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6to4
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

6to4 is an Internet transition mechanism for migrating from Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4) to version 6 (IPv6), a system that allows IPv6 packets to be
transmitted over an IPv4 network (generally the IPv4 Internet) without the need
to configure explicit tunnels. Special relay servers are also in place that allow
6to4 networks to communicate with native IPv6 networks.[1]

6to4 is especially relevant during the initial phases of deployment to full, native
IPv6 connectivity, since IPv6 is not required on nodes between the host and the
destination. However, it is intended only as a transition mechanism and is not
meant to be used permanently.

6to4 may be used by an individual host, or by a local IPv6 network. When used by
a host, it must have a global IPv4 address connected, and the host is responsible
for encapsulation of outgoing IPv6 packets and decapsulation of incoming 6to4
packets. If the host is configured to forward packets for other clients, often a local
network, it is then a router.

Most IPv6 networks use autoconfiguration, which requires the last 64 bits for the
host. The first 64 bits are the IPv6 prefix. The first 16 bits of the prefix are always
2002:, the next 32 bits are the IPv4 address, and the last 16 bits of the prefix are
available for addressing multiple IPv6 subnets behind the same 6to4 router. Since
the IPv6 hosts using autoconfiguration already have determined the unique 64 bit
host portion of their address, they must simply wait for a Router Advertisement
indicating the first 64 bits of prefix to have a complete IPv6 address. A 6to4
router will know to send an encapsulated packet directly over IPv4 if the first 16
bits are 2002, using the next 32 as the destination, or otherwise send the packet
to a well-known relay server, which has access to native IPv6.

6to4 does not facilitate interoperation between IPv4-only hosts and IPv6-only
hosts. 6to4 is simply a transparent mechanism used as a transport layer between
IPv6 nodes.

Due to the high levels of misconfigured hosts and poor performance observed, an
advisory about how 6to4 should be deployed was published in August 2011. [2]

Contents
1 How 6to4 works
1.1 Address block allocation

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as opposed to a native IPv6 address which does not systematically use transition technologies. is undefined. 6to4 Address block allocation For any 32-bit global IPv4 address that is assigned to a host.Wikipedia https://en.6to4 . a 48-bit 6to4 IPv6 prefix can be constructed for use by that host (and if applicable the network behind it) by appending the IPv4 6to4 address address to 2002::/16. This gives a prefix length of 48 bits. Routes traffic between 6to4 and "native" IPv6 networks. any address with the first two octets of 2002 hexadecimal) is known as a 6to4 address.0.2 Encapsulation and transmission 1. Encapsulates IPv6 packets inside IPv4 packets for transmission over an IPv4 network using 6in4.3 Routing between 6to4 and native IPv6 2 Reverse DNS delegation 3 Security considerations 4 6to4 relays 4.2 Other hosts 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 References 8 External links How 6to4 works 6to4 performs three functions: Assigns a block of IPv6 address space to any host or network that has a global IPv4 address.4 has the corresponding 6to4 prefix 2002:c000:0204::/48. Note that using a reserved IPv4 address.wikipedia.ietf. the global IPv4 address 192. which leaves room for a 16-bit subnet field and 64 bit host addresses within the subnets.org/wiki/6to4 1.org/html/rfc1918). since these networks are 2 of 6 06/10/2017 04:51 PM . For example.1 Websites and lists 4. Any IPv6 address that begins with the 2002::/16 prefix (in other words.2. such as those provided by RFC 1918 (https://tools.

99.88. by extracting the 32 bits immediately following the IPv6 destination address's 2002::/16 prefix. The IPv4 source address in the prepended packet header is the IPv4 address of the host or router which is sending the packet over IPv4. It is normally the border router between an IPv6 site and a wide-area IPv4 network. Note that when wrapped in 6to4 with the subnet and hosts fields set to zero this IPv4 address (192.1) becomes the IPv6 address 2002:c058:6301::. an IPv4 header with protocol type 41 is prepended to the IPv6 packet.99.wikipedia. 6to4 packets arriving on an IPv4 interface will have their IPv6 payloads routed to the IPv6 network. Encapsulation and transmission 6to4 embeds an IPv6 packet in the payload portion of an IPv4 packet with protocol type 41.6to4 . To ensure BGP routing propagation. For example. To avoid the need for users to set this up manually.1 as the router's WAN address would be invalid since a return packet would not be able to determine the destination IPv4 address of the actual sender. "relay routers" have been established. the anycast address of 192. where the IPv6 site uses 2002::/16 co-related to the IPv4 address used later on. Routing between 6to4 and native IPv6 To allow hosts and networks using 6to4 addresses to exchange traffic with hosts using "native" IPv6 addresses. On the other hand. To allow a 6to4 host to communicate with the native IPv6 Internet. Providers willing to provide 6to4 service to their clients or peers should advertise the anycast prefix like any other IP prefix. The resulting IPv4 packet is then routed to its IPv4 destination address just like any other IPv4 packet. a "relay router" is a 6to4 router configured to support transit routing between 6to4 addresses and pure native IPv6 addresses.1 has been allocated for the purpose of sending packets to a 6to4 relay router. The IPv4 destination address for the prepended packet header is derived from the IPv6 destination address of the inner packet (which is in the format of a 6to4 address).99. A relay router connects to an IPv4 network and an IPv6 network. There is a difference between a "relay router" and a "border router" (also known as a "6to4 border router"). it must have its IPv6 default gateway set to a 6to4 address which contains the IPv4 address of a 6to4 relay router.1. using 192.org/wiki/6to4 disallowed from being routed on the public Internet.Wikipedia https://en. while packets arriving on the IPv6 interface with a destination address prefix of 2002::/16 will be encapsulated and forwarded over the IPv4 network.88. To send an IPv6 packet over an IPv4 network to a 6to4 destination address.0/24 has been allocated for routes pointed at 6to4 relay routers that use this anycast IP address. a short prefix of 192.168. 3 of 6 06/10/2017 04:51 PM . A 6to4 border router is an IPv6 router supporting a 6to4 pseudo-interface. and route the prefix to their 6to4 relay.88.

