appeared and were found ovipositing during June and July. Many trees have had an entire branch stripped bare of leaves. and S. In one field con taining 50 hawthorn.. and the hairy cocoons are common on the branches in winter. The clusters of white eggs. The larvae of a colony begin to feed at the tip of a branch and migrate toward its base as they grow. leaving the bare branch behind them. Several observations were made to determine whether the larvae pre fer hawthorn to apple. It feeds on the foliage during June and July. black-bodied.. is a common sight on both native and European hawthorns. wild cherry. and only one colony on apple. As they become larger they scatter to adjacent branches and feed singly or by twos and threes. each cluster containing from 25 to 100. 79 colonies of larvae were counted. Hemerocampa (White-marked tussock caterpillar) The larva of Hemerocampa leucostigma. 39 apple. were deposited on the lower side of the leaves and were a common sight in July. Lasiocampidae americana Harris. apple. Only two colonies of larvae were seen on the favorite host. its four white tussocks. and its three long. When confined in cages they eat one as readily as the other. . and orange with a row of lateral diamond-shaped black spots below. Of these colonies 56 were on hawthorn. Malacosoma (Apple tent caterpillar) During the years 1917 to 1920. Datana (Yellow-necked apple caterpillar) One of the most destructive species to both native and European haw thorns during the past few years has been Datana ministra.. and 17 pear trees. its red tubercles on segments 6 and 7 of the abdomen. It feeds at night on Crataegus punctata foliage in July and August. Lymantriidae leucostigma A. and occasionally a whole tree has been defoliated. black pencils of hairs. In the natural uncultivated areas where hawthorn. and pear grow wild.

. Alsophila (Fall cankerworm) The small greenish or brownish larvae of Alsophila pometeria are fairly common on native hawthorns in May. The brownish larvae. titea Cram. Paleacrita (Spring cankerworm) The larvae of Paleacrita vernata are common on foliage of native and European hawthorns in May and early June. WELLHoUSE Geometridae cognataria Guen. Ennomos A moth of Ennomos magnarius emerged from a brown silken cocoon on a twig of Crataegus pruinosa on September 30. It has two pairs of prolegs. A few of the brown and red larvae were * found feeding on the foliage of native hawthorns in May. Lycia The larva of Lycia cognataria is green and is 4} centimeters long. They pupated during June in silken cocoons covered with frass within the burrows. and it bears a prominent red tubercle on the next to the last segment. punctata twig on November 12.. Sesiidae (Aegeriidae) scitula Harris. 5 centimeters long. It is not a common species.. On its head are blunt horns. magnarius Guen. vernata Peck. Ennomos The white moths of Ennomos subsignarius emerged on July 6 and July 18 from pale yellowish pupae which were found tied with silk between the leaves of Crataegus punctata. WALTER H. pometeria Peck. 1076 . In emerg . Erranis (Lime-tree spanworm) The yellow-and-black-striped larvae of Erranis tiliaria are common on native hawthorn foliage in May and June. tiliaria Harris. pruinosa foliage in July. were found occasionally in May and June. It feeds on Crataegus punctata and C. The sapwood was only slightly indented by their burrows around it. Sesia - A single Crataegus punctata tree about eight years old and 5 feet high was killed by the larvae of Sesia scitula. subsignarius Hüb. and the moths emerged from July 18 to July 24. The trunk was entirely girdled by four larvae which tunneled beneath the bark two inches above the soil. Phigalia Two larvae of Phigalia titea were found feeding on Crataegus punctata leaves on June 2 and June 5. Eggs were found on a C.

10I1. The moth (fig. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUs CRATAEGUs 1077 ing. are easily seen on almost any hawthorn tree during the winter. The species is not very COInn. Ancylis The greenish larvae of Ancylis nubeculana were found in late summer in rolled leaves of Crataegus punctata. - . Pyralidae indigenella Zell. They pupate within the same cases attached to twigs in June. They tie together a cluster of leaves and feed-on a leaf within the cluster. They pupated in May and the moths emerged from June 8 to June 18.. and at Ithaca the moths emerge in late June. attached firmly to the twigs and the branches and often with partly eaten leaves attached.. clear-winged moth has a broad and a narrow band of yellow across the abdomen. A few moths taken on August 14 and 15 seem to indicate a second brood. The larvae carry the cases with them and feed on the leaves in April and May. The black. Mineola (Leaf crumpler) The cornucopia-like winter cases of Mineola indigenella. Tortricidae argyrospila Walk. OLETHREUTEs CHIONos. They are fairly common on the hawthorns and apple trees about Ithaca during May. Each larva folds a single leaf at a time. and then sheds the pupal skin while protruding about two-thirds of its length beyond the cocoon. the moth pushes through one end of the cocoon. chionosema Zell. FIG. - 16 millimeters. and has a wing expanse of from 15 to P. with their black heads and shields. Olethreutes The pale green larvae of Olethreutes chionosema fold the leaves of native hawthorns and feed on the upper surface of the leaves within the fold. are fairly abundant on the foliage of native hawthorns during May and are found occasionally in June. 111) is brownish. Archips (Fruit-tree leaf roller) The greenish larvae of Archips argyrospila.. 111. The moths fly during June after pupating within the folded leaf. with a large white spot on the costal edge of the fore wing.. Moths emerged from the larval nests in late June and early July.EMA nubeculana Clem. a leaf crumpler.

Eulia The yellowish larvae of Eulia quadrifasciana tie together with silk the leaves of terminal clusters on Crataegus punctata in May. to escape. 112). through which the frass is cast out of the burrow. Yponomeutidae oreasella Clem. quadrifasciana Fern. The moth is yellow and orange. : Moths of the first generation were taken in the field from August 15 to August 30. Infested twigs wilt soon after the larva has left the burrow. Tmetocera (Bud moth) The brownish larvae of Tmetocera ocellana are commonly found in the partly opened leaf buds in April and May.1078 WALTER H. When full grown the larva ties a cluster of leaves together to pupate within. and a second brood emerged from August 1 to August 15. on both native and European hawthorns. Argyresthia The small. The moths emerge from the larval nests in June and early July. Larvae of this species were found in many native hawthorn twigs in May. giving the tree a fire-blighted appearance (fig. They pupate within the larval nests and the moths emerge in early June. with its brown head and shield. Moths emerged from these nests from May 26 to June 30. They eat most of the pulp from one side of the fruit. In the laboratory they emerged in March. Others spin silken hibernacula under the bark of the trunk very similar to those of the codling moth larvae but smaller. The green striped larva. WELLHOUSE ocellana Fabr. green. The species is not very common. rosaceana Harris.. prunivora Walsh. Laspeyresia (Lesser apple worm) The small white caterpillars of Laspeyresia prunivora are very common in the fruit of many native hawthorns in late summer. with darker oblique bands on the fore wings. When disturbed the larva runs quickly out of either the hole in the twig or the hole in the bud. The larvae of the second generation sometimes remain in the fruit all winter. black-headed larva of Argyresthia oreasella bores through a terminal leaf bud down into the twig and makes a hole in the side of the twig about $ inch from the tip. is generally found on a single leaf under a slight web. They pupate within the hibernacula in the spring and the moths emerge in May and June.. living within a mixture of silk and pellets of frass. and then become brown and dry. They leave the . causing the skin to sink in there. Cacoecia (Oblique-banded leaf roller) Clusters of leaves tied together by the larvae of Cacoecia rosaceana are fairly common on all native hawthorns in May and July. feeding on one side of the leaf only.

The moth is slender. fletcherella. during the years 1918 and 1919. Coleophora (Pistol case-bearer) The curved cases of the larvae of Coleophora malivorella are fairly common on hawthorns but not so abundant as those of C. and their blotch mines in the leaves are not uncommon. The moths emerge in late May. when the trees are leafless.FIG. white. 112. The moths emerged from June 15 to June 30. Lyonetiidae pomifoliella Clem. malivorella Riley. . THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1079 twigs when full-grown. and spin a parchment-like white cocoon surrounded by an open layer of lacework attached to the surface of a leaf. A few moths taken in the field on August 16 seem to indicate a second brood. They BY LARVA OF ARGY RESTHIA OREASELLA have been specially abundant and injurious on trees and hedges of Crataegus oxyacantha.. Elachistidae fletcherella Fern.. TERMINAL OF HAWTHORN TWIG DESTROYED out the growing season. winter shields of Coptodisca splendoriferella are rather commonly found attached to the bark and swinging in the wind on the branches of native hawthorns. . . yellowish brown. Its wing ex panse is about 13 millimeters.. Coptodisca (Resplendent shield-bearer) The small. Bucculatrix (Ribbed-cocoon-maker of apple) The elongate. cigar-shaped cases of the larvae of Coleo phora fletcherella are common on all the hawthorns through. It has a peculiar habit of standing on its head when at rest on the leaves or the bark. splendoriferella Clem. ribbed cocoons of Bucculatrix pomifoliella are common on native hawthorns and are rather noticeable in winter. The moths emerged from the cases in late June and July. the European hawthorn. and is white with ob lique gold bands on the fore wings while the hind wings are dark gray. Coleophora (Cigar case-bearer) The brown.

and many patches of black setae arranged as shown in figure 113.. and C. Several galls are commonly found in a group on the same or adjoining leaves. LARVA of BLASTODACNA CURVILINEELLA of a fruit is mined out. The moths emerge in May and June. 114 and 115). red spots near the spiracles. Felt from larvae in the galls. feeds in the fruit of hawthorns and also bores into young apple shoots (page 1116). with a brown head and thoracic legs. Often one whole side FIG. macracantha. They become full-grown in September and October. WELLHOUSE Cosmopterygidae curvilineella Chamb. Lestodiplosis (Hawthorn fringed-cup gall) Adults of both Rhizomyia absobrina and Lestodiplosis crataegifolia have been reared by Dr. and are covered externally with round-tipped spines 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter and about the same in height (figs. C. In color it is yellowish white. DIPTERA Cecidomyiidae (Itonididae) absobrina Felt. with two or three indistinct dusky longitudinal short streaks on the wings. neo fluvialis. semi-globular swelling on the lower side. macracantha. and therefore it probably occurs throughout the Eastern States. The moth has been reported by Chambers from Kentucky (1872) and from Canada (1875). They occur on the larger veins and petioles of leaves and on the ends of young twigs of Crataegus pruinosa and C. A closely related European species. leaving only the skin to cover it. . The hibernation cavity is lined with silk. and the larvae have been found in a number of other native hawthorns. Those on the leaves are on the upper side. They are gray. hellerella Dup.. and in the early spring pupation takes place there. B. The larva is from 9 to 10 millimeters long. more or less blackish among the setae on the dorsum of each segment but especially noticeable on the prothorax and the anal segment. It feeds on the pulp of the fruit and leaves many brown pellets of excrement in the bur row behind it. Rhizomyia crataegifolia Felt. Blastodacna (Hawthorn fruit miner) The larvae of Blastodacna curvilineella are very commonly found tunneling in the fruit of native hawthorns in late summer. 113. The moths have been bred from larvae in Crataegus pruinosa. and have a wing expanse of 1 centimeter. when they leave the fruit and burrow into the ends of dead twigs or other decaying wood to hibernate. The galls are green and cup-shaped. 1080 WALTER H. but extend through the leaves to form a smooth.

HAwTHORN FRINGED-CUP GALLs FIG. CRoss SECTION THROUGH A HAwTHoRN FRINGED-CUP GALL .THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1081 FIG. 115. 114.

crataegifolia Felt. CRoss SECTION THROUGH A THORN cocks punctata. were found. coccinea. venae Felt. are found on either the upper or the lower surface of leaves of Crataegus punctata. 116 and 117) produced by Hormomyia crataegifolia are found on the upper or the lower side of leaves of Crataegus pru tnosa. The gall opens by COMB GALL . It always includes one of the larger veins. Cecidomyia sp. 1840 Felt) (Thorn spindle gall) Red or green. when several may be found on one leaf and all the leaves in a cluster are deformed. 3. green galls (figs. produced by Cecidomyia sp. and C. Lobopteromyia (Thorn FIG. C. 118 and 119) from 5 to 8 millimeters long. and is open to the outside by a long. thick-walled. H or momyia (Thorn cockscomb gall) Green or red cockscomb-like galls (figs. The gall opens on the opposite side of the leaf by a narrow slit which extends the entire length of the gall in the direction of the vein. These galls are found in August. 120 and 121) 2 millimeters wide and from 5 to 10 millimeters long. The gall is from 8 to 12 millimeters long and 5 millimeters high. in June. and each gall includes a vein. . produced by Lobopteromyia venae. 117. They are often in groups on a leaf or a cluster of leaves. 116. THORN cockscom B GALL vein gall) Round or oval. are found on either side of the leaves of Crataegus FIG. macrosperma..5 millimeters long and with a distinct brown breast-bone. — —l White larvae. WELLHOUSE –––. one in each gall.* 1082 WALTER H. (a. The galls are fairly abundant in June. elongate spindle-shaped galls (figs. narrow slit on the opposite side of the leaf.

119. CRoss SECTION THROUGH A THORN VEIN GALL .THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1083 FIG.

CRoss SECTION THROUGH A THORN SPINDLE GALL . 121.1084 ‘WALTER H. 120. THORN sPINDLE GALLs FIG. WELLHOUSE FIG.

albicans. pruinosa. shaped and armored like a pine apple (figs. 1 millimeter long. PINEAPPLE GALLs between these two plates. and the flies emerge from the brown puparia in June and July. neofluvialis and C. 122. the upper side of Crataegus punctata leaves in July and August. vertical plates. which is composed of two flat. and slender. and C. No larvae have been found in the small fruits of C. A single yellow larva. The pineapple gall is thick and is covered with fleshy spines at the base. Pineapple gall (maker unknown) Red or green spiny galls. Trypetidae pomonella Walsh. with long. brainerdi. Rhagoletis (Apple maggot) The maggots of Rhagoletis pomonella have been reared and flies obtained from the fruits of Crataegus punctata. 123. Gen erally but one gall is found on a leaf and it is commonly on the midvein. C. narrow slit on the oppo site side of the leaf. toward the apex. slender spines. are found on. is found in each gall in July or August. The species probably lives also in the fruits of other large-fruited hawthorns. These galls occur very commonly in groups on the same leaf or on adjoining leaves. The maggots leave the fruit to enter the ground in autumn. The gall opens FIG. but becomes slender. SIDE VIEW OF PINEAPPLE GALL . oxyacantha. C. 123. leaflike. 122. C. THE INSECT FAUNA or THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1085 a long. 3 millimeters in diameter and 5 millimeters high. macrosperma. although these have been carefully watched. and 124).

. All of them died within a few days. They were feeding two or three together on a leaf. In August. 1 On June 23. were found feeding on the leaves of Crataegus punctata in late August. HYMENOPTERA Tenthredinidae cerasi Linn. began to feed gregariously on the edge of the leaf. and a row of little green larvae. were seen eating separately on the edges of Crataegus punctata leaves. black heads and many black dots scattered over the body. with large. Sawfly No. The eggs hatched on June 28. CROSS SECTION THROUGH A PINEAPPLE GALL maggots. 124. they spun brown cocoons on the ground among débris. The counts showed that from 20 to 25 per cent of the samples taken were infested by the FIG. on September 1 and 2. - Sawfly larvae. several medium-sized sawfly larvae. * Sawfly No. WELLHOUSE All of the flies reared on hawthorns are equal in size to those reared on apple. 1918. Caliroa (Pear and cherry slug) The sluglike larvae of Caliroa cerasi were in a few localities so abundant that they defoliated a few native hawthorns and injured a number of others. 3 . 1918. a leaf of Crataegus pruinosa was found with a row of fourteen eggs inserted in the margin. Sawfly No 2 On May 24. with red heads and yellow bodies marked with black lines and dots. not small like those reared on the blueberry. and fifteen larvae were taken from one tree. bright green all over. When they became about 2 centimeters long. while neighboring trees were untouched by the larvae. 1918. A tree with ten larvae of the same species . several trees on the Cornell University campus were completely defoliated.1086 WALTER H. Counts were made of the infested and the uninfested fruits from a square yard beneath each of ten trees of the three species first men tioned in the preced ing paragraph. 1918.

were found feeding on the foliage of C. in the cages. Sawfly No. and these larvae spun cocoons on the ground on September 22 and 23. 1919. They spun brown cocoons on top of the ground. with black heads and yellow bodies marked with black lines and dots. pruinosa in July and August. 4 A few larvae 2! centimeters long. 1918. - THE INSECT FAUNA OF THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1087 feeding on it was found on September 19. .

In The genus Corythucha Stal. 207-213. Soc. Psyche 10:127–134. Sta. Soc. Philosoph. U. 4: 172–173. In Revision of the genera and species of Anthonomini inhabiting North America. In The apple and pear membra cids. 44:93–94. DIETZ. Ent. In Micro-Lepidoptera. Ent.? curvilineella. nebulosus Lec. Ent. A. T. 1918. p. sp. bul. Exp. S. CHAMBERs. MORRILL. The native food-plants of the apple red-bugs. Wild thorn. 532–537. N. 1876. Dept. S. The woolly apple aphis. EPHRAIM PORTER. p. Proc. Amer. Bul. CUSHMAN. Crataegus L. New York (Geneva) Agr. N. ent. In Tineina from Canada.boll weevil. EDMUND H. Corythucha bellula new species. 1912. Canad ent. 1903. 1891. 7:210. KNUTH. PACKARD. E. In Handbook of flower pollination. Tech. 1872. GIBSON. HoDGKISS. Soc. DwighT. Canad. LECONTE. Ainsworth Davis. 1916. Notes on the immature stages of some tingitids of the genus Corythuca. A. Amer. PAUL. In Fifth report of the United States Entomological Commission on insects injurious to forest and shade trees. New York State Mus. (Reference on p. Ent. PIERCE. 18:203-204. 1915. Bur. Washington. WELLHOUSE LITERATURE CITED BAKER. (Translated by J. 1906. Rept. north of Mexico. 15:197. 2:385– 388. nebulosus. U. ALPHEUs S. A. 1–848. 1890. H. In The Rhynchophora of America. Insects affecting the wild thorn. Ceresa taurina Fitch. AUSTIN W. Memoir 8”:734–735. Agr.1088 WALTER H. C.) 1872. KALTENBACH. W. [Blastodacna curvilineella] G. J. Die Pflanzenfeinde aus der Klasse der Insekten.) 1908. 101: 1–55. Trans. The insect enemies of the cotton . 17: 100–105. H. Soc. . Trans. 100: 1-99. Amer. bicristatella. Proc. FELT. R. sp. R. n. 18:196. In Insects affecting park and woodland trees. sp. 1910. [Blastodacna curvilineella] G. W. JOHN L. A. WILLIAM G. 1875.

econ. and hothouse fruits. Journ. injuring forest trees. Xanthonia villosula Melsh. Memoir 52. FRED V. WALTER H. The app'e blossom weevil. 104–110. 1922. p. In The insect and other allied pests of orchard. was mailed on March 9. THE INSECT FAUNA of THE GENUS CRATAEGUS 1089 THEOBALD. . 1919. s WELLHOUSE. with Special Reference to Longevity. ent 12:396-397. 1909. bush. the fourth preceding number in this series of publications. Studies in Pollen. and their prevention and treatment.

. . Les zoocecides des plantes d'Europe. . . . H. . Eriophyes. . . . . . . 1915. . . . calycobius Nal. Injury – Makes yellowish or reddish blisters on leaves. H. Fam. . . Distribution . .. . Reference — Walsh. p. . . 1908. pyracantha. . Galls almost flat. 47:57. . C. . . . reddish. . .Crataegus punctata. . . . 20:106–116. causing them to curl downward and become thickened. 1:515. . . . . . . . . . Distribution — Europe. . . Pflanzenfeinde. Phyllocoptidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . . . . . Injury — Forms galls on leaves. T. 1872. . Distribution . . London. . . . . . . B. Malus. . . causing them to turn brownis'. Eriophyes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Fam. . Distribution – Europe. Crataegus. British vegetable galls. . 1913. 132. 1911. Reference — Chadwick. . . . E. .Europe.Makes galls on leaves. . . . - Distribution — Europe. J. . Fam. Erineum clandestinum Grev. . Eriophyidae Synonyms . 138. .und Nordeuropas. . . New York State Mus. . . . 6:227. .. . . p. . * The insects are grouped according to order. . Tetranychus. L. . Fam. . . Pyrus.Crataegus oxyacantha. . . Injury . Prunus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. . Bul. D. .1090 ACARINA CATALOG OF INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CRATAEGUS 3 ACARINA armatus Can. . . . . . Eriophyes (Pear leaf blister mite). . .. . . . . ent. . . . . . . pyri Pagst. . . . . . .Erineum oxyacanthae Am. . . . . crataegi Can. T. . Tetranychidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . Eriophyidae Hosts – Crataegus tomentosa. Injury — Forms galls on leaves. . . .Forms galls on edges of lobes of leaf. . . . . Distribution — North America. . . Host . . Amelanchier. Eriophyes. . . . . Eriophyes. Reference – Connold. 1902. .. . . Philadelphia. . . Proc. . . Ent. . . . . . . . A single leaf may have a hundred galls on it.. . Soc. . . Fam. Eriophyidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. British vegetable galls. . Eriophyidae Host . . . F. Cydonia. . . . . . . . Injury – Feeds on leaves. . . . . . . Injury . . References — Houard. . . . Sorbus.Europe. Connold. . . . 1908. . . . . Fam. . covered with many fine. . . . pyracanthae Link. . . . 132. capitate hairs. . goniothorax Nal. . . . . . Eriophyidae Hosts . . . . . . . . on both upper and lower surfaces. .. . . . Reference – Ross. . . .Forms curled leaf galls on upper side of leaf. . Eriophyes. . . . . . . 1902. . . . . . . E. . 124:131. Fam. . . Malus. Journ.. crus-galli. . . . . Epetrimerus. . References — Kaltenbach. C. . G. .Pyrus. . . crataegi-vermiculus Walsh. . . . . H. . . Board Agr. . p. . . Distribution — North America. p. . * Reference — Caesar. . . . pilosus Can. . . . .Crataegus oxyacantha. . Injury . . and arranged alphabetically by species within the order . . 1866. . . . . Can. . Die Pflanzengallen Mittel. Theobald. . . . . . .. . . . . North America. Injury – Deforms leaf buds and causes them to remain closed. Eriophyidae Hosts . . . . . . 213. W. . . . . . . . .

