2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

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 Compound Summary for CID 241

Benzene  Cite this Record

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PubChem CID: 241

Chemical Names: Benzene; Benzol; Benzole; Cyclohexatriene; Pyrobenzole; Benzine    More...

Molecular Formula: C6H6
Molecular Weight: 78.114 g/mol
InChI Key: UHOVQNZJYSORNB‐UHFFFAOYSA‐N

Drug Information: Therapeutic Uses    FDA UNII

Safety Summary: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary ﴾LCSS﴿

Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. Benzene is used as an industrial solvent in
paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone
marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
 from MeSH

Benzene is a clear, colorless, highly flammable and volatile, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon with a gasoline‐like odor.
Benzene is found in crude oils and as a by‐product of oil‐refining processes. In industry benzene is used as a solvent, as
a chemical intermediate, and is used in the synthesis of numerous chemicals. Exposure to this substance causes
neurological symptoms and affects the bone marrow causing aplastic anemia, excessive bleeding and damage to the
immune system. Benzene is a known human carcinogen and is linked to an increased risk of developing lymphatic and
hematopoietic cancers, acute myelogenous leukemia, as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ﴾NCI05﴿
 Pharmacology from NCIt

Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon biproduct of coal distillation. Chronic benzene exposure produces
hematotoxicity, bone marrow dysplasia ﴾Displasia is a pre‐neoplastic or pre‐cancerous change﴿. ﴾PMID: 16183116﴿. It is
used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system
damage acutely and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
 Metabolite Description from Human Metabolome Database

PUBCHEM  COMPOUND  BENZENE Create Date: 2004‐09‐16

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 1/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

 Contents
1 2D Structure

2 3D Conformer

3 Names and Identifiers

4 Chemical and Physical Properties

5 Related Records

6 Chemical Vendors

7 Drug and Medication Information

8 Food Additives and Ingredients

9 Pharmacology and Biochemistry

10 Use and Manufacturing

11 Identification

12 Safety and Hazards

13 Toxicity

14 Literature

15 Patents

16 Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

17 Biological Test Results

18 Classification

19 Information Sources

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 2/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

1 2D Structure
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 from PubChem

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 3/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 2 3D Conformer  Search  Download  Get Image                                      Magnify  Show Hydrogens  Show Atoms  Animate  from PubChem https://pubchem.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 4/149 .ncbi.

2 Molecular Formula C6H6  from ILO‐ICSC. PubChem 3.2 InChI InChI=1S/C6H6/c1‐2‐4‐6‐5‐3‐1/h1‐6H  from PubChem 3.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 5/149 .nih.1.3 Other Identifiers 3.1.3.ncbi.1 IUPAC Name benzene  from PubChem 3.1. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 26181‐88‐4  from ChemIDplus 71‐43‐2. ChemIDplus. EPA DSStox. EPA Chemicals under the TSCA.4 Canonical SMILES C1=CC=CC=C1  from PubChem 3. European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA.1 Computed Descriptors 3.nlm. 1076‐43‐3  from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA https://pubchem. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. Human Metabolome Dat… 8030‐30‐6  from ChemIDplus.1.3 InChI Key UHOVQNZJYSORNB‐UHFFFAOYSA‐N  from PubChem 3.1 CAS 71‐43‐2  from CAMEO Chemicals.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 3 Names and Identifiers 3.

7 Wikipedia Title benzene Description chemical compound Wikipedia cyclohexatriene  from Wikipedia 3.1 MeSH Synonyms 1.3.2 EC Number 200‐753‐7  from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA 232‐443‐2  from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA 3. Benzene https://pubchem.4 RTECS Number CY1400000  from ILO‐ICSC.5 UN Number 1114  from CAMEO Chemicals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH DE3030000  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 3.3 ICSC Number 0015  from ILO‐ICSC 3.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 6/149 .4 Synonyms 3.6 UNII J64922108F  from FDA/SPL Indexing Data 3. ILO‐ICSC. DOT Emergency Response Guidebook.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 3.3.3.3.nlm.nih.4. NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance… 3.ncbi.3.3.

Coal naphtha 22. NCI‐C55276 44.nih. CHEBI:16716 3. Benzeen [Dutch] 37. NSC 67315 49. Benzolene 25. Benzene ﴾including 9. Benzolo [Italian] 41. Benzol 3. [6]Annulene 27. 1. Benzeen 30. benzol 12. Motor benzol 28. Mineral naphtha 21. Cyclohexatriene  from MeSH 3. CCRIS 70 48. Benzene. Phenyl hydride 17. 71‐43‐2 23.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 7/149 . Pyrobenzol 18. CHEMBL277500  from PubChem https://pubchem. Benzolo 31. Benzin 26. Benzen [Polish] 38. Pyrobenzole 15.﴿ 43.ncbi. Benzol 90 36. AI3‐00808 10.3. UNII‐J64922108F 4. UN 1114 2. Phene 20.2 Depositor‐Supplied Synonyms 1.5‐cyclohexatrien 5. Fenzen 32. benzole 13. EPA Pesticide Chem 8.4. Cyclohexatriene 14. Benzole 4. Benzen 19. Bicarburet of hydrogen 24. benzene 11. ﴾6﴿Annulene 35. Benzin ﴾Obs. Benzine 16.﴿ 42. Carbon oil 29. pure 47. 077 45. UN1114 7.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 2. EINECS 200‐753‐7 6. HSDB 35 50. Benzol diluent 46. Nitration benzene 34. Rcra waste number U019 40. Fenzen [Czech] 39.nlm. Polystream 33. Caswell No. Benzine ﴾Obs.

Vapors are heavier than air.047 g/mol XLogP3 2.nih. Less dense than water and slightly soluble in water.114 g/mol Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 0 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 0 Rotatable Bond Count 0 Complexity 15.1 Computed Properties Property Name Property Value Molecular Weight 78.  from CAMEO Chemicals Liquid  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA.2. Hence floats on water. Flash point less than 0°F.1 Physical Description Benzene is a clear colorless liquid with a petroleum‐like odor.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 8/149 . Human Metabolome Database COLOURLESS LIQUID WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR.047 g/mol Exact Mass 78. https://pubchem.1 Compound Is Canonicalized true Formal Charge 0 Heavy Atom Count 6 Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Isotope Atom Count 0 Covalently‐Bonded Unit Count 1  from PubChem 4.2 Experimental Properties 4.ncbi.5 AAADcYBgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwAAA AAAAAAAABAAAAGAAAAAAACACAEAAwAIAAAACAAC CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint BCAAACAAAgAAAIiAAAAIgIICKAERCAIAAggAAIiAcAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Topological Polar Surface Area 0 A^2 Monoisotopic Mass 78.nlm.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 4 Chemical and Physical Properties 4.

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.3 Odor Aromatic odor NIOSH. 2013. N.68 ppm. Department of Health & Human Services. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.).5 Boiling Point 176. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Odor threshold = 4.nlm. Drugs. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. colorless liquid O'Neil. Department of Health & Human Services.M. rather pleasant aromatic odor. Available from: http://www.2. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.2 Color Clear. 3‐34  from HSDB Colorless to light‐yellow liquid [Note: A solid below 42 degrees F] NIOSH.  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Colorless to light‐yellow liquid with an aromatic odor. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. [Note: A solid below 42°F.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB 4. W. Sax.nih. and Biologicals.4 Taste Taste threshold in water is 0.2° F at 760 mm Hg ﴾NTP.ncbi. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Supplement to Development Doc: Haz Subset Regs Sect 311. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. 1992﴿ https://pubchem.. Available from: http://www. Cambridge.).5‐4. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.cdc. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Reddish‐brown. mobile liquid with an aromatic odor.cdc. 188  from HSDB Orthorhombic prisms or liquid Haynes. (ed. p.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Gasoline‐like odor. The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals. M. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. USEPA. FWPCA. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 9/149 . 2010‐168 (2010).I. 94th Edition. p. New York. (ed. p..2.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from ILO‐ICSC Colorless to light‐yellow liquid with an aromatic odor.2. 1984.]  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. CRC Press LLC.5 mg/l. 152  from HSDB 4.2.J. (1975) EPA 440/9‐75‐009  from HSDB 4. 6th ed. 2010‐168 (2010).

ncbi. (ed.08 deg C Haynes. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 320‐428°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 4. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. CRC Press LLC. and Biologicals. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.M. W. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 10/149 .2. 94th Edition. Drugs.J. Cambridge. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 12 Deg F ﴾‐11 Deg C﴿ Closed Cup O'Neil. (ed. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.2 deg F﴿ ﴾Closed cup﴿ https://pubchem.).5 °C  from Human Metabolome Database 6°C  from ILO‐ICSC FRZ: 42°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 42°F  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals. 94th Edition. M.7 Flash Point 12° F ﴾NTP.nlm. p. p. p.0 deg C ﴾12.558 deg C Haynes.M. 188  from HSDB ‐11.2.9° F ﴾NTP.). 3‐34  from HSDB 5.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from CAMEO Chemicals 80..). W. 2013. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. (ed.6 Melting Point 41.nih. 3‐34  from HSDB 80°C  from ILO‐ICSC 230 to 374°F  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information 176°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. CRC Press LLC. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 5.

). acetone.. W. oils.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).8756 g/cu cm at 20 deg C Haynes.nih.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Sigma‐Aldrich. 2014: http://www. chloroform. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 100‐109°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 4. p. carbon tetrachloride.2. chloroform.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.79X10+3 mg/L at 25 deg C May WE et al.2. 3‐34  from HSDB 1. acetone. M.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 11/149 .c. The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals.M.  from ILO‐ICSC 12°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.88  from ILO‐ICSC https://pubchem. (ed. Version 5.M.9 Density 0. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.879 at 68° F ﴾USCG. ether.ncbi. (ed. as of October 9.18  from ILO‐ICSC 0.sigmaaldrich. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 0. Drugs. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. and Biologicals. CRC Press LLC. CRC Press LLC. W. 188  from HSDB Miscible with ethanol.79 mg/mL  from Human Metabolome Database in water.07%  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals In water. Product Number: 12540. Cambridge. 94th Edition.html  from HSDB ‐11°C c.8 Solubility 1 to 5 mg/mL at 64° F ﴾NTP. carbon disulfide.). J Chem Ref Data 28: 197‐0200 (1983)  from HSDB Miscible with alcohol. coluble in carbon tetrachloride Haynes.com/safety‐center. Available from. p. g/100ml at 25°C: 0. ethyl ether. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014. p. and glacial acetic acid O'Neil. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014. 1. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. (ed.J. 2013. 3‐34  from HSDB ﴾water = 1﴿: 0.nlm. 94th Edition.

p. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH <5 mmHg  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 4. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 94. R. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation.88  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.nih. Electronic... C..2. MA: National Fire Protection Association.. Danner. 361  from HSDB Vapour pressure kPa at 20°C: 10  from ILO‐ICSC <5 mm  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information 75 mmHg  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. 1992﴿ ﴾Relative to Air﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 2.nlm.10 Vapor Density 2.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 0..ncbi. A.2.89‐0.2.7  from ILO‐ICSC 4. 1989. 76 mm Hg at 68° F ﴾NTP.. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 0. Quincy. Washington. 1997. Leo. Hoekman.C.13 Hansch. 12 ed. DC: American Chemical Society. T. D. and Steric Constants.13 https://pubchem.12 LogP log Kow = 2. D.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 12/149 ..11 Vapor Pressure 60 mm Hg at 59° F . 18  from HSDB 2.: Taylor and Francis. p.8 ﴾Air = 1﴿ Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Washington.97  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 4.P. 325‐16  from HSDB ﴾air = 1﴿: 2.8 mm Hg at 25 deg C Daubert. Exploring QSAR ‐ Hydrophobic.77 ﴾NTP. 1995.E. p.

M. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.nih. p.M.17 Heat of Vaporization 33.22 mN/m at 25 deg C https://pubchem.ncbi.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem HANSCH. 14TH Edition. W.). 94th Edition. Version 5. p.6 kJ/mol ﴾liquid﴿ Haynes.2.13 Stability Stable under recommended storage conditions. 6‐238  from HSDB 4. p.2. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. (ed. CRC Press LLC. 6‐132  from HSDB 4.M. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.83 kJ/mol at 25 deg C Haynes. (ed.2. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.s at 25 deg C Haynes. p.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).2.sigmaaldrich.2.604 mPa. Sigma‐Aldrich. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014. W.14 Auto‐Ignition 1097° F ﴾USCG.com/safety‐center. CRC Press LLC. as of October 9. Available from. 94th Edition. 325‐18  from HSDB 498°C  from ILO‐ICSC 4. CRC Press LLC. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.15 Viscosity 0.13  from ILO‐ICSC 4. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 928 deg F ﴾498 deg C﴿ National Fire Protection Association. W.html  from HSDB 4. MA 2010. (1995)  from Human Metabolome Database 2. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 2014: http://www. 94th Edition.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 13/149 . Quincy.2. Product Number: 12540. 5‐68  from HSDB 4. (ed.).C ET AL.).16 Heat of Combustion ‐3267.nlm.18 Surface Tension 28.