if the destination IPv6 address is a 6to4 IPv6 address. It is then possible to request reverse DNS delegation for an individual 6to4 48-bits prefix inside the 2.nro.archive.net/).Wikipedia https://en. both the 6to4 host and the native IPv6 host must have a route to a fast.org/html/rfc3964).ietf.ip6.2. if the source IPv6 address is a 6to4 IPv6 address.wikipedia. The specification states that such relay routers must only advertise 2002::/16 and not subdivisions of it to prevent IPv4 routes polluting the routing tables of IPv6 routers.6to4 . The process is entirely automatic.19:41:46 archive (https://web. its corresponding 6to4 router IPv4 address matches the IPv4 destination address in the IPv4 encapsulation header. its 6to4 IPv6 prefix is also fixed. 6to4 relays Websites and lists 2008-01-12. The 6to4 host's ISP can ensure that outgoing packets go to such a relay. reliable and correctly configured relay server.org/web/20080112194146 /http://www. 6to4 routers and relays should ensure that: either or both the source and destination addresses of any encapsulated packet is within the 6to4 IPv6 prefix 2002::/16.arpa DNS zone from the Number Resource Organization at 6to4. For a 6to4 host to have fast and reliable connectivity with a host natively using the IPv6 Internet. To achieve this an address block allocated by the user's ISP is used instead of 2002::/16. A variant called IPv6 rapid deployment ("6rd") uses the same basic principles as 6to4 but uses a relay operated by the 6rd user's ISP for traffic in both directions.0.0.kfu. any embedded 6to4 router IPv4 address is global unicast. Security considerations According to RFC 3964 (https://tools.org/wiki/6to4 Packets from the IPv6 Internet to 6to4 systems must be sent to a 6to4 relay router by normal IPv6 routing methods.net (http://6to4. Reverse DNS delegation When a site using 6to4 has a fixed global IPv4 address. but they have no control over the relay used for the responses from the native IPv6 host. similarly. From here they can then be sent over the IPv4 Internet to the destination.com/~nsayer/6to4/) of public 6to4 relay routers found on 4 of 6 06/10/2017 04:51 PM . its corresponding 6to4 router IPv4 address matches the IPv4 source address in the IPv4 encapsulation header.nro.

Security Considerations for 6to4.org/html/rfc3068).ietf.88.org/html/rfc3964).org/html/rfc3056).org/html/rfc3056) .13:25:21 archive (https://web.1.org/wiki/6to4 earlier http://www. Moore.Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds 2. Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers.php Other hosts swi6netCE1.Advisory Guidelines for 6to4 Deployment 3.ietf.ietf.[3] The 6to4 relays were turned up on August 17. Savola & C. R. "Comcast's IPv6 Information Center" (http://www.Wikipedia https://en.ch @ 2001:620:0:c000::1 Comcast operates 6to4 relays as part of their IPv6 trials. Devices attempting to use 6to4 within the Comcast network should automatically discover and utilize these 6to4 relays.ietf.com/~nsayer/6to4/ 2012-09-15.org/html/rfc6343) .6to4 . RFC 3068 (https://tools. 2010.net/6to4.kfu. RFC 3056 (https://tools. June 2001. References 1. See also IPv6 rapid deployment Teredo tunneling Further reading B. RFC 6343 (https://tools. December 2004.net /6to4.ietf.cisco. External links "Routing IPv6 over IPv4" article by Cisco (http://www.ietf. P.ietf.archive. Carpenter & K. Gilligan & E. August 2000. RFC 2893 (https://tools.wikipedia.php) of time-stamped tables of autonomous systems announcing 6to4 anycast prefixes found on earlier http://bgpmon. Nordmark. RFC 3964 (https://tools.99. An Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers.org/html/rfc2893). Huitema. Patel.comcast6. C. RFC 3056 (https://tools. Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds.org/web/20120915132521 /http://bgpmon. These 6to4 relays are available via the standard 6to4 Anycast IP address which according to RFC 3068 (https://tools.switch.org/html/rfc3068) is 192.net).com/web/about /ac123/ac147/ac174/ac197 5 of 6 06/10/2017 04:51 PM . without end user intervention or configuration. February 2001.

org/w/index.6to4 .html) IPv6 6to4 tunnel configuration example (http://6to4.Wikipedia https://en. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.net /?lang=en_GB) RFC 7526 (https://tools.. additional terms may apply.ietf. Inc.php?title=6to4& oldid=784350695" Categories: IPv6 transition technologies This page was last edited on 7 June 2017.org/html/rfc7526): Deprecating the Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers Retrieved from "https://en. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.wikipedia.org/wiki/6to4 /about_cisco_ipj_archive_article09186a00800c830a. a non-profit organization. 6 of 6 06/10/2017 04:51 PM .wikipedia. By using this site. at 21:09.version6.