AC Voltage- Pipeline Safety and

Corrosion

MEA
2015

WHAT ARE THE CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH AC
VOLTAGES ON PIPELINES?

• AC concerns
– Induced AC
– Faults
– Lightning
– Capacitive coupling
• Safety
• Code
• Induced AC Corrosion
• Induced AC Mitigation

2 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE

AC CONCERNS

3 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE

TYPICAL HIGH VOLTAGE AC LINE CONSTRUCTION Note: * Phases * Shield wires 4 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

TYPICAL HIGH VOLTAGE AC LINE CONSTRUCTION 5 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

INDUCED AC I1  I2 6 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

– This is a particular concern for lines on steel towers should the fault occur between a phase and the tower – High voltage transmission lines typically do not have a neutral to carry full fault current • Lightning – Lighting can strike a phase or “shield wire” and be introduced into the ground through a tower or ground rod 7 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . FAULTS & LIGHTNING • Faults – A fault occurs when a path from phase to ground is introduced such that the full current available in the circuit flows to ground.

SAFETY (1) 8 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

AC VOLTAGE AND SAFETY 9 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

• Voltage that might go undetected under dry conditions may give a nasty shock on a wet day. and dry gloves can alter tolerable touch voltage levels. dry shoes. SAFETY • Dry soils. 10 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

ADDITIONAL SHOCK RISKS • Workers can still accidentally contact the pipeline. a worker doesn’t feel the current. bond before starting the cut. fences. • Adequate bonding across the point to be cut will eliminate the hazard. Putting his hands across the isolator could a worker’s body a path for any current present on the pipeline 11 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . such as isolated flanges. He could be shocked and seriously injured. • Working aboveground pipes that are not electrically continuous. even after it’s in the trench. unions. so he believes he is safe. • Cathodic protection tests leads can give a shock. As soon as he separates the pipe the current may run through his body. casing vents. • When cutting pipe. The same applies for other aboveground appurtenances such as valves. joints. etc. or couplings.

LIGHTNING 12 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

LIGHTNING 13 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

GROUND FAULT 14 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

GROUND FAULT OR INDUCED AC 15 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

16 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

6-M91 recognize 15 V as a potential shock hazard.3 No. aboveground sections can be made safe with a simple temporary grounding and bonding. • Check the weather forecast prior to beginning work. Work should be stopped when lightning activity is present. SAFETY SUMMARY • During construction. • Both NACE SP0177 and CAN/CSA-C22. • Communications and measurements are required along the spread during construction because conditions may change as the installation progresses. including at electrical power system crossings. • Warning signs should be posted and RED ZONES clearly designated. 17 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . • Measurements should be recorded prior to performing any work to ensure everyone’s safety.

• . the air is the dielectric. [4] • Capacitive coupling occurs between two conductors that are separated by a dielectric. 18 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . hazardous charges can accumulate on the pipeline. and the pipeline is the other conductor. CAPACITIVE COUPLING • When underground metallic pipelines are in close proximity to HVAC transmission lines. – Once a pipeline is buried. there are three ways in which HVAC can influence pipelines. – The power lines are one conductor. – The electrical charge from the power line conductors is transferred into the pipeline over time. the impacts of capacitive coupling to the pipeline are typically negligible. – When the pipeline is isolated above ground during construction.

the pipeline can provide a lower resistance path. 19 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . – The current pickup and return locations for this charge can result in coating damage and rapid metal loss. but it may occur during lightning strikes and electrical transmission fault scenarios. – This is short duration occurrence that is not typical of proper system operation. – When this charge is transmitted into the soil near a pipeline. RESISTIVE COUPLING (FAULTS OR LIGHTNING) • Resistive coupling between the power line and pipeline occurs when the power line transmits an electrical charge directly into the earth at grounded structures.