S. 656.77. 671. 681. 659.2.4. NY. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 663.8 ﴾Ether = 1﴿ AAI.4. 654. 664. New York. 643. 4th ed. 4th ed. 655. 670. 662. 672. 663. 653.11. Volumes 1‐2.68 PPM U. 653. (ed. 648. USEPA.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 14/149 . 654. 651. 646.77.1.7.1. 677. 630.M. K. 654. Volume II. Volumes 1‐2. 649. 1984‐5.6.0 mg/l. 678. 658. 645. 652.9.8.2. 653. 2001. 642. 646.5.9. 662. 648. 650. 684. 651. 640. 657.6.2. 659. 638.93.52.8.3.8. 647. 652. Health Advisories for 25 Organics: Benzene p. 658. K. 674.20 Odor Threshold 4. 670.4. 642. 663. 653. 651. 655. 654.7. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals.3. Handbook of Organic Industrial Solvents (1980) as cited in DHHS/ATSDR. 639. D.7. 638. 649. 650. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. 654. 649. 654.96. 648.  from HSDB In air: 4.8.7.35. 650. 661. 648. 647. 688. 657.2. 629. 649. 655. 640. 670. 654. 641. 654. 669. 640. 664. 643. New York.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Haynes. in water: 2. 658.1. p. 653. 644. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data. 648. 670.45. 648. 638. 657.1. 668. 655.07.6. 652. 641.7. NY.72. 681.6.4. 656.5. 654. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.: U.2. 644. 658. W.1. CRC Press LLC.2.61. 643. 656. 666. 662. 642. 653. 645.2. 660. 652. 647.26.24 eV  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. 256  from HSDB 4. 651.44. 654. 672.9.22 Kovats Retention Index Standard non‐polar 647. 645. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 649.7. Washington. 651.1. 6‐184  from HSDB 4.9 mg/cu m ﴾characteristic odor﴿. 668. 640. Toxicological Profile for Benzene (Draft) p. 660. 2001. 663.8.9.4. Coast Guard. 662. 654.36. 650.86.4.5. 650.46.2. 642. 664.5. 94th Edition.2.7. 256  from HSDB human odor perception: 3. 664.6. 661.S.6.09. 652. 647. 646.6.2.nih. 646.89. 664. 669. 655. 664.02. 658. 663. 663. John Wiley & Sons. p.6. 653. 675. 663. 651. Government Printing Office. Department of Transportation. 645. https://pubchem. 630. 664.0 mg/cu m=1 ppm Verschueren. 670. John Wiley & Sons.32. 667. p. 654. 642.).2.1.2.ncbi. 649. 644.3. 672.19 Ionization Potential 9.19 (1987) PB 87‐235578  from HSDB distinct odor: 310 mg/cu m= 90 ppm Verschueren.3. 655.4. 654.7.2. 654.nlm. 645. 655.4. 656. 664.83. 651. 638.C.98.4. 645. 666.2.7. 677. 641. 654. 678.21 Relative Evaporation Rate 2.34 (Dec/1987)  from HSDB 4. Alliance of American Insurers.

692. 659.6.3. 654. 965. 654.77. 637. 943. 653. 940.2. 654. 685. 982. 937. 637. 654. 658.5. 947. 681.4. 638. 647. 649. 686. 979. 681.5.1. 641. 649. 957. 987.7. 638.83.57. 658. 655. 938.4.4. 654. 635. 674. 930. 652.2. 667.7. 643.3. 643. 640.54. 652. 663. 657.6. 965. 661.7. 655.63.3.5. 684.91.5. 653. 653. 936. 959. 646. 641. 951. 648. 669. 653. 989. 653. 654. 645. 687. 632. 644.8. 668.5. 664. 652. 675.7. 645. 675. 947.1. 637.5. 660. 643. 938. 640. 965.4. 670. 999. 644. 655. 934. 959. 671. 667. 656.3.nih. 964.2. 667. 649.7. 674. 665. 978.6. 645.42. 654. 644. 957. 683. 683. 956.13. 649.03. 641. 650. 651. 664. 650. 655. 634.4. 670. 654. 998. 650. 642. 658. 664. 670. 636.8. 979. 650. 937. 646. 668. 664. 992. 946. 667.nlm. 666.5517/ccb0dsh Associated Article DOI:10. 685. 648. 938. 985. 638.8. 670. 668. 636. 644. 660. 653. 953. 983. 641. 643. 671. 661. 639. 654.51. 938. 651. 956. 654. 682.6. 644. 654. 985. 642.8. 959.5. 678.8. 973. 1000. 655. 647. 610. 964. 1007. 660. 963. 648. 653. 637. 932. 660.9. 638. 975. 671.27.4. 648.2. 666. 979. 976. 694.1. 654. 955. 641.9. 958. 636. 665.2. 637. 651. 642. 656.5. 971. 960. 630.75. 663.67. 657. 646. 650. 937.4. 642. 641. 954. 954.7. 640.5. 937. 644. 982.7. 973.7. 648.6. 660. 970. 646. 663. 648.1. 659. 638.5. 642. 686. 648.9. 965. 638. 648. 673.29. 655. 943. 657.3. 677.6. 967. 659. 957. 947. 987. 648. 659. 670. 654. 663. 654.1.5. 672.5. 935. 644. 648. 665.5. 953.66. 968. 651. 638.1.2. 969. 666. 652.1107/S010876810503747X  from The Cambridge Structural Database Crystal Structures: 2 of 7 CCDC Number 298306 Crystal Structure Data DOI:10. 945. 972. 640. 644. 948. 673.25.5.4. 640.8. 653. 653.74. 660. 938. 657. Standard polar 979. 947. 647. 642. 663. 981. 650. 938. 654.6.1.6. 667. 683. 924. 659. 660. 936. 641. 947. 658. 974. 650. 656. 939. 983. 971.2. 658. 647.2.3.6. 955.5.5517/ccb0drg Associated Article DOI:10. 979. 647.1.8. 651. 924. 669.7. 634. 677. 648. 947.1. 938. 640. 672.5.7. 926. 994.27. 1005.64. 642. 637.5. 937. 644. 955.9. 625. 970. 656.3.9. 653. 655. 960.3 Crystal Structures Crystal Structures: 1 of 7 CCDC Number 298305 Crystal Structure Data DOI:10.2. 650. 656.8. 634.53. 668. 675.1. 967.8. 686.2.1.2.62. 643.8. 662. 645. 652. 641. 649. 991. 680.1. 947. 951. 651. 680.8.6. 686. 679. 686. 662.4.6.1.22.5.1. 654. 645. 687. 988. 649. 938. 675. 664. 647. 933. 978. 687.45.9. 954. 663. 662. 654. 952.03. 937. 648.96.4.8.4  from NIST 4. 640.8. 682. 654. 964.8. 938.69. 640.ncbi. 685. 952. 694. 930. 654. 631. 642. 650. 654. 676. 657. 681. 965. 938. 655. 643. 675. 654.5.57.6. 651.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 15/149 .7.4. 642.2. 662. 687. 992.1.88. 685.6. 933.42.7. 658. 674. 644. 681. 940. 681. 665. 657. 959. 668. 654. 657.8. 655.8. 678. 650.79.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 659.1107/S010876810503747X  from The Cambridge Structural Database https://pubchem. 656.59. 647. 664. 644. 642. 650. 641. 657. 668.8. 660. 643. 641.2. Semi‐standard non‐polar 642. 971. 691.6. 650. 950.6. 980. 655. 622. 658. 648.4.66. 685. 645. 650. 639. 645. 671. 645. 644. 661.4. 678. 645. 667. 662. 652. 959. 640. 656. 942. 936. 661.74. 654. 967.5. 668. 639.21. 660.9. 677. 956.74. 655 936.8. 665. 665. 673. 663. 657. 639. 654.2. 974. 642.5.4. 652. 972. 653. 652. 646. 654 663. 648. 652. 947. 663. 947. 925. 650. 649. 637. 680. 649.7. 657.56.

Milne (eds.. Inc. Boca Raton . Inc. R.A. 3rd ed. V1: 575  from HSDB IR: 136 ﴾Sadtler Research Laboratories IR Grating Collection﴿ Lide. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds.2﴿. p..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 16/149 . 1994. D. D. p. 1994.R.R.). V1: 575  from HSDB Raman: 66 ﴾Dollish et al. Inc...W. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.).R.A. 3rd ed.FL.). Poisons and their Metabolites.FL.FL. G. W.1107/S010876810503747X  from The Cambridge Structural Database View All 7 Crystal Structures 4. CRC Press. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Milne (eds.FL. Boca Raton .4 Spectral Properties MAX ABSORPTION ﴾ALCOHOL﴿: 243 NM ﴾LOG E= 2. 1994. Boca Raton . V1: 575  from HSDB NMR: 3429 ﴾Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection﴿ Lide. 261 NM ﴾LOG E= 2.W. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Maurer and A.nih. Inc. Weber. G. Volume I.A. (ed..A. Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds.R. 1994. D.). Volume I. D.W. Boca Raton..5517/ccb0dtj Associated Article DOI:10.W. 256 NM ﴾LOG E= 2. New York﴿ Lide. Milne (eds. G. Volume I. 3rd ed. C‐146  from HSDB Index of refraction: 1. CRC Press LLC.. CRC Press. (ed. H.. John Wiley & Sons.. p. Volume I.). CRC Press. p. Parts I and II. John Wiley & Sons. Federal Republic of Germany. D. 1990 version﴿.). Boca Raton . Volume I. p..A. K. 1790 ﴾Atlas of Mass Spectral Data.R. Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014.W. Inc. Mass Spectra Indexes. Boca Raton . p.FL. Milne (eds. G.C. 94th Edition. New York﴿ Lide. V1: 575  from HSDB MASS: 61115 ﴾NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass SPectral Database.nlm. 1994.ncbi. 1765 ﴾UV﴿ Weast. V1: 575 https://pubchem. p.. 3rd ed.M.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Crystal Structures: 3 of 7 CCDC Number 298307 Crystal Structure Data DOI:10. CRC Press. 68th ed. CRC Press.. G. p. Florida: CRC Press Inc. Mass Spectral and GC Data of Drugs. Milne (eds. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Weinheim. 249 NM ﴾LOG E= 2.. 3rd ed. 73  from HSDB UV: 198 ﴾Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection﴿ Lide. PRISM﴿.3﴿.. 1987‐1988. SADTLER REF NUMBER: 6402 ﴾IR.5011 at 20 deg C/D Haynes. 3‐34  from HSDB Intense mass spectral peaks: 78 m/z Pfleger.2﴿. 1985.4﴿.

D. MS‐MS Spectrum 6504 ‐ CI‐B ﴾FINNIGAN‐MAT 4500﴿ Positive  from Human Metabolome Database 4.2 MS‐MS 1.A. Academic Press. MS‐MS Spectrum 6502 ‐ EI‐B ﴾JEOL JMS‐D‐3000﴿ Positive 3. MS‐MS Spectrum 6501 ‐ EI‐B ﴾HITACHI RMU‐7M﴿ Positive 2.4. MS‐MS Spectrum 6503 ‐ EI‐B ﴾HP 5970﴿ Positive 4. Milne (eds.nih.). New York﴿ Lide.W.4.. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. 3rd ed..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 13C NMR: 49 ﴾Stothers.nlm. p.. Boca Raton . Volume I. V1: 575  from HSDB 4.1 GC‐MS   1 of 4   NIST Number 114388 Library Main library Total Peaks 26 m/z Top Peak 78 m/z 2nd Highest 77 m/z 3rd Highest 51 CLICK TO LOAD. Carbon‐13 NMR Spectroscopy. G.R. Inc. Thumbnail  from NIST 4.ncbi. CRC Press.4. 1994.3 EI‐MS EI‐MS Spectrum 1270 https://pubchem.FL.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 17/149 ..

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from Human Metabolome Database 4.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 18/149 . 1D NMR Spectrum 2592 ‐ JEOL 300 MHz 1H NMR 2.4.nlm.16 MHz 13C NMR  from Human Metabolome Database 4.4 1D NMR 1. 1D NMR Spectrum 3288 ‐ Varian 25.ncbi.5 2D NMR 2D NMR Spectrum 1659 ‐ Bruker 600 MHz 1H‐13C HSQC  from Human Metabolome Database https://pubchem.4.nih.

 from NCBI 5.nlm..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 19/149 ..3 Substances 5. Connectivity 462 records Same Parent.nih. Components.1 Related Compounds with Annotation CLICK TO LOAD. Exact 425 records Mixtures..2 Related Compounds Same Connectivity 24 records Same Parent.3..  from PubChem 5.1 Related Substances All 10646 records https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 5 Related Records CLICK TO LOAD.ncbi. and 7515 records Neutralized Forms Similar Compounds 989 records Similar Conformers 9950 records  from PubChem 5.