Melanoplus . . . . . pages 1052 and 1053. D. Les zoocecides des plantes d'Europe. R. . . . Gli insetti 4:98. . . . . . . . Salix. 1878. . . 1914.Parrott."* . . . . . . 227. . . irregular. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Rev. . Tetranychus (Red spider). Fam. P. References – Slingerland. .. . . .. . Australia. . 1902. Pyrus. t HEMIPTERA - aceris Sign.) ORTHOPTERA atlanis Riley.Malus. proc. . . . . ambiguus Fall. . p. . B. . . . G. M. ODONATA viridis v. 37:60. . . . . 102 and 103. . . . . . . . . Miridae Hosts . . . .. . . . . . . Bul. . Sta. Gryllidae Hosts . . . . . and Crosby. . Fam. 1901. . .) Eriophyes sp. . . . . . . (Hawthorn serpentine gall of Jarvis) . .Makes long. 388. . . . . - Reference . Reference — Jarvis. Psallus. 2: 123.Crataegus. . Econ. . . . Some times seriously injures grape. Eriophyidae Host . . Melanoplus. V. Distribution — North America. Injury . . . . . . Bien. Sta. . . . . . . . P. Distribution – Europe. . Lind. . J. . . L. . . . North America. . ACARINA – ORTHOPTERA – ODONATA – HEMIPTERA 1091 Distribution — Europe. . . Dublin Soc. . . Tetranychidae (See page 1051. . . . . 1908. . Coccidae Hosts . Injury .) femur-rubrum De Geer. . . . Rept. Slits give entrance to cankers and cause scars on branches. Fam. .. . . . Houard. . . . . . Injury-Sucks sap from tender bark of young shoots and calloused wounds. . . . . Fam. . . . . Agrionidae Hosts . Bourbonnais 15:181. . . . . . . Crataegus. . C. . 1906. . . 191 4. . . . . T.Crataegus. Ulmus. and other species. . . Soc. . . . . . . . wavy galls on upper surface of leaves. . . . . d. . .. . . 214. . 1:514. . . . Hemiptera gymnocerata Europae 1: 105. . References — Pierre. . Exp. Fam. Acridiidae (See page 1054.) bivitattus Say. . . C. Melanoplus. . References – Lindinger. . . . . 1914... . . . . . . . . . - Wilson. . . References . . . H. . . Phenacoccus. . . Distribution – Europe. .. . . . . . . . Roy.Reuter. Acridiidae (See page 1054. (Figs. . rept. . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution — Europe. Oecanthus (Snowy tree cricket). .-Fam. . . . .Crataegus oxyacantha and many other woody plants. Distribution — North America.) niveus De Geer. . Rubus. . . Exp. Malus. . . . 1912. Fam.Crataegus oxyacantha and other species. Fam. . . . Ont. . . Manual of fruit insects. B. . Quercus. H. . . Leonardi. Die Schildläuse. .Female slits bark to deposit eggs. . F. Lestes. . Ent. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 2: 142–160. . . . Cuba. .. . G. . and Fulton. . . . M. telarius Linn. . . . M. . . . . . . Carpenter. . p. . Oregon Agr. . 1915.. . . . . sci. . . . . . . Acridiidae (See page 1054. . . . New York (Geneva) Agr. . . . . . . crop pest and hort. . . F. Injury . . . Alnetis. O. . . . . . . .Oviposition punctures in twigs cause galls to form. . . . . Fam. . . . . . . . .

E. . 1890. Ann. Fam. . M. . . Prunus. . Aphididae Hosts — Malus. . E. . . . S. . 172. . . . where the bark becomes incrusted. 8:254. . . Pyrus. . . References – Quaintance. . . Agr. Injurious and beneficial insects of California. E. p. 1917. Ent. . . . agr. Tingitidae Hosts – Crataegus neofluvialis. A. S. References – Packard. 3:431. 535. . . H. . . . New York (Geneva) Agr. . . . . . . . . . . . . Tech. . Dietz. . Soc. . Journ.) . . 213. . F. . . Ent. . 1910. . . . . . . . Journ. . econ. . . . and Baker. . . Die Schildläuse. .. . . .Adult makes incisions in branches for oviposition. A. . . . . . . . Hodgkiss. Corythucha. Malus. . Incisions are slow to heal and allow entrance of borers and fungi. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:695. . Aphis (Clover aphid). . . . . U. . . - Distribution — Northeastern United States. . Fifth rept. . Alnus incana. Soc. . H. . . bul. . Fam. . . Trans. . C. O. . . . Fam. . . Sta. . ent. . Crataegus. Injury – Curls and turns purplish the terminal leaves of Crataegus shoots during June. piricola De Geer. . .. . . E. . . . . . . . 44:93. . Injury . Cicadellidae (See page 1061.. p. . . . . U. bituberculatum Targ. . . . . .. sweet pea. . * brevis Sand. Fam. . Injury – Sucks juice from foliage. Fam. Lecanium. . . . . . . . Cydonia. . . Canada. . . . . . H. . . . . Distribution –S5uthern United States. E. Fam. . . . . . . 1915. . brunnea Gibson. Exp. . 1916. . . . . . . . . Injury – Sucks sap from bark. . and other species.. . . Injury – Both young and adult bugs suck juice from leaves. . . . and other species. 1918. . . Injury – Very injurious to young twigs and branches of apple and pear in southern Europe. p. . Dept. . . Amer. North America. Fam.. Epidiaspis (European pear scale). Crataegus. . . . . 1912. . . . Crataegus. . 1919. Corythucha. . . . . . . . . Aphis (Long-beaked clover aphid). 804:15. Aphididae Hosts — Crataegus. . . Reference – Gibson. clover. sometimes killing young trees. . . . . . . clitellarius Say. .North America. Coccidae Synonyms .. Hosts — Pyrus. . . Thamnotettir. Diaspis piri Colv. . . L. A. . M. . . . . . . H. Tingitidae Host – Crataegus. Maine Agr. Distribution – United States. . . C. 1913. . . . . . . Comm. res. . . 1918. Ribes oxyacan thoides. . . . . H. . - Essig. Distribution — Europe. . . . .. . .1092 HEMIPTERA bakeri Cowen. . . . and Morrison. . Membracidae Hosts — Malus. . Malus. . . Reference — Patch. causing them to turn brown and drop off. bellula Gibson. Exp. C. References – Gibson. Patch. . . References — Sorauer. . . punctata. . . clovers. 1915. . . . Fam. . . Pyrus. . E. . . . W. . . - Distribution — South and middle Europe. . . . . . . - References — Lindinger. . . . rept. S. bubalis Fabr. 1918. 44:93. Farmers' bul. . Trans. . 12:441. pages 1057 and 1059. . . . Injury – Sucks juice from opening buds of fruit trees. . . . Sta. United States.) betulae Bär. . Ceresa (Buffalo tree hopper). . Ent. .Epidiaspis leperi Sign. L. . Bul. . . Coccidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. E. . 270:49. . Distribution . H. Wellhouse. . . (Plates LXXII and LXXIII. .. Amer. albicans. . P. . . . Distribution — North America.. . . Indiana State Ent. 17:92. . . .

. . Holländischen Blattläuse. . W. .North America. . .. . . R. . 233. Refere ce – Harrison.Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . Coccidae osts . .Fitch. . Cydonia. . M. . A. . North America. W. . C. Slingerland. . Injury . Macrosiphum. . Aphididae Synonyms . . Injury . W. . . . . . . . . . Manual of fruit insects. . no. . costalis Flor. . Farmers' bul. . . . . . . . . A. 1856. Distribution . C. . .. Membracidae Hosts – Crataegus. Agr. Fam. . . . .) communis Knight. Pemphigus (Woolly thorn aphis). . . References . . and Baker. .. Funkhouser.Malus. . . mag. . . . . . . . . Distribution – Enlgand. 1850. . . ranunculi Kalt. . . . . .. . Graphocephala.. Fam. 1917. Cornell Univ. . . . .. 174. Glossonotus (Hawthorn tree hopper). . . Journ. . Lindinger. . . . . Naturalist (London). Fam. . Malus. . . J. 261. References — Sorauer. . . . . Fam. Biology of aphids of tree and bush fruits (Kiev). . F. . p. econ. . S. 8: 142. . . 707. . 1913. . . Van Theobald. and Crosby. . . . . L. . Insect pests of fruits. Distribution . . Pyrus. . . Coccidae Synonyms .Europe. U. . 1913. . P. .Crataegus. Cydonia. . . H. crataegi Fitch.Aphis pyri Boyer. . . . . . . . . Fam.Crataegus oxyacantha. Lecanium capreae Linn. . References . . . . and blisters leaves on terminal shoots. . .Eulecanium pyri Schr. - Injury . . discolors. .. Entomologist 48:259. . . . . . .. . . Dept. p.. . Exp. Bul. . . 1912. 1915. Ranunculus. and other species. . . . . . . Lecanium. . . . . . . . . . Distribution .. . . . .. North America. Die Schildläuse. . 1909. . Quercus. . . . . Ann. . . . . . . . W. . .) corni Bouché. . 6:46. Miridae (See page 1054. HEMIPTERA 1093 coccinea Först. Lygus. . Fam. . W. Memoir 11:248. biol.North America. fruit. . . . . . nat. . .Distorts leaves into a rolled curl. . . Aphis. coryli Linn. . . . . Exp. . Aphididae Host . . A. . . Fam. W.. corrugatans Sir. . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:695. Crataegus. . . W. . Prunus. . 1913 der Goot. . A. . . . Aphididae Hosts . . . Sta. . . Quaintance. 1914. . . .Europe. Crataegus.Malus. Fam. References — Walker. . Psylla. crataegarium Walk. Psyllidae Hosts . Distribution – Europe. . . . hist.. . 175. . not commonly injurious. . .Crataegus. . L. . . . . . . . . 400. . . . . . Sorbus. . 334. .. Amelanchier. Malus. . azarolus. . M. . . A. . . . . References — Theobald. Distribution – Europe.Curls. . P. Hosts .. Fam. . . . . . Maine Agr. . . . . . . . Malus. . p. C. Injury . . . . . . and other species. . Sta. . . . . . . . .Sucks sap from bark.. Hosts . .May suck so much sap from branches as to kill them. References — Patch. E. Cicadellidae (See page 1061. . . ... but commoner injury is due to growth of sooty fungus over sticky secretion which the insects drop on foliage. . . F.. . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . and branches. F. . . . Third annual report on noxious insects of New York. D. W. Theobald. . .. . 1915. . 1917. Pyrus. . . . . . . 1914. . . F. crataegi Kalt.Dobrovliansky. 1915. . . . . . . . Agr. Distribution . . p. . . 804:19. . . crataegi Koch. . . . Lecanium (European fruit lecanium) . . . . p. . . . 216. . . .

. . 1818. coccinea. Prociphilus. List of Aphididae of Hastings District. Typhlocyba. mo. . Macrosiphum . . . legumes. . Aphididae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . crataegi Monell. Fam. . . . . 1918. . 1890. . . . Aphididae Synonym . Quercus sp. . .Chermes quercus Thoms. Reference – Quaintance. . . . 108. Injury – Sucks juice from lower side of leaves and from tender twigs. . Can.Nymphs and adults suck juice from foliage.Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . 9. . . rev. Fam. . . B.. Idiocerus. . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . L. . . Aphis. . . . . . . . . 1914. E. . .Curls and discolors leaves and sometimes injures blossoms.Aulmann. and Baker. . . . . . . . . 3:16. Host . . . Aphididae Hosts – Crataegus punctata. . Amer. C. Reference — Van Duzee. 12:203. C. . . . . . . . which turn reddish brown. .Rafinesque. . A. . .. . . . p. . . . . . . . Distribution — North America. . .. . . . . Psylla. 1912. . Fam. . . Aphis. . . . . . . .. . . Distribution — Europe. crataegi Dgl. .Crataegus coccinea. . . . . . . . . . Fam. . M. . Cicadellidae (See page 1161. .) crataegi Tullgr. Fam. . . . . . . . . . . Reference — Patch. . coccinea. Sta. . . .Curls and discolors leaves and young shoots. . 1879. .. . . 2:35. . . . crataegus-coccinea Rafin. . Malus. . . . . . . E. . . p. . . . . . Exp. . . . . Distribution — North America. . Reference — Van der Goot. . . . .Causes small red blisters to form on upper side of leaves. . . Fam. . . W. . . Fam. . . . . and crit. S. . Psyllidae Synonym . . . . . E. . . but commonly they are not numerous enough to cause much injury. . . Distribution . . . . . . . . . Injury . . . . . . 348. . . Bul. . 1876. Bul. p.Europe. . . . W. .. . Theobald.Adults and young suck juice from foliage. 233:255. . mag. G. . . . apple (?). . . . . .. . References — Buckton.) . . . P. (Fig. Fam. . . . . 1896. tomentosa. Cicadellidae Host . . . . . . . Fam. . . page 1063. turning them purplish.Crataegus punctata. 1915. . Ent. . . . . . . Holländischen Blattläuse. . . 22:110. . . . . . . . . . Injury . . . 13. . C. . . . . . . Patch. . M. . . . References . . . . Leaves curl downward and in severe infestations trees may be defoliated. . . A. . . Aphididae Hosts . . . L. . . . ent. . .Aphis crataegi Buck. References — Douglas. . Melichar. . . Exp. . . . . . . Distribution — North America. . . . oxyacantha. Agr. Psyllidarum catalogus. . curtisii Fb. . . . . . . .1094 HEMIPTERA crataegi VanD. mo. . . . . . C. . . crataegi Schr. 270:48. crataegiella Theobald. . . Injury . Injury . . .Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . . . . Maine Agr. Injury . . Monograph of British aphides. . oxyacantha.. . . . . . . J. . . . . . . .. 1913. . . . C. . . .Crataegus. . .Curls and discolors leaves of terminal shoots. . Sta. . Injury . . . mag. . . . . . . C. 1917. Maine Agr. . Distribution — North America. . . . Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. Cicadinen von Mittel-Europe. . . . . Farmers' bul. . Aphis. . . . . . . . U. . . . . G. . 450. P. . crataegifoliae Fitch. . . . . . Distribution — Europe. S. . . . Cicadellidae Hosts . . . Cydonia. . . J'eference . Euscelis. . Dept. . . . . F. . . . 804:18. . . . Distribution – Europe. Aphididae Host . p. . . .

Lindinger. . . . . . . p. . . Coccidae Synonym — Phenacoccus betheli Ckll. G. . . . U. . Sorbus. . .. Aphis. . . . .. Country gent. . Fam. p. . . . E. 213.. . . . . . . . . . . . . spinosa. 2:39. Amer. . . . . F. . . . .Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . 580. . . 1879. . . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:689. . Idiocerus. . 1912. Distribution — North America. causing them to turn brown. Soc. .Canada.Aspidiotus nerii Bouché. . Fam. . . . . . . Rept. . Fam. . . . . . . Distribution — North America. . . R. . Cydonia. . . edentula Buck. . . . . Miridae (See page 1054. . .Nymphs and adults suck juice from leaves. E. . 1917. Tingitidae Synonyms . . . . . . . . . Reference — Ferris. . C. . Malus. . . Fam. E. . . . . . . . . Saunders. . lachrymalis Fb. . Reference — Buckton. 1892. References — Fitch.. Phenacoccus. . 17:25. . . . p. . . . V. . . .. . . . . .) dumetorum Schiff. . 1872. J. United States. Fam. . . . including Crataegus azarolus. Die Schildläuse. . . Fam. . 1918. . . . 1919. .. . . . . Coccidae Synonym . . . . . H. . . . . Fam. Chionaspis (Scurfy scale) . Asia. . . . flavicephala Goding. . Cydonia. . . Hosts – Crataegus. . E. H. . 135. . . 176. . . . . . . p. . . Ent. HEMIPTERA 1095 cydoniae Fitch. . . Monograph of British aphides. . . Can. 158. L. 1879:221. . . Corythucha. Pyrus. . North Africa (on Crataegus in Algeria). . Distribution — North America. . Brittain. .Europe. Injury . . . . . . . Membracidae (See page 1063. . . . . . . Sorauer. . . Hosts .Crataegus. . . . . . . Physatocheila. . . .Crataegus. . G. . . O. . . P. . hederae Vall. p.About 25 tree species. P. . . Catalog of Hemiptera. . . . . . B. . . . ent. . . North America. Injurious and beneficial insects of California. Fam. . Amelanchier. . . . . . . . . . . . Horcias. 44:87. . . . . and Crosby. 1913. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ent. . L. . H. . . Hemiptera of British Islands. . Aphididae Host . . . Hosts . . 1861. . . . . . . .. . . . . References . . Manual of fruit insects. . . . . . .. Comstock. Fam. Injury . . Trans. . . . . . J. dearnessi King. Distribution – Europe. . . 1914. .Adults and young suck juice from foliage. . . Egypt. W. . . . . . . 1879. . . . Fam. . Prunus padus. . H. . . . . Cicadellidae (See page 1061. . . . crataegi O. . dislocatus Say. . - References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . C. . . . . .Many woody and herbaceous plants. . Ophiderma. . . . .. . .. . . . . 213. P. G. Distribution – Europe. . . . . Not commonly injurious. Injury . Idiocerus (Black apple leaf hopper) . . . . Essig. Contribution to knowledge of Coccidae of southwestern United States. . . . . . . . . M. . References . . . . . . . . . . . Malus. Cicadellidae Synonym — Idiocerus maculipennis Fitch. . . . fitchi VanD. . . . . . . Distribution . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . S. . . . including Crataegus. 1916. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Saunders.) furfura Fitch. . Aspidiotus. . .) . Pyrus communis. . . . . . Coccidae Hosts . . Pyrus. Tingitidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . .Slingerland. A. & D. p. . p. . . . . 1915. .Occasionally incrusts bark of trees and greatly weakens or kills them. References — Van Duzee. . . . . Distribution . 49: 149. Hosts . .Corythucha arcuata Comst. . Gibson. . . 68. .

Quercus. ... . Brittain. . . . . . . . 270:49. . F. Agr. W. . . . C. and roots. Fam. . . . O. . . ent. Washington. . Fam. . . . . econ.. 400. Asia. Asia. Sta. G. . Europe. . . . . References — Kaltenbach. Distribution . . Eriosoma (Woolly aphis).. 18:196. 1914. Pyrus. Pflanzenfeinde.Nymphs suck juice from foliage and blossoms. . H. . .Slingerland. . Distribution . page 1064. . . Aphididae of Minnesota. Malus. V. Cushman. . Aphididae Hosts . . . . . . . . . . V. . . H. . . H. . . . often stunting growth. . . . Aphididae Synonyms . . . 1913. . G.North America.) mali Schmid. . . Theobald. . .. econ. . 11:245. and cause dimples in fruit.------ 1096 HEMIPTERA lanigera Hausm. . p. Cushman.. . Naturalist (London). . . 1915. . . 1909. . . Proc. Soc. Schizoneura americana Riley. . . ent. . . . 213. . . and Crosby. . . . . . . . . References . . . Malus. . . . . . (Cited by Patch. . . . . . . . . . 1909. Ovatus. Insect pests of fruits. . . W. p. 15:96. Ulmus. . G. . . . . p. - Injury . Empoasca (Apple leaf hopper). . . . . Sorbus. . . Ent. . Fam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .d. Distribution — North America. p. branches. Insect pests of fruits. . . . . . . . . . S. . . 1886. . Injury . . . Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . Exp. . . . C. . . . .Crataegus. Australia. . . Crataegus. Fam. . . . . . Nova Scotia. (Fig. . . Fam. Corylus. .. W. . . Journ. p. . Hunter. . . Proc. 20. E. . . Quercus. p. . . no. A. . . U.. Malus. . . . . Distribution . Cause dimples in fruit. malinus Reuter. . . . 1918. .Eriosoma crataegi Oest.. Fam. Soc. 707. . Injury . Journ. p. . . . . 1901. Injury — Sucks sap from tender shoots. 28. . . 101. . . Cicadellidae (See page 1061. . 18:196. . 153. 1918. . F. M. . R. . . . Fam. Aphis. 28. . Anthemis colula. and Crosby. Manual of fruit insects. .Crataegus. . . .) lineatus Linn. . . Africa. South America. . . . . 1872. Distribution . . . . Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . Manual of fruit insects. Canada. . . References – Oestlund. . . . . . A. A. mendar Reuter. . . . . Rept. Distribution . . . which deform it. . . . . R. . . Becker. . .Nymphs and adults puncture leaves and fruit to suck juice. . . . . Washington. . . References — Theobald. . . Psyllidarum catalogus. . . C. . . Fam. . . and other species. . . Psylla. . 1916. .Nymphs and adults puncture leaves and fruit to suck juice. . . . R. . marutae Oest. . . Cicadellidae (See page 1061. 1915. Miridae Hosts . . ..Europe. . . . . . mespili v.Northeastern United States. . . Psyllidae Synonym — Psylla crataegi Först. W. . . R. . . . . . . References – Aulmann.) melanoneura Först. . . . . . Aphididae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. Mespilus germanica. . . M. Maine Agr. p. . . . Baker.G. Heterocordylus (Dark apple redbug). . . 141. Hosts . Ent.Europe. . Lygidea (Bright apple redbug). Ulmus americana. Miridae Hosts — Malus. . . . .* -. 109. . . . Bul. . . .Northeastern United States.. . . . J. . . Psyllidae Synonym . Canada. . . 1922. 40. References – Slingerland. Harrison. . .Crataegus oxyacantha. . W.. . 1914. . Fam. . . . . Psylla. . . 101. Philaenus. . . . . . .. . . p. and prevent setting of fruit. . . J. . .Psylla crataegicola Först.) mali LeB. 1916. . . . Dept. . M. . .

Fam. H. Cicadellidae (See page 1061. Crataegus.. . . . . . . 132. . . 1872. . . 1905. . Distribution — Mediterranean region. nigrofasciatum Perg.. 293. . . W. . L. L. Distribution — Europe. . . olivaceus Fabr. . . . Lecanium (Terrapin scale).. 55. Platanus. Crataegus. . . .Aspidiotus oxyacanthae Sign. . Coccidae Synonym . .) oryacanthae Schr.und Nordeuropas. . . Hemiptera gymnocerata Europae 5:30. . . . . . . . . Pyrus. HEMIPTERA 1097 Injury-Sucks sap from tender shoots and leaves. . . . . . O. . and other species. . . . . . 1857. . . . . . Distribution — Europe. . . . p. . . . . . . Slingerland. . . . Miridae (See page 1055. . . References — Theobald. . . . . . p. . . . . . . . Injury . . .Sucks juice from foliage.Capsus medius Kirschb. . 213. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North America. Hosts . . . .Many woody plants. .. . . . . . 1913. . Injury . Fam. . .Sucks sap from bark and secretes much sticky liquid. . . Pflanzenläuse. Injury – May completely incrust the bark and kill the tree. Malus. . Fam. . p. . . . . Fam. . . . .. . . Rhopalosiphum .May incrust the bark. 1915. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:694. . . . Erythroneura. . . . .P. . . . . . Memoir 81:201. . . . ornatus VanD. . . . . grasses. . . Fam. Aphis padi Kalt. .. foliage. Reference — Van der Goot. . . . causing yellow or red swellings on them and making them curl. . E. . and Crosby. . . . Distribution – Europe. . . Parlatoria. . Manual of fruit insects. . . . . . . . . obliqua Say. Aphididae Synonyms – Aphis avenae Fabr. . 213. . . . . Miridae (See page 1055. 1909. . . Tilia. . . Distribution – North America. . . . Pyrus. . and sometimes the leaves and the fruit. . . . . . padi Linn. . . L. Hosts . . . Asia Minor. 136. . . . . .Crataegus oxyacantha. Holländischen Blattläuse. . . Lindinger. . p. Hosts — Malus. . Prunus. . . . . and fruit and on which a sooty fungus grows. . . . Injury . .) - oleae Colvee. . . . . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . . . . References — Lindinger. Fam. . . . . . of trees of the genera Citrus. . . . . . . and Olea especially. . p. Crataegus. . . . .. 1912. . .Aphis oxyacanthae Koch. .. Prunus. . J. . . . Myzus.Malus. V. . Hosts . . . Fam. .) ostreiformis Curt. . . . Orthotylus. . . M. . . Malus. . . Pyrus. . . . . . . . . Reuter. . Coccidae Hosts . . Deraeocoris. . . . 213. . . . Die Schildläuse. .Prunus padus. 1912.. . 1914. thus rendering fruit unsalable. Sorauer. 1896. . . Aspidiotus (European fruit-tree scale). . Fam. . Pflanzenfeinde. . Aphididae Synonym . . . . . . . References — Felt. . . . . . H. . Injury – Sucks juice from leaves. . . . . F. . . . Die Schildläuse. . . 1911. . . . . p. P. . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . . . . . Crataegus. . . . M. . p. .. p. New York State Mus. . . . . . ostryae Knight. Coccidae Hosts — Prunus. . . Insect pests of fruits. . . Malus. . . Miridae Synonym . . Acer. . . . - Ross. . References — Koch. . . . . 386. Pyrus. C. . Prunus. . . R. which covers surface of branches. . Corylus. P. Die Pflanzengallen Mittel. including Crataegus germanica. . . . . Lygus. . and many other woody plants. . . . . . . . . . C. . . Fam. ... . .