the EMF will induce an alternating current on the pipeline. however severe phase imbalances on electric lines with lower voltage ratings can result in significant AC interference on a pipeline 20 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . – If the pipeline is the area of influence for the EMF. – Each conductor creates an EMF with a direction and magnitude that are related to the direction and magnitude of the alternating current (AC) flow in the conductor. INDUCTIVE COUPLING • Inductive coupling occurs as a result of the electromagnetic field (EMF) that is created around the electric conductors in the HVAC system. – Inductive coupling is primarily of concern on electric power lines with voltage ratings of 69 kV or higher.

both the frequency and the magnitude of occurrences seems to be increasing. and wastewater. water. • The industry has been aware of this issue for decades but in recent years.. • Induced AC interference appears to b eon the rise with the increased emphasis on collocation of pipelines and HVAC power transmission lines coupled with – increasing transmission currents – Improved pipeline coating quality on new pipelines 21 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . natural gas. THE IMPACT OF HVAC ON PIPELINES • AC interference can impact all types of metallic pipeline including petroleum liquids.

and is only presented as a general representation of system influence. 22 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . FACTORS INFLUENCING INDUCED AC The amount of AC that is induced onto the pipeline is influenced by several factors. The information listed in Table 1 is not meant to be all inclusive of the influencing factors. Table 1: Impact of System Properties on Induced AC Voltage Property Change Impact to the Magnitude of Induced AC on the Pipeline Soil Resistivity Increases Increases* Pipeline Coating Resistance Increases Increases Pipeline Outside Diameter Decreases Increases HVAC Current Load Increases Increases Distance between the Tower and Decreases Increases Pipeline Length of Collocation Increases Increases *Soil resistivity will have the opposite relationship with AC density.

• Discharge of AC at the pipe to soil interface can result in accelerated corrosion that is detrimental to the integrity of the pipeline 23 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

the opposite is of concern related to AC corrosion. Small defects. generally estimated to be 1 cm2. 24 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . Large defects can behave more as a grounding effect. While large coating defects are of concern related to the application of cathodic protection and remediation of typical galvanic corrosion. are the greatest risk as the AC discharge density is focused and more likely to cause accelerated corrosion. COATING DEFECT SIZE IMPACT ON CORROSION RATE • The size of the coating defect is critical. This is especially true in lower resistivity soils.

and PRCI Member A/m2 (Greater than 10 Study PR-405-113604. EN- Greater than 100 High or Anticipated 15820:2013. These mA/cm2) documents generally discus AC density criteria in the range of 10 A/m2 to 30 A/m2 with consideration for excursion above these criteria if specific DC density criterion is maintained. 25 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . 0 to 20 A/m2 Low or Unlikely this task group has not published (0 to 2 mA/cm2) any criteria but has given 20 to 100 A/m2 Medium or Unpredictable consideration to the information (2 to 10 mA/cm2) included in the NACE State of the Art Publication 35110. AC CORROSION STANDARDS Table 2: Current Density NACE has established TG 430 with Current Density Likelihood of AC the task of publishing criteria for AC Corrosion corrosion. At the time of this writing.

CALCULATING AC CURRENT DENSITY • The calculation for estimating the AC density at a holiday is listed below. 8??? ??? = Equation 1 ??? • where: • iAC = AC density at a coating holiday in amps per square meter [A/m2] • VAC = AC voltage of the pipeline to remove earth in volts [V] • ρ = soil resistivity in ohm meters [Ω-m] • d = diameter of circular holiday having an area equal to that of the actual holiday in meters [m] 26 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

they should be installed close to the pipeline. Measuring Current Density with Coupon Test Stations • A coupon test station typically consists of two coupons. • Therefore. and the other commonly called the “native” coupon. • One coupon is usually referred to as the “protected” or “CP” coupon. 27 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . • Since the coupon size is known. while the native coupon is not. and in the same soil environment as the pipeline. T • The protected coupon is electrically connected to the pipeline. • Coupon test stations are designed to represent the environments the pipeline are in. measuring the AC discharge through the protected coupon is an effective way of determining the AC density.