2 Substances by Category CLICK TO LOAD.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 20/149 .nlm.  from PubChem 5.4 Entrez Crosslinks PubMed 29114 records Protein Structures 21 records Taxonomy 9 records OMIM 20 records Gene 993 records  from PubChem https://pubchem..ncbi..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Same 526 records Mixture 10120 records  from PubChem 5.3.nih.

ncbi.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 6 Chemical Vendors CLICK TO LOAD.nih.  from PubChem https://pubchem..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 21/149 ..nlm.

gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 22/149 . Second edition. Philadelphia.nlm... Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. Geneva: World Health Organization.3 Minimum/Potential Fatal Human Dose Immediately dangerous to life and health = 500 ppm Sullivan. Available from. St. as of August 12. 712  from HSDB 7.fr/ENG/Classification/index. (ed. M.P.nih. Krieger G. IARC. V29 116 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem.1 Therapeutic Uses MEDICATION ﴾VET﴿: Has been used as a disinfectant. U. J. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. Zenz. p.cdc. Drugs.B. Occupational Medicine. 3rd ed. MO. 2013. Available at: http://monographs.)..gov/toxprofiles/index. loss of consciousness.ncbi.iarc. It has been estimated that 5‐10 minutes of exposure to 20. Louis. nursing mothers may be advised to discontinue nursing for 5 days following high exposure. International Agency for Research on Cancer. O. E. Cambridge. 1994. Horvath. (eds).S.. 188  from HSDB 7. C..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 7 Drug and Medication Information 7. Pennsylvania 1999. 2014: http://www. p. 1972‐PRESENT. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. 754  from HSDB .000 ppm benzene in air is usually fatal. headache and nausea are observed. At lower levels.. p.php . Environmental Health Criteria 150: Benzene p.30 PB2008‐ 100004 (2007). /Former Use/ O'Neil.000 ppm﴿ commercial benzene have been reported to be fatal in man within 5‐10 minutes. The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals. As well. Dickerson.46 (1993)  from HSDB Single exposures to concentrations of 66.R.2 Drug Warning Protected intercourse may be prudent following high exposure to benzene. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. p. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. irregular heart‐beat.B.atsdr.J. WHO. (Multivolume work).000 mg/cu m ﴾20. dizziness. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry..asp  from HSDB Estimated oral doses from 9‐30 g have proved fatal. and Biologicals.

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 8 Food Additives and Ingredients 8.2 Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives ‐ JECFA Chemical Name BENZENE ADI NOT TO BE USED Evaluation Year 1979 Report TRS 648‐JECFA 23/18  from FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations ‐ JECFA https://pubchem.nih.nlm.ncbi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 23/149 .1 Food Additive Classes JECFA Functional Classes Food Additives: EXTRACTION_SOLVENT  from FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations ‐ JECFA 8.

(Multivolume work). and is used in the synthesis of numerous chemicals. International Agency for Research on Cancer.4 mg/sq cm/hr ﴾Hanke et al 1961﴿ . Mice treated with 2 daily SC doses of 0.5 ug/g﴿.4 ug/g﴿. as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. The Pharm Basis of Therapeutics p. Biochem Pharmacol 26: 293 (1977)  from HSDB Rats were exposed to 500 ppm benzene for 30 min to eight hr. Available at: http://monographs.. liquid aromatic hydrocarbon with a gasoline‐like odor. Benzene is found in crude oils and as a by‐product of oil‐refining processes. six hr in fat ﴾concn= 164. fat. It is taken up preferentially by fatty & nervous tissues. Benzene concentrations reached steady state within four hr in blood ﴾steady‐state concn= 11. colorless.1 Pharmacology Benzene is a clear. Goodman LS. acute myelogenous leukemia. .iarc. Abstract: PubMed Andrews LS et al. Geneva: World Health Organization. https://pubchem.. The most frequent route by which humans are exposed to benzene is via inhalation.php . except in the case of binding to bone marrow which decreased after day 6. p. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 20 (1): 191‐4 (1978)  from HSDB When administered to mice subcutaneously. 1972‐PRESENT. it is eliminated unchanged in expired air . (Multivolume work).gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 24/149 . . Abstract: PubMed Rickert DE et al.. 1972‐PRESENT...nlm.. spleen. 72% of dose is recovered in expired air. & about 40‐50% is retained..fr/ENG/Classification/index.php . Geneva: World Health Organization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 49: 417‐23 (1979)  from HSDB Benzene is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when ingested. and spleen.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 9 Pharmacology and Biochemistry 9.7‐1. highly flammable and volatile. brain. Exposure to this substance causes neurological symptoms and affects the bone marrow causing aplastic anemia. & levels in cord blood are similar to those in maternal blood. Toxic effects in humans have been attributed to combined exposure by both respiration & through the skin .. IARC. p.. & about 30‐50% . IARC. brain. & 20‐30 hr. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.936 (1970)  from HSDB Benzene crosses the human placenta. Available at: http://monographs. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB Mice treated SC with 2 mL ﴾3﴿H‐labeled benzene/kg contained irreversibly bound radioactivity with decreasing binding magnitude in the following organs: liver. lung.0 ug/g﴿. /approx/ 0.. Gilmann A. ﴾NCI05﴿  from NCIt 9. Lesser concn were detected in the kidney. 3‐4 hr.2 Absorption. kidney.. V7 211 (1974)  from HSDB When benzene was placed on skin under closed cup it was absorbed at rate of 0. a 3‐phase excretion pattern is seen at . as a chemical intermediate.fr/ENG/Classification/index. In industry benzene is used as a solvent. and two hr in bone marrow ﴾concn= 37... excessive bleeding and damage to the immune system.nih. Abstract: PubMed Snyder R et al. Distribution and Excretion Benzene is readily absorbed via lung..7 hr. is excreted unchanged via lung.ncbi.5 mL ﴾3﴿H‐benzene/kg for 1‐10 days showed a radioactivity binding with liver & bone marrow residues which increased with treatment duration. liver.iarc. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Benzene is a known human carcinogen and is linked to an increased risk of developing lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers.

.. 1991. it was detected in expired air 24 hr later. 25. as determined in vitro. 18.. McAuliffe DJ.iarc. The experiment involved an individual taking a 20‐minute shower with the bathroom door closed. mostly as ethereal sulfates. a mean of 46.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem in men & women exposed to 52‐62 ppM ﴾166‐198 mg/cu m﴿ benzene for 4 hr. and more data are needed to support the . then the bathroom door was opened and this individual was allowed to leave the house.php .. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB In animals. 20. Geneva: World Health Organization.2% was retained and the remaining 16. International Agency for Research on Cancer. will absorb in an hr. and 30 minutes...8% excreted as unchanged benzene in expired air.php . Once in the stratum corneum. and his entire skin ﴾2 sq m﴿ in contact with ambient air.ncbi. (Multivolume work)..php . 10.. the calculated flux may be higher than under some in vivo conditions.2% was retained & the remaining 16. while urine is the major route of excretion of benzene metabolites ﴾with very little fecal excretion﴿.9% was taken up. 1972‐PRESENT.5 ul of benzene from inhalation. The permeability constant for benzene. while drain level samples ranged from below the detectable limit ﴾0. Geneva: World Health Organization.. An adult working in ambient air containing 10 ppm of benzene.670 ug/cu m ﴾235‐518 ppb﴿ in the shower stall at 18‐20 minutes. particularly those having one or more polar groups. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB In men and women exposed to 52‐62 ppm ﴾166‐198 mg/cu m﴿ benzene for 4 hr. IARC. 366‐498 ug/cu m ﴾113‐154 ppb﴿ in https://pubchem. and the hydroquinone within 48 hr. 7. suggesting that it is possible to back‐ extrapolate to the benzene concentration in the inspired air.0 ul from contact with gasoline. Glass. Most of the phenol and catechol was excreted within 24 hr. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB The solubility characteristics of benzene are such that it is easily taken up by the stratum corneum. Geneva: World Health Organization. followed by 5 minutes for drying and dressing. Blank IH. with 100 cm of glaborous skin in contact with gasoline containing 5% benzene. one member was based in the bathroom and the other in the living room.iarc. . an adjacent bedroom.8% excreted as unchanged benzene in expired air. p. bathroom. Benzene concentrations in the shower head ranged from 185 to 367 ug/L ﴾ppb﴿. living room. and 1.. it seems that unless good hygiene is maintained and care is taken to prevent lengthy exposure to solvents containing benzene. Available at: http://monographs. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 25. When humans were exposed to 100 ppM ﴾300 mg/cu m﴿ benzene. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 3% as catechol and 1% as hydroquinone in the urine. Two members of the monitoring team were measured for 6 hours using personal Tenax gas GC monitors. International Agency for Research on Cancer. p. Environmental Health Criteria 150: p. For the first 30 minutes of each experiment. Available at: http://monographs. expired air is the main route of elimination of unmetabolized benzene.nlm. IARC. and in ambient air.fr/ENG/Classification/index. (Multivolume work). .iarc. 7. conclusion that there is good overall agreement between in vitro and in vivo data. J Investigat Dermatol 85: 522‐6 (1985)  from HSDB Subjects who inhaled concentrations of 340 mg/cu m ﴾106 ppm﴿ benzene in air for 5 hr excreted 29% as phenol. p. a mean of 46.54 (1993)  from HSDB In a series of experiments conducted in a single‐family residence from June 11 to 13.5 ul from body exposure to ambient air. in vitro techniques measure the penetration of benzene through strongly hydrated stratum corneum. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. The residential water was contaminated with benzene and other hydrocarbons in 1986. 1972‐PRESENT. IARC.fr/ENG/Classification/index. and living room at 0. .fr/ENG/Classification/index. Nevertheless. Peak levels of benzene measured 758‐1.5. 1972‐PRESENT. bedroom. exposure to benzene through contaminated residential water was monitored.6 ug/L or ppb﴿ to 198 ug/L ﴾ppb﴿.9% was taken up.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 25/149 . it does not meet many restraining forces to impede its movement and diffuses easily.nih. significant amounts of benzene may enter the body through the skin. is higher than that of many other small molecules. gas‐tight syringe grab samples were simultaneously collected from the shower. Even though these uncertainties exist. 30. Integrated 60‐ and 240‐minute whole‐air samples were collected from the bathroom. Available at: http://monographs. Analysis of the syringe samples suggested a pulse of benzene moving from the shower stall to the rest of the house over approximately 60 minutes. 30. WHO. International Agency for Research on Cancer. (Multivolume work). Since . Periodic testing conducted from 1986 to 1991 showed benzene concentrations ranging from 33 to 673 ug/L ﴾ppb﴿.

9 times higher than corresponding 20‐minute bathroom exposures. The Zymbal gland is a specialized sebaceous gland and a site for benzene‐induced tumors. and kidney. These metabolites are interactive and can affect the rate of each other's metabolism because they are substrates for the P‐450 enzyme system. and mammary gland. bone marrow. Phenyl sulfate was the major urinary metabolite. This exposure was 2‐3. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. hydroxyhydroquinone. tissue distribution of benzene was highest in liver and kidney. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. 754  from HSDB Metabolic products in rat . as of August 12. while the highest concentrations of the metabolite phenol were in the oral cavity.. Bone marrow and adipose tissue proved to be depots of benzene at the higher dose levels.asp  from HSDB In Sprague‐Dawley rats administered a single dose of 0.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 26/149 .atsdr. another conjugated metabolite of benzene. and liver for phenyl sulfate and hydroquinone glucuronide. whereas the dose increased.cdc. 2014: http://www.S.. These doses were estimated by taking the products of the concentration of benzene in water. are phenol.gov/toxprofiles/index. as of August 12. and urinary metabolites were examined. Adding the average dose absorbed in the bathroom during the 5.asp  from HSDB 9.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem the bathroom at 10‐25 minutes. hydroquinone. benzene was rapidly absorbed and distributed to various organs and tissues within 1 hr of administration.. 105. 15.cdc. nasal cavity.15. Additionally. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Available from.ncbi. and a unit conversion factor of 11/1. a dermal permeability constant for benzene of 0. the duration of exposure. U. benzene disproportionately increased in the mammary glands and bone marrow. and 40‐ 62 ug/cu m ﴾12‐19 ppb﴿ in the living room at 36‐70 minutes. all the phenolic metabolites were https://pubchem. Hydroquinone conjugates and muconic acid in the urine decreased as the dose increased.5 mg/kg of benzene.156 PB2008‐100004 (2007). Available from. kidney. as of August 12. the Zymbal gland and nasal cavity were depots for phenyl glucuronide. 2014: http://www. Philadelphia. The major tissue sites of benzene's conjugated metabolites were blood.33 hours.R. except for a small amt of free phenol. p.cdc. & phenylmercapturic acid.B.nlm.5 times higher than the mean 6‐hour inhalation dose received by the sampling members. Conjugated phenols have been reported . or 500 mg/kg of ﴾14﴿C‐benzene by gavage. hydroquinone. catechol. and catechol. The highest tissue concentrations of benzene's metabolite hydroquinone 1 hr after administration of 15 mg/kg of benzene were in the liver. At higher doses.5 minutes following the shower ﴾using the overall 20‐25 minutes mean syringe level of 318 ug/cu m [99 ppb]﴿ gave a total average shower‐ related inhalation dose of 113 ug. benzene did not accumulate in the Zymbal gland.gov/toxprofiles/index. and a 70% benzene absorption factor. Krieger G. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. U. an exposure factor of 75% body surface area exposed.9 ug﴿ for the 3 consecutive sampling days.. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. One hour after rats were dosed with 0.. The proportion of radioactivity excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. oral cavity. 1.S. muconic acid was also found in these sites. 2014: http://www. J. Therefore. more benzene was exhaled unchanged.165 PB2008‐100004 (2007). it is reasonable to expect that lipophilic chemicals like benzene would partition readily into this gland. intermediate in blood.6.atsdr.S. and lowest in the Zymbal gland.11 cm/hour.nih.asp  from HSDB Monkeys were dosed intraperitoneally with 5‐500 mg/kg radiolabeled benzene. an exposure duration of 0. The total benzene dose resulting from the shower was estimated to be approximately 281 ug ﴾40% via inhalation and 60% via dermal﴿.000 cm sq . suggesting a higher potential exposure to benzene via dermal contact from the water than through vaporization and inhalation. Pennsylvania 1999. 81‐146 ug/cu m ﴾25‐45 ppb﴿ in the bedroom at 25. U. 150.atsdr.5. Sullivan. This was 2.1‐4. radiolabel derived from 14C‐benzene in the Zymbal gland constituted less than 0. Second edition. However. and 103 ug ﴾mean=95. the minute ventilation rate. Available from. (eds).3 Metabolism/Metabolites The major metabolitesof benzene metabolism are phenol. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.5‐30 minutes. and blood. nasal cavity tissue. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.180 PB2008‐100004 (2007). kidney. within 24 hr after administration.0001% of the administered dose.15 or 1. beginning with 15 mg/kg. The individual who took the 20‐minute shower had estimated inhalation doses of 79. An average dermal dose of 168 ug was estimated for the 20‐minute shower by multiplying the average concentration of benzene in water by the surface area of the male volunteer. The route of exposure has little effect on the subsequent metabolism of benzene to hemotoxic metabolites. This indicated saturation of benzene metabolism at higher doses.. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.gov/toxprofiles/index.