Injury . . G. A. . . 1912. C. . . . . . State Ent. O.. . G. . 2:442. . causing leaves to curl. . . .. . . . . . res. Crataegus. . . Injury . . . . . Sorauer. Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . Sta. . . . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:690. . Prunus. . p. . . Cornell Univ. 1909. . . Essig. . . Pflanzenfeinde. Injurious and beneficial insects of California. . .. . . . Malus. . . - (See page 1055. . . . . . .. Fam. Aspidiotus (San José scale). . Glenn. . 22. . * 1098 HEMIPTERA Injury – Sucks juice from opening buis of fruit trees in early spring. . . . Crataegus. . pratensis Linn. . . . . . . Idiocerus. . . 149. . . . . . A. . . 1919. . A. agr. . 580. . .May incrust branches and thus weaken or kill them. Matheson. Distribution — North America.Many woody plants.. .. . . . Memoir 24:686. . Cicadellidae Hosts – Crataegus. .Europe. prunifoliae Fitch. . . . pruinosum Coq. . . . . . . Coccidae Hosts . . References — Leonardi. P. . L. Exp. . . .. . . . . . . including Crataegus.Sucks sap. . . . . . Distribution – Europe. . . H. . . . . Psyllidarum catalogus. . Coccidae Hosts . 1913. . . . . Cicadellidae (See page 1062. .Aphis mali Fabr. p. . Cydonia. . . . . Catalog of Hemiptera. . . . . . . 202. North America. Fraxinus. . . Aphis fitchii Sand. - " ****-* * * * * *. . .. . . . . Miridae (See page 1055. . . . - . . . 1916.) provancheri VanD. References – Leonard. P.. econ. . . . Pyrus. .. .. . South America. perniciosus Comst. . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:690. . . . . . * Injury – May incrust bark and kill trees in favorable weather. . P. .. . . J. . . . . .Malus. Aspidiotus. .) pellucida Uhl. grasses. . . . . References — Sorauer. . 1913. . . . Idiocerus. . . . . .-. . . . Reference – Aulmann. Hosts . Illinois.. 1919. . . . . Malus. . . . . Asia. Die Schildläuse. 8:415. . . . D. Journ. . . p. . Fam. .Nymphs and adults suck juice from foliage. . . . Fam. . . References – Sanders. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . North America. .. . . . . .. .. . . References — Lindinger. . . -Fam. . . . but no discoloration appears. . . . . pomi De Geer. . . . . Injury . . . . . 1913.. Distribution – Asia. . . . . . . Journ.) peregrina Först. . M. . . . Carpinus betulus. Distribution — Europe. . . . . . pallidus Fb. . .. E. . . . Aphis (Green apple aphis). . .. . Fam. . . Fam. . R. . Fam. . . . . . . .. 1915. Van Duzee. . . . .Sucks juice from young shoots and foliage. . . . Aphididae Synonyms . Australia. . . . . . . P. . . . . Psyllidae Synonym — Psylla crataegicola Flor. . . Fam. . Agr. 28:87. . . . . . Baker. Lygus. Hawaii. 18:311. . . Injury – Principal injury from smutty fungus growing on honeydew secreted by insects on fruit and foliage. G. . econ. . Distribution — North America. . . 1901.Pyrus. . J. . North America. . . . . . . . . .. Distribution .. .. . . . Coccidae Hosts . . Injury. . Lecanium (Frosted scale). ent.:. Journ. . 1915. . . . 1872. . Rept. . piri Licht. . . . . . -. Fam. Psylla. E. . Fam. Diaphnidia. . . Rhopalosiphum (Apple bud aphis) . .Many woody plants. . . . 1915. . References — Kaltenbach. ent. . . . . p. Gli insetti 4:228. Asia Minor. 214. including Crataegus and other Malaceae. . . Distribution – Europe. . p. . Aphididae Synonyms . Miridae . oxyacanthae Schr. . . . . . .Aphis avenae (of American authors).

. . . . . . . References – Quaintance. . .. . . . U. . Sorbus. . . Injury — Curs leaves and deforms fruit. . .. . Crataegus oxyacantha. A. .. ... Cicadellidae (See page 1062.Adult sucks sap from foliage.North America. . rusci Linn. . Pyrus. Journ. . including Crataegus oxyacantha and pear.Sucks juice from bark. Salix. A. Amer. . .Eastern North America. A. . . . Malus. . Dept. . . Cicadellidae 1062. . . Dept. . . . . . . . . 1887. R. Injury – Nymphs and adults suck juice from lower leaves of trees. . Arts. res. . . . . Fam. - Distribution . . . . . A.) sorbi Kalt. . . . Hosts — Malus. 1907. . . References – Börner. F. . . Reference – Uhler. 1919. . . Fam. . . . Querci Fitch.Sucks sap from roots. . p. 26. . . Pyrus. . Agr. . Fam. S. Distribution . . 23: 152. . Japan. . . . . . . G. Ent. . . . . .. . . . . C. Injury .Sucks juice from foliage. . H. . . . . . . . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:695. . . . . rumicis Linn. . Circ. Holländischen Blattläuse. Crataegus. . .Melinna pumila Uhl. . . . .Europe. . Psylla. . . . and Baker. . . . J. Fam. . . . . . . Baker. . . 220. Abhandl. . Nat. . 1913. . . . . . . . . Injury . L. . . . . . . . pyri Fitch. U. Plantago. . P. saliceti Först. . . . . 804:19. . leaves. . . . Trans. . . . . . . Agr. . . . . . . Pyrus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Injury . Wilson. . . . .. . . Aphididae Hosts — Many herbs and woody plants. .Many plants. . . Crataegus. . HEMIPTERA 1099 Hosts — Malus. . Distribution — Eastern United States. . . Eutettix. . Crataegus. L. A. . Fam. References – Lindinger.. . seminudus Say. . . . Bul. . Injury . . 805:20. . . . . Distribution . . . . . . p. . . Empoa. Psyllidae Hosts — Salix. Aphididae Synonym – Aphis malifoliae Fitch. . R. L. .Sucks juice from opening buds of trees in spring. . many grasses. . . including Crataegus. Bur. . Malus. . . pumilus Uhl. . . . Miridae Synonym . Distribution – Europe. Prociphilus (Pear root aphis) . A. p. . 1918.. . . . . . . . References – Quaintance. Ceratocapsus. Fam. . . Prunus. . . . . Aphididae Hosts – Pyrus. . . . . . . . Asia. (See page . . . and Vickery. . Reference – Ackerman. . 214. Wisconsin Acad. . . Sci. . . . . . . . . . . . . Empoa (Rose leaf hopper). 1913. and fruit. Ceroplastes. . . . Aphis (Rosy apple aphis). Ver. Bremen. . . Fam.Fam. . . . 1912. 3:69. . . Van der Goot. . Aphis. . 1917. . Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . Ent. . . . . . . - Distribution . C. . North America. . . . . . . Distribution — Mediterranean region. . agr. Coccidae Hosts . . . U. Hosts – Crataegus. 1919. . . . . .. . and Letters. 19: 140. . . .) • rosae Linn. Prunus. . . . P. causing yellowing of foliage and in some cases defoliation. . .. . Cicadellidae Hosts – Rosa. . . .. . S. 18:311. . Injury . . . Psyllidarum catalogus. . . . . . . . . . . S. . . . P. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914. . . . Sorauer. . . 1915. Die Schildläuse. Injury . . . . . . Farmers' bul. North America. . . . .Europe. . . . . . Reference — Aulmann.. . . . . . . . . . Cydonia. . . Fam. 81. . and other species. .Sucks juice from foliage in spring and fall.

. Injury . vulgaris Fb. . . Reference — Lindinger. . . . . Asia. . . .. .) taurina Fitch. . . . V. . . . p.. Fam. vanduzei Gill. . . . . Lygus. . . . . . . . . Injury . Soc. References – Van der Goot. . . . 400.Many woody plants.Sucks juice from foliage. . . . . Die Schildläuse.) vitis Linn. . Fam. Fam. . ulmi Geof. . . . P. .. . . Fam. . . . Distribution — Europe. . Bul. 1919.. . Hosts . Australia. .. . . . p. . . . E. Curculionidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . causing galls to form on upper surface. . . including Crataegus. .. Maine Agr. . P. suturalis Fb. . . . . Trioza . Coccidae Synonyms – Pulvinaria betulae Linn.Europe. Fam. . . Tetraneura. . . 1912. Aphididae Hosts . . . References – Aulmann. . . . . * . . . . . Sta. . North America. . Agr. P. . Injury – Adults suck juice and puncture fruit and tender foliage.. P. . . . . . . Hosts — Many woody plants. 56. . . Reference – Knight. Sta. . . . 181. Naturalist (London). . . . . Africa. . . . . . . . . . .. . Cicadellidae (See page 1062. . Africa. Memoir 24:718. .. . . . .. . . . univittatus Knight. . . . . . Cicadellidae (See page 1062. . . . . . Lamenia. . . . . . . Ceresa. . . . L. . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:692. . Membracidae (See page 1063. . J. . 1883. Distribution — Northeastern United States. . . . . .. Reference – Bargagli. . .Sucks juice from bark and foliage. 484. . . .. . . .. innumerabilis Rath. Fam.. . . . . Bul. 177. . . . . . . 1915. . . Fam.. .. . Cornell Univ. . . . . . p. . 1909.) ulmi Linn.. . Distribution — Europe. . . . South America.. . . . M. Holländischen Blattläuse.. . . . Sorauer. . . . . . . .. . . 1915. .) COLEOPTERA aeneovirens Marsh.. . . . . .1100 HEMIPTERA – THYsANOPTERA – COLEOPTERA Distribution — Europe. 215. .Sucks juice from leaves. . . Insect pests of fruits.. . . G. . . . . no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. . . . Crataegus oxyacantha. .. Pulvinaria (Cottony scale).. America.. . . Asia Minor. . . .. . . . . p.. . punctatus Oliv. . . . . . Injury . . . . . . . Exp. . oxyacanthae Linn. . References – Van der Goot. 1918. . Cicadellidae (See page 1063. . . Rincofori Europei. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sucks sap from bark and tender shoots. . . . H. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . 1913. . W. . . Matheson. . . Idiocerus. .Crataegus. Euthrips. . . . .. Miridae Host . Patch. . . . 1913. . Fam. . . . ..) THYSANOPTERA tritici Fitch. . . . . Fam. Asia.. F. . . 14:21. . Brooklyn Ent. . Distribution – Europe. p. . P. . . . . . . P. 170.. . . . . .. including Crataegus. . . . . . . Psyllidarum catalogus. . Distribution . . . . . . . . . Psyllidae Hosts — Urtica. many grasses. . . . .. . . 1919. H. . . . R. . .. p. . Harrison. . . . . . . . . . Thrypidae (See page 1066. North America. . 270:49. . . . . . . . . urticae Linn. . Distribution – Europe. . . Hawaii. . Rhynchites. .. . H. . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. . . . . . . . .. . ..Ulmus. . . . 1915. . Lepidosaphes (Oyster-shell scale). . . . . . . . . . . Coccidae Synonym – Mytilaspis pomorum Bouché. Holländischen Blattläuse. . Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . References — Theobald. Injury . . Eupteryx. Exp. . . . . . . 707. . var. . .

. . .Europe. . . . 132.. . . . . . . aerosus Melsh. . . . .. H.. . auratus Scop. J. . Rosalia. 1916.. . 181. A. . Distribution . .. Fam. . causing discolored. Brachys. . . . . rept. . . . . . . . Curculionidae Hosts — Malus. . . . . 181. M. . .. . Nachr. . .Europe. . p. . . W. Prunus. F. . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . sometimes killing tree. . . . . . .Malus.Northwestern United States. Chrysomelidae Hosts – Crataegus. 1917. . F. F. . . . . . . Sta. . . W. Curculionidae Hosts — Malus. . . Pyrus. . . . p. p. Bien crop pest and hort.. . . . . . . and then enters solid wood. . . . . . . 121. . . 1914. . . much like codling moth. Injury – Beetles puncture fruit buds and leaves in feeding. bacchus Linn. References – Wilson. U. Manual of fruit insects. .. . - References — Kaltenbach. Rhynchites. G. Manual of dangerous insects. . Distribution . 1915. . . . Bul. Exp. 1883. . H. C. p. . P. . . . F. barbicornis Lat. . 1872.Larva tunnels under bark. . Prunus. . . . . imported recently. . p. . . . . Betula. . . . . .. . Bur. . . R. . . Prunus spinosa. p. .. . G.und obstbaum Insekten. . . Fam. p. p. . Slingerland. .. . Ent. 1883. . Rhynchites (Purple apple weevil) .. Distribution — Europe. . J. W. . Curculionidae Hosts — Malus. .. Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . 183. .... . aequatus Linn. . . Injury – Larvae feed in fruit. Rhynchophora of northeastern America. 1872. 1895 95. . .. . . . V. . Curculionidae Hosts – Crataegus. . .. . . . C. . . References – Chittenden. . . and Moznette. Asia. Fam. . p. 207. O. . . . P. Rincofori Europei. . Cydonia. . Injury . . Pflanzenfeinde. Prunus. .. . . United States (New York and Massachusetts). . . . . H. Pierce. . Fam. . . . . Fam. Distribution — Europe. and larvae feed in fruit. . A. . 2:96. . . . . . 1909. Holeczek. J. . . . Fagus sp. . Crataegus. . . . . - Injury – Larvae tunnel under bark. . Distribution . . . . S. . 13:308. . H. . . p.. . .. . . . . . 1900. .Larva tunnels under bark. . Buprestidae (See page 1066. Distribution — Western United States.. . . COLEOPTERA 1101 aenescens Lec. . Magdalis (Bronze apple weevil) . Cryptocephalus. . Corylus. References — Kaltenbach. . . Fam. . . . . Crataegus. . sunken areas. .) albida Lec. Syneta.. Pflanzenfeinde.. Ent. Crataegus. . Malus. . . 1872. . D. Crataegus. Malus. 1872. H. . Bargagli. . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . .. 199. . . Chrysomelidae Hosts . 153. . . . . . . Magdalis (Apple stem piercer). . Salix. . . Fam. . . . bipunctatus Linn.. . . References — Kaltenbach. Theobald. . Injury – Beetles feed on flowers and foliage. p. .. References — Henschel. . . . Bargagli. Die schädlichen forst. and other species. Fam. Curculionidae Synonym – Rhynchites bacchus Oliv. References — Kaltenbach. . . S. . . . 94. Cydonia. girdling branches. W.. . Cerambycidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . . . . 22:37. . . and Leng. . Rhynchites. . 257. . . alpina Linn. Distribution — Europe. . Sorbus. sometimes defoliating young trees. . Corylus. Adults feed on leaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. . and Crosby. . . Rincofori Europei. .. . H. .. . Blatchley. . 1887. Injury . . Canada. . . . . . 207. Oregon Agr. . . .. . Asia. Pflanzenfeinde. . . Injury — Beetles cut off petioles of leaves. Fam.

. . . Chrysomelida (See page 1067. P. Injury . .. .. . like locusts. . . . . . Reference — Hamilton. . Sta. .. .Crataegus oxyacantha.Larvae tunnel under bark of trunk and into sapwood. 1917. . . . . . . . Distribution . . . Amer.Prunus cerasus. . . . . Malus. .Larva tunnels in branches. . References . . . . . P. . . p.Redtenbacher. Crataegus oxyacantha. P. Crataegus. 22:377. . Cerambycidae Host . . . . . . . . .. . 901. . . 758. Die Käfer. . . Curculionidae Host . . . .Crataegus sp. Trans. . . Cerambycidae Synonym . Reference — LeConte. . Monographie des Otiorhynchides.Beetles eat holes in foliage. 1872. A. . . . Distribution – Europe. Fam. . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . 1880. . . . . p. . p. . . . .Saperda bivittata Say. Die Käfer. Quercus. . . . p. . 2:27. . . . . Rincofori Europei. D. . . . . . .. 63. 74:28. . . convergeus Lec... padus. . H.Europe. . L. French..Beetles appear in swarms. coeruleocephalus Schel. . . L. Otiorrhynchus.. . . M. . . . . . Chrysomelidae (See page 1067. Distribution . . . . .. . References – Redtenbacher. . . . P. . . ... and Joutel. . . . . Fam. . . Not commonly injurious to Crataegus. . . . candida Fabr. . Magdalis. . W. . . . J. .. .- Hosts . . C. .. .. . cerasi Linn. Curculionidae . 1893. Bargagli. Limnobaris. colaspidoides Gyll. . . Pierce. . . . . Soc. . 1883.) - caudatus Rossi.. . . Ent. . . . H. Dibolia. . 87. carinata Germ. . . . Ent. . . J. . . . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . .. G. Fam. . 8:xxiv. . . . .. 1918..North America. Fam. . . . Fam. . Fauna Austriaca. . . . . Kaltenbach. References – Glover. 1904. . L. Trans.. . . . . Distribution . Destructive insects of Victoria.. .Crataegus oxyacantha. T.. . . . . p. . Injury .. . . G. H. J. p. . . Distribution . p. Scarabaeidae Hosts . . . . . 207. Fam. . . . . . . . 1858. 1883. . . . . .. References — Insect life 3:425. . J. . . 195. New York State Mus. . Manual of dangerous insects. .. . Fauna Austriaca. Felt. 1858. Becker. 1883. Injury . Rhynchites.North America. borealis Shev. p. .Prunus. . . 1877. . Xylotrechus. . Soc. . p. Sorbus. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Rincofori Europei. . . 589. . Fam. . . . .. . . . . .. S. . . . . . P.. . .. Arkansas Agr. . Amer. Fam. . . . Curculionidae Host-Crataegus. . Rincofori Europei. Bargagli. . . . Betula. . . . Fam. . .1102 COLEOPTERA Injury . . . Haltica. . . Exp.) calva Lec. . .. Bul. . 1895. and defoliate trees and shrubs. Saperda (Round-headed apple-tree borer). . . . p. . . .Larva burrows under bark. . . . 1890. Pflanzenfeinde. . L. .. . . . . References – Marseul. Pflanzenfeinde.Eastern United States. . E. Bul. . . - References — Kaltenbach. . . .. 187. . Crataegus oxyacantha. Curculionidae Hosts . Manuscript notes from my journal. . 1872. . . . . . . . Amelanchier.. 146:5. . . . . . Hosts — Cydonia. 127. 132. . . Injury . Distribution – Australia. . Bargagli. Diphucephala. Pyrus. 1872. .

. References – Brooks. . . Curculionidae Host . 1895. . . Ent. - (See page 1066. and Leng. . . . Distribution – North America. . . Distribution — North America. . . Crataegus. . . . . .Crataegus crus-galli. .. . .Larvae burrow in fruit. . Iowa State Hort. . Monographie des Otiorhynchides. Buprestidae Hosts . . . Agr. . Limonius. . Reference . .. . W. . . . . . . . 1904. . A. . . .. . .. p. . . Bargagli. -Fam. Curculionidae Hosts . . femorata Fabr. Cerambycidae Hosts . . .. cretata Newm. . .. . . p. . 63. . V. . and other species. . . . . .. . Malus. . . E... . M. C. . . . . . . . . . C. . . but especially Quercus. ... . . . beetles puncture fruit and foliage. Trans.) decipiens Lec. Curculionidae Hosts . . . . . Exp. . W. crataegi Germ.. . Scarabaeidae (See page 1066. p. . Chrysobothris (Flat-headed apple-tree borer). including Crataegus. . . . partially destroying it. .Crataegus spp. L. .Crataegus oxyacantha. . .. . 1883. Soc. . . . . .Larvae feed within fruit. Exp. . Fam.. . . . 74:62. . Bul. Distribution . . . . . . 1880. . References — Osborn. . . . . Rhynchophora of northeastern America. 1872. Amer. . P. Distribution . S. Fam. . . Epitrix..Blatchley. . beetles in abundance beaten from Crataegus sp. . . . . . .. 1918. killing them and producing gall-like swell ings which weaken the branches so that they break in winds.. E. Soc.Larvae kill branches by girdling and tunneling in sapwood. . . New York State Mus. . . 74:50. . Fam. . Bul. Crataegus. . . Exp... and Leng. . W. J. . Canada. L. . 1898. 22:369. . . . . . . . . Pseudanthonomus (Apple weevil) .. . E. . COLEOPTERA 1103 crataegi Walsh.Larvae burrow in smaller branches. Fam. . . .. . . . . Fam. . . S. . . Saperda (Thorn limb borer). . . . . dubitans Lec. . . and Joutel. . Fam. . . cucumeris Harris. . . .Houser.. . Fam. . Chrysomelidae (See page 1067.. . 318. . 1916. . . and Joutel. p. . C. .. Dichelonycha. Bul. crataegi Walsh. Bul. . . Conotrachelus (Quince curculio). Fam. . . '. . . . 148.Eastern North America. . Bul.) fayi Bland. . P.. . . Blatchley... . . 316. . . 287. . References – Marseul.) elongata Fabr. Hamilton. Prunus. Injury .. . . 1910. . . . . . 1904.. . 126. . . . . . . . . . . . Curculionidae Hosts . . . .. P. Amelanchier. . Rhynchophora of north eastern America. .Robinia. Slingerland.. . . . Reference — Felt. .. . . . . Sta.. . . Distribution — Eastern United States. New York State Mus. H. . . . W. by Dr. . . tomentosa. . S. . F. . . References .. . . .Malus. Fam. 15:11. . .. . Malus. Ohio Agr. . Felt. . Distribution — Europe. . . . . Saperda (Spotted apple-tree borer).Many trees. . Hamilton. . 1916. . . .Crataegus. Cornell Univ. . . . . . . . Sta. Third Missouri rept. Reference . dorsalis Thunb. Injury . .. . C.. . . . . . Elateridae . . Chalepus. . S.. Cydonia. . . Injury . H. . 1871. . . Trans.. . J. . 35.. . Cerambycidae Hosts . . . . . .. . . . .. Chrysomelidae Hosts -.. . . . . Anthonomus. . . . Fam. . H. . Kalmia latifolia. Injury . . . Distribution – Eastern North America. . . Quercus. p. West Virginia Agr. . . . . cotton (?). Sta. . W. Otiorrhynchus. Injury – Beetles eat foliage. Malus. .Riley. .Eastern United States. . . . . Rubus. .Crataegus. . M. . . . . . .. 332:231. Rincofori Europei. .