Remote Monitoring of Test Stations • In areas where AC interference is a concern. These products are generally battery powered. Typically. as well as many other cathodic protection related measurements. week. and seasons as supply and demand fluctuate. • There are many industry products available to remotely monitor coupon test stations. it is appropriate for the coupon test station monitoring the effects of the AC interference to be remotely monitored. at coupon test stations. continuous remote monitoring of test stations is recommended. with batteries that are designed to last multiple years. Because HVAC transmission loads can vary throughout the day. These remote monitors can be configured to take AC density and AC voltage readings. the measurement frequency can be adjusted to be suitable for various applications 28 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

information is required from the company operating the power lines suspected of causing AC interference on the pipeline. – Plan and profile drawings for the power line systems. • Typically. – Design ratings such as maximum and emergency load ratings – Design materials conductor types. Typical items of interest are listed below. – Electronic system maps that can be used in conjunction with electronic pipeline maps to improve work process efficiency. the pipeline company submits an inquiry form to the power company requesting design characteristics of the power line system. and shield wire types – Design geometries such as tower configurations and phase arrangements – Fault currents 29 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . Communication with the Power Companies • To perform AC interference calculations and mitigation system design. insulator types.

– AC voltage criterion. The opposite is also true. Establishing Design Parameters • There is no current industry standard to establish design parameters for AC mitigation but design considerations include the following: – Power line current load limit. The effect of an individual circuit in operation may be worse than if both circuits are in operation. – AC current density criterion. the magnitude and duration of a fault can vary with depending on the type of fault. – Circuit configurations. but some situation may require lower criterion. average. the limit for the maximum allowable current density will need to be established 30 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . peak. many power lines contain two circuits that can be operated independently of one another. – Fault current. the limit is often set at 15 VAC. or emergency loads may be used.

• The typical pipeline information includes: – Pipeline diameter and wall thickness – Coating and coating quality – Location relative to the power lines – Location of any electrical isolation joints. AC Interference Modeling • Computer modeling is required to predict AC interference on a pipeline. pipeline and environmental properties are needed. In addition to the information obtained from the power company. 31 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE .

• Gradient control mats can also be used in specific locations to mitigate step and touch hazards. 32 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . AC Mitigation System • Using the computer model. a mitigation system can be designed to reduce the AC interference to levels below the established criterion at the established design conditions. a common ground must be established between the gradient mat system and the station grounding systems. • If gradient control mats are used at stations that require grounding for other purposes. • AC mitigation systems are typically comprised of a combination of grounding systems designed to provide a parallel path to ground for the induced AC on the pipeline.

• AC discharge caused by AC interference results in accelerated corrosion of the pipeline. • The industry accepted method for measuring AC corrosion risk is AC current density. 33 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . AC CORROSION SUMMARY • An increase in collocation of power lines and pipelines combined with increased AC system loads may increase the amount of AC interference on pipelines. • This interference can become hazardous if the step and touch voltages exceed established criterion. which can be measured with coupon test stations.

such as remote monitored coupon test stations. 34 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . that can assess the hazards associated with AC interference. – In areas where pipelines are found to have voltages or current densities above the established criterion. industry has access to – technology. AC CORROSION SUMMARY • In situations where AC interference is suspected. it is advisable to consider application of such technologies and processes to install effective AC mitigation systems. – processes. such as computer modeling.

NACE. 2005 35 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . SOURCES • (1) Some Safety Considerations for Pipelines Near Overhead Power Lines.

2. (You do not need to do anything with the “#” symbol. On slide 1. Click View. the # symbol generates the slide numbering. Slide Master.) 3. Click View. To insert the presentation title in the footer: 1. Normal. Master. Delete this slide and insert a New Slide. 4. 36 INSERT TITLE OF PRESENTATION HERE . click the text at the bottom of the slide and replace with the presentation title.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.