Drinking Water & Health Volume 1.C‐11 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB Unconjugated phenol has been found in mouse and rat urine after benzene administration. was found in the urine conjugated with ethereal sulfate or glucuronic acid. Benzene. Yields cis‐1. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p.C‐12 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB Benzene. B. When ﴾3﴿H‐benzene was admin to mice. .. phenobarbital. SKF‐525A /proadifen/. and catechol had no effect on erythopoiesis. 3‐methylcholanthrene and dimethyl sulfoxide are all microsomal stimulants for the metabolism of benzene.ncbi. Although the metabolic profile differed between the two strains. The phenolic metabolites were excreted primarily as glucronides with the exception of a small amount of free phenol. Total urinary benzene metabolites and the % of the dose excreted in the urine were the same in both strains. Phenol in pseudomonas & achromobacter.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem excreted in conjugated form. or toluene. cytochrome c. which along with some catechol and hydroquinone. However. Phenol.2‐ dihydroxybenzene in pseudomonas.cis‐muconic acid in rabbit. Catechol formation is thought to result from the hydration of benzene oxide by the enzyme epoxide hydratase followed by oxidation to catechol. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. Benzene metabolism in vitro can be inhibited by carbon monoxide. USEPA. Toluene reduced the appearance of benzene https://pubchem.. aniline. aminotriazole. National Research Council. 1977. Jerina D. 688  from HSDB Yields N‐acetyl‐S‐phenyl‐cysteine in rat. USEPA. It appears that catechol and phenol are formed by two distinctly different metabolic pathways. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p.nih. Adv Exp Biol 136A: 245‐56 (1982)  from HSDB The urinary metabolites isolated by DEAE Sephadex A‐24 anion‐exchange chromatography from mice treated with radiolabeled benzene included phenol as the major component. decreased erythropoiesis much more markedly in DBA/2 mice than in C57BL/6 mice. B‐4  from HSDB In the rabbit. the major hydroxylation product of benzene was phenol. p. /From table/ Goodwin. resorcinol. metyrapone.C‐11 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB The formation of benzene oxide. Washington. The levels of both free and covalently bound benzene were higher in all organs of the DBA/2 mice. an epoxide of benzene is involved in the metabolism of benzene. it was very similar when equitoxic doses of benzene were administered. Adv Exp Med Biol 136A: 307‐17 (1982)  from HSDB Benzene reduced the incorporation of ﴾59﴿Fe into red cells by 75% at the higher dose when administered at 440 or 880 mg/kg to mice pretreated with ﴾59﴿Fe 48 hr earlier.nlm. Hydroquinone is thought to result from a second passage of phenol through the mixed function oxidases. aminopyrine.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 27/149 . the depression of ﴾59﴿Fe uptake was prevented. USEPA. when toluene was administered simultaneously with benzene in a ratio of 2:1.. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. hydroquinone. ﴾3﴿H2O was also recovered from urine.L. DC: National Academy Press. Science 185: 573 (1974) as cited in USEPA. Yields benzyl alcohol in guinea pigs. and phenylmercapturic acid. Snyder R et al. when administered sc at 880 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days. This highly unstable intermediate rearranges non‐enzymatically to form phenol. p. This step accounts for the occurrence of phenol as the major metabolite of benzene in urine.. Longacre SL et al. Daly JW. Yields cis. Handbook of Intermediary Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds. 1976. New York: Wiley. hydroquinone.2‐dihydro‐1.C‐12 (1980) EPA 440/5‐ 80‐018  from HSDB The metabolism of benzene in vitro can be altered by the use of enzyme inducers administered to animals prior to sacrifice or by the addition of inhibitors to the mixtures. as well as catechol.

Krieger G.B.trans‐muconaldehyde.‐ hexadienal.01 millimolar and 0.R. Abstract: PubMed Snyder R et al.5 millimolar and was not evident in control animals.ncbi. The potential existence of a toxic metabolite in the form of an aldehyde precursor of muconic acid in vivo is discussed.. Xenobiotica 15: 211‐20 (1985)  from HSDB In humans.5‐3.07 millimolar. Treatment with ethanol resulted in significant increase in the activity of both normally occurring benzene hydroxylases in the normal liver.2‐4. Nakajima T et al. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. 2014: http://www. in vitro. stimulated by the presence of phenol. as of August 12.8.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 28/149 .7 and 1. Phenol is than further oxidized by the P‐450 enzyme system to hydroquinone. Sullivan. trans‐muconic acid and quino in the 48 hr urine. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. (eds). or can diffuse into bone marrow.. 6‐oxo‐trans. 6‐hydroxy‐trans. Abstract: PubMed Gadel K et al. Benzoquinone has been shown to be both myelotoxic and clastogenic.19 (1987) PB 87‐235578  from HSDB Male Wistar rats were tested to determine the effect of enzymes with different kinetic characteristics on the metabolism of benzene. and 6‐hydroxy‐trans. Treatment with phenobarbital failed to affect the activity of the other low Michaelis constants of benzene hydroxylases identified in the liver of normal rats.4‐hexadienoic acid. the value of the Michaelis constant for this enzyme was equal to 4. Pennsylvania 1999. phenol sulfate is the major metabolite of benzene until 400 mg/l levels are reached in the urine.. trans. Both hydroquonone and phenol can be conjugated in the liverto nontoxic products. J. Arch Toxicol 60 (1‐3): 61‐4 (1987)  from HSDB The major benzene metabolite produced by the liver P‐450 enzyme system is phenol.gov/toxprofiles/index. trans‐muconic acid was identified and was unique to benzene as none was detected in urine of mice dosed orally with phenol.. the doubly labeled DNA was hydrolyzed to deoxynucleosides and separated on a Sephadex LH 20 column..nlm. Health Advisories for 25 Organics: Benzene p. Kinetic analysis of the enzymes in the liver of rats fed a normal diet revealed the presence of two benzene hydroxylases with low Michaelis constant values of 0. respectively.nih. in vitro. Once in bone marrow. glucuronide conjugates are also present in the urine.01 millimolar disappeared while the activity of the second isozyme increased. Trans.atsdr. U. After 1 day of food deprivation.. Biochemical Pharmacol 36 (17): 2799‐804 (1987)  from HSDB Mitoplasts ﴾mitochondria with the outer membrane removed﴿ from the bone marrow of rabbits were incubated sequentially with ﴾3﴿H‐labeled deoxyguanosine triphosphate and ﴾14﴿C‐labeled benzene to study the DNA adducts formed from benzene metabolites in mitochondria.8‐4.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem metabolites to 45% of controls at the higher dose and 30% at the lower dose. Philadelphia. Adv Mod Environ Toxicol 4: 123‐36 (1983)  from HSDB A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method is described which separates urinary metabolites from benzene‐treated male CD‐1 mice.7% of the orally administered single dose of benzene ﴾880.4‐hexadienoic acid. respectively for 12.0055 to 6.170 PB2008‐100004 (2007). USEPA.trans‐2. Literature identifies the following metabolites after incubation of benzene with mouse liver microsomes: phenol.asp https://pubchem. Snyder R et al.25 millimolar. was also identified. Thus toluene appears to inhibit benzene metabolism and by so doing. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures.trans‐2. At least seven deoxyguanosine adducts and one deoxyadenine adduct were present. which metabolizes hydroquinone to reactive benzoquinone.trans. and 220 mg/kg body wt﴿. 754  from HSDB . the isozyme with a constant equal to 0. 1. alleviates its toxicity. phenol and hydroquinone can be acted upon by the myeloperoxidase‐dependent enzyme system. Available from. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p.8‐22. catechol. Following isolation and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation in CsCl. Phenol. trans. a new metabolite. hydroquinone. p. Catechol occurred in trace amounts. Second edition. or quinol.S. Beta‐hydroxymuconaldehyde. 440.cdc. Following the administration of phenobarbital there was evidence of a third benzene metabolizing enzyme in the liver of the animals exposed to benzene in concentrations ranging from 0. Beyond than level. accounted.

increased phosphorylation of c‐Myb and increased production of ROS supporting our hypothesis. and the p21 mRNA level in bone marrow cells was used as a determinant of the p53‐regulated DNA damage response.atsdr. Male mEH‐/‐ mice were also unresponsive to benzene‐induced genotoxicity compared to a significant induction in the male 129/Sv mice. indicate species differences in benzene metabolism. Polymorphisms in human microsomal epoxide hydrolase ﴾mEH﴿ are associated with an increased risk of developing leukemia. Quantitation of metabolites from the microsomal metabolism of benzene indicated that after 45 min. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ﴾AhR﴿ by environmental contaminants has also been associated with carcinogenesis and mice lacking this receptor are resistant to benzene‐initiated hematotoxicity. Available from. is one of the earliest steps leading to the formation of leukemic cells.iarc. mouse liver microsomes from male B6C3F1 mice had converted 20% of the benzene to phenol. but not female.gov/toxprofiles/index. Using chicken erythroblast HD3 cells we have shown that exposure to the benzene metabolites catechol. and hydroquinone leads to increased c‐Myb activity.S. Interestingly.04 and <0. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of https://pubchem. mostly as ethereal sulfates. 6 hr/day. The female mEH‐/‐ and 129/Sv mice were virtually unresponsive to benzene‐induced genotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate the importance of mEH in benzene‐ induced toxicity.nih.cdc. no significant alteration was observed in male mEH‐/‐ mice. and 2% to catechol. Oncogene activation. We have found that both wild type and AhR deficient cells are sensitive to catechol and hydroquinone‐initiated increases in c‐Myb activity while both cell types are resistant to benzene‐initiated alterations leaving the role of the AhR still undetermined. IARC. 8% to hydroquinone. 2003 Apr. mice. Toxicol Sci. 2014: http://www. (Multivolume work). Thus mEH appears to be critical in benzene‐induced toxicity in male. 31% to hydroquinone. Muconic acid production by mouse liver microsomes was <0. protein expression of c‐Myb is increased after catechol exposure in AhR deficient cells while decreased in wild‐type cells.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Data produced in vitro by mouse and rat liver microsomes . Micronucleated peripheral blood cells were counted to assess genotoxicity.. Chem Biol Interact. Mouse liver microsomes continued to produce hydroquinone and catechol for 90 min. Total white blood cell counts and bone marrow cell counts were used to assess hematotoxicity and myelotoxicity. 1972‐PRESENT.. Given that oxidative stress can alter the activity and fate of cell signaling pathways we hypothesize that the bioactivation of benzene leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. rat liver microsomes from male Fischer 344 rats converted 23% to phenol.php . Available at: http://monographs.173 PB2008‐100004 (2007). International Agency for Research on Cancer. Abstract: PubMed Wan J et al. and 0. 3% as catechol and 1% as hydroquinone in the urine. In contrast. 153‐154:171‐8 (2005)  from HSDB Enzymes involved in benzene metabolism are likely genetic determinants of benzene‐induced toxicity. U.fr/ENG/Classification/index. p21 mRNA expression in female mEH‐/‐ mice was not significantly induced upon benzene exposure whereas a significant induction was observed in female 129/Sv mice. Male and female mEH‐deficient ﴾mEH‐/‐﴿ mice and background mice ﴾129/Sv﴿ were exposed to inhaled benzene ﴾0. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.5% to catechol. Using wild type and AhR deficient cells we are investigating the role of this receptor in benzene‐ initiated alterations in the c‐Myb signaling pathway. including c‐Myb activation. 10.72(2):201‐9 (2003)  from HSDB Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB Chronic exposure to benzene has been correlated with increased oxidative stress and leukemia. Male mEH‐/‐ mice did not have any significant hematotoxicity or myelotoxicity at the highest benzene exposure compared to the male 129/Sv mice. While p21 mRNA expression was highly induced in male 129/Sv mice after exposure to 100‐ppm benzene. 50. specifically those associated with benzene. whereas rat liver microsomes had ceased production of these metabolites by 90 min. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.asp  from HSDB Subjects who inhaled concentrations of 340 mg/cu m ﴾106 ppm﴿ benzene in air for 5 hr excreted 29% as phenol. p. after 90 min. Significant hematotoxicity or myelotoxicity did not occur in the female mEH‐/‐ or 129/Sv mice. respectively. which if not detoxified can alter the c‐Myb signaling pathway.2% from phenol and benzene. Geneva: World Health Organization. benzoquinone.ncbi. Likewise. however the molecular mechanisms involved in these events are poorly understood.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 29/149 . as of August 12. or 100 ppm﴿ 5 days/week. for a two‐week duration. Abstract: PubMed Bauer AK et al.nlm.