Beetles eat buds. Asia. . . 1916. Reference – Brooks. Exp. Curculionidae Hosts . . . . .Beetle eats into opening buds. . . . and tender twigs in May and June. . Injury .. . Salix. Dept. . . . 1862. . . 251. Prunus. icosandriae Scop. . Injury – Larvae mine in leaves. Polydrusus. . . maculicornis Germ. Distribution . . . . Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. Insect life 1:74. . Populus. 180. . . W. . .Europe. . Populus. 1916. . . Fam. W. and other species. . . . 119. . Injury . Zeit. . . W. Pyrus. . . von. . and other species. S. leaves. . . . 1214. Haltica (Apple flea beetle). . . . . . Monographie des Rhinomaceridae. Bargagli. U. Rincofori Europei. Distribution — North America. 1872. . Acer. . . . . Reference . impressifrons Gyll.. Distribution – Europe.Malus. Malus. . .. . C. Pyrus. . . 188. .. s'". and Crosby. Distribution . .. . . . . Curculionidae . . Quercus. . 1909. J. Synonym – Ramphus oxyacanthae Marsh. . Injury – Beetles and larvae eat many small holes in foliage. .1104 COLEOPTERA Injury – Larvae burrow in sapwood of weakened trees. . Pyrus.Europe. . P. Asia. Schn. . . . Fam. . . . . . .. . p. S. . . . . flavicornis Clairv. . . . . Curculionidae Hosts – Crataegus. P. . . . . . . . 1883. . .North America. . . Pflanzenfeinde. . S. . . . . . .. R. Reference — Murtfeldt. .. New York (Geneva) Agr. p. p. . . Bargagli. 1914. . . Curculionidae Hosts . . Manual of fruit insects. . P. Crataegus oxyacantha. . . Journ. . . ent 9:424. . . . . . . . . . . and Leng.Crataegus oxyacantha.Malus. Reference — Theobald. . 205. . . . . . . . 56: 7. 207. . Farmers' bul. helxines Linn. . . 345. . Sta. . Crataegus. . . C. . . . giganteus Krinick.Salix. . . Ulmus. .Beetles eat many small holes in leaves. . Chrysomelidae Hosts .. Rhynchites. . . . Agr. Pyrus. . . . E. . . . Fam. Rincofori Europei. . . References — Heyden. Rhynchites. E. . . . . bul. Solanum. . . Distribution . Injury . . 1869. Berlin. 298. . H. . . .Beetles cut off tender twigs. . p. M. . . . 1910. . 1883. V. . and Glasgow. Crataegus. . . . . C. . . References . . . . . . Insect pests of fruits. 154. . . and later eats holes in leaves. Coleoptera of Indiana. . Malus. L. . Ramphus. p. . Curculionidae Host . .. . Prunus. . . Anthonomus. . . . Chrysomelidae Hosts – Crataegus. . Sorbus. J. . . North America. . . Asia. flavicornis Boh. p. Bargagli. . . . Prunus. .. .Desbrochers. dogwood. Rhynchophora of north eastern America. . . . F. . . . .Blatchley. . Distribution — North America. . . Pierce. Distribution . Hosts . . . . . . Populus. econ. . . . Fam. . New York (imported about 1906). . . W. . . . . . Curculionidae Synonym – Rhynchites conicus Ill. H. M. Distribution — Europe. . References . foliacea Lec.Malus. Crataegus. . . . 6:63. Fam. . Crepidodera. . . Fam. 1883. .Europe. . Corylus. 1916. Quercus. Malus..Blatchley. W. . Rincofori Europei. . Phyllobius (Green leaf weevil) . P. 1065:5. References . References — Kaltenbach. Fam. .Parrott. . . Betula. Tech. . . . . Distribution – Europe. . . ent. 1919. 1888. Injury . F. p. . . Serious pest in nurseries. . 188. p. . . . . . D. . . p. Fam. . Salix. . . . .

. W. . Reference – Slingerland. . . Bargagli. . Chrysomelidae Host . 1907. Hosts . . - References . .. p. 1909. . p. . .. Pflanzenfeinde. . . Distribution – North America. . oblongus Linn. . . . . Curculionidae Hosts . . . . . . J. .. . . . . Anthonomopsis. . . Crataegus.. . . Theobald. . . . W.. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rincofori Europei. . . . . H. Injury – Larva feeds in fruit. . Fauna Austriaca. . 1906–07:275. . Rhynchites. 190. . . M. Curculionidae Hosts . Malus. . . . Curculionidae Hosts . . .. . . . . . . . . . L.Europe.Larvae feed in fruit. . . Fam. . . p. . . p. .Crataegus. . Tymnes. D. p. . . . . 1914. . . and later eat leaves. . . . 119. . 1909. p. . . Distribution . . --~~ Fam. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . - Reference — Smith. . . . . . p.Beetles eat into opening buds. Ann. . pauxillus Germ. Fam. Rincofori Europei. . . Quercus virginiana. . . 1158. . . . . .. . Fam. . Agr. . . .Blatchley. . . . .. p. . . . . .. . . Fam. . . .Beetles cut off twigs. Anthonomus (Hawthorn blossom weevil). 1872. V. 759.) menuphar Hbst. . .. . F. Conotrachelus. Fam. 1883. . . 1858.Crataegus. . . .Prunus. Pyrus. . ... . 1916. . Coleoptera of Indiana. . . Rincofori Europei. . . . . 1883. .Redtenbacher. . Curculionidae Hosts . . . 344. P. . Conotrachelus (Plum curculio) . . . . . Fam. B. . . . . mixtus Lec. . Rhynchophora of north eastern America. . . . Cydonia. p. . .Malus. 1883. . W. . . naso Lec. . 207. . J. and beetles deform fruits by their feeding punctures. . . . Fam. . Bargagli. . . . . 1910. Reference – Bargagli. . . . . . . . . olivaceus Gyll. . and Crosby. . . Malus. and Leng. . Prunus. . . .Crataegus. . . . .. Chrysomelidae (See page 1067. . . . . Nebraska State Bd. . . . . 196. .. Pierce. . . . Curculionidae Hosts . . . . ent 21:34. . . . . . .North America east of Rocky Mountains. . . . . . Asia. . . 243. . . . C. . . . . . . nebulosus Lec. . Rhynchites. . .Crataegus. . . S. .Crataegus oxyacantha. Distribution — North America. Distribution – North America. . Crataegus. . Distribution — North America. Distribution – Europe. . Injury . . . W. Curculionidae (See page 1068. Die Käfer. . 1889. . Fam. J.. . .. . . Corylus. . .Kaltenbach. References . Chrysomelidae Host . Distribution — Europe. . . . . . p. . . . P. . . P. W. . Reference . 154. . . Reference — Blatchley. . . C. . . . COLEOPTERA 1105 marginalis Ill. . Injury . . Populus. . . . Curculionidae Synonym – Rhynchites comatus Dej. . . Calligrapha. . . . . . . Salix. . Distribution . Populus. Insects of New Jersey.) metasternalis Cr. and other species. . . Can. . nitidipennis Boh. . Corylus. . Distribution – Europe. - multipunctata Say. Prunus. . Fam. • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Fam. . . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . . . . References – Hamilton.. . . 79. Syslena. . . . R. . Curculionidae Hosts . . . . . . . . . Injury . . . . Phyllobius. rept. .Crataegus. Magdalis. . . . . .286. Manual of fruit insects.. . . . . .Crataegus. S. . .

Fam. . . . 44. . . Agrilus. . . 1872. Fam. Corylus. Distribution — North America. . 21:34. 1872. . . . Can. . References – Hamilton. . H. Quercus. A. . . 1912. . H. . J. 1106 COLEOPTERA References — Kaltenbach. Curculionidae Hosts . . p. Anthonomus (Apple blossom weevil) . . . . . . . one specimen recorded from Ohio taken among A. . Rosa. . . J. . posticatus Boh. 1860. - References — Smith. 487. . Collinge. Distribution – Europe. . . . Rincofori Europei. . . Blatchley. . . . . . Crataegus.. Distribution . . 1909. W. . . . . Insects of New Jersey. von. E. Bul. . . .. . . . .Larva feeds in fruit. . . Augustenberg Flugblatt. . New York State Mus. Curculionidae Hosts — Prunus.Crataegus. . Die schädlichen forst. Ent. F. . Injury . References — Curtis. . profundus Lec. . . . . B. Injury . Often a very serious pest of apple in Europe. Distribution – Europe. W. Crataegus. . . . . Fam. . . . . . . . Trans. . . . C. . Bargagli. . Buprestidae Hosts . . Pyrus. . and Leng. 1892. Asia. . p. Carya. . . and other species. . .Crataegus. . . . . . 290. W. . p. . . 1891. . . pomonae Fabr. . . . . 207. . . . . . . .North America. . . . . P. Salix. . 1918. 118. Anthonomus. . Ipidae Hosts . . 1909. S. . . p. . . . . . . p. S.. . Injury – Larva feeds within closed fruit bud. 207. . nebulosus. . Injury – Larva feeds in fruit. Injury – Larva girdles weakened trees by mining in cambium layer. .. H. . Whitehead records shaking 1530 adults from a single tree in two days. Insect pests of fruits. Farm insects. W.. . . . 4. . . . . Pflanzenfeinde.. . Pflanzenfeinde. G. Wm. 1889. . Distribution – Europe. W. p. . . Felt. Quercus. Crataegus.Larva tunnels under bark. . . . . . p. . . . . . . 1895. .Crataegus. . 1883. . J. . . Schn. . . politus Say. Pyrus. 97.. . P. 165. . . . . . 477. ent. . C. . . . . . Reference — Blatchley. . . Soc. . 1916. . Prunus. Conotrachelus. . Fam. - Whitehead. . . . . . . . 3. . 1916. Amer. Curculionidae Hosts . G.Malus. . 18:204. . J. . p. . References — Kaltenbach. Borkenkäfer an den Obstbäumen und ihre Bekämfung. Prunus. . Crataegus. . Curculionidae Hosts . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . Fam. p. . . . . . . . Manual of injurious insects. p. p. Rhynchophora of north eastern America. . . O. J. . . Curculionidae Hosts . . . p.Malus. . . . . . Dietz. . Eccoptogaster. 1914. .Wicia. causing gall-like swellings on twigs of Crataegus and girdling twigs of oak with a spiral tunnel. Fam. . no. . . . . . Distribution . . . . Wahl. . . . . 295. . .Europe. . . destroying it. . pomorum Linn. . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . and Leng. Fam.und obstbaum Insekten. . Henschel. 571. J. pruni Ratz.Larva tunnels under bark of branches. . . . pruni Linn. . . . Distribution — North America. Ulmus. . E. Rhynchophora of northeastern America. . W. . . 154. Magdalis. Injury . C. . . . . . Apion. . Report on injurious insects in Great Britain. . 1872. . . . . C. Asia. . . . 200: 135. Theobald. . References — Kaltenbach.. . . . .

217. . . . . . Crataegus. . . Injury . . . . Fam. . Quercus. .Redtenbacher. . Curculionidae Hosts . . . ent 9:431. 196.. . . . Can. . D. . Sta. Kaltenbach. Ent. Pflanzenfeinde.. . Distribution — Europe. . . . Sta.) pubescens Fabr.. . . References . . West Virginia Agr. J. .. Reference – Bargagli.. Amelanchier. J. news 31:6. . . . . Curculionidae Hosts . . North America. Pyrus. .. . Corylus. . . . Orchestes.. H. . . 1920. D. . . . Crataegus. . . W. .. . . .. . . Distribution — Europe.. . p. . . . . Injury . Pinus strobus. .Larva bores in dead or dying branches. . . Salix. . Distribution — North America. Asia. . . . .. . Tachypterus (Apple curculio) . Circ. . . Die Käfer. . Dept.. . Pierce. p. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . .. Ohio Agr. .Beetles feed on buds and foliage. . Fagus. . . Exp. Malus. . and other species. . . . . 140. econ. Corylus. p.. Reference — Pierce. 1883.Crataegus. . Agr. . . .. . . C. . 1858. L. . Rincofori Europei. Quercus. Injury . . . . . Wahl.. . Asia. . . . Cydonia. Polydrusus. Distribution – Europe. . . Fam. Curculionidae Hosts . . . 674. Swaine. . . . Elateridae (See page 1066. . . Alnus. . W. M. . p. Salix. . . Fauna Austriaca.. Rhynchites. quercata Fabr. . 126. scheppardi Kirby. and Pierce. Fagus. Josef N.. Sorbus. . . . .. . Distribution – Europe. . . .Malus. D. . 191. . • . . Fam. . Ipidae Hosts — Prunus. . 207.. . . . .. . . . . 4. . Injury . Choragus. . 1883. . . . .. Crataegus. H.Crataegus oxyacantha. . . . Anthribidae Synonym .. 1914. . . H. . References — Brooks. .. . sericeus Schal.. Curculionidae Hosts–Pyrus. . Bul. . . .. . . Ent. . Malus.. . . . 19 6. Pflanzenfeinde. . . . Fam. . . Curculionidae Synonym – Rhynchites cyanicolor Schr. . . Quercus. . . . . . . . . . . . rugulosus Ratz. CoLEOPTERA 1107 References – Bargagli. . Proc. Polydrusus. . . . . References — Gossard. . . . .. . Bul. Washington. Hosts . 1910.. 1872. Mitchell. . . 14:52. p. . Fam. Injury – Larva feeds in fruit. . 1917. Prunus.. . .. . . . . . . . . . Antharia. . . . 1872.. . . . . . . . 3. . Prunus. Eccoptogaster (Fruit-tree bark beetle). . . Reference — Knull. . . . . .. P. Exp. Soc. Amelanchier. . Augustenberg Flugblatt. .. . . 1913. . Fam. . Borkenkäfer an den Obstbäumen und ihre Bekämfung. . . . Fam. pterygomalis Boh. . Distribution . . . . Manual of dangerous insects. . . .. 1911. . . . P. Betula. Journ. . . . . p. Crataegus. quadrigibbus Say. . . Prunus. ..Allicopus galeazii Will. . . . 1883. Fam. P. Agriotes. . J. . ... rufus Ol. and other species. . . . . .. von. .Ulmus.Larva burrows in dying twigs. Injury – Larva and adult mine in cambium layer of weak trees. . . pubescens Melsh. . .. . . . p. beetles puncture fruit and young twigs. . . .. p. 132. Rincofori Europei.. . . E. . .. Rincofori Europei. . J. . . . . . . Cercis. W.. .Beetles feed on foliage. Host . . Salix. Buprestidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . 13:53.. no. . . . . Bargagli. . . . Distribution — Eastern North America. A. . . . frequently killing them. Alnus. B.Europe. Fam... 208. . . . .Crataegus oxyacantha.. . F. . 1918.

. . . Quercus. ent. . . Hosts . . . Ann.Pyrus communis. 1916 villosula Melsh. . 5:32. . . . Fam. J. Bot. Injury – Larvae feed on foliage. . Rincofori Europei. . .Beetles feed on foliage. . ... .Beetles feed on foliage. References – Hartzell. . eccn. . Sorbus.. . . . . . . . Buprestidae . p. . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:487. . . . . . .. Elateridae (See page 1066. .) LEPIDOPTERA - abbotti Swains. . . . Injury . . . . 1872. . . .Larva tunnels in sapwocq. . . .- Hosts . . Curculionidae Synonym . . . . . . Rincofori Eurcpei.Crataegus. . . . . . Byturus (Raspberry beetle). . . .. . . . Curculionidae . . Distribution – Eurcpe. . . 1906–07:284. . Ampelopsis. . journ. . . Scarabaeidae (See page 1067. Crataegus tomentosa.. . . 9: 428. . . . . Crataegus.S. Fam. Exp. Macrodactylus (Rcse chafer). . . . Fam. Blatchley. . ... . . - Hosts . 191. 207. . tubulatus Say.. subspinosus Fabr. . Crataegus.Orchids. . . W. . . H. . . Bargagli. . . Journ. Agr. H. . References – Sorauer. J. . Rhynchophora of north eastern America. . . . . D. 1913. . . . . Agrilus. . ...Rhynchites ophthalmicus Steph. . . . . 59. . . . M. . . .. . . . . . .. Fam. . . .. . . . . . . .. . W. . . References – Kaltenbach. . . and Crosby. . Pierce. recently imported into United States (Indiana). . Prunus virginiana. . . Bargagli. . .. . Pyrus. . . . . . .Crataegus. . making a zigzag mine. . . . . Betula. . . . . 1914. Corylus. . . .. . . . . . . P. . London 5:73. . . Malus. . . . Scarabaeidae Hosts . p. . B. Injury – Beetles feed on flowers and foliage. Injury . Amelanchier. 15:550. Rhynchites. . . Sphecodina. P. p. . Fam. Idiostethus . Distribution – North America. Asia. . . . . .. . . . W. . . References — Pierce.. . References – Smith. 404. . . 1894. p. Chrysomelidae (See page 1067. . . Ann. . . sericeus Hbst. . . References — Kaltenbach. . . Injury . Distribution – Europe.. . Pyrus. and Leng. . . . . . . . . . 1889.Rubus. . . 1916. Malus. J. . . . . -Fam. 1883.) - tomentosus Fabr. .. New Jersey Agr. . . . . .. .. . .. .. Manual of fruit insects. . . . . . . Crataegus. .. Distribution — North America. . . C. . . C. . 1910. and are sometimes very injurious.. 1883. . . . . .. . Sta. . . Buprestidae Hosts . Fam. .. W. testacea Kirby. North America. R. . P.. . . Bul. . . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten 3:472. . and fruit. . . Dermestidae Hosts . . . Fam. Xanthonia. . . Distribution – Europe. . .. . Z. Nebraska State Bd. . . . Pflanzenfeinde. rept. .. sinuatus Oliv.) vitaticollis Rand. . . . Sta. . Fam.Vitis. . . ... . . . . . . Amer. . . F. .. . . Slingerland. 179. . . . . . Agrilus (Sinuate pear borer). Fam. 154. . 1872. . . . . . D. Distribution – Eastern United States. . . New York (Geneva) Agr. . Crataegus. . Pflanzenfeinde. 331:534. and cther species. Exp. . . . W. . 1907. . . p. .1108 CoLEOPTERA – LEPIDoFTERA Distribution – Europe. . 1917. . . F. rept. . . . Sphingidae Hosts – Vitis. Dichelonycha .. . . flowers. Reference — Blanchard. . 397. p. . .. . . . . . Rcsa. . . . . . . ent. . . . Melanotus sp. Scrauer. . . . . .. . . . .. P. . 1913.

. Injury . . Spuler. H. americana Harris. . living within a silken tent. F. . . p. Distribution . . . W. . . . . . . V. References . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . Comm. . angustiorana Haw. Fam. . . 2:410. . . . advenella Zk.. . . H. . 536. Amelanchier. W. Natural history of the Tineina. . 1906. achatana Fabr. . . p. Beutenmueller. . 1910. . . William. .Crataegus. . . . . Rhodophaea..Crataegus.. . Dietz. . . . Fam. 1872. . Rosa. C. . Prunus. . Fam. Ent. Theobald. . T.Prunus. G. . Prunus spinosa. . . . Anisopteryx (March moth) . Acronycta .. . 1907. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . . . . References – Packard. 1872. Capua. . Fam. . Lasiocampidae (See page 1075. . p. Ornir. . . . Quercus. . H. References – Stainton. .. 8:292. p. H.Europe. . . . .Crataegus. 171. Corylus. 1914.Larva mines in leaf. . Crataegus. Malus. .. . . . p. . Distribution . Pyrus. . 112. . . . . . . . . Tortricidae Hosts . Pflanzenfeinde. F. Distribution . anglicella Stt. . LEPIDOPTERA 1109 Distribution – Eastern North America. . . . . Fam. . . 81. . . . 209. . . . . . . A. Hosts . . J. References — Felt. . . Hawk moths of the vicinity of New York City. . . Memoir 8”:550. . . . Insect pests of fruits.) americana Harris. . Trans. . Soc. . . . 209.North America. . . . . A. Fam. Injury . . Fifth rept. New York State Mus. Gracilariidae Hosts . aescularia Schiff. . Sorbus. . . Amer. . . . . . Tortricidae Hosts . Lasiocampidae Hosts . . . Malus. and other species. . . . . . . .) americana Fabr. .Crataegus. . . . . Asia. . . . Pyrus. .Europe. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . Pflanzenfeinde. .Crataegus. Asia Minor. . Malus. . 2:400. . p. . A. . . . . . U. . . sometimes defoliating trees. . . . M. . .. . . . p. . . Epicnaptera. . References — Kaltenbach. . Laurus. . S. . R. . . Salix. . . . . . . . Distribution – Europe. Geometridae Hosts . . J. Manual of fruit insects. 33:294. Tilia. . . . 1910. .Larvae defoliate branches. Quercus. . . . . . . Fragaria. . . . Injury . . . . . . . Injury . . . . . . . . 1909. anatipennella Hüb. . . 1890. . Noctuidae (See page 1073. . 12. . . . p. . . . .Larva eats patches of green tissue from leaf.Larvae feed on foliage. 61. . . . . . . Tilia. 1903. . Malacosoma (Apple tent caterpillar). . . Injury . 1864. S. 1909. H. . Acer. . . 1910. . . . . Olethreutes. 1872. Slingerland. . . . Quercus. . . .Larvae tie leaves and eat them. . . Ulmus. Spuler. 2:216. . . Fam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and other species. . . . . . . . Reference – Theobald. . Pyralidae Hosts . Fam.Crataegus. . Insect pests of fruits. . 1872. . Distribution . and Crosby. . . . . . . . . . Kaltenbach. Smilax. . . . . .. J. Pyrus. . . . . P.. W. . . . Pflanzenfeinde.. Coleophora. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . Distribution — Europe.Europe. . . Spuler. . . . .Larvae roll leaves and eat them. one record in Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . p.Kaltenbach. . . J. 210. Elachistidae Synonym . .Coleophora tiliella Zell. . Ent. . . . A. . Fam. . . . . and other species. E. . Injury . .

Nepticula. . . . Distribution – Europe. Spuler. 208.Larva mines in leaf. . . . . . Prunus spinosa. Fam. . Asia. . 1890. . Distribution . . Reference – Spuler. p. 1910. A... . References – Packard. . . Rosa. astyanax Fabr. . . atricollis Stt. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Crataegus. 1910. . Fam. . . . . . . . . 35:27. p. . . . Distribution — Southern Europe. . . . . J. Holland. Geometridae Hosts . . . Fam. . Populus. .Larvae defoliate branches. A. . . . . . . . 1910. . . . . . .Prunus. betulae Zell. . . Ent. . . . . Fifth rept. . . . . . . . . . . . Butterflies of the eastern United States. Archips (Fruit-tree leaf roller) . . Distribution – Europe. . . . Distribution — Europe. . 198. . . . . 1872. . . . . .. . . Reference – Spuler. . . . . aterrima Wek. . . . . p. aurantiaria Esp. and other species. p. . . . 1910. Fam. .Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . . . . . 2:246. . Ulmus. . . Tortricidae (See page 1077.. Pflanzenfeinde. Nymphalidae Hosts — Salix. . . . . Comm. .) arthemis Dru. . Tilia. H.Larva eats foliage. - References — French. . . p. . . . F. . . 1910. . . . . 2:479. . p. . . . Nat. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . A. . Injury . . . . . Gracilariidae Hosts – Crataegus. . J. Schmetterlinge Europas. Betula. . Crataegus. Hibernia. . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . . Crataegus. . Tilia. Asia Minor.Fam. Pflanzenfeinde. Quercus. . . . . . Salix. . . 1886. Injury – Larva mines in leaf. except midrib. H. Rosa. A. . . . 536. 2:98. . Populus. S. . . . . . . . beginning at apex. beginning at apex. H. . . . Fam. . . . . . . . . . W. Nepticulidae Host . . . Reference – Spuler. . . . Lithocoll tis. .Malus. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . Ligustrum. . . . . . . . . . Pyrus. 38. Injury . . 2:98. . A. . . Geometridae Hosts . . . . 535. Spuler. . . Distribution — Europe. . . A. . .Eastern United States. 1872. S. .. . . . . 209. Bul. 1910. . . . . Injury . J. . Edwards.. Ent. S. . 218. . . References — Kaltenbach. Basilarchia. argyrospila Walk. . . .Betula. Nymphalidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . . S. . 1872. . Fam. and other species. . . Prunus. Butterfly book. . . . References – Packard.Larvae eat leaves. p. Pyrus. . Schmetterlinge Europas.Larva eats leaves.. . Spuler. . . U. Malus. . . . .. . Crataegus. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . . . North America. . . . .1110 LEPIDOPTERA Injury . . Basilarchia. . 184. . . 2:419. . . Distribution – Eastern and southern United States. . .. Injury – Larva mines in upper side of leaf. . Nepticulidae Hosts — Malus malus. . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . J. . Lymantriidae Hosts .. . . Hibernia. .Larva eats leaf on both sides of midrib. . Fifth rept. . Syringa. . . . Mus.Crataegus oxyacantha. A. . . 1890. . U. . . . H. . . . H. . . Theobald. . Pflanzenfeinde. . bajaria Schiff. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . 1898. . . Comm. . northern Africa. . . .. S. . . . . . . . . . Fam. . . . p. . . . Prunus. . . A. . Nepticula. . . . . . . Crataegus oxyacantha. . . 166. Fam. . Tilia. Distribution – Germany. Notolophus (Vaporer moth). . . . . G. . . and other species. . Cydonia. . . . Injury . Injury . Injury . 1909. . 1889. . . . 2:480. U. antiqua Linn. . . . V. . . References — Kaltenbach.

