Introduction.

Chromosomes and cellular
reproduction.
Gametogenesis

 DNA. genes and chromosomes  Transmission of genetic information  Expression of genetic information  Sources of genetic variation .

 The subdisciplines of genetics  Basic and aplied research  Genetic databases and maps  Organisms for genetics research .

 The subject matter of genetics includes the molecular nature. the ways in which genes control life functions and distribution of genes in population. . Genetics is the science of heredity.

 1865 year Mendel laws.Correns (Vokietija). C. 1900 year birth of genetics – rules of genetics- rediscovering of Mendel law (H.Tschermak (Austrija)). De Vries (Olandija). E. .

 1911 – 1919 year T. A.Morgan.B.M.H. C. Sturtevant  Chromosomal theory .Bridges.

McCarty). Wilkins). Patau and Edwards syndromes .  1959 year – chromosomal disease Down. Franklin. 1944 year DNA – genetic material (Avery. MacLeod.  1953 year secondary structure of DNA (Watson and Crick.

HUGO project  Future – sequencing of individual genomes with next generation sequencer and personalized medicine .  1997 year Dolly cloning (Wilmut). Saiki). 1985 year PCR (Mullis.  1988 m.-2003 m.

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p.3224dupA.Mutation c.Tyr1075fsX .

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 Sequencing of all egzons of all gene egzom .

Meiosis I  Meiosis II Prophase I  Prophase II Metaphase I  Metaphase II Anaphase I  Anaphase II Telophase I  Telophase II .

Leptonema Zygonema Pachynema Diplonema Diakinesis .

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