ncbi. 48.0071153.pone. K. Print 2013. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 20: 30‐43 (1971)  from HSDB https://pubchem. This apparent differentiation block resulted in reduced numbers of B cells generated in culture and a corresponding accumulation of pre‐B cells.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. may in some way block the final maturation stages of B cell differentiation. Hydroquinone was the most effective chemical. PLoS One. 24. on mouse embryonic yolk sac hematopoietic stem cells ﴾YS‐HSCs﴿ and adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells ﴾BM‐ HSCs﴿. Abstract: PubMed Crebelli R et al. The results revealed differential effects of benzene metabolites on embryonic and adult HSCs. The study established an experimental system for comparison of the hematopoietic toxicity and leukemogenicity of benzene and metabolites during mouse embryonic development and adulthood. 2001. catechol and phenol were assayed in tests for mitotic segregation induction in Aspergillus nidulans diploid strain 19. In the current study.nih. sIgM‐﴿ were numerically elevated as compared with control cultures. The protecting activity exerted by L‐cysteine against equimolar concentrations of hydroquinone supports a free radical mechanism for hydroxy metabolite genotoxicity in Aspergillus nidulans. Cyp4f18 was induced by HQ both in YS‐HSCs and BM‐HSCs. Abstract: PubMed King AG et al. However. 4th ed. Ikeda M. Although benzene induced immunotoxicity has been well documented. Mol Pharmacol 32 (6): 807‐12 (1987)  from HSDB . It is believed that benzene and its metabolites target hematopoietic stem cells ﴾HSCs﴿ to cause toxicity and cancer in the hematopoietic system. Ohtsuji H. no studies to date have addressed the possibility that benzene toxicity is due in part to altered differentiation of marrow lymphoid cells. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. hydroquinone. hydroquinone. NY. Reduction of adherent cells in treated cultures may also suggest that toxicity to regulatory cells for the B lineage may be in part responsible for this aspect of hydroquinone myelotoxicity. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed in HQ‐treated YS‐HSCs and BM‐HSCs. instead of numerical abnormalities.nlm. Mutagenesis 2 (3): 235‐8 (1987)  from HSDB Environmental exposure to benzene results in both myelotoxicity and immunotoxicity.. The effect of acute exposure to the benzene metabolite.1371/journal. Genetic characterization of induced abnormal segregating colonies by replating and complementary assays with haploid strain 35 suggest that gross chromosomal aberrations. and were exposed to HQ at increasing concentrations. New York. whereas DNA‐PKcs was induced in BM‐HSCs only. Volumes 1‐2. Benzene hydroxylation was stimulated when rats were pretreated with phenobarbital and then exposed to 1. the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of HQ were more apparent and reduction of colony formation by HQ was more severe in YS‐HSCs than in BM‐HSCs. an oxidative metabolite of benzene. YS‐HSCs and BM‐HSCs were isolated and enriched. The proposed sequence of benzene metabolism in plants is benzene /to/ phenol /to/ pyrocatechol /to/ o‐benzoquinone /to/ muconic acid. One hr exposure of bone marrow cells to hydroquinone before culture reduced the number of mature surface cells generated in liquid cultures. are the primary genetic damages induced by hydroxybenzenes in Aspergillus.[Zhu J et al.8﴾8﴿:e71153. Small pre‐B cells ﴾cytoplasmic mu heavy chain+. a major metabolite of benzene in humans and animals. or 72 hr and production of newly formed B cells was assayed both by mature surface expression and colony formation in soft agar cultures.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 30/149 . experimental evidence supporting the association is lacking at the present time. John Wiley & Sons. Bone marrow cell suspensions from B6C3F1 ﴾C57BL/6J x C3H/HeJ﴿ mice were depleted of mature surface IgM+ B cells and cultured for 0. p. These results suggest that short‐term exposure to hydroquinone. benzene administered in aqueous solution or as vapor is translocated and metabolized. However. Verschueren. 2013 Aug 5. increasing the frequency of mitotic segregants up to 10 fold at 1‐3 mM.. doi: 10. HQ reduced the proliferation and the differentiation and colony formation.] Full text: PMC3734044 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB In higher plants. Catechol was similarly active at 10‐20 mM and phenol was weakly positive at 15 mM. on murine bone marrow B‐lymphopoiesis was investigated. /the authors/ compared the effects of hydroquinone ﴾HQ﴿. but increased the apoptosis of both YS‐HSCs and BM‐HSCs.000 ppm of benzene vapor for 8 hr/day for 2 wk. 264  from HSDB The principal hydroxy metabolites of benzene. Hydroquinone exposure also decreased the number of adherent cells found in cultures of bone marrow cells.

.php .. Louis. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.nlm. V29 113 (1982) https://pubchem... Alternatively. have been shown to produce DNA damage in hman lymphocytes. catechol. Geneva: World Health Organization. & that para‐benzoquinone is the metabolite most likely to be responsible for suppression of lymphocyte transformation & microtubule assembly in rat spleen cells in culture. International Agency for Research on Cancer. J...4 Biological Half‐Life The excretion of unchanged benzene from the lung of rats was reported to be biphasic. Occupational Medicine. MO. IARC. suggesting a two‐ compartment model for distribution and a half‐life of 0. muconic acid. admin of these cmpd to animals does not produce the typical picture of benzene toxicity . (Multivolume work). 1972‐PRESENT.. that hydroquinone & para‐benzoquinone are the most potent inhibitors of T‐ & B‐lymphocyte function..B. admin /of/ major metabolites of benzene to mice .. Although it is clear that benzene can be metabolized in bone marrow.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Benzene and its five metabolites.R. O. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins..fr/ENG/Classification/index. Geneva: World Health Organization. failed to . Importance of polyhydroxylated derivatives of benzene & their semiquinones.. the observation that partial hepatectomy protects against benzene toxicity suggests that a metabolite formed in liver is essential for benzene toxicity.. 1994. 146  from HSDB 9.. Dickerson.nih.C‐11 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB . C.5 Mechanism of Action Covalent interaction of a benzene metabolite with dna was shown in vivo. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures..iarc. the toxic metabolites of benzene have yet to be identified. .. . Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. hydroquinone or benzene dihydrodiol failed to suppress colony forming unit‐C.. However.fr/ENG/Classification/index. A likely intermediate in benzene metabolism is benzene oxide. Zenz. Treating the animals with phenol. p. Thus. /it's been/ suggested that ring‐opening products may play a role in benzene toxicity. p. 3rd ed.php . The half‐time of benzene in /high lipid content/ tissues is approximately 24 hours..B. Sullivan. p. as measured in mouse spleen cells in culture. (Multivolume work). but no information was given about the chem nature of this metabolite.ncbi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 31/149 . red blood cell production. Abstract: PubMed Lutz WK.iarc. This agreed with experimental half‐life values for various tissues that ranged from 0.7 hr. which inhibits benzene metabolism.. Chem Biol Interact 18 (2): 241‐6 (1977)  from HSDB The available evidence supports the concept that benzene toxicity is caused by one or more metabolites of benzene. Krieger G. . Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Toluene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 49: 417 (1979) as cited in USEPA. the metabolic appearance of polyhydroxy derivatives suggests the formation of a phenol epoxide. so that the reactive molecule could be a secondary metabolite. In neutral aq media it rearranges only slowly to the phenol so that its lifetime could be long enough for diffusion from the site of activation to the dna. Schlatter C. protected animals against benzene‐induced myelotoxicity. /It has been/ shown that hydroquinone inhibits rat brain microtubule polymerization. St. decr .. (eds). Rickert DE et al. 1972‐PRESENT. Available at: http://monographs. 755  from HSDB 9. Second edition. Pennsylvania 1999. IARC. p. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Benzene metabolites containing 2 or 3 hydroxyl groups inhibited mitosis. hydroquinone.. In mice benzene treatment suppressed subsequent colony forming unit‐C formation from bone‐marrow cells in vitro. Benzene toxicity could be correlated with the appearance of benzene metabolites in bone marrow.P. Available at: http://monographs. p‐benzoquinone and benzenetriol. Philadelphia. Horvath. using the ﴾59﴿Fe uptake technique . E..4 to 1.6 hr.... that hydroquinone inhibits lectin‐stimulated lymphocyte agglutination in rat spleen prepn in vitro. V29 113 (1982)  from HSDB .

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

 from HSDB

... Radioactivity /has been demonstrated/ in a nucleic acid fraction from rat liver following admin of either ﴾3﴿h‐ or
﴾14﴿C‐labelled benzene. It has been shown that benzene binds covalently to protein in liver, bone marrow, kidney,
lung, spleen, blood, & muscle. Less covalent binding was observed to the protein of bone marrow, blood, & spleen of
C57Bl/6 mice, which are more resistant to the benzene‐induced effects on red cell production, than to that of
sensitive DBA/2 mice. ... Covalent binding of benzene to protein in perfused bone‐marrow prepn /has been
demonstrated/. ... A metabolite of phenol binds to liver protein more efficiently than does benzene oxide, & they have
electrophoretically separated hepatic proteins to which benzene preferentially binds. ... Covalent binding to
mitochondria is a prominent feature of benzene metabolism. ... There is relatively more radioactivity in a nucleic acid‐
rich fraction of a benzene metabolite isolated from mouse bone‐marrow cells than in a similar fraction from liver.
IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Geneva: World Health Organization,
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972‐PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at:
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php , p. V29 113 (1982)

 from HSDB

Evidence indicates that benzene must be metabolically activated in order to exert its characteristic toxicity on bone
marrow. Some of the hydroxylated benzene metabolites, phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol & some
trihydroxylated derivatives in urine of rabbits are suggested to be the toxic metabolites.
Snyder R et al; Biological Reactive Intermediates II, Part A, Plenum Publishing Corp 245 (1982)

 from HSDB

The mechanism of benzene oxygenation in liver microsomes & in reconstituted enzyme systems from rabbit liver was
investigated. The results indicate that the microsomal cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation of benzene is mediated
by hydroxyl radicals formed in a modified Haber‐Weiss reaction between hydrogen peroxide & superoxide anions &
suggest that any cellular superoxide‐generating system may be sufficient for the metabolic activation of benzene &
structurally related compounds.
Johansson I, Ingelman‐Sundberg M; J Bio Chem 258 (12): 7311‐6 (1983)

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Animal expt show that benzene sensitizes the myocardium to epinephrine, so that the endogenous hormone may
precipitate sudden & fatal ventricular fibrillation.
Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p.
III‐398

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The protective effects of pyridine and xylene against benzene, benzo﴾a﴿pyrene, or cyclophosphamide clastogenicity
were studied in mice. Swiss‐ICR mice were treated orally with 220 to 880 mg/kg benzene, 150 mg/kg benzo﴾a﴿pyrene,
or intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide with or without 0 to 500 mg/kg pyridine or xylene. The mice
were killed 24 to 72 hours later and the femurs were removed. The bone marrow was isolated and assayed for
micronuclei. Xylene inhibited the induction of micronuclei of benzene only when given at an equimolar dose or
greater. No delay in the peak micronuclei response was seen. Pyridine at 60 mg/kg completely blocked the induction
of micronuclei by 880 mg/kg benzene of 24 hours. Pyridine at 25 mg/kg completely blocked the clastogenic effect of
440 mg/kg benzene at 36 to 76 hours and partially blocked micronuclei induction at 24 hours. The clastogenicity of
benzo﴾a﴿pyrene was inhibited by pyridine only at doses of 100 mg/kg or more. Pyridine showed no protective effect
against micronuclei induction by cyclophosphamide at any concn; micronuclei formation was enhanced by 60 to 260
mg/kg pyridine. Since the results suggested that the biological activation of benzene was due to different cytochrome
p450 isozymes than the ones activating benzo﴾a﴿pyrene or cyclophosphamide, DBA/2 mice ﴾aryl hydrocarbon
hydrolase noninducible﴿ and C57B1/6 mice with or without pretreatment with methylcholanthrene were dosed once
or three times with benzene and the effects on bone marrow micronuclei were examined as before. Micronuclei
formation was greater in DBA/2 mice. The effect was potentiated by methylcholanthrene. The cytochrome p450
isozyme involved in activating benzene is one of the enzymes induced by methylcholanthrene, independent of the
high affinity aryl hydrocarbon hydrolase receptor. Abstract: PubMed
Harper BL, Legator MS; Mutat Res 179 (1): 23‐31 (1987)

 from HSDB

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 32/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

Benzene is a widespread volatile compound and an environmental contaminant. Since it causes important toxic effects
in workers exposed to low levels, long‐term exposure to this compound has been extensively studied. Leukemia,
blood disorders, bone marrow depression, and some types of cancer are directly related to benzene‐initiated toxicity.
Bioactivation of benzene can lead to the formation of hazardous metabolites such as phenol, hydroquinone, and
catechol. Catechol forms semiquinones and reactive quinones that are presumed to play an important role in the
generation of reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. ROS formation can directly induce single and double strand breaks in the
DNA, oxidized nucleotides, and hyper‐recombination, and consequently produces deleterious genetic changes. In this
review, we have addressed the cytotoxic effects of benzene and its main metabolite, catechol, focusing on the
oxidative pathway and further DNA damage. Abstract: PubMed
Barreto G et al; Environ Mol Mutagen. 50 (9): 771‐80 (2009)

 from HSDB

Chronic occupational exposure to benzene has been correlated with aplastic aneamia and acute myelogenous
leukemia, however mechanisms behind benzene toxicity remain unknown. Interestingly, benzene‐initiated
hematotoxicity is absent in mice lacking the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ﴾AhR﴿ suggesting an imperative role for this
receptor in benzene toxicities. This study investigated two potential roles for the AhR in benzene toxicity using hepa
1c1c7 wild type and AhR deficient cells. Considering that many toxic effects of AhR ligands are dependent on AhR
activation, our first objective was to determine if benzene, hydroquinone ﴾HQ﴿ or benzoquinone ﴾BQ﴿ could activate
the AhR. Secondly, because the AhR regulates a number of enzymes involved in oxidative stress pathways, we sought
to determine if the AhR had a role in HQ and BQ induced production of reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. Dual luciferase
assays measuring dioxin response element ﴾DRE﴿ activation showed no significant change in DRE activity after
exposure to benzene, HQ or BQ for 24h. Immunofluorescence staining showed cytosolic localization of the AhR after
2h incubations with benzene, HQ or BQ. Western blot analysis of cells exposed to benzene, HQ or BQ for 1, 12 and
24h did not demonstrate induction of CYP1A1 protein expression. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein staining of cells
exposed to benzene, HQ or BQ revealed that the presence of the AhR did not affect BQ and HQ induced ROS
production. These results indicate that the involvement of the AhR in benzene toxicity does not seem to be through
classical activation of this receptor or through interference of oxidative stress pathways. Abstract: PubMed
Badham HJ, Winn LM.; Toxicology. 229 (3): 177‐85 (2007)

 from HSDB

NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 ﴾NQO1﴿ may perform multiple functions within the cell. It is known to detoxify
benzene‐derived quinones and generate antioxidant forms of ubiquinone and Vitamin E. Recently suggested roles for
NQO1 which may have relevance for mechanisms underlying benzene toxicity include modulation of cellular redox
balance, direct scavenging of superoxide, stabilization of p53 and stabilization of microtubules. The NQO1*2
polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism, a C to T change at position 609 of the NQO1 cDNA coding for a
proline to serine change at position 187 of the amino acid structure of the protein. The mutant NQO1*2 protein is
rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin proteasomal system resulting in a lack of NQO1 protein in individuals carrying the
NQO1*2/*2 genotype. The NQO1*2 polymorphism predisposes to benzene toxicity and to various forms of leukemias.
NQO1‐knockout animals demonstrate myeloid hyperplasia and increased benzene‐induced hematotoxicity. NQO1 is
not present in freshly isolated human bone marrow hematopoietic cells but can be induced by benzene metabolites.
Increases in NQO1 were not observed in NQO1*2/*2 hematopoietic cells, presumably because of the instability of the
NQO1*2 protein, suggesting that cells with this genotype would not benefit from any protective effects of NQO1.
NQO1 is present in human bone marrow stroma and particularly in endothelial cells. Studies of the functions and
distribution of NQO1 in human bone marrow may provide clues to mechanisms underlying benzene toxicity. Abstract:
PubMed
Ross D; Chem Biol Interact. 153‐154:137‐46 (2005)

 from HSDB

Reactive metabolites formed from benzene include benzene oxide, trans,trans muconaldehyde, quinones, thiol
adducts, phenolic metabolites and oxygen radicals. Susceptibility to the toxic effects of benzene has been suggested
to occur partly because of polymorphisms in enzymes involved in benzene metabolism which include cytochrome
P450 2E1, epoxide hydrolases, myeloperoxidase, glutathione‐S‐transferases and quinone reductases. However,
susceptibility factors not directly linked to benzene metabolism have also been associated with its toxicity and include
p53, proteins involved in DNA repair, genomic stability and expression of cytokines and/or cell adhesion molecules. In
this work, /the authors/ examine potential relationships between metabolic and non‐metabolic susceptibility factors
using the enzyme NAD﴾P﴿H:quinone oxidoreductase ﴾NQO1﴿ as an example. NQO1 may also impact pathways in
addition to metabolism of quinones due to protein‐protein interactions or other mechanisms related to NQO1
activity. NQO1 has been implicated in stabilizing p53 and in maintaining microtubule integrity. Inhibition or

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 33/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

knockdown of NQO1 in bone marrow endothelial cells has been found to lead to deficiencies of E‐selectin, ICAM‐1
and VCAM‐1 adhesion molecule expression after TNFalpha stimulation. These examples illustrate how the metabolic
susceptibility factor NQO1 may influence non‐metabolic susceptibility pathways for benzene toxicity.[Ross D, Zhou H;
Chem Biol Interact. 184 ﴾1‐2﴿: 222‐8 ﴾2010﴿] Full text: PMC2846242 Abstract: PubMed
 from HSDB

9.6 Human Metabolite Information

9.6.1 Metabolite Description

Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon biproduct of coal distillation. Chronic benzene exposure produces
hematotoxicity, bone marrow dysplasia ﴾Displasia is a pre‐neoplastic or pre‐cancerous change﴿. ﴾PMID: 16183116﴿. It is
used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous
system damage acutely and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
 from Human Metabolome Database

9.6.2 Biofluid Locations

1. Blood
2. Feces
3. Saliva

 from Human Metabolome Database

9.6.3 Tissue Locations

1. Bone Marrow
2. Liver
3. Lymphocyte
4. Skin

 from Human Metabolome Database

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 34/149

waxes. Laboratory chemicals 6. Benzene is also used in the manufacture of detergents.1 Uses Chemical Classification Hydrocarbons ﴾contain hydrogen and carbon atoms﴿. Plasticizers 7. Automotive Care Products 3. paints.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 35/149 . It is also used as a chemical intermediate. as a solvent for fats. resins. Processing aids.1. explosives. Cleaning and Furnishing Care Products 4. and rubber. plastics. pharmaceuticals. Intermediates 4.ncbi. Paints and Coatings 7. Volatile organic compounds  from CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal Benzene is used as a constituent in motor fuels. and in photogravure printing. Lubricants and Greases 6. Solvents ﴾for cleaning or degreasing﴿  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 10.2 Consumer Uses 1. Ion exchange agents 5. and dyestuffs. specific to petroleum production 9. oils. Fuels and Related Products 5.1. inks. Processing aids. Fuels and fuel additives 3.  from EPA Air Toxics JECFA Functional Classes Food Additives: EXTRACTION_SOLVENT  from FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations ‐ JECFA Solvent  from USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center 10. not otherwise listed 8.nlm.1 Industry Uses 1.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 10 Use and Manufacturing 10. Adhesives and Sealants 2. Plastic and Rubber Products not covered elsewhere  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA https://pubchem. Adhesives and sealant chemicals 2.nih. in the extraction of oils from seeds and nuts.

The operating temperatures range from 500 to 595 deg C and pressures are usually 4‐6 MPa ﴾40‐60 atm﴿. Benzene. xylene and benzene prices have generally been higher than toluene prices so transalkylation is presently an attractive alternative to hydrodealkylation. pure benzene could be recovered from the pyrolysis gasoline by solvent extraction and subsequent distillation.nlm. John Wiley & Sons. a narrow naphtha cut of 71‐104 deg C is fed to the reformer. Inc. dehydroisomerization of alkyl cyclopentanes. If benzene is the main product desired.ncbi. The catalytic process occurs at lower temperatures and offers higher selectivities but requires frequent regeneration of the catalyst. Fruscella W. The reforming catalyst most frequently consists of platinum‐rhenium on a high surface area alumina support. Approximately 30‐35% of benzene produced worldwide is derived from pyrolysis gasoline. These processes contribute 25‐30% of the world's total benzene supply.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 10. Economic feasibility of the process strongly depends on the relative prices of benzene. a process in which aromatic molecules are produced from the dehydrogenation of cycloparaffins.nih. Benzene. 2002  from HSDB Two molecules of toluene are converted into one molecule of benzene and one molecule of mixed‐xylene isomers in a sequence called transalkylation or disproportionation. Operation of a transalkylation unit is practical only when there is an excess of toluene and a strong demand for benzene. Fruscella W. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2014). dripolene. 2002  from HSDB Benzene is produced from the hydrodemethylation of toluene under catalytic or thermal conditions. Fruscella W. 2002  from HSDB Benzene has been recovered from coal tar. Online Posting Date: June 10. Online Posting Date: June 10. The feed to the catalytic reformer may be a straight‐run. Inc. and the cyclization and subsequent dehydrogenation of paraffins. The main catalytic hydrodealkylation processes are Hydeal and DETOL. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. and xylene. The lowest boiling fraction is extracted with caustic soda to remove tar acids. Inc. toluene is mixed with a hydrogen stream and passed through a vessel packed with a catalyst. Fruscella W. In recent years. Benzene.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 36/149 . usually supported chromium or molybdenum oxides. hydrocracked. 50% of which is benzene. Inc. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2014). Online Posting Date: June 10. Online Posting Date: June 10. the resulting pyrolysis gasoline is used in motor gasoline. The reaction is highly exothermic and the temperature is controlled by injection of quench hydrogen at several places along the reaction. ~30% of commercial benzene is produced by catalytic reforming. or drip oil. toluene. Two widely used thermal processes are HDA and THD. Fruscella W. John Wiley & Sons. or thermally cracked naphtha fraction in the C6 to 200 deg C range. The base washed oil is then distilled and further purified by hydrodealkylation. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2014). Conversions per pass typically reach 90% and selectivity to benzene is often >95%. These olefinic substances are removed by a mild hydrogenation step. Benzene. In catalytic toluene hydrodealkylation. The benzene product is most often recovered from the reformate by solvent extraction techniques. Online Posting Date: June 10. on silica or alumina. 2002  from HSDB The steam cracking of heavy naphthas or light hydrocarbons such as propane or butane to produce ethylene yields a liquid by‐product rich in aromatic content called pyrolysis gasoline. platinum or platinum oxides. A typical pyrolysis gasoline contains up to 65% aromatics. Products leaving the reactor pass through a separator where unreacted hydrogen is removed and recycled to the feed. 2002  from HSDB https://pubchem. The reformer operating conditions and type of feedstock largely determine the amount of benzene that can be produced. John Wiley & Sons. Benzene. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2014). Following hydrogenation. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2014).2 Methods of Manufacturing Worldwide. Further fractionation separates methane from the benzene product. The remainder of the product is composed of mono‐ and diolefins. Alternatively. John Wiley & Sons.

MAY 2: 11 (1983)  from HSDB Ethylbenzene/styrene. chem int for detergent alkylate. 2. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 15th Edition.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 10. 99. Chem Market Reporter (1981)  from HSDB BENZENE RANKED 17TH IN 1981 & 1982 IN THE TOP 50 CHEMICAL PRODUCTION: BILLIONS OF LB: 7.87 ﴾1982﴿. 15. Criteria Document: Benzene p. exports. Sr.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 37/149 . chem int for chlorobenzenes.296 (1977) EPA 560/5‐77‐005  from HSDB Chem int for ethylbenzene.94 mole%. Fishbein L.708 Million Gal Kavaler. 2011 Directory of Chemical Producers United States. chem int for nitrobenzene. NIOSH. 52%. John Wiley & Sons. 1977: 1. 99 mole%. 3%. thiophene‐free. 2. Menlo Park. 2..5% ﴾1981 non‐gasoline uses﴿ SRI Consulting. CA 2011  from HSDB Demand: ﴾1980﴿ 1. Environment Canada.20 (1981)  from HSDB "Benzol 90" contains 80‐85% benzene. R.nih. 13‐15% toluene.8%. and reach 6 million tons in 1990 ﴾1987 and 1990﴿ CHEM WEEK 140 (14): 14 (1987) https://pubchem. exports. Lewis.5%. Pot Ind Carcin & Muta p.1%. others: phenol.5%. chlorobenzenes. thiophene. NIOSH. cumene/phenol. chem int for maleic anhydride.J. 2‐3% xylene. Criteria Document: Benzene p.4%. maleic anhydride and other. Inc. carbon disulfide. Tech Info for Problem Spills: Benzene (Draft) p.5%. nitrobenzene/aniline.61 ﴾1981﴿. 2. NY 2007.20 (1974) DHEW Pub No 74‐137  from HSDB Grade: crude. 4.4 Formulations/Preparations Nitration grade > 99% purity. /Projected demand for/ ﴾1984﴿: 1. 22%.3 Impurities Major impurities are toluene and xylene. 9. chem int for cyclohexane. CHEMICAL & ENGINEERING NEWS.4 billion gallons annually. 49. SRI Consulting. 4. 2. (1984)  from HSDB USA benzene demand /is projected to/ climb /from/ 3. 2.7%. nitration ﴾1C﴿.5 Consumption Consumption by chemical industry in USA. 18. to 5.4%. detergent alkylate. 15%. chem int for cumene. motor.7 million tons. industrial pure ﴾2C﴿.5%. 134  from HSDB 10. 1% ﴾1984﴿ CHEMICAL PROFILE: Benzene. acetylnitrile. clyclohexane. nanograde.nlm.1%. other uses. and pyridine. straw color.8% in 1987.586 Million Gal. p.20 (1974) DHEW Pub No 74‐137  from HSDB 10.ncbi.. New York.