. p. . W.. biscutana Wck. . . . . . . . . calanus Hüb. . E. Distribution . . 157. . . . . . . B.. . . Eriogaster. Crataegus oxyacantha. . Injury – Larvae defoliate branches. catar Linn. . 536. . . W. . A. . Butterflies of New England. . . . . Injury . .. no. . Betula. . . . . S. Platysamia.. . S. . Insects of New Jersey. . . .. . Asia. A. . . . blandula Hulst. .. Juglans. . .. . . 1916. Injury . Quercus. .. . . p. 1890..Larva feeds on foliage. . . Prunus. . U. . . . . Fifth rept. J. . bidentata Clerck. . . S. References – Packard. Fam. Fifth rept. Distribution — Norway. LEPIDOPTERA 1111 betularia Linn. . .Larvae eat foliage. . Comm. 1908. . Malus. . Arctiid we Hosts . . 50. Injury – Larva ties together terminal clusters of leaves and feeds within. Fam. Populus. . . A. 1889. . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyrus. . .Hicoria. . Fam. . Comm. Packard. . . References — Scudder. Lycaenidae Synonym — Thecla falacer Godart. . Fam. . . . . . Canada. and other species. . . . . 338. p. .. Prunus. Wageningen. . . and other species. . . . Ulmus. . . . . . 1890. . . Injury – Larvae defoliate trees and may attack flowers or fruit. . 64. . . .. Mary C. . .United States and Canada. Crataegus. . Phytopath. Fam. Smith. . . . Geometridae Hosts – Corylus. .. and other species. Distribution – United States east of Rocky Mountains. Theobald. Injury . 1910. p. . Manual of injurious insects. . Prunus. Catocala. 533. . 3. . Injury – Larvae feed on foliage. 536. .. A. Quercus. 1909. Malus. . . Acer. Distribution – Europe. V. . . . . . . Hicoria. . . Manual of injurious insects. . . . . . . . . Quercus. . .Larva eats holes in leaves. . . U. Salix. . Cheimatobia (Winter moth) . Reference – Spuler. . Tortricidae Hosts . 2:885. 2:283. p. Caroline G. Epiblema. Crataegus. . p. - Reference – Spuler. . caryae Harris. . . . F. 1909. . Populus. . 1901.Europe. . . . . . . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . Lasiocampidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . Asia. Schmetterlinge Europas. . .Larvae defoliate trees in late summer. . . Reference — Soule.Europe. Japan. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . 138. . . . Fam. Distribution – North America east of Rocky Mountains. . . Quercus. .* . Dickerson. Dienst. . Psyche 6: 158. Amphidasis (Pepper-and-salt moth) . . . p. . . .. . Insect pests of fruits. 1912. .Europe. . . . . .. Distribution . . . . . Ent. Betula. Injury – Larva eats leaves. brumala Linn. .. . . . . Halisidota (Hickory tussock moth) .Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Betula. . 1:117. Distribution — Eastern United States. Geometridae Hosts – Fruit and forest trees (except conifers) and shrubs. Hosts . .. . . . Fam. Distribution . . . . . Ent. . . . 1891. Noctuidae Host . Geometridae Hosts — Malus. Moths and butterflies. . . . Distribution .. Finland. Asia. . A. Greenland. . Reference — Theobald. Pyrus. . . . . . . . . Med. A. . . Fifth rept. . .Crataegus. . . . References – Packard. . . . p.. Reference – Collinge. p. . 1890. . Saturniidae Hosts — Crataegus. . Comm. Syringa.. U. S. . 360. which they cover with silken tents. . S. cecropia Linn. Betula. . . . . Japan. S. .. References – Ormerod. . . 476. . . . . Cydonia. . 1909. F. Strymon (Banded hair-streak). Fam. Gonodontis (Scalloped hazel moth). Injury . . Fam. E. . S. 1890. . . . Crataegus. Ent. .

R.Crataegus and most other deciduous trees. . . concomitella Bnks. .Malus. . . Crataegus. Pyrus. . . . . . . C. . . . . . chionosema Zell. .1112 LEPIDOPTERA cerisolella Pey. . 1910. . . 2:444. . . . . Prunus. . Pyrus. 125. . . . sometimes defoliating hawthorn hedges. .. Lithocolletis. . . Prunus. . . 1914. .Crataegus oxyacantha. Fam. . . . Manual of fruit insects. p. . . . . Distribution — Europe. and other species. . . . . . . . Gracilariidae Synonym –Lithocolletis pomifoliella Zell. Theobald. . Asia. . .Larvae defoliate branches. . . and Crosby. Notodontidae Hosts . New England States. . . . . . . .) cognatellus Hüb. Crataegus. Prunus. .Larva makes serpentine mine in leaf. References – Saunders. Lyonetiidae Hosts . . . . Olethreutes. Geometridae (See page 1076. 1872. . . . Fam.. . . . . . . . . . . Distribution — Southern France. . . Can. . 1872. . . p. . Yponomeuta (Hedge ermine moth) . Lithocolletis.Malus. . Crataegus. . Ligustrum. . . 1872. . . P. congelatella Clerck. . . . Reference . . . . . . Distribution — Europe. A. 208. . p. . . . Fam. . Schmetterlinge Europas.Europe. F. 1910. . Injury . . . . . . 1908. . . . . . Fam. . Insect pests of fruits. . Distribution . Diloba (Figure-8 moth) . . . . . .North America.Larva eats leaves. . . .Larvae defoliate trees. and other species. 13:139. . . . . . J. . . . . . . . .. . . . Spuler. . . . . Injury . . Lyonetia. . . Injury . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . References — Kaltenbach. H. . Tortricidae (See page 1077. . . . . 208. . . . . . . . .. A. Euonymus. Sorbus torminalis. . p. . . . A. . . . A. William. . Asia Minor. . . . Tortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. 1910. .. . . . 1:132. . . . . . . 1909. . . . Prunus. . . . Injury . A. . . . 198. . .Larva mines in leaf. Fam. . .. . . . sometimes stripping hedges. . clerkella Linn. . .. . . L cia. Injury . . . . V. 1 81. Fam. and S. J. . . . . . . .Crataegus.Kaltenbach. . Crataegus. . . .Spuler. 2:415. coeruleocephala Linn. cognataria Guen. . . Fam. Betula. . Rubus. . . References . Fam. . . Gracilariidae Hosts . . Slingerland. . . . . M. . . . .Fam. feeding in a colony. Sorbus. Reference – Spuler. . Noctuidae Hosts . . . . . . . .. . . p. Distribution . .. . H. Lymantriidae Hosts . . Injury . . . . . concinna A. . References – Spuler. . . . Injury . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . . . 1910.) chrysorrhea Linn. . . . Noel. Exapate. .Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . and other species. Sorbus. . . . . J. . . H. . . . Yponomeutidae Hosts . Hosts — Malus. . .. ent. Fam. . . Injury . . . Schizura (Red-humped apple caterpillar). . Distribution – Europe. .Pyrus. . .Larva eats foliage. Distribution – Europe. Pflanzenfeinde. 2:415. . .V. . . . . 35. . . . . References — Kaltenbach. Pflanzenfeinde. . . Spuler. . . Jardinage 4:363. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . 1914. . . .Larva mines in leaf on under side.. . . . . . . 2:422. Berberis. . Euproctis (Brown-tail moth) . Schmetterlinge Europas. . .

. p. . 1918. . Schmetterlinge Eurcpas. . Pyrus. .Europe. . 1890. Schmetterlinge Europas. Soc. Quercus. Naturgeschichte der schiid lichen Forstinsekten. Fam. . contaminana Hüb. E. Pflanzenfeinde. . Fam. . . . . . . crataegella Linn. p. Injury – Larva mines in leaf. ent. . . . . Distribution . Lithocolletis. . 2:443. . U. . . . H. Sorbus. A. Trans. . G. . . . . . . J. . . Amer. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Pieridae Hosts . . Fam. Injury . .Crataegus. . 209. . 11 : 126. . . .Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . . . . A. Gracilariidae Hosts . . . References — Kaltenbach. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . Distribution – Europe. .. . . 1872. . . . and other species. corylifoliella Haw. F. ent. . . Acalla. .. . . . . Sta. . . . . Distribution – Europe. 1910. 2:245. . 8:72. Fam. Reference – Stainton. . . . Sorbus. . . and Scharfenberg. 532. . . Pyrus. . Injury – Larva mines in leaf and later feeds externally on leaf. . Noctuidae Host – Crataegus. J. . Malus. .. Fam. . . . . S. Can. - Distribution — Europe. . . . . crataegella Clem. 1872. . Pflanzenfeinde. Distribution – Europe. Pyrus. . . . Lyonetiidae Host – Crataegus. . Distribution – Eastern North America. References — Kaltenbach. F. . . . 1872. . . . . . . J. . . Yponomeutidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . Spuler. . . . . . . . . . Populus. LEPIDOPTERA 1113 References — Kaltenbach. . . J. rept. often stripping trees. Fam. . 7:68. Journ. . . . . . A. . . . . Injury . . . Quercus.Crataegus. . and other species. . . . 209. . . . 1910. Injury – Larva feeds on foliage. Malus. . .. . Spuler.Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . Scythropia . Asia. . . Prunus spinosa. .. . Ent. . . . . Tortricidae Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . Catocala. . References — Bechstein. p. . . Injury . J. Cacoecia. . Salix. 169. . . . . . Comm. . H. .. R. . Packard. . . . . . . crataegana Hüb. . . Injury . . - Sasscer. . .Larva mines in leaf. . 2:417. 34:301. . . 1910. A. . Pflanzenfeinde. . 303. L. . 1862. Betula. . Distribution — Europe. . . and other species. . 1908. . . . . . Ent. . . . 1910. . . . . William. . . 2: 119.Crataegus. A. . 210. M. . . . . . . 2:254. . . Lithocolletis. . Malus. . . Prunus. crataegi Zell. . p. . T. .Larva eats foliage. . . . crop pest and hort. . . . A. Distribution — North America. . Injury . . . . . .Crataegus. A. . . Pyrus. 1805. . . . . S. Spuler. . . . . . . . Oregon Agr. References — Saunders. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Spuler.. crataegi Linn. Schmetterlinge Eurcpas. . . . Fam. . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . Fifth rept. . . . . 2:247. . . References — Kaltenbach. . . 1910. . Pyrus. . econ. . Fam. . . 1876. Prunus serolina. . p. References – Braun. . .Larva spins a tent over the branch and eats the leaves within it. 1872. Tortricidae Synonym — Penthina robrana Schiff. H. Natural history of the Tineina. . . Reference – Spuler. . . Gracilariidae Hosts . Exp. 1915. Quercus. . Malus. .Crataegus. . Hosts . . . Aporia (Fruit-tree pierid). H. . . .. Cotoneaster. . Bucculatrix . crataegi Saund. p. Prunus. . . . Bien. . . . . . H. . . . . Wilson. . Pflanzenfeinde. .. .

.Larva feeds on foliage. Ent. Fam. . Malus. U. . . . H. . . . S. . . . . Geometridae Hosts . . . . . J. Distribution — Europe. H. 1908. . crataegifoliella Clem. . 163. . Salix. 209. 534. Lymantriidae Hosts . . Fam. . . . . . . Alnus. . Injury . . . . . . Reference – Packard. . . Betula.. 33:292. . . Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lasiocampidae Hosts — Prunus. . Spuler. - Hosts -Acer campestre. . . . . Nepticula. . . F. . . . . 2:122. . . . . .Larva eats foliage. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. A. p. . . Comm. . . S. Soc. . . . Comm. . Mosher. . U. . A. . 1:131. . . . cuculla Esp. . . . . Cosmopterygidae (See page 1080. . 1907. References — Kaltenbach. . References – Packard.. . . Lymantria (Gipsy moth) . . .Notodonta cucullina Hub. p. . . . . Crataegus. Distribution — North America. . . . . Corylus. .Species a very general feeder on trees. . . Prunus. A. . . . . . Lasiocampidae Hosts – Acer. W. . . . .Crataegus uniflora. . 1908. . . Reference — Kaltenbach. . Quercus. . . .Malus. . . . Trichiura. . . . . Nolidae Synonym – Hercyna palliolalis Hüb. . .. Pflanzenfeinde. . H. Ornix . . Fam. . S. . . p. . Betula. . . . . . Distribution — Europe. . . . Blastodacna (Hawthorn fruit miner). . . . . . . . . Trans. . .. 1872. Bul. . A. . . p. . S. . Crataegus. . . . . . . . Fam. 1910. . . . . . Asia Minor. Gracilariidae Host–Crataegus tomentosa. Fam. . .) dactylina Grote. Injury . . References — Kaltenbach. Asia. . . . . Quercus. . Hosts — Prunus. p. . .) defoliaria Linn. Distribution — Europe. . Dietz. .Larvae defoliate trees. 1890. 1890. . . . Injury .Larva mines in leaf. . . 1909. A. . 1872. . . . . Ent. . . . Fam.. . . . . Fifth rept. . cucullalella Linn. Distribution – Eastern United States. Agr. J. . . . Hibernia (Mottled umber moth). . . Pflanzenfeinde. Fam. . . . . . W.Larva mines in leaf. .Larvae defoliate trees. Malacosom 1 (Forest tent caterpillar). . . F. . 58. Fam. . 1:114. 534. . . Insect pests of fruits. feeding in colonies. . Nola. and other species. Crataegus. Amer. . . . . Injury – Larvae defoliate branches. . . . . curvilineella Chamb. . Crataegus. . Nepticulidae Host . . . . . . Distribution – Europe. Fam. . . . .. . . Acronycta . . G. . . . . . . crataegifoliella Clem. Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . . . . . . Theobald. . . . . . . Malus. . Lophopteryx. . . Injury . . . . . p. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . New England States. . Dept. .. Ent. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . .Larva feeds on foliage. H. . . . . . Crataegus a favored food plant. . . disstria Hüb. U..1114 LEPIDOPTERA crataegi Linn. Distribution – Europe. . . . . . . . . . dispar Linn. . . . Injury . 1872. References – Spuler. . . . . . . . . . Fam. * Distribution — Eastern United States. Notodontidae Synonym . Injury . . and other species. . Noctuidae (See page 1073. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Fifth rept. J. . . 250. . . Pyrus. Reference – Spuler. 208. 1915. . . Injury . . S. .. Corylus. .

. . References — Kaltenbach. Thyridopteryx (Common bagworm) . . . .Larva feeds in leaf roll. . H. Ent. Injury – Larva defoliates trees. Ent. Fam. . p. W. Fam. . . . Pyrus. . . . W. Cydonia.Europe.Crataegus. . p. . . . . . . . . Bur. 1891. 1: 139. . . . 1909. Crambus oxyacanthae Fabr. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . Fam. including Crataegus. . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . and Scharfenberg. ephemeraeformis Haw. euphorbiae Fabr. . J. . . Injury . . . 2:447. . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Prunus. . . . . . Quercus. . . 1908. . . . . . Holcophora. . . .Larva eats foliage. Asia Minor. . 119. . Noctuidae Hosts . . Hosts – Crataegus. . . 208. and Crosby. . . .Bechstein. . Naturgeschichte der schäd lichen Forstinsekten. 1872. . Insect life 4: 75. . 1914. Injury . . . Distribution .. Fam. C. . . . . . 1872. M.. . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . fasciellus Hüb. Distribution . . . S. . . . A. fletcherella Fern. . and Crosby. H. .Tinea oxyacanthella Linn. . . . . . . .. Acronycta . . Rhamnus. . Spuler.Larva feeds on foliage. . . . . . M. . . . . . Amer. . . Elachistidae Hosts . .Argyresthia pruniella Linn. Glyphipterygidae Synonyms . . . . .. . 805. . . . . . Prunus. .. . . . . . . A. . . . R. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . 210. . Schmetterlinge Europas. William. Prunus. . . . 1887. . p. . . dubitata Linn. . Asia. 1890. . Fam. . . . . . 3:157. Geometridae Hosts . Gelechiidae Hosts . . .. Pyrus. . . . . . . . . . Psychidae Hosts — Species a very general feeder on trees and shrubs. . . Hosts – Crataegus. Distribution .North America. . . . . Hosts . . . . Corylus. Schmetterlinge Europas. 80:33. . . . . p. . G. .Larva eats leaf and blossom buds. Spuler. . . . . 47. . . . . . Crataegus. . . . . Argyresthia. Pyrus.Prunus. . . - References — Kaltenbach. Fam. Fam. .North America east of Rocky Mountains. . . . 1910. . . . . . . Slingerland. 1872. Asia. . . . . . . Crataegus.Europe. \ fabriciana Linn. 2:354. J. . 1910. .Malus. Parietaria. . 1910. . .. References – Hammar. . . . H. Injury . 1910. Crataegus. Reference . Injury-Tarva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . Spuler. . Distribution – Europe. . A. . M. . . A. Calocala. Manual of fruit insects. . . . C. Sorbus. Distribution – Europe. Simaethis.. . Reference – Spuler. . . . . . . . .Urtica. . . . including Crataegus. . . p. Injury . .Larva eats holes into leaf and makes a small blotch mine around each hole. . J. . . G. Manual of fruit insects. Asia Minor. p. 2:297. . Bul. . . . . . 166. . . . LEPIDOPTERA 1115 References – Insect life 3:478. 2:36. . . . . . Injury . R.Beutenmueller. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Fam. . References . . . ... Triphosa. 1914. . U. . Distribution .Catocala paranympha Linn. L. . Julminea Scop. . . Slingerland. . ephippella Fabr. Coleophora (Cigar case-bearer). . . Yponomeutidae Synonym . . . Symphytum. . A. . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde.Larva webs leaves together and feeds on them. . Spuler.. Injury . . . Distribution — Europe. J.Species a general feeder on trees. . . Noctuidae Synonym . . 1805.. A. .

. . Dichelia . . . Nepticulidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. Spuler. . - . . 208. Prunus. . Coleophora. . . . . . holmiana Linn. Fam. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . Injury – Larva tunnels in fruit of Crataegus and in fruit spurs and buds of apple. Injury – Larva feeds on foliage.. gothica Linn. . Asia. . Distribution — Europe.Europe. . . . . 2:387. . 1908. . . ortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. . Journ. . . Prunus. p.. . . Injury . . . Pflanzenfeinde. Fam. hemerobiella Scop. . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . Fam. . . . . . . . . Injury – Larva rolls leaf and feeds within the roll. Malus. . . . . . . . . Ornir (Unspotted tentiform leaf miner of apple). . . . 1908. 92. Tortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . . . Pyrus. . . . . . . . . . hellerella Dup. . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . 210. . Alnus. 208. Asia Minor. . agr. Taeniocampa. . J. . Reference – Spuler. . 2:400. . . . . . . Reference – Spuler. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . p. . . Pyrus.. 187. . Schmetterlinge Europes. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . 1910. . . Injury – Larva ties leaves and feeds on them. . . . Injury . . . . . . . References — Kaltenbach. . . . gratiosella Stt. . Betula. .Larva mines in leaf. H. . A.. . . .. . . . . Prunus. H. Injury – Larva feeds on foliage. . A. Schmetterlinge Europas. Distribution – Europe. . . and other species. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . glaucatus Schiff. . Spuler. . . .1116 LEPIDOPTERA Distribution . Distribution — Europe. Distribution – Eastern United States. . . . . Reference – Spuler. . . . . V. Quercus.. . . . . . . . Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rubus. . . Acalla. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . Schmetterlinge Eurcpas.Larva mines in leaf. 1916. . A. Asia. . 1872. A. . 1909. References – Theobald. . and other species. . . . . . . 1910. . . . . . . Injury – Larva eats star-shaped area from under side of leaf. . . . Fagus. 1910. . . . . . . . . . . . . Nepticula. 1872. . 1:317. . . . grotiana T. . . . 1910. . . . . . . heparana Schiff.. Pyrus. Cosmopterygidae . . . L. . . . . Ulmus. . . Asia. Fam. . Malus. . Reference – Haseman. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Spuler. . . . p. . . . References Kaltenbach. Fam. . Blastodacna. . Distribution — Europe. . Japan. Insect pests of fruits. Quercus. . Schmetterlinge Europas. and other species. . . . . . . . geminatella Pack. . . . .. . 1:239.Prunus. 1872. . Crataegus. . . 6:289. References — Kaltenbach. . 1:107. . . . Spuler. Drepanidae Hosts . . Malus. H. Pandemis. . Spuler. . . . Quercus. . 208. . . J. . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. . Pflanzenfeinde. 2:476. . 1908. . Rosa. . . F. Distribution — Europe. . J. . . . 1910. . Fam. . res. A. Ciler. . . . . Noctuidae Hosts — Crataegus. A. . . Tilia. . Fam. . . . Sorbus. . Pyrus. 2:246. . . . . . Gracilariidae Synonym — Lithocolletis prunivorella Chamb. . . . 2:249. H. p. . . . . Prunus. - Hosts – Crataegus. . . Fam. . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. References – Kaltenbach. . . . . . . J. . Distribution – Europe. Tortricidae Hosts — Crataegus. . Elachistidae Hosts – Crataegus. .

. . . . . 1909. . . Host–Crataegus. . . . . . . Fam. . . . . . . . Reference — Packard. p. Comm. . 1909. . . . . . ignobilella Stt. . 2:244. . . . . . Insect pests of fruits. p. . A. . S. . S. . . . 1895. p. . Distribution — Europe. . Schmetterlinge Europas. Phycita nebulo Walsh. . . . . to Fabr. . . Crataegus. . . . . . Injury . . Fifth rept. . . . . . . .Larvae defoliate branches. . . .Europe. Nepticulidae Host . lacustrata Guen. . and other species. inusitatumella Chamb.. . . . S. . ent. . Geometridae Hosts . Distribution – Eastern United States. . . Lasiocampidae Hosts . Crataegus. .. 1890. Memoir 1: 120. . . . . . Fam. . . References – Chambers. Nat. . . . Salix. . . . ..Crataegus. . Betula. . . . indigenella Zell. . A. . Distribution — North America. . . . . Reference . . . F. . . H.Larva feeds on foliage. . . and sometimes eats holes in apple fruit.Packard. 66. . . 1872. 1872. . . . Ornir. . . . Spuler. Pflanzenfeinde. .Riley. . Salix. Fam. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . * . Injury . . . . . . . Pyralidae Synonyms – Acrobasis nebulella Riley. . Sci. 208. Can. 1876. . . . . 158. 497. Noctuidae Synonym . . . Distribution – Europe. Quercus. . . . Hosts . . . Reference – Spuler. . . References — Kaltenbach. .Larva tunnels in fruit. . . A. . . . References . . Grapholitha . . . . . . . . Malus. . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . T. . . . 1910. . . . . Prunus. . feeding in a colony.Larva feeds on leaves. . p. . . . . . A. . . . . A.Larva eats leaves. Distribution – Eastern United States. . Insects of New Jersey. Distribution — Europe. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas.Northeastern North America. . A. 42. . . . Fam. . 2:294. B. Datana (Black-walnut caterpillar). . . Injury – Larva mines in leaf. Ent. 1872. Crataegus. . . .Larva mines in upper surface of leaf. . p. . Asia. . . A monograph of the geometrid moths of the United States. Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . W. . . H.. . . . . Injury . . . . . Taeniocampa. . . Notodontidae Hosts . . . . . . . J. . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . 2:477. Hosts . J. . . Asia Minor. and other species. . p. and R. .. . . .. Mineola (Leaf crumpler). . . Nepticula . U. . . . . J. . . . Automeris . . . . Fam. . . p. . . . Fam. . . . incerta Hufn. Theobald. . and other species. Fam. . Distribution . . .Crataegus oxyacantha. Smith.Malus.Juglans. then in twigs. . . . . . . . . . Acad. . . Betula. W. . . 536. . . Europe. p. LEPIDOPTERA 1117 Injury – Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . Mesoleuca. Fourth Missouri report. J. . integerrima G. . 210.. . Crataegus. . H. 1873. Injury . .. Distribution . Spuler. .Taenioc mpa instabilis Hüb. Fam.. Hicoria. . South America. . . . . . . . Tilia. . Malus. . . References — Kaltenbach. . Injury . . . . . Eriogaster. . . .. . .Prunus. . W. lanestris Linn. . . Fam. .) janthinana Dup. 1910.Rubus. Gracilariidae Host – Crataegus. . . 5:48. . . . . . . 211. 1910. 1872. . . . C. . Packard. . Hicoria pecan. . . . . . . Salix. S. . . . . . . Tortricidae Synonym – Tortrix incisana Schiff. . Schmetterlinge Europas. living in a case composed of leaf particles and silk. . . . . Saturnindae (See page 1073.

1890. . . Fam. .United States. Schmetterlinge Europas. . ...Larvae defoliate branches. parops Bdv. J. . . Fragaria. . Distribution — Europe. 1910. 208. . . S. Amelanchier. . . Crataegus. 210. A. Pflanzenfeinde. Noctuidae Hosts . Asia. . . . A. Pflanzenfeinde. . .. . Geometridae Hosts . References — Scudder. . Pyrus. S. . . . 1872. . Pflanzenfeinde. .Packard. . . . Japan. . leucostigma A. . Malus. . p. J. . . . . Sorbus. . . Packard. Packard. . . References . . . 209. H. . S. . .Larva eats entire leaf and sometimes bores into fruit. . ..Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. Trichosea. . H. . . . p. Distribution . . A. . . Hosts . . Salix. . J. Schmetterlinge Europas. . Geometridae Synonym . H. References — Kaltenbach. . Pflanzenfeinde. . . Injury . .. . . 536. and other species. and other species. . . . Comm. . Asia. . Fam.. . . 210. 1:135. Fifth rept. . .Crataegus. . . Injury . 1890. . . 536. Reference – Spuler. . . Injury . 1910. U.. Strymon (Striped hair-streak). . . . . . feeding gregariously in a white tent of silk. . . Distribution — North America. Ent. . . . . . . . . Fam. lutarea Haw. Fam. Spuler. . . . . . . p. A. . . Butterflies of New England. and Lec. 2:356. . Recurvaria. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. 1876. U.Europe. . lunaria Schiff. . Hosts . . Crataegus. . . . . p. . A. and other species. . . . . . References — Kaltenbach. . S. . . . . Fifth rept. 1872. . . .Larva eats parenchymous tissue of leaves. . . . 2:877. . Geometridae Hosts . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . . 1908.Swammerdamia oxyacanthella Dup. . 1889.. . 1872. . . . . . . . . . . . Injury . . . .Larva eats foliage. . . .Crataegus. .Crataegus. Gelechiidac Hosts . Selenia. . . . . . 2:445. . . . H.1118 LEPIDOPTERA Injury . . . . Crataegus. 1908. . . Distribution . Schmetterlinge Europas. Distribution – Europe. . Quercus. . Distribution . . .Sorbus. . . Spuler. . . Nematocampa. J. Spuler. . H. . . . . Swammerdamia.Nematocampa filamentaria Guen. References — Kaltenbach. . .Europe. . . A. Fam. .Quercus.Malus. which it ties together. . . 471. . . . Prunus. Hibernia. 1872. . . . leucophaearia Schiff. . . . . . . . . and S. Reference — Kaltenbach. .Larva eats foliage. Prunus. S. . . . . .Fam. . . 165. Fam. .) limbata Haw. A. . Fam. Schmetterlinge Europas. Injury . Injury . . . Ent. . .Europe. . p. . S. Prunus. Sorbus. . . . . . . . . A monograph of the geometrid moths of the United States. .Malus. Comm. . . . .Larva eats leaves. . 782. Hemerocampa (White-marked tussock caterpillar)..Larva eats leaves. 2:98. . Yponomeutidae Synonym . . A. 1872.. . Distribution — Europe. . . . . . . Asia. . p. Spuler. Prunus. p. Lymantriidae (See page 1075. . . leucatella Clerck. . . Canada. .. . . . . 1910. . . . J. . . Distribution . Injury . . . Lycaenidae Hosts . . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. ludifica Linn. Crataegus. . 1: 117. p. .

.. . . . . . . . Distribution — North America. . . Geometridae (See page 1076. . . . . . . and Leonard. . C. Fam.. . . Pierce. . Tilia. M. . . . . beans. . Distribution – Europe. - ministra Dru. and other species. . . Sphingidae Hosts . . . . . . . . Comm.. . . Manual of vegetable garden insects. .. . . . . . . . . Fam. . . . malivorella Riley. p. . Injury . 1917. . Acronycta . . A. Trochilium. and S. R. Asia. . . . . . . . . . Hosts . LEPIDOPTERA * 1119 luteicoma G. . Pflanzenfeinde. . Central America. . and other species. . . . . . . . . 1918. Bul. . . Lithocolletis (Spotted tentiform leaf miner of apple). 2:99. magnarius Guen. .. 1908. 2:310. . . . . . . . Crataegus. 535. D. . W. . . Distribution – Eastern United States. H. Comm. . . Fam. . . S. . . References – Spuler. .. . Corylus. . References – Packard. . . Heterocampa. Malus. . Gracilariidae Hosts . . F. Strymon (Common hair-streak). . S. . . . Betula. 2:850.Larva eats foliage. . . . . . Butterflies of New England. Datana (Yellow-necked apple caterpillar). . . Crosby. . Injury . Distribution – Europe.Hops. . . . . Crataegus. . . . S. . p. . Trans. Injury .) manteo Doub. . . S. . . Injury – Larva mines in under side of leaf. Elachistidae (See page 1079. Reference – Spuler. . . A. . . .Crataegus. . . . . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Fam. Lycaenidae Hosts . .. Sesiidae Hosts . . . . . . . . . . Notodontidae (See page 1075. . . 34:300. . . Cydonia. and R. northern Africa. Asia Minor. Packard. References – Scudder. . . Tischeria (Apple trumpet leaf-miner). . . U. .Larva eats leaves. Injury . Amer.) myopiforme Bkh. . . Gracilariidae Hosts . Fam.) malifoliella Clem. . . Quercus. .Prunus. Fifth rept. . . . . . . S. . . Notodontidae (See page 1074. malimalifoliella Braun.. . . 1872. . . . . .. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . .. U. 165. Schmetterlinge Europas. Distribution — North America. Ent. . and other species. . . . . Reference — Kaltenbach. . Opisthograptis. Sorbus. . . 132.. . . Pyrus. . .. . . 84. Fam. . . Ent. . Prunus. . . . Geometridae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . . . . . Crataegus. . .Rumia crataegata Linn. S. Fam. . . . . . . Injury – Larva eats leaves and sometimes bores into fruit. . . Injury – Larva mines in upper side of leaf. . . . . Quaintance. . 1889. Manual of dangerous insects. L. . Salix. . p. . Reference – Braun. . . . . A. 1890. 536. . . . . D.. . . . Hibernia. . . . .Larva tunnels under bark of unhealthy trees. 1910. . . . . . 1910. . . . . Paonias. . . Ent.. . . . . Populus. Prunus domestica. Geometridae Synonym . . . . 1908. Noctuidae (See page 1073. Fam. . Fam. Ent. p. . . . . J. . Pyrus communis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Malus. . . . U. . . Coleophora (Pistol case-bearer).) marginaria Borckh. . Ennomos. .. . . . . . p. . .. . . . . . Asia. . Fam. . Bur. . . . . Fifth rept. A. . . Crataegus.Larva eats foliage. . . . .Malus malus. 1890. Fam. . . Soc. A. Distribution – Europe. .Malus. . . . . . . . melinus Hüb.) luteolata Linn. . widening the mine gradually as it grows. . myops A. Crataegus mollis. . A. . Fam. . . . 68:23.

Pflanzenfeinde. . . F. . . . . and Dustan. Rubus. References — Spuler. .. . . .) ocellana Fabr. Branch. Betula. . . . Injury – Larva destroys buds in early spring. Canada Agr. Crataegus. . . Populus. . . . . Malus. . Schmetterlinge Europas.. Distribution – Europe. . . . A. Distribution – Europe. . 1: 115. . . 1872. . . . . . A. F.. . . . . . Recurvaria (Lesser apple bud moth) . 1910.. and mine in leaves in late summer. . . . . . Tortricidae Hosts — Crataegus. . Betula. . and later ties the leaves together and feeds on them. Tmetocera (Bud moth) . Malacosoma (Lackey moth) . . .) nubilana Hüb. . . frequently defoliating fruit trees. . . Prunus. . Fam. 211. . . Malus. A. . Fam. . . Pyrus. 1890. and Paine. . . . .Larva eats leaves of new shoots and ties them together. Fam. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . and R. . Hosts – Crataegus. . References — Kaltenbach. . . 16:33. . 210. . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . . p.. . nitidella Hein.1120 Lermorrera Distribution — Eastern United States. . . Distribution .. Pyrus. S. . .. . J. Injury – Larva destroys young shoots of hawthorn. . . Injury . . . . . p. Argyresthia (Cherry fruit moth). Theobald. . E. Distribution — Europe. . . . . . . . . . . Insect pests of fruits. Reference – Spuler. J. . A. Sorbus. . . H. . Spuler. . . Comm. Bul. . occidentalis G. . Spuler. Asia. 1910. . . . . Dept. Fam. . 536. . . . and other species. Tortricidae Hosts — Prunus. Schmetterlinge Europas. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yponomeutidae Hosts — Prunus. Dept. . E. . namella Hüb. Injury – Larvae destroy opening buds. North America. . Gelechiidae Synonym – Recurvaria crataegella Busck. Bul. nitidella Fabr. . A. .Crataegus oxyacantha. Cnephasia. . . Reference – Packard. References — Kaltenbach.. . Cydonia. . . . References – Scott. . . Tortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. . 1910. . Nepticula. . . and builds silken ten] over colony. . Pflanzenfeinde. . . .. Rhopobota. . . . A. . H. Schmetterlinge Europas. . Theobald. Distribution – Europe. . Distribution – Europe. . . . . .. . Fam. . . . .. . and other species. . . Agr. . . Malus. . U. . . . . Ent. . . Ancylis. Sanders. 1908. . . Tortricidae (See page 1077. . . .. . 192. . Pflanzenfeinde.. . . . . . .Malus. Fam. A. . . . . . . 30. . . . . Crataegus. Fam. nubeculana Clem. V. - Distribution — Southwestern Germany. . . . W. . . Acronycta . . . Quercus. Fam. . . . H. . p. H. . Ilex. . . . . . J. . . . 1872. 1919. . . . . V. . Injury . . . . . . . . . Prunus. . and bores into cherry fruit. . 1914. G. 2:273. . Noctuidae (See page 1074. 1909. . J. Spuler. S. . . . . Fam. 2:447. . . p. .. 2:474. . 2:253. . Crataegus. S. . . . . G.. . Rhamnus. . . Nepticulidae Host . naevana Hüb. . . North America. . .Europe. Pyrus. . . . Lasiocampidae Hosts . .. . . . . Ent. . p. . . and other species. . Pyrus. 1910. . . . . 1872. Sorbus. . U. Schmetterlinge Europas. . neustria Linn. . Prunus. . . . References — Kaltenbach. . Malus. . . 209. . . . . . Injury – Larva eats leaves. Fifth rept. 1909. . . . Injury – Larva feeds between leaves tied together with silk. . . . Prunus. . 113.Larva mines in leaf. . . . 525.

Asia Minor. A. . . . . . . 1872. . . . pedaria Fabr. . Asia. . ent. . . . 1910. . then skeletonizes it. Schmetterlinge Europas. Distribution — Europe. . . . . . A.. . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . References — Bechstein. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . oxyacanthae Linn. . . . econ.. . . . . . Betula. . . . . . . - LEPIDOPTERA 1121 References — Kaltenbach. Fam. . Sorbus. . Glyphipterygidae Hosts — Malus. E. . . . . . Felt. . . Spuler. Distribution — Europe.) oxyacanthae Frey. Noctuidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . J. . Yponomeuta (Hawthorn ermine moth). . . . . . . . . W. Prunus. . Fam. A. . . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . and Scharfenberg. . Injury – Larva mines in under side of leaf. . References – Theobald. 199. Sta. oleagina Fabr. oxyacanthella Stt. . . . F. . . . . 1872. . Crataegus. . 82. Asia Minor. . L. 1910. . . Parrott. . . . . . . . H. . . Nepticula. . . . . . Vitis. Injury – Larva makes a slight web over the leaf. Reference – Spuler. References — Spuler. . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . 1:204. . . Naturgeschichte der schäd lichen Forstinsekten. . 2:100. . . . . . .. then skeletonize leaves while living colonially in tents. Geometridae Hosts — Pyrus. . . Distribution – Europe. . . Hosts – Crataegus. 192. . Asia Minor. - Slingerland. . . Argyresthia. A. . 1908. . . . . . . . 2:474. . 107. Injury – Larva mines in leaf on upper side. . . p. . . . . . . Prunus. Gracilariidae Host . p. Quercus. . . . North America (recently imported). . . G. . . . p. . - References — Kaltenbach. . 1:185. . . . J.Crataegus oxyacantha. . . 202:33. . . . . p. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . Crataegus. . 1909. . . H.Hyponomeuta padella Linn. . . . . . 1872. Distribution — Europe. . . . Fam. Simaethis. . . . . Injury – Larva feeds on foliage at night. . . pariana Clerck. . . . . 1918. . . W. . . . 1908. 1805. Spuler. Malus malus. . . Prunus. . . . . Fam. Lithocollelis. - References — Kaltenbach. . References — Kaltenbach. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Bul. . . A. . Pflanzenfeinde. . Nepticulidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . P. . .. . . Fam. . 211. . . P. . . . . . . Journ. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. p. . . M. . . p. J. . . . F. 1910. 11:55. Exp. - Injury – Larvae mine in leaves while young. . Insect pests of fruits. . W. M. J. padellus Linn. . . . Yponomeutidae (See page 1078. . . J. . . . . Theobald. 1910. Prunus. . Spuler. Pflanzenfeinde.. . . Fam. Miselia. . . . . H. Fam. .. . . . . . 1896. . 1917. . . . North America (recently imported). . . . . . . New York State Mus. Bul. 86. . . H. . . . . . 1872. . and other species. . . A. . . . Agr. . . . . Yponomeutidae Synonym . 2:297.. Spuler. .. . Injury – Larva eats foliage. . 1909. . . . Phigalia. . . . Distribution — Southern Europe. Injury – Larva eats foliage at night. . . . Distribution – Europe. . . oreasella Clem. . Insect pests of fruits. . . 504. p. . . J. Fam. 164. . . . . 2:415. Distribution — Europe. Valeria. Cornell Univ. Betula. . . . Noctuidae Hosts – Crataegus. . Sorbus. . .

. . . Lasiocampidae Hosts — Populus. 2:4. 1889. . and other species. . . 1914. Can. . . Crataegus. . . 1:2. . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . References – Bruner. . . . . p. 1876. 1894. Prunus. Fam. Fam. . . . . .) pomifoliella Clem. . . . Ulmus. . . . . . . J. . . and Crosby. References — Kaltenbach. . Edwards. Mus. Manual of vegetable garden insects. U. . . . 34. Injury . . Rept. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . Crosby. . H. H. . 1890. . References — Kaltenbach. . . Tilia.Larva eats leaves. . Alsophila (Fall cankerworm) . . 8:72. populi Linn. . . . Insect pests of fruits. . . . Asia. . . Nebraska State Hort. Tilia. 1872. References — Saunders. p. . Distribution – North America. . . . . Juglans regia. . 1894:216. E. . . Distribution – Europe. . . 1872. p. . polyphemus Cram. . . . Crataegus. . M. C. Pyrus. . Mary C. . . . polygama Guen. . . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Fam. H. . . . Betula. . . Geometridae (See page 1076.. Noctuidae Hosts . Ent. . . . . . Fam. . C. . . 10. . D. . . and other species. . . . Injury . . 208. . S. S. . . R. . . . . Australia.Larva eats foliage. . . 1910. Amygdalus. Injury . . . . . . . . Poecilocampa. . . . . . . . Hicoria. . Papilio. . . U. . Fam. . F. A. Theobald. Injury . . . 1918. . Manual of fruit insects. 35:97. . . Geometridae Hosts . . . . . Fam. . Distribution — Europe. . Vitis. . and Leonard. . . . 401. 1908. 169. p. . Catocala. . .. Asia Minor. . . . . . Fam. Salix. . . . . p. . and other species. . . . Prunus. Fifth rept. . Lyonetiidae (See page 1079. Tortricidae Hosts — Malus. . . Betula. V. . . Dickerson. Prodenia (Yellow-striped army worm) . . Fam. . - References — Essig. . . M. Nemoria. . . Soc. . . . . Saturniidae Hosts – Quercus. Distribution — Eastern North America. . . . . porrinata Zell. .. Africa.Corylus. Comm. . p. 1122 * LEPIDOPTERA podalirius Linn. . ent. . .. . . Nat. . . . Bucculatrix (Ribbed-cocoon-maker of apple). . . .. . 1901. . Crataegus. . - Injury – Larva eats foliage. A. . Injurious and beneficial insects of California. . . . . Noctuidae Host – Crataegus. William. Juglans. Distribution – Europe. . . . 1909. . 208. Telea. J. . O. . Injury – Larva feeds on foliage.. . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . .Medicago sativa. . . . . . . . Malus. . 1915. Rosa. W. . . . . . occasionally Crataegus. . .. . . .. . . . References – Packard. Cydia (Codling moth) .. . . . . . R. . .Larva eats foliage. .. . . Rosa. . . . . Ulmus. . . . . Distribution — Pacific coast of the United States. Slingerland. Spuler. . p. . L. . . . Fam. Distribution — Southern and central Europe. . Injury – Larva bores in fruit. . . .) pomonella Linn. 536. and others. . A. . . . . . 295. Crataegus. .Larva feeds on foliage. . Quercus. Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . Cydonia. North America. Bul. p. . . . . . . . . Sorbus. Moths and butterflies. . . . pometeria Peck. Papilionidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . S. . Reference – Spuler. praefica Grote. .

References — Kaltenbach. . . Malus. H. References — Kaltenbach. . .Larva mines in leaf. . .. . .. 2:265. . . . . H. . . . Injury . and other species. A. Bul. Distribution . U. . . . .Europe. L. .Crataegus. 171. . .Prunus. Fifth rept. . . . . . . . p. J.Larva mines in leaf. Crataegus. Fam. . 2:476. .Larva eats foliage. . p. . Crataegus.. . Nepticula . . . . . . . . Reference — Quaintance. .North America. . . . P. . 1890. Reference – Spuler. Salix. . . . . . Fam. . 1910. Reference . A. . . J. .Larva eats foliage. . . Fam. . Fam. . pyramidoides Guen. Japan. 1872. . Lymantriidae Hosts — Species a general feeder on fruit and forest trees. Distribution . . . H. . . Nepticula. . 1910. . . Fam. . Distribution . . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . . . Pyralidae Hosts — Mentha. ..Europe. . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . A. . . Nepeta. . 1913. W. . . A. Schmetterlinge Europas.North America east of Rocky Mountains. . . . LEpiportERA 1123 prunetorum Stt.Europe. 1872. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . .Malus. . Distribution . . . psi Linn. . Spuler. . S. Noctuidae Hosts – Crataegus and many other trees. . . . Noctuidae Hosts . .Larva bores in fruit. .Larva ties leaves together and feeds on them. . . . East Indies. . . Fam. . 1:238.Larva eats foliage. 2:473. . Asia Minor. 68:49. . . . . .. 1909. . .Larva feeds on leaves spun together with silk. . . Pflanzenfeinde.. Crataegus. . Asia.Larva eats foliage. . . . . Pyrausta. . . pruniana Hüb. . - Injury . . . . . . Argyroploce . p. . 208. . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . Dasychira (Red-tail moth). 3:384. . . . Injury . . . . . S.Europe. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. pyramidea Linn. . . . . . . . . . . . J. . . Ent. . Fam. . . . . . . Distribution – Europe. Comm. 1908. Distribution . . . . . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten. Sorauer. . . . . . Crataegus. . . . A. Laspeyresia (Lesser apple worm) . . . . . . . Amphipyra. . . . Rosa. . . . Asia. . 1872.. 1908.. . . Tortricidae Hosts . . . . . . . Injury . .Spuler. 41. 2:236. . . . . . Crataegus a favored food plant. . . . . Insect pests of fruits. . p. . . Spuler. . pudibunda Linn. 208. . 536. . . . . Bur. . . Ent. 209. Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . . . . . F. . J. . . . . . . Malus malus. . References — Kaltenbach. . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . . Acronycta (Dagger moth). pygmaeella Haw. . . . . . . A. Asia Minor. . . . . . . . Prunus. . . Distribution . Rosa. . 1910. . . . .Prunus. Distribution . Nepticulidae Hosts . . A. . . Asia. Fam. . .. U. p. . 199. . . Injury . . . . . . . . Plantago. . References – Spuler. Schmetterlinge Europas. A. . Spuler. purpuralis Linn. . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Schmetterlinge Europas. . . Prunus. . Nepticulidae Hosts – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . 1910. . . . . p. prunivora Walsh. . . S. . 1872. . . . . . 1908. 1:129. Fam. . . . Tortricidae Hosts . Injury . . Sorbus. . . - Injury . . . . . . . . . . . H. . Theobald. . . Injury . . . Salix. . Reference – Packard. Noctuidae Hosts – Crataegus and many other trees. . - Injury .Europe. Amphipyra. Asia.

. S. . Fam. quadrifasciana Fern. . . . Crataegus. . . . Aegeria (Pear borer). . Noctuidae (See page 1074. . . . . . 411. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . Nepticula. p. p. 1910. 1909. Injury – Larva eats foliage. . . . . . H. Eulia. Tortricidae (See page 1078. . 46. Tortricidae Hosts .. . Hosts — Pyrus. 1912. W. . Pflanzenfeinde. . Fam. . W. Populus. . . . . . . .Larva mines if leaf. A. Insect pests of fruits. . . Dept. . . Distribution . . . Gastropacha (Lappet moth). . . . Malus. 1910. Pyrus. Sesiidae Synonym . 1876. . Distribution — Europe. . . . . . .. and other species. p. Prunus. and other species. 211. . especially of nursery trees. . Quercus. . 2:296. H. . Quercus. Fam. . . E. . . . H.. . . . . . . . . . A. . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . . 35: 106. . . . References — Theobald.) regiella H. . ..Zeuzera aesculi Linn. . 1908. Pflanzenfeinde. . Prunus. . . . U. . . Bul. p. Salix. J. Hosts – Pyrus. Japan. . . . Distribution – Eastern United States. . F. . 1908. . J. . 80. . . . . Fam. . Prunus. . . Spuler. . . . Manual of injurious insects. Spuler. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . . p. . quernaria A. . p. . . . . . . Betula. . Ninth report on injurious insects of New York. 1889. . . . . Fam. . Theobald. F. .Europe. Pamene. V. . . S. Injury .. . References – Lintner. 887. . 426. . . Betula. . J. . . . Nacophora. References — Kaltenbach. . . .Sesia pyri Boisd. quercus Linn. . 137. . . . . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . Injury . Injury – Larva mines in solid healthy wood of branches. . Fam. . .Crataegus oxyacantha.. .. . . . 1893. . . . Lasiocampidae Hosts . . 208. . . . . . . Lasiocampidae Hosts — Malus. . . . . 2:475. . . . . A. . . . . Injury . . . U.. p. . . . . . Nepticulidae Host . 1909. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . .. . Fam. 1920. Cornus. . . . . 1872. . . A.Quercus. . . Fam. Agr. . . Mus. . . pyrina Linn. . . and other species. . . .Crataegus. . . . and S.. . . Collinge. . . . References — Pe: A. . 1872. Crataegus.Larva eats foliage. . Asia. . . Crataegus. . . Spuler. . . . Asia. Cossidae Synonym . . in spring. . North America. . S. . . . . . . . . rhediella Clerck. J. . . Insect pests of fruits. . . p. 1872. Injury . Malus. S. Reference – Brooks. Malus. . . . Asia.. . 208. . . . . . . . . . Nat. . .Larvae defoliate branches. . Asia Minor. . .. . . . Crataegus. Injury – Larva burrows in bark and sapwood. . . Bul. . . . . Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. References — Kaltenbach. . 1124 LEPIDOPTERA pyri Harris. . . . . Amelanchier. . . . . . . and other species. Geometridae . . . . . . . . H. . . . Edwards. . . . Spuler. . . . Zeuzera (Leopard moth) . . . . . . . . 1: 122.Crataegus. . . References — Kaltenbach. Distribution – Eastern North America. Lasiocampa. E. F. . . .. Distribution – Europe. .) quercifolia Linn. Fraxinus. . Ulmus. . . . . A monograph of the geometrid moths of the United States.Larva feeds in fruit of Crataegus and also eats leaves. Acronycta. . . radcliffei Harv. . Distribution – Europe. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . Prunus. Schmetterlinge Europas. 1: 118. .

Fam. North America. . similis Fuessl. . . . Crataegus.Larva ties several leaves together and feeds within. . . . 1872. 1917. . . rosana Linn. . . . . . . Injury – Larvae tie leaves together and feed on them. . . . . . Spuler. . Distribution – Europe. . . 2:249. O. . . Malus. Asia Minor. Hosts – Crataegus and most other fruit and non-coniferous forest trees. Distribution . Nepticulidae Host – Crataegus mollis. . . . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . A. 3:299. Tortricidae Synonym . 1910. Distribution — North America. . Crataegus. . . 197. F. . .Europe. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. .Europe. . . . H. Reference – Spuler. . Nepticula. . . . . . . . . 1910. . . . . . . 209.. . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . . . .. 1913. Japan. . . Hosts — Prunus.Larva eats foliage. . . Sesiidae (See page 1076. . . Tortricidae Synonym – Grapholitha kroesmanniana Hein. . . . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Steganoptycha. . W. . . . . Injury – Larva mines in leaf. . Ent. .. . .Liparis auriflua Hüb. Distribution . . . . 1909. A. . . . . .) selenana Guen. Injury . . . Lyonetiidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . Sorbus. . . . and Dustan. . . 2:270. . Reference – Spuler. . . Fam. -- LEPIDOPTERA 1125 ribeana Hüb. . and other species. . . . . Prunus. . . . . . . Injurious and beneficial insects of California. . . 16:30. P. Prunus. Distribution . . Amer. . p. . . . Distribution — Ohio. . . . A. 441. 2:276. Injury . . . . .. J. . . F. . . . 1909. . . . f signatana Dgl. . . p. Insect pests of fruits. . . . . . Sorbus. . Theobald. . Fam. . Trans. . Pandemis . . . Insect pests of fruits. References — Kaltenbach. . . Lymantriidae Synonym . rosaceana Harris. p. . . . J. Cacoecia (Oblique-banded leaf roller). E. References – Essig. Crataegus. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . A. . . . . . . . . . F. . Soc. . E. . . Distribution – Europe. Fam. . . Sorauer. . . . .. . . . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Ancylis. References — Kaltenbach. . . . . 80. . 1915. . . . . Fam. Fam. . . . . . . Asia. Pyrus. Injury – Larva eats young terminal leaves after tying them with silk. p. . . . Reference — Braun. Schmetterlinge Europas. Fam. . . Canada Agr. Injury – Larvae tie leaves together and feed on them. . Ent.Europe. Hosts . . . . Pyrus. . G. . . . . 43:167. Quercus. . . 1872. . . Spuler. . . . A. . . Branch. . . Bul. scitella Zell. . Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten. .Tortrix laevigana Schiff. . . . . . .Malus. . . . . Asia Minor. Tortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. . scitula Harris. . . . Injury . .. Injury – Larva mines in leaf. . and other species. . . . . 330. References — Theobald. H. . . . Cemiostoma (Pear leaf blister moth). Dept. East Indies.. . . . scintillans Braun. . . . . 2:223. . Malus. Prunus. Porthesia (Gold-tail moth). . . . . . Cacoecia. . . . . Rosa. . Sesia. . . . Fam. . 1919. . 1910. . . . . . Tortricidae Hosts – Crataegus. .Larva ties leaves together and feeds within. Sanders. . . . . . . . . Fam. . . Pyrus. . Asia Minor. 1910. Malus. . . . . . . p. . . . . . G. . Tortricidae Hosts — Pyrus. A. .

. . . Crataegus. . . Gelechiidae Hosts . . . . Distribution . Schmetterlinge Europas. . Fifth rept. . 1:137. Distribution . S. A. . . sphinx Hufn. References – Packard. . strigosa Fabr.1126 LEPIDOPTERA References — Kaltenbach. . Hosts . . . . . . Noctuidae Synonym . . . S. Asia Minor. . . . . . . . C. 1:203. 208. . . . . 4:1. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . Sorbus. . Noctuidae Hosts . .Larva mines in leaf and cuts out a small piece of the leaf for its case. . .Europe. . .Quercus. Acronycta. . .Europe. Geometridae Synonym . . . . . . . . 1910. and Morton. . . . Prunus. Japan. . . . . A. J. . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . p. . . . 1888. Slingerland. "#. Schmetterlinge Europas. . A. . Malus. and other species. . . steinkelneriana Schiff.. Injury . H. . A. . . . . . spurcella H. . .Larva feeds in blossom. . . . . . . . Malus. . J. . . Asia. Schmetterlinge Europas. . 1872.Larva eats foliage. 2:361. . H. H. Soc. H. Coptodisca (Resplendent shield-bearer). . . 1872. . . Manual of fruit insects. . Spuler. Distribution – Europe. .Crataegus. . . . . . . . and other species. . strigata Müll. . . . Crataegus oxyacantha.. . R. Injury . J. . 1914. Comm. A. . . . . . . 1908. p.Nemoria aestivaria Hüb. . V. . . . . . New York Ent. . . Fam. Injury . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . .. . . Crataegus. . spiniana Dup. Crataegus. Journ. . . References — Kaltenbach. . Hosts . p. . . . . . 208. Amer. 2:295. . .Prunus. .. 1872. Injury . .. . Fraxinus. Rhamnus. 75. Fam. . 1910. . Gelechia . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . including Crataegus. Gelechiidae Hosts .Larva eats foliage. . Tortricidae Hosts . . .Larva rolls leaves. . . . . . . G. 210. Pyrus.. . . .Beutenmüller. Fnt. . Injury . . Injury . . . .Europe. J. . . . p. Prunus. Injury . 2:5. 4:75. . References . northern Africa. . .Asteroscopus cassinia S. . References — Kaltenbach. Cydonia. .Larva ties leaves together and eats them. 1890.Kaltenbach. . . . . . . . . Fam. Elachistidae Hosts — Malus. . . . . . Distribution . . Pflanzenfeinde. Hemithea. . Reference – Spuler. S. . . - Distribution . Alnus. . .Eastern North America. . . Crataegus. destroying it. Distribution — Northeastern United States. Fam. . . . . Prunus serotina. . . . . Reference – Spuler. . W. . . Fam. Limacodidae Hosts . . 1: 133. 1872. . . 536. . . . . . A. William. E.Prunus spinosa. Sibine (Saddle-back caterpillar). 163. . Populus. . . .. . . A. . 2:332. Ent. . . .Quercus. Distribution – Europe. Injury – Larva eats foliage. . . 1910. . . Corylus. . Schmetterlinge Europas. Pflanzenfeinde. Prunus.. . Prunus spinosa. . . . Epigraphia. . and Crosby. . p. . . stimulea Clem. . Asia. . . . .. Syringa. p. . . U. . M. . .Species a general feeder on fruit and forest trees. Reference – Spuler. . . Asia Minor. . Pamene.Larva eats foliage. . splendoriferella Clem. 1910. L. . . . Distribution – Europe. . . . . . H. 1908. Brachionycha. . Fam. Spuler. .. Fam. . . . Spuler.. . A. . .Crataegus. Spuler. . . 1908. . . . . References . . . . . Fam. . . . .

. . Fam. J. . . LEPIDOPTERA 1127 subsignarius Hüb. . 2:279. . . Malus. . .Larva eats foliage. Distribution – Europe. . 208. . Geometridae (See page 1076. . . . . . . . . . .. p. . . Erranis (Lime-tree spanworm) . . Distribution . . . . . . . . . . Fam. Schmetterlinge Europas. . J. . . . . . . . . . 1872. . Salix. J. . .Southern Europe. . . . Salix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injury . . . . p. Rhamnus. superans Guen. Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .Crataegus. . . . . . . . .. . . Spuler. Hosts – Rhus. . H. . . 1910. A. . . Geometridae (See page 1076. . References — Kaltenbach. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . . . . . . Asia. p. .) - textor Harris. . . . .) tineana Hüb. . . . . . . Fam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiliaria Harris. . . . . Acronycta . . Ancylis. Pflanzenfeinde. . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . . . . . . . . 1:244.Larva eats foliage. 1872. . . . 1872. .. tridens Schiff. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Australia. 1908. . .Larva eats foliage. . . .) tesselaris A. Injury – Larva eats foliage after tying it with silk. . Hyphantria (Fall webworm) . J. . . . Crataegus. . . . .Europe. A. Africa.. . . . . . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . Noctuidae (See page 1074. . .. . Spuler. . . . . . Hemaris. . . . . . J. . . . . . . Phigalia. . . . Spuler. . Fam. . . . Fam. . . . . . . . . . Malus. References — Kaltenbach. Noctuidae Synonym – Ophiusa tirrhaea Cr. References — Fernald. . Halisidota. Tortricidae Hosts . . . . . . . . Crataegus. . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . . . Asia Minor. . Notocelia. . . . Pseudophia. Hawk moths of the vicinity of New York City. . . . Sphingidae Hosts – Viburnum. . . . . Arctiidae (See page 1073. . . 2:270. .. . . . .. . . . . . Noctuidae Hosts . . . . William. . . . . 9. . . . . Calymnia. . . 208. . . . . . . . . . Arctiidae (See page 1073. . . Distribution – Eastern North America. . 1872. . . . . 1:312.Crataegus. . . . . . . . . . . . . 209.) - suffusana Z. . Prunus. and islands of southern Pacific. H. . 16. . Fam. . .Populus. . Geometridae (See page 1076. . . . . Prunus. . . . . References — Kaltenbach. 1908. . . H. . . 1886. . . . . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . 1872. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fam. . Prunus. p. . Fam. Acronycta . . . Pflanzenfeinde. . . . . Fam. H. p. . . Schmetterlinge Europas. 1:137. Crataegus.) thysbe Fabr. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908. . Spuler. Beutenmueller. Injury – Larva ties together leaf cluster and feeds within. . . . . . . . . . . . . Symphoricarpus. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . Asia. . . Rosa. . . . . . . Fam. . . p. . . . . Sphingidae of New England. . . . . .Quercus. . . . . 1910. . Noctuidae Hosts . . . . . . . . . and other species. A. . Tortricidae Hosts . . . . . Ennomos. . . . . . . A. . . Asia. . . . Malus. . . . . . . Fam. Distribution – Europe. . . Spuler. titea Cram. . . H. . . . . . Distribution – Europe. . References — Kaltenbach. . . . Injury – Larva feeds on foliage. . Crataegus. Fam. also eats leaf buds. . . .) trapezina Linn. . . p. . . . 208. . H. 209. Pyrus. . .. . . . . . . . Distribution . . 1903. and other species. . tirhaca Cr. . . . .. . Pistacia. . . . . . . . and S. . . . . . . . C. Injury . . . . . . . .

. Crataegus. . . . . 1890. Schizura. . . . Gelechiidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . .Larva ties leaf clusters together and eats leaves and buds. A. Crataegus. Spuler. p.. Memoir 1:203. Quercus. . . . .Malus. Cydonia. . Gard. Fam. Essig. . vernata Peck. . . . . Tortricidae Hosts . . . 11:283. . . Betula. . . . . . . . References – Newstead. . Injury . . . . . 2:75. . . .Europe. Rubus. and S. . Tilia. . . Ulmus. Injury – Larva eats foliage.Larva eats leaves and sometimes young fruit. . 1910. . . F. Distribution — Pacific coast of the United States. . . . . Fam. . 3:245. . . p. .. . Nemoria. . . and other species. . Quercus. . Hemerocampa (Western tussock moth) . Noctuidae Hosts . . Injury .. . p. . . 1908. . . . O. . and other species. . .1128 LEPIDOPTERA turnus Linn. - Reference — Wellhouse. Theobald. . 209.Larva eats foliage. 1872. . Pyrus. . . . . . . . . Injury . A. J. . . - Injury . . .Larva eats foliage. . .. . Salix. . . . 1914. . Malus. . Ent. . . . ent 6:2. .. p. . . . . Fam. . . Sci. E. . . H. Distribution — Europe. Paleacrila (Spring cankerworm) . Papilio (Tiger swallowtail) . S. . . unicornis A. 1917. 1915. Prunus. . . . Injury . . . . . . . . .. . References — Branigan. .. Distribution . . . . and other species. 2:4. . A. Reference – Packard. vulgella Hüb. . S. . . . ..Calluna. * Distribution – Eastern North America. .Larva eats foliage. . J. California. . and other species. . . Distribution – Europe. . Corylus. . . Malus. 1910. Quercus. . . . . 1909. . . W. . . . U. . .. . . . . . . . Reference – Spuler. H. . p. 1901. variegana Hüb.Malus. Crataegus. . Fam. 1895. . . . Geometridae Hosts . Bul. . . . 1872. . . . . . and other species. . . . . References — Kaltenbach. . . . . . Prunus. . . . Fam. A. Notodontidae Hosts – Malus. . Nat. Hort. . Prunus. . H. Injurious and beneficial insects of California. . . . . Fam. Rubus. . . Injury . . . . 1:204. E. Prunus. 1901:342. . William. Chariplera. . . 235. . . . chron. . . . . bul. . . References — Kaltenbach. . Fam. .". . Asia. . Schmetterlinge Europas. . R. . . . . . . . Papilionidae Hosts – Crataegus. Fam. Tephroclystia. . Crataegus. . W. . . Asia. . Populus. . Spuler. . A. Asia. . .. . . and other species. . . viridata Linn. S. Corylus. . . . Injury . Ent. 82. . . Insect pests of fruits. . . . . . . Geometridge Hosts . . Packard. . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. Comm. . . Geometridae Hosts – Crataegus. Can. 1874. Pflanzenfeinde. . Quercus. . viridana Walch. . . Distribution . . . . . . . . . Juglans. Dept. . Schmetterlinge Europas. Polygonum. 408. . Fifth rept. . J. Betula. . . . . vulgata Haw. Gelechia. . . . . Crataegus. . Olethreutes. . References — Saunders. . . and other species. State Comm. Distribution — North America.Prunus. Distribution — North America. . . .. . . Pflanzenfeinde. .Larva eats foliage. . Prunus. . . . . .Europe. . . Kans. . . . .Ulmus. . . . . . . . Mo. . .Larva eats foliage at night. Crataegus. vetusta Boisd. . . . Fam.. . . . Pyrus. . . Lymantriidae Hosts . . . . . Univ. 536. . . . . . . . . Acad. . . . . . .

152. . . . . - Injury – Larva lives in leaf gall. . . H. . . . . Distribution — North America. . Cecidomyiidae Hosts – Prunus virginiana. causing it to remain closed and swollen. Crataegus. . Bul. . Injury – Colonies of larvae cause rosettes of deformed sessile leaves. . . . . long. p. . . . . Perrisia. 1918. Fam.. . . . . . . . . Bul. . 1 cm. . . 200: 138. . . Die Pflanzengallen Mittel. . Connold. Distribution . . . . Rhizomyia. Genera insectorum. J. . 1910. . . New York State Mus. Cecidomyiidae . . . . . . . 1919. Kieffer. Populus. . . 200: 136. . E. Cecidomyia (Tufted thorn gall) . Injury . Can. .. D. . . . 1908. B'. p. 1872. . P. 1869. Felt. . Ent. . Wellhouse.Germany. . . 1:79. H. 1917. New York State Mus. . E. . New York State Mus. B. 1872. . . . . 1902. 200: 152. . . Mycodiplosis. . . E.Larva found in leaf gall. E. . . . . . . . . Injury – Larva deforms leaf with a green or red gall 1 cm. . . .. References — Felt. Distribution — Europe. long. . Bul. . References – Walsh. P. Pflanzenfeinde. . - Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. 1911. fasc.) . A. . . . . . . . . . S. anthobia F. . References – Ross. Journ. J. . . . . . P.Solitary larva feeds in blossom bud. .Europe. 2:358. . . . . . 1918. J. . Loew. . . cerasifolia Felt. . . . page 1032. . 210. . . . 200: 138. . p. shaped like a cockscomb. . . generally found on the midveins. Prunus virginiana. H. . H. New York State Mus. . p. . References — Kaltenbach. References — Kaltenbach. . . . H. LEPIDOPTERA – DIPTERA 1129 Injury . ent.Crataegus oxyacantha. J. Bul. . Soc. . Pflanzenfeinde. . - circumdata Winn. . . . 190. - Distribution — North America. Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus. Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus. R.Crataegus. Injuru .und Nordeuropas. Perrisia. . . Felt. . Fam. . bedeguar Walsh. 75. W. . 212. p. 1918. . . . . . . . . . . Distribution — United States. Cecidomyiidae Host . . . . and feed on the rust spores. . . . . . Schmetterlinge Europas. . crataegifolia Felt. Fam. . . 212. . . . . . . . Fam. ent 1:20. London. . . . . . . . Cecidomyiidae Hosts . E. References — Felt. . Distribution — North America. news 30: 144. . . . . . . . Distribution — Europe.Larvae live in galls on hawthorn fruit caused by Gymnosporangium clavipes. . (Figs. E. . T. . . . . . . Injury . 1918. Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus oxyacantha. . . .Larva ties together a cluster of leaves and feeds within.Larvae deform leaves with filamentous subglobular vein galls. Fam. econ. . . J. . crataegi Winn. . . . which make trees and hedges unsightly. . . p. Pflanzenfeinde. . and Harrison. . . . 132. J. . H. . References — Kaltenbach. British vegetable galls. . . Trans. 1913. . . . Fam. . W. Ent. P. . . . . Injury . Hormomyia (Thorn cockscomb gall) . . 116 and 117. Contarina. . . . . . . . . . Spuler. 1872. . . . DIPTERA absobrina Felt. . P.. . Distribution . . . Fam. 1917:391. . . . . Reference — Felt. .

. Bul. . . . . Cecidomyiidae Host . (a. . Fam. . New York State Mus. Bul. E. . . . . . 7:430. . . Injury . . P. . . Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus. P. P. References — Felt. 200: 138. . . Bul. Reference — Felt. . . . . . hudsonici Felt. . W. greenish. . . 200: 138. Fam. . . . . 1918. . . . . E. . . . . Symphoricarpos. 1908. in diameter. . . New York State Mus. . 1918. . C. . . . . . smooth. P. Fan. New York State Mus. . E. 1918. . . . Injury . New York State Mus. Fam. . Injury . Winnertzi . . . Injury .Larva causes oval. . Distribution — United States. . . . . . . . . . H. . . New York State Mus. . . . . Mo. P. . P. . . blister-like mines. . Felt.Crataegus. Bul. . . . . . Bul. . . . . . . . . Distribution – United States. . . . venae Felt. . E. . New York State Mus. . . . Exp. . . sometimes confluent. . . . . page 1081. . - Injury – Larvae deform leaves with green or reddish. . E. frequently pointed. . . . . D. . . Distribution – United States. . . . Cecidomyiidae Host . . . . . . 1918. .1130 DIPTERA crataegifolia Felt. Distribution . . fleshy gall.Crataegus. . . . 30. .Eastern North America. Distribution – United States. . Distribution – United States. . . Vaccinium. . . 1840 Felt) (Thorn spindle gall). unicellular gall. Injury – Species probably inquiline in blister mine made by Lasioptera excavata. . . . . . . . . B. p. . . . 200: 138. . . . . . . Bul. O'Kane. Cecidomyia sp. 1868. .) excavata Felt. . 124:408. . . . Reference — Felt. Cecidomyiidae Host . E. . . . .) venitalis Felt. . . . . Sta. . Injury . . 118 and 119. . (a. Bul. . . Fam. . . H. . . E. . polythalamous vein galls. Severin. . . . . - Reference — Felt. . Distribution — United States. Lasioptera (Purple leaf blotch). . . . . . . 1914. . . . . . . Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus. .Larvae cause subglobose. Distribution — United States. References – Walsh. . . Hort. P.Crataegus. . Cecidomyiidae Host . . . Trypetidae Hosts . . . 5 to 8 mm. Cecidomyia sp. . 200: 138. Cecidomyiidae Host – Crataegus. Dicrodiplosis. . Cecidomyiidae Host . .Crataegus. long. . . . Malus. . Reference — Felt. . . . (Figs. . .Crataegus. the under side reddish.Larva causes a gall on leaf or twig. 1918. . page 1083. . . Bul. . P. Rhizomyia. . Fam. . . . fimbriate. pomonella Walsh. . cup-shaped. . . . . California. . Fam. . 200: 138.Larva found in same gall with Lobopteromyia venae. diameter 3 mm. E. 200: 138.. . Fam. 114 and 115.Larva tunnels in fruit. Reference — Felt. hirta Felt. . . . . . . . . New York State Mus. . First annual report on noxious insects of Illinois. Fam. 200: 138. . (Figs. . Lestodiplosis (Hawthorn fringed-cup gall). . Lobopteromyia (Thorn vein gall). 1918. . . . . . 1918.Crataegus. . . P. . 2727 Felt). . . . State Comm. . Rhagoletis (Apple maggot). . .. on leaf vein. . . . . - Injury – Larva deforms leaf with stout. . . . . . about 8 mm. . bul. . 1918. . . Bul. . New Hampshire Agr. . . . New York State Mus. . . Reference — Felt. . 171. . .

. Tenthredinidae Synonym . . . and Fulton. . and larvae destroy seeds. and other species. . . 753.Larvae skeletonize leaves. . .. C. . flaviventris Retz.. . . . . . Pyrus. Lyda . . . 1872. H. . . . . Hosts . (Figs. . New York (Geneva) Agr. . . Distribution . . Ztschr. Prunus padus. . . Tenthredinidae Hosts — Prunus. Sorbus. André.) HYMENOPTERA betuleti Klg. 411. Pflanzenfeinde. . . . 1872. . 1:516. . . 214. Australia. 79. . .Europe. Tenthredinidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . diameter 2 mm. Trichiosoma tibialis Steph. . R. . p.Cimbex axillaris Pz. . . . . . . cerasi Linn. Cimber. Injury – Larvae defoliate branches. . . . Tenthredinidae Synonym . Ed. Exp. Syntomaspis (Apple seed chalcid). . . . p. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe. . R. . res. Hosts .Crataegus. Fam.. . Reference — Felt. . D. J. 1915. . . . . . Pyrus. Tenthredinidae Synonyms – Cimber crataegi Wa.Larva eats foliage. . . New York State Mus. . 1914. . . . . and Crosby. References — Schlechtendall. von. . P. . Trichiosoma. Woodruffe-Peacock. . . . A. 329. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe. . . length 1 cm. 1888. J. . . . 7:487. Cushman. A.. p. 120 and 121. B. Halle 61:415. 1879. . 1916. - Host . MacGillivray. . . Sta. . Pyrus. .. Ed. . Prunus cerasus.. Bul. . B. . . druparum Boh. J. . Fam. . Fam. agr. . . .. . Injury . Distribution — Massachusetts. . . . . . D. . humeralis Fourc. . . 1879. . References — Kaltenbach. Naturalist (London). Injury – Oviposition punctures cause dimples in fruit. . J. . collaris MacG. Crataegus. E. Ed. 211. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe. 1916. . Distribution — Eastern United States. M. 200: 138. .. . References — Slingerland. Distribution — Europe. . Pflanzenfeinde. causing brown blister which may cover from a quarter to the whole of the upper surface of the leaf. .Lyda clypeata Klg. . . W. Distribution — Europe. . . Chalcididae Hosts — Malus. . . . . Crataegus. . green or reddish. . p. . . . Profenusa (Cherry and hawthorn sawfly leaf miner) . p. E.. North America. Bul. Fam. . . Injury – Larva feeds on foliage. . Manual of fruit insects. . . H.. Naturwiss. . . 1919. Reference – Parrott. . . . . . . . . no. H. Pflanzenfeinde. . Fam. p. . . A. . . North America. efer nces — Kaltenbach.Crataegus. . .Crataegus. . Fam. 1:24. DIPTERA – HYMENOPTERA 1131 Injury – Larva causes a spindle-shaped thickened gall on leaf vein. . Caliroa (Pear and cherry slug) . Journ. . Hymenoptera of Connecticut. André. . 1:27. . .. . . . . . . . . André. . 1879. . 1918. . page 1084. . . 212. P. References — Kaltenbach. Distribution — Europe. . Injury – Larva mines in leaf. . . . New York. feeding in colonies. . . Injury . 206. . . . Distribution – Europe. . 1872.

. . 1879. . . . Tenthredinidae Hosts — Fraxinus.. . . . . . . . . Macrophya. E. . Fam. . . Manual of injurious insects. Reference – André. . . . . Malus.. . . . . . . . . . W. 1912. Ligustrum. . Injury – Larva feeds on foliage. . . . . . . . . Ed. p. . . 1:359. . . References – André. . . Collinge. . . .) . . Distribution — Europe. 219. Species des Hyménopt 'res d'Europe. Distribution – Europe. . Prunus. . . . . . . . Pyrus. Fam. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe. . . Crataegus. Injury – Larva skeletonizes leaves. Ed. . Four species of unidentified sawflies (pages 1086 and 1087. and other species. . . . punctum-album Linn. . . . Priophorus. . .1132 HYMENOPTERA padi Linn. Sorbus. 1879. Tenthredinidae Hosts – Crataegus. . . . . . . . . 1:84.

10 3. . . 1092 crataegus-coccinea. . .3.. . . . . 1122 Amphidasis betularia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110 Aegeria pyri. 109. Brachys aerosus. . 1050.. . . . . 1065. . . . . . . 1107 Brachionycha sphinx.. . . . . . . . . . . . ... 1077. . 1125 Anthaxia quercata. . . 1079. . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1115 arenae Fabr. 1110 Agrilus politus.. . . . . . . .. . . . 1106 crataegi. . . 1074. .. . . . . . . 109 crataegi . . 1110 hemerobiella. 1123 Asteroscopus cassini . . . . . .. . 1098 fulminea. . . . . . . . 1099 Jitchii. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .4 oxyacanthae Koch. . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1079. . . . . .. 1099 Cheimatobia brumata. . . . . 1109 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1097 paranympha. . . 1114 sinuatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 profundus.. . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1079. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 humeralis. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113 tineana. . . . . . . . . . 1123 Acrobasis nebulella.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 1109 Aporia crataegi. . . . . . . | * * * * -. . . 1092 polygama.. . . 1114 ostreiformis. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1107 Caliroa cerasi. . . . . 1073. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1103 mali .. . . . . . . 1109 pornorum. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1095 dactylina. 1098 Chariptera viridana. . . . . . . . . . . . 1074. 1127 Basilarchia arthemis. . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 piri: . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1093 sp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 pomi. . . . . . . . . 10. ..--. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092 Cecidomyia 'ar . . . . . . 1097 nebulosus. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . TOSana. . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 brevis. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1107 Tadi. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 holmiana. . . ... . 1109 oreasella. . . . . . . . 1097 Chrysobothris femorata. 1129 crataegi Buck. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 1050. . . 1124 Automeris io. . . . 1106 Catocala blandula. . . . 1104 1103 Calymnia trapezina. . . . . . 1080. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1111 Byturus tomentosus. . . . . . . . 1098 occidentalis. 1105 Calligrapha multipunctata. . . . . . . 2727 Felt). . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hellerella. . . . 1122 Bucculatrix crataegi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . 1093 Cemiostoma scitella. . . 1078. . . . . . . . . . 1051. .. . . . . . . . . . . 1131 sorbi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1105 Capua angustiorana. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 Anisopteryx aescularia. . . . . . 1098 Cilex glaucatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .*. . . . . . . . . . . 1119 perniciosus. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 1117 radcliffei. . . 1107 pomifoliella. . 1126 Superans. . . . . . . . . . ... . 1076. . . . flavicornis. . . . .. . 1065. . . . . .. . . . .. . 1105 Anthonomus decipiens. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1840 Felt). . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 1116 Argyroploce pruniana. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1094 sp. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094 Ceresa bubalis. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1120 tiliella. . . . .. . 1099 Cnephasia nubilana. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1127 TOS-aceansl. 1078. . 1095 Acronycta americana.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1113 Alticopus galeazii. . . . . 1073. . . . . . 1126 Agriotes pubescens. . .. . . . . . . 1121 Conotrachelus crataegi . . authors). . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 edentula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1063. . .. .. . 1130 crataegi Koch . . . . . . 1113 Aphis avenae (Amer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096 Chermes quercus. . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 Anthonomopsis mixtus. . 1123 pyramidoides. 1074. 1101 Alsophila pometeria. . . . . 1103 1133 . . . . .. . 1095 Ceroplastes rusci. . . 1097 euphorbiae. . . . . . . . 1111 marutae. .. . . . . . . . 1124 astyanax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 Chalepus dorsalis. . 1097 Chionaspis furfura. . . . . . 1095 oxyacanthae Schr. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 psi. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1130 crataegi Kalt. 1116 puri. ... .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 1 115 malivorella. . 1115 bakeri. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... selenana. 1119 nitidella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (a. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .__ 1113 fletcherella. .. 1131 rumicis. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123 1077. . . . . 1117 Aspidiotus hederae.. . . . . . . 1113 Argyresthia pruniella. . 1 115 oxyacanth le. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 C Ancylis nubeculana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106 1108 Blastodacna curvilineella. . . .. . . 1098 Choragus scheppardi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 crataegiella.. . . . . 1068. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1127 B tridens. . . 1125 Cacoecia crataezana .. . . . . . . . . 1127 Capsus medius. . . . . . . . . . 1109 nerii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 crataegifoliae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 ranunculi. . . . . . . . strigosa. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 1086. . . . . . 1116 Argyresthia ephippella.. . . . . . . . . . . 1093 Cimbex axillaris. . . . . . .. . . 1064. 109.-- INDEX (OF GENERA AND SPECIES (Synonyms are in italics) A PAGE Pac-E Acalla contaminana. . . . 1115 Archips argyrospila. 1082. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1108 Amphipyra pyramidea . . . . . . . 1126 1074. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1116 vittaticollis. . . . 1094 Ceratocapsus pumilus. . . . .4 taurina. . . 1128 malifoliae. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106 Coleophora anatipennella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108 1066. . . . . . 1097 luteicoma. . . . 1120 Apion pornonae. . . . . .

. 1122 Haltica carinata. . . . . . . . . . . 1108 marginaria. . . 1112 Erythroneura obliqua. . . . . . . . . 1053 Limonius dubitans. . . 1100 Epicnaptera americana. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1066. . . . . . . . 1078.. . . . . . . . . 1117 Hemithea strigata. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1102 foliacea. . . . . . . . . . . . 1130 Euthrips tritici. . . . 1090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 Cuprédé. . . . . .. . . 1112 oxyacanthae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061. . 1073. . . . . . . 1119 Euproctis chrysorrhea. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096 lachrymalis. . . . . . . . . 1103 leucophaearia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1062. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Lithocolletis betulae. . . . . . . .. 1112 Erranis tiliaria. . . . . . . . . . . 1076. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 Lycia cognataria. 1082. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . No. . 1078. . 1119 Hercyna palliolalis. 1052. . . 1050. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095 Graphocephala coccinea. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 crataegi . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . 1117 corni. . . . . .. .. 1 115 Diloba coeruleocephala. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1103 sp. . . . . . 1061. . 1114 Dichelonycha elongata. . . . . . . . . 1093 lanestris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095 cydoniae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1064. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 Lasioptera excavata. . . . . . . . . . . . 1082. . . . . . . . . . . . Lestes viridis. . . . . . . . 1061. . . . . . . . . 1102 bajaria. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062. . . . . . . 1090 coryli. 1130 sp. . . . . . . 1105 Gastropacha quercifolia. . . . . . . ... . .. . . . 1090 ruinosum. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1074.. . . . . . . 1092 Hibernia aurantiaria. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 Dasychirapudibunda. . . . . .. . . . 1114 Deraeocoris olivaceus. 1110 Dichelia grotiana. . . . . 1102 Hormomyia crataegifolia. . . . . . .. . 1116 Eutettix seminudus. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1124 Epitrix cucumeris. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1126 ' posticatus. . . . . . . 1117 brunnea. . . . . . . . . 1090 Lepido ap' ulmi. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 vetusta. . . . . 1127 concomitella. . . . 1113 Eulecanium pyri. . . . . . . . . . . . .* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051. . .. . . . . 1099 Idiocerus crataegi. . 1102 sp. . . . . . . . . . . 1095 Diphucephala colaspidoides. . . . 1053. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1130 rineum clandestinum. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..- Empoa querci. . . . . . . . . . . 1091 pyri. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 goniothorax. .. . . 1098 Epiblema biscutana. . . . . 1066. .. 1114 Exapate congelatella. . . . . . . . . 1062. . . 1100 pyracanthae. . . . . . . . 1127 pallidus. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 1118 testacea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067. . . . . 1100 pomifoliella. . . . . . .. . 1130 Holcophora fasciellus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 Eriosoma crataegi. . . . . . 1129 Glossonotus crataegi. . . .1134 INDEx PAGE G PAGE Conotrachelus naso. . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . 1116 defoliaria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1100 Epigraphia steinkelneriana. . . . . . .. . 1053 Liparis auriflua. 1062. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1073. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1093 crataegella. 1105 Gelechia spurcella. . . . . . 1127 Hyponomeuta padella. . . . .1126 ministra. . . . 1119 Diaphnidia pellucida.. 1062. . .. . 1090 Lecanium bituberculatum . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . No. 1079. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 1062. . . . . 1097 crataegi-vermiculus. . . . . . . . 1111 suturalis. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .." . . . . . . . . . . . .4 rosae. . .. . 1104 Halisidota caryae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 Corythucha arcuata.. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 malimalifoliella. . 1112 Horcias dislocatus. . . . . . . . . . 1092 piricola. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1092 Grapholitha janthinana. 1080. . . 1091 Limnobaris calva. . . . . . . . . 1115 Crepidodera helxines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 Cryptocephalus bipunctatus. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1098 Heterocordylus malinus. . . . 1128 Datana integerrima. . . 1110 lanigera. . . . . . . . . . . 1092 kroesmanniana. 1110 Dibolia borealis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1066. . . . . 1063. . . 1054. . 1096 Diaspis piri. . . . . . . 1127 D Hemerocampa leucostigma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107 . . . 1051. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063... . . . . . . . . . . 1095 Ennomos magnarius. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075. . . 1126 Gonodontis bidentata. . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 Laspeyresia prunivora. . 1121 E Eccoptogaster pruni. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 1075. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 1067. . . . 1094 prunivorella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 1090 Lestodiplosis crataegifolia. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121 Eupteryx vanduzei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126 Lasiocampa quercus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1095 subsignarius. . . .. . . . . . .. . 1076. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1097 Heterocampa manteo. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076. . . . . . . 1106 vulgella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 tesselaris. 1095 Empoasca mali. . . . 1095 H Crambus oxyacanthae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 Dicrodiplosis venitalis. . . .1056. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 104 Hemaris thysbe. . . . . . .. . . . . . 1097 corylifoliella. . . . . . . . . 1096 cerisolella. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .* .. . .. . . . . . . 1093 bellula. . . 1092 Eriogaster catax. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 1106 I rugulosus. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 11. . . . 1124 nenuphar. . . .. . . 1098 Epetrimerus armatus. . 1113 Eulia quadrifasciana. . . . . . . . . . . 1108 - Epidiaspis betulae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 nigrofasciatum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123 oryacanthae. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1129 Hyphantria textor. . . 1092 Lamenia vulgaris. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1100 Lophopteryx cuculla. . . 1061. 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1048. . . .. . . . . 1093 Eriophyes calycobius. . . . . . . . . 1099 fitchi. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1119 macult pennis. . . . . . 1112 Euscelis curtisii. . . . . . . . 1076. . . . . . . 1127 Cydia pomonella. . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . 1099 Lobopteromyia venae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Idiostethus tubulatus. . . . . . . . . . 1075. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1067. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093 crataegi. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Contarina anthobia. .. .. . . . . . . 1067. . . . . . . 1054.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 provancheri. . . . . . . . . 1093 Coptodisca splendoriferella. .. . . . . . . . . 1092 L leperi. . . . .

. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 peregrina. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . crataegifoliella. . . . 1103 ostryae. . . . 1098 L£ ** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085. . .. . . . 1123 1096 melanoneura. Mesoleuca lacustrata. . .1091 disstria. . . . .- . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Lygus communis. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .- INDEx 1135 PAGE PAGE Lyda clypeata. . . . . . . . .. . 1102 Penthina robrana. . . . . .1120 Opisthograptis luteolata.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . .. . . . . . 1118 Prociphilus crataegi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Ramphus flavicornis. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . O Oecanthus niveus. . . N Porthesia similis. 1126 Prodenia praefica. . . .. . . . . . . 1098 . . . . Mycodiplosis cerasifolia. . . . . . .. . . prunetorum. . . . . .. .. gratiosella. . . . 1119 Macrosiphum crataegarium. . . . . . . . . . 1117 . . . . . . 1131 Orthotylus ornatus. . . . . . . 1119 Rhagoletis pomonella. . . .. . . 1128 Recurvaria crataegella.. . . .. . . . .1111 . . . .. 1104 . .1085 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . scintillans. . . . .. . . . . . . . 1101 Parlatoria oleae. .1132 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 1076. . . . . . . 1080. . . . . . . . .51. . . . . . . Pyrausta purpuralis. . . .. . . . . Myzus oxyacanthae.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 1128 Psallus ambiguus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1129 pruni. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 atricollis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128 1124 spiniana. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1104 . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1105 . . .1095 neustria. . . . . 1122 crataegi. . . . 1117 oblongus. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1077. . . . 1099 Phyllobius maculicornis. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ophiusatirrhaea. . .1129 Malacosoma americana. . . . . . . 1061. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 1051. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1072. . 1100 . . . . 1131 Ornix inusitatumella. . . 1054. pterygomalis. . . . . . . . . . .1127 femur-rubrum. . . . . . . . 1125 saliceti. . . . . . . .. . 1124 Priophorus padi.. . . . . . . . . 1110 Pseudanthonomus crataegi. . . . . . . . 1100 Poecilocampa populi. . . Mytilaspis pomorum. .. . . . . . . . . . - "Inlantrila C11Soar". . .. . . 1110 1100 vitis. . . . . . .1125 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1093 crataegi. . . ... . . . . . 1055. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1127 nanella. . . . . . . 1114 betheli. . . 104 . . . . . . . . 1117 crataegi Först. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . Pandemis heparana. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Notodonta cucullina.1 . . . . .. .. . 1129 Ornix anglicella. 1C. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 P ££ J. . . . . . 1093 Papiliopodalirius. . . . . . . . 1123 mali. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 Ovatus mespili. . . 1097 Polydrusus impressifrons. . . . . . . 1099- Nemoria aestivaria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 1075. . .. . . . . . . . . . Pamene rhediella. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1105 Perrisia circumdata.. .. .. . - 1097 barbicornis. . . . . . . . . 1065. . 1121 1096 crataegicola Först. . . . . . . . . . . Mineola indigenella. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geminatella. . . . . . 1127 innumerabilis.. . . . . . 1055. . .. . . . . 1116 Macrodactylus subspinosus. . . Nola cucullatella . . . . . . . 1106 crataegi. . . 1113 nitidipennis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ignobilella. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1055. . . 1109 hirta. .. . limbata. . . . . 1108 Phycita nebulo. . . . . 1091 . .1094 . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 1122 . 1130 Orchestes rufus . . . . .. . . . . . . . ""-w" - -a-. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 118 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107 Rhizomyia absobrina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1096 nitidella. .. . . . . . . . . . 1093 . . . . . . . porrinata. . . . . . 1091 Phigalia pedaria. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1116 1094 crataegi Schr. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1091 . 1098 . . . . . . . . . . . . dearnessi. . . .. . . . . . 1100 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .1096 Melanotus sp. . . . . 1120 crataegicola Flor. . .. . . . . . . . .1122 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 . . . . . . . . . 1097 . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . viridata. . . . . . . . . . . . . # Paleacrita - vernata. . . . . . . . . . 1114 oxyacanthae. . . . . . . . . . . oxyacanthella. . . . . . . . . 1122 Profenusa collaris. 1049. . . . . 1101 Pemphigus corrugatans. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . * ******** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127 crataegifoliella. . . . 1126 M . . variegana. . .. . . R Olethreutes achatana. .. . 1096 pratensis. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Ophiderma flavicephala.. . . 1114 Psylla costalis. . 1063. . . 1050. . Melinna pumila . . . . . . .. . . . 1114 Pulvinaria betulae. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .1104 . Nepticula aterrima. . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 . .. . . ..1121 bivittatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . .. . 1109 Phenacoccusaceris. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094 turnus... . . . . . . . . . . . . Nacophora quernaria. . 1054. . . . . . . . . . . 1055. . . . . . . 1091 Philaenus lineatus. . . . . .. . . 1093 cerasi. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sericeus. .. . 1132 Paonias my£. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 oryacanth le. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1107 . - Notocelia suffusana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 1128 Magdalis aenescens. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ribeana. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1054.. . . . . . . .. . 1117 flaviventris. . . . . . . . . . . 1055. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096 Otiorrhynchus caudatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . chionosema. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1097 Lygidea mendax. 1110 Pseudophia tirhaca. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . 1. . . . .. .. . . . . . . 10. . 1091 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1066. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... 1121 Pineapple gall (maker unknown). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 1129 Platysamiacecropia. . ... 1118 . . . . . .. . Macrophya punctum-album. . . . . . . . . titea. . . 1114 Rhodophaea advenella. Nematocampa filamentaria . . Notolophus antiqua. . . . . . . 1076. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . *. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . regiella. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .1095 Melanoplus atlanis. . . . . 1123 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 1095 Miselia oxyacanthae. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1095 leucatella. . . . . . . . . . . . 1130 . . . . . .. . . . . 1077. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1116 Rhopalosiphum pad . . . . ... . . . . pyri. . . . . . 1117 Physatocheila dumetorum. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108 . 1096 pygmaeella. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 1090 icosandriae. . . . . . . . . . . . . punctatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076. . . . Trochilium myopiforme. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1107 Tetraneura ulmi. . . . . .. . . . . 1119 Sawfly No. . . . . . . . . .. 1087. . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Tachypterus quadrigibbus. 1116 incerta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 1086. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tymnes metasternalis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121 ££ Selenia ia crataegella.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1122 conicus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1121 Xylotrechus convergeus. . . . . .. . . . 1086.. . .. 112 Rumia crataegata . . . . . 1065. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108 Thecla falacer. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Sawfly No. . . . 1118 padellus. 1067. . . . . . . . . 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1108 Tischeria malifoliella. . . . . . . . . . . 1121 melinus. . . . . . . 1119 Tortrix incisana . . .. 1125 Y Strymon calanus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 . . . . . . . 109. . . 1102 cretata. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 Sibine stimulea. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061. . . . . 1103 Trioza urticae. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 Rosalia alpina. . . . . . . 1126 X Simaethis fabriciana. . .. . . . . . 1105 Thamnotettix clitellarius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - T auratus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092 ophthalmicus. . . . . . . . . . . 1115 pubescens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 Rhopobota naevana. . . . . . . . . . . . 1130 scitula. . . . . . . . . . . 1117 laevigana. . . . 1128 cyanicolor. . . . . . .. . . 1051. . .. . . . . . . . 1108 Steganoptycha signatana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-125 S Trichiosoma betuleti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1 104 Tetranychus pilosus. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1112 unicornis. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 bacchus Linn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Tephroclystia vulgata. . . 1111 Yponomeuta cognatellus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . 113t Saperda bivittata. . 1132 Typhlocyba crataegi . . 2. . . . 1096 V Schizura concinna. . . . . 1102 Sphecodina abbotti. . . . . . . . . 1117 1105 comatus. . . . . . . . 1098 Syntomaspis drunarum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 1112 liparops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1120 Systema marginalis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074. . .. . . . . 1119 Swammerdamia lutarea. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1102 instabilis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Taeniocampa gothica. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 Trichosea ludifica. . 1108 pariana.. . .. 1132 Triphosa dubitata . 1104 Telea polyphemus. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 Winnertzia hudsonici. . . . . . . 1105 Sawfly No. . 1102 Trichiura crataegi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 1115 Xanthonia villosula. . . . . . . . . . . 1051. . . . .1136 INDEx PAGE PAGE Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Tmetocera ocellana. . . . . . . . . 1132 Schizoneura americana. . . . .. . 1118 Z Syneta albida. . . . . . . 1118 favi. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 1105 Rhynchites aeneovirens var. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114 * candida. . . 1100 giganteus. . . . . . . . 1124 pyrina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . 1072. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 coeruleocephalus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1132 Sawfly No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128 Valeria oleagina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 pauxillus. . 1067. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 aequatus.. . . . 1101 Zeuzera aesculi. .. . . . olivaceus. 1078. . . . . . . . . . . . 1107 Tinea oryacanthella. . . . . . 1118 oxyacanthella. . . . . . . 1104 telarius.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ". . . . . 1051. 1115 sericeus. . . . . .. 1105 Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131 tibialis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- 1113 1118 W Sesia puri. . . . 1107 bacchus Oliv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

L --- .

- . . -..

.

.

.

7N48CM C003 MEMOIR ITHACA. I'll 30 97.Y. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOI8-URBANA 630. N.5500 .