1981.. 9  from HSDB ﴾1982﴿ 3. chlorobenzenes. 155 million gal were imported in 1986.. Chemical Profile Benzene. Synthetic Organic Chemicals‐‐ United States Production and Sales. USITC Publications 1291 Washington. 1991 /projected/: 1. USITC Publications 1291 Washington.603 million gal. ﴾Includes imports. Chemical Marketing Reporter.nih. p. DC: United States International Trade Commission.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Benzene.  from HSDB ﴾1981﴿ 1.55X10+12 G SRI  from HSDB https://pubchem.900 million gallons 1996. 1981. demand: 2. 10  from HSDB ﴾1981﴿ 4. exports and others. nitrobenzene/aniline. 25 and 49 NY. DC: United States International Trade Commission. 14%. Chemical Marketing Reporter 231 (24): 49 (1987)  from HSDB World benzene production rose to 6X10+6 tons ﴾1. Demand: 1986: 1. 3%. Synthetic Organic Chemicals‐‐ United States Production and Sales. 1991‐Present. DC: United States International Trade Commission. 1981. NY. 1981. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 55%.nlm.S. p. 4th ed. 1981..8X10+9 gallons﴿ in 1988.667 million gal.80X10+12 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1980﴿ 1.3X10+11 GRAMS United States International Trade Commission.3X10+9 gal ﴾all grades produced from light‐oil distillates of tar and tar crudes﴿ United States International Trade Commission. 10  from HSDB ﴾1977﴿ 4. June 24 pp. cyclohexane.ncbi.S. 1981.6 U. 21%. p. detergent alkylate. DC: United States International Trade Commission.100 million gallons 2000. 1981. Volumes 1: New York. V4 (92) 85  from HSDB U. Synthetic Organic Chemicals‐‐ United States Production and Sales. John Wiley and Sons. 1. Ethylbenzene/styrene. 2%.6X10+8 gal ﴾data reported by tar distillers are not included﴿ United States International Trade Commission. predicted 2.790 million gal. Synthetic Organic Chemicals‐‐ United States Production and Sales. Kavaler AR.﴿ Kavaler AR. 5%. USITC Publications 1291 Washington.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 38/149 . 1987: 1. Chemical Marketing Reporter 231 (24): 49 (1987)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Benzene. USITC Publications 1291 Washington. 1981. cumene/phenol. Production ﴾1967﴿ 9.. The United States is the largest producer of benzene and accounts for about 30% of world production. NY: Schnell Pub Co.000 million gallons in 1995. p.5X10+9 gal ﴾data reported by tar distillers are not included﴿ United States International Trade Commission. (1996)  from HSDB 10.

V4 (92) 85  from HSDB ﴾1984﴿ 1.S. p. SYN ORG CHEM‐U.ncbi. PROD/SALES. p. NY.414.39X10+9 gal USITC. NY.45 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)  from HSDB ﴾1991﴿ 11. PRELIMINARY 1987  from HSDB ﴾1989﴿ 5.227X10+8 gallons Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. PROD/SALES 1985 p. 5..S. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene p. 1991‐Present. SYN ORG CHEM‐U. NY.. John Wiley and Sons.S. Volumes 1: New York.59X10+9 gal ﴾est﴿ USITC.39X10+11 g CHEM WEEK 140 (14): 14 (1987)  from HSDB ﴾1986﴿ 1. V4 (92) 85  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 3.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem ﴾1983﴿ 1.49 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)  from HSDB https://pubchem.072. p. PROD/SALES. PROD/SALES 1985 p. Volumes 1: New York.74X10+9 g ﴾98‐100% pure from petroleum and natural gas﴿ USITC.776X10+8 gallons ﴾from petroleum﴿.9 billion lb being produced in 1984.1 billion lb in 1983.9% pure from petroleum and natural gas﴿ USITC. John Wiley and Sons. 1991‐Present.312X10+8 gallons Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. PRELIMINARY 1987  from HSDB ﴾1987﴿ 1. 4th ed.25X10+7 gallons ﴾from coal﴿ Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley and Sons.19  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 5. 4th ed.nih.nlm.8 billion lb in 1982. SYN ORG CHEM‐U.S.S. 2‐2 (1990)  from HSDB Benzene ranks 16th in production volume for chemicals produced in the USA. and 7.000 kg ﴾all grades﴿ USITC Syn Org Chem‐U. 9. Volumes 1: New York.19  from HSDB ﴾1986﴿ 4. 1991‐Present.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 39/149 . V4 (92) 85  from HSDB ﴾1988﴿ 1. 4th ed.. Prod/Sales 1989 pg.24 Report# 289 (1986) NIH Pub# 86‐2545  from HSDB ﴾1990﴿ 12. with approx 9. SYN ORG CHEM‐U.16X10+8 g ﴾90‐97.

Available from. Available from.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  from HSDB 10.nlm.ncbi. Benzene (71‐43‐2).712. Imports ﴾1978﴿ 2.26X10+11 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1979﴿ 1.28 (1983) NTP 82‐330  from HSDB https://pubchem. Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U.html  from HSDB Production volume for non‐confidential chemicals reported under the 2006 Inventory Update Rule. US EPA.27 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)  from HSDB ﴾1993﴿ 12.nih.513 lb/yr.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 40/149 . Non‐confidential Production Volume Information Submitted by Companies for Chemicals Under the 1986‐2002 Inventory Update Rule (IUR). Benzene (71‐43‐2). 2014: http://www.6 billion kg DHHS/NTP. 2014: http://cfpub.32 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)  from HSDB Benzene is listed as a High Production Volume ﴾HPV﴿ chemical ﴾65FR81686﴿. Chemical: Benzene. Available from.482.gov/hpv/pubs/general/opptsrch. National Chemical Information.S. 2014: http://java. Benzene (71‐43‐2).epa. EPA/Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.gov/iursearch/index.S. Aggregated National Production Volume: 1 billion pounds and greater.epa. 51FR21438﴿. 2014: http://epa. Year Production Range ﴾pounds﴿ 1986 >1 billion 1990 >1 billion 1994 >1 billion 1998 >1 billion 2002 >1 billion US EPA. High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program.epa. as of January 29. National Production Volume: 23. as of January 29. USEPA/Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Chemical: Benzene. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. Available from. Non‐Confidential 2006 Inventory Update Reporting. 2012 Chemical Data Reporting Database. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule.gov/cdr/tools/data/2002‐vol.htm  from HSDB Production volumes for non‐confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem ﴾1992﴿ 11. as of January 30. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Third Annual Report On Carcinogens p.cfm  from HSDB Non‐confidential 2012 Chemical Data Reporting ﴾CDR﴿ information on the production and use of chemicals manufactured or imported into the United States. ﴾IUR﴿ ﴾40 CFR part 710 subpart B.7 U. as of January 29.

28 (1983) NTP 82‐330  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 3. Centers for Disease Control. Flow rate: 0. Public Health Service.72X10+11 g CHEM WEEK 140 (14): 14 (1987)  from HSDB ﴾1986﴿ 1. SCHEDULE E.3 million lb DHHS/NTP.11 (2/9/87)  from HSDB 10.52X10+11 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1983﴿ 3. 1985 p. Vol: max: 30 L. Stability: approx 4 hr U.96X10+11 g BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.S. Sampler: Solid sorbent tube ﴾coconut shell charcoal.8 U.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem ﴾1983﴿ 4. Government Printing Office. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement.93X10+11 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 4. Washington.05 l/min or higher. 100 mg/50 mg﴿. Chemical & Engineering News p.ncbi.02 to 0. 1‐546  from HSDB ﴾1986﴿ 4.77X10+10 g BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. DC: U.2‐69  from HSDB Exports were thought to be less than 10 million gallons. Third Annual Report On Carcinogens p. U. Sampler: air bag ﴾Tedlar﴿.S.S. Department of Health and Human Services. US IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1986 p.20 L/min. 3rd ed. p. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.nih.nlm. EXPORTS. Matrix: air.9 Sampling Procedures Analyte: Benzene by portable GC.1‐492  from HSDB 10. https://pubchem.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 41/149 .S.66X10+10 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1979﴿ 1. U. and revisions.. Matrix: air.56X10+8 lb BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1985 p. February 1984. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. ship in separate containers from samples. Bulk sample: 1 to 10 mL. Exports ﴾1978﴿ 1. V1 3700‐1  from HSDB Analyte: Benzene. Stability: at least 2 wk.S. Flow rate: approx 0.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. p. Public Health Service.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 42/149 .nih. DC: U.ncbi.nlm.S. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. Washington. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement.S.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem U.. Government Printing Office. V2 1500‐1  from HSDB https://pubchem. and revisions. 3rd ed. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control. February 1984.

U.01% by volume. Matrix: air.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/  from HSDB Method: NIOSH 2549.32 ppm for a 10 meter absorption pathlength.gov  from HSDB https://pubchem. Procedure: gas chromatography ﴾portable﴿.cdc. Analyte: benzene.01 ppm for a 1‐mL injection. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Analytical. as of January 31. Detection Limit: air samples. Analyte: benzene. Detection Limit: 0. liquid chromatography ﴾bulk samples﴿. Analyte: benzene. Matrix: air. National Environmental Methods Index. Analyte: benzene. 0. Analyte: benzene. Analyte: benzene.04 ppm. Department of Labor/Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Index of Sampling and Analytical Methods. Benzene (71‐43‐2).nemi. Test and Sampling Methods. 2014: http://www. Available from. CDC. CDC.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐EAD 602. Matrix: air.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 11 Identification 11. photoionization detector. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. Detection Limit: 0. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. gas chromatography. CDC. Available from. Procedure: gas chromatography with photoionization detector. as of January 30. Procedure: gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Test and Sampling Methods.S. Issue 3. Available from. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Detection Limit: 4. Available from. Available from. 2014: http://www. 4th ed. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/  from HSDB Method: OSHA 12. bulk samples. Issue 1. 4th ed. as of January 30.19 ug/L. Analytical.1 Analytic Laboratory Methods Method: NIOSH 1501. 0.cdc. wastewater. 4th ed. Detection Limit: 100 ng per tube or less.nemi. Available from. and ground water. Issue 2. Available from. as of January 31. 2014: http://www. Procedure: extractive fourier transform infrared ﴾FTIR﴿ spectrometry. 2014: http://www. Benzene (71‐43‐2). National Environmental Methods Index.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/  from HSDB Method: NIOSH 3700.nemi. mass spectrometry.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/  from HSDB Method: NIOSH 3800. 2014: http://www.ncbi.2 ug/L. as of January 31.cdc. Detection Limit: 0. as of February 3.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐EAD 624. Matrix: municipal and industrial discharges.html  from HSDB Method: ASTM D5790.cdc. Procedure: gas chromatography ﴾air samples﴿. 2014: http://www. National Environmental Methods Index. Matrix: water.nih. 4th ed. as of January 30. Procedure: thermal desorption. Analytical. Matrix: air. Issue 1.5 ug/sample. 2014: http://www. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Benzene (71‐43‐2). Benzene (71‐43‐2). Benzene (71‐43‐2). as of January 31. Detection Limit: 0.osha. Analyte: benzene. Analyte: benzene. Matrix: air. Matrix: validated for treated drinking water. CDC.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 43/149 . Detection Limit: 0.nlm. Test and Sampling Methods. Available from.4 ug/L. 2014: http://www.

gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐OGWDW/TSC 524.nemi. Benzene (71‐43‐2).2. Detection Limit: not provided. Matrix: water. Detection Limit: 0. National Environmental Methods Index.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐NERL 502. Benzene (71‐43‐2). 2014: http://www. 2014: http://www. Test and Sampling Methods. National Environmental Methods Index. Analyte: benzene. Detection Limit: 0. raw source water. Procedure: purge and trap. 2014: http://www. Procedure: gas chromatography. National Environmental Methods Index.gov  from HSDB https://pubchem. Analyte: benzene. Matrix: water and water suspended‐sediment. 2014: http://www. Analytical. Test and Sampling Methods. National Environmental Methods Index. Analyte: benzene. Detection Limit: 0.2. Matrix: finished drinking water.gov  from HSDB Method: Standard Methods 6200C. Available from. Available from. Benzene (71‐43‐2). 2014: http://www.nemi.nemi.nemi. 2014: http://www. Detection Limit: 3 ug/L. Analytical. Test and Sampling Methods. National Environmental Methods Index. Matrix: finished drinking waters. ground water.nih. Available from. Detection Limit: 0. Analytical. National Environmental Methods Index. Analytical. and drinking water in any stage of treatment.01 ug/L. Benzene (71‐43‐2).gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐NERL 524. Available from. as of January 30.017 ug/L. 2014: http://www. Available from.nemi. Analytical.gov  from HSDB Method: USGS‐NWQL O‐3115.03 ug/L. as of January 30. as of January 30.nemi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 44/149 . Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Detection Limit: 0. Matrix: water. Available from. Matrix: various. 2014: http://www. National Environmental Methods Index. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available from. 2014: http://www.nemi. National Environmental Methods Index. Analytical. Analyte: benzene. Benzene (71‐43‐2).nlm. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Test and Sampling Methods. Available from. Analyte: benzene. Test and Sampling Methods. as of January 30. Analytical.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Method: EPA‐EAD 1624. Test and Sampling Methods. Available from. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. as of January 30. Matrix: water. as of January 30. Detection Limit: not provided. Analytical. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Analyte: benzene. Analyte: benzene. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. or drinking water in any treatment stage. Matrix: surface water.3. Analytical.03 ug/L. as of January 30. as of January 30. Matrix: water. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene (71‐43‐2).gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 8260B.ncbi. Procedure: gas chromatography with photoionization detector. National Environmental Methods Index.gov  from HSDB Method: Standard Methods 6200B. Test and Sampling Methods. Detection Limit: 10 ug/L.nemi. Test and Sampling Methods.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 5030C. Test and Sampling Methods. Analyte: benzene. as of January 30.01 ug/L. Benzene (71‐43‐2). Analyte: benzene.nemi.

Rapid vapor phase method for determining ethanol in blood & urine by gas chromatography. as of January 30. Conventional reference range: >1. pancreas. Toxic volatiles in alcoholic coma. IARC. ﴾Chem Abstr 92: 192082X﴿. ﴾Fentiman AF et al. Tietz.nemi.iarc. Benzene (71‐43‐2). <106 umol/L as phenol. N. Irving (ed. Analytical.0 mg/L ﴾toxic concn﴿ for serum.nih. Geneva: World Health Organization. Analytical.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 45/149 . IARC.. treat sample with chlorobenzene.) Methodology for Analytical Toxicology. limit of detection 0. Koenshu‐lyo Masu Kenkyukai 3: 77‐82 ﴾1978﴿.. National Environmental Methods Index. Available at: http://monographs. kidney.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Method: USGS‐NWQL O‐4024‐03. inject vapor phase into gas chromatograph: Nagata T et al.2 Clinical Laboratory Methods Volatile cmpd such as benzene are separated from blood or tissue homogenate directly on gas‐chromatographic column & detected using a flame ionization detector.. p. pp 9‐15. PA: W. Cleveland: CRC Press. desorb with carbon disulfide: ﴾Colenutt BA. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. (Multivolume work).0 mg/L as phenol.gov  from HSDB Method: USGS‐NWQL O‐4127‐96. International Agency for Research on Cancer. The nonvolatile & high boiling components of the biological matrix are left behind in the injection port. & spleen.). Test and Sampling Methods. Adsorb landfill vapors on carbon in glass tubes. Analyte: benzene. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. <10.php . as well as catechol. Test and Sampling Methods. Dahl EV. Springfield. National Environmental Methods Index. Sparge soil sample with nitrogen. 378  from HSDB GLC & colorimetric ﴾phenol metabolite﴿ methods are used to determine benzene in serum. trap in Tenax GC tube. Saunders Co. muscle. and phenylmercapturic acid. (ed. V29 107 (1982)  from HSDB 11. Sunshine. Detection Limit: 0. Geneva: World Health Organization. Philadelphia. as of January 30. Va. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Internationally recommended conc reference range is: >13 umol/L ﴾toxic concn﴿ for serum.iarc.031 ug/L.fr/ENG/Classification/index. & breath. >75. (Multivolume work). liver. 1972‐PRESENT. High volatility permits gas chromatograph to be operated at relatively low temp. Bull Los Angles County Neurol Soc 33: 140 ﴾1968﴿. 2014: http://www. Substances producing phenol as a metabolite can interfere with color assay. Available from. 2014: http://www.nemi.W. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Matrix: whole‐water. lung. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene (71‐43‐2).. Wallace JE. urine.nlm. 1972‐PRESENT. Detection Limit: 0.gov  from HSDB GC/FID method to determine benzene in landfill vapors & soil. Natl Tech Info Ser. Available at: http://monographs.B. >795 umol/L ﴾toxic concn﴿ as phenol for urine.1 ug/kg. V29 107 (1982)  from HSDB The urinary metabolites isolated by DEAE Sephadex A‐24 anion‐exchange chromatography from mice treated with radiolabeled benzene included phenol as the major component.php . Available from.fr/ENG/Classification/index.0 mg/L ﴾toxic concn﴿ as phenol for urine. 26‐110 ﴾1979﴿﴿. p. p. Davies DN. p. This insures long column life & requires only occasional cleaning of the injection chamber: Baker RN et al. Environmental Monitoring Benzene ﴾PB‐295 641﴿ ‐ prepared for USEPA by Battelle Columbus Lab. 1975. 76  from HSDB GC/MS method to determine benzene in adipose tissue. 1983. Inc. Int J Environ Anal Chem 7: 223‐9 ﴾1980﴿﴿. Matrix: surface‐ or ground‐water. Adv Exp Med Biol 136A: 307‐17 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem.0067 ug/L. hydroquinone. ethanol & water at 60 deg C. Am J Clin Pathol 46: 152 ﴾1966﴿.ncbi. brain. Analyte: benzene. Longacre SL et al.

4‐ aminohippuric acid. This study examined the utility of metabonomic biomarkers to ascertain subacute toxicity produced by benzene in male C3H/He mice. respectively for 12. trans. indicating that pathways of purine. indolelactic acid. In addition.ncbi.5‐ 3. J Toxicol Environ Health A. Gad‐el Karim et al.7 and 1.8. were identified as potential biomarkers of benzene‐ induced toxicity. and peptides metabolism might be disturbed in benzene‐exposed mice. and 220 mg/kg body wt﴿. spermidine. The relative organ weights. 2012. and bone marrow smears were examined to identify specific changes of benzene‐induced toxicity. spermidine. Xerobiotic 15: 211‐20 (1985)  from HSDB Benzene is known to produce hematotoxicity in occupational exposure workers.7% of the orally administered single dose of benzene ﴾880. and glutamylphenylalanine. accounted.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 46/149 . A 30‐d intermittent collection of urine was obtained from mice in this experiment. an integrated analytical approach based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry ﴾LC‐MS﴿ was developed to map metabolic responses in urine.nih. hypoxanthine. AROMATIC 1501  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods BENZENE by portable GC 3700  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods ORGANIC AND INORGANIC GASES BY EXTRACTIVE FTIR SPECTROMETRY 3800  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods https://pubchem. fatty acid.75(18):1163‐73  from HSDB 11. 1.3 OSHA Chemical Sampling Benzene  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information Naphtha ﴾Coal Tar﴿  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information 11. trans‐muconic acid and quinol in the 48 hr urine.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem A sensitive HPLC method is described which separates urinary metabolites from benzene‐treated male CD‐1 mice phenol. Our findings showed that the use of urine metabonomics was a more sensitive tool to detect benzene‐induced toxicity compared to body weight or blood parameter changes. 440.nlm. blood parameters. Abstract: PubMed Sun R et al.4 NIOSH Analytical Methods VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ﴾SCREENING﴿ 2549  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods NAPHTHAS 1550  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods HYDROCARBONS. tryptophan.8‐22.8‐4. Five endogenous metabolites.

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

12 Safety and Hazards

12.1 Hazards Identification

12.1.1 GHS Classification

Signal: Danger
GHS Hazard Statements
Aggregated GHS information from 37 notifications provided by 1378 companies to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each
notification may be associated with multiple companies.

H225 ﴾99.78%﴿: Highly Flammable liquid and vapor [Danger Flammable liquids ‐ Category 2]
H304 ﴾99.27%﴿: May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways [Danger Aspiration hazard ‐ Category 1]
H315 ﴾99.93%﴿: Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation ‐ Category 2]
H319 ﴾99.93%﴿: Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye irritation ‐ Category 2A]
H340 ﴾99.85%﴿: May cause genetic defects [Danger Germ cell mutagenicity ‐ Category 1A, 1B]
H350 ﴾99.85%﴿: May cause cancer [Danger Carcinogenicity ‐ Category 1A, 1B]
H372 ﴾99.2%﴿: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Danger Specific target organ
toxicity, repeated exposure ‐ Category 1]
H412 ﴾11.32%﴿: Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long‐term
hazard ‐ Category 3]

Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage
value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from all companies. Only Hazard Codes with percentage
values above 10% are shown.

Precautionary Statement Codes
P201, P202, P210, P233, P240, P241, P242, P243, P260, P264, P270, P273, P280, P281, P301+P310, P302+P352,
P303+P361+P353, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P314, P321, P331, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P370+P378,
P403+P235, P405, and P501
﴾The corresponding statement to each P‐code can be found here.﴿
 from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA
View all ﴾5﴿ GHS Classification entries

12.1.2 Health Hazard

Dizziness, excitation, pallor, followed by flushing, weakness, headache, breathlessness, chest constriction, nausea, and
vomiting. Coma and possible death. ﴾USCG, 1999﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

Carcinogen, Mutagen, Flammable ‐ 3rd degree
 from NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List

12.1.3 Fire Hazard

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 47/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
﴾USCG, 1999﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

Highly flammable.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.1.4 Explosion Hazard

Vapour/air mixtures are explosive. Risk of fire and explosion. See Chemical Dangers.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.1.5 Hazards Summary

Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It
is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. Benzene is widely used in the
United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other
chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some
types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes
and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.
 from CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal

Benzene is found in the air from emissions from burning coal and oil, gasoline service stations, and motor vehicle
exhaust. Acute ﴾short‐term﴿ inhalation exposure of humans to benzene may cause drowsiness, dizziness, headaches,
as well as eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, and, at high levels, unconsciousness. Chronic ﴾long‐term﴿ inhalation
exposure has caused various disorders in the blood, including reduced numbers of red blood cells and aplastic
anemia, in occupational settings. Reproductive effects have been reported for women exposed by inhalation to high
levels, and adverse effects on the developing fetus have been observed in animal tests. Increased incidence of
leukemia ﴾cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells﴿ have been observed in humans occupationally exposed to
benzene. EPA has classified benzene as known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure.
 from EPA Air Toxics

12.1.6 Fire Potential

A dangerous fire hazard when exosed to heat or flame. ... Ignites on contact with sodium peroxide + water, dioxygenyl
tetrafluoroborate, iodine heptafluoride, and dioxygen difluoride.
Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley‐Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken,
NJ. 2004., p. 360

 from HSDB

12.1.7 Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Irritations

A severe eye and moderate skin irritant.
Lewis, R.J. Sr. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Wiley‐Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken,
NJ. 2004., p. 360

 from HSDB

Skin irritation has been noted at occupational exposures of greater than 60 ppm for up to three weeks.
U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry; Toxicological Profile for Benzene p.83 PB2008‐
100004 (2007). Available from, as of August 12, 2014: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/index.asp

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 48/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

 from HSDB

Direct exposure of the eyes, skin, or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation.
CDC; Emergency Preparedness and Response: Facts about Benzene; Available from, as of February 21, 2014:
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/benzene/basics/facts.asp

 from HSDB

12.2 Safety and Hazard Properties

12.2.1 LEL

1.4 % ﴾NTP, 1992﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

1.2%
 from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH

12.2.2 UEL

8 % ﴾NTP, 1992﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

7.8%
 from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH

12.2.3 Flammability

Lower flammable limit: 1.2% by volume; Upper flammable limit: 7.8% by volume
National Fire Protection Association; Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 14TH Edition, Quincy, MA 2010, p. 325‐18

 from HSDB

Class IB Flammable Liquid: Fl.P. below 73°F and BP at or above 100°F.
 from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH

12.2.4 Critical Temperature

Critical temperature: 562.0 K; critical pressure: 5.90 MPa; critical volume: 257 cu cm/mol
Haynes, W.M. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 94th Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014, p. 6‐59

 from HSDB

12.2.5 Critical Pressure

Critical temperature: 562.0 K; critical pressure: 5.90 MPa; critical volume: 257 cu cm/mol
Haynes, W.M. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 94th Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2013‐2014, p. 6‐59

 from HSDB

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 49/149

distant ignition possible. 325‐18  from HSDB 12.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Reacts violently with oxidants. etc. p.nih.  from ILO‐ICSC 12. even under fire exposure conditions. Quincy.2.cdc. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Quincy. MA 2010. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Department of Health & Human Services.. MA 2010. 0= This degree includes materials that are normally stable. National Fire Protection Association.2. electrostatic charges can be generated. 14TH Edition. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12. would cause significant irritation. and that do not react with water. nitric acid. 14TH Edition. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. These materials are only slightly hazardous to health and only breathing protection is needed. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used. 2010‐168 (2010).2.7 NFPA Fire Rating 3  from CAMEO Chemicals. This generates fire and explosion hazard. p. MA 2010. National Fire Protection Association. but only minor residual injury. 14TH Edition. 325‐18  from HSDB Flammability: 3. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.9 Physical Dangers The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 50/149 .nlm. 1= Material that. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. NIOSH. sulfuric acid and halogens. p. including those requiring the use of an approved air‐purifying respirator. Available from: http://www. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. agitation. As a result of flow. Water may be ineffective in controlling or extinguishing fires in such materials. 3= This degree includes Class IB and IC flammable liquids and materials that can be easily ignited under almost all normal temperature conditions.8 NFPA Health Rating 2  from CAMEO Chemicals.6 NFPA Hazard Classification Health: 1.10 Chemical Dangers NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration. Quincy. on exposure.  from ILO‐ICSC https://pubchem.2. Attacks plastics and rubber. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12.ncbi.2. 325‐18  from HSDB instability: 0. National Fire Protection Association.

as of January 28.1000 (USDOL).﴿ 29 CFR 1910.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 51/149 . 2010‐168 (2010). Concentration: 50 ppm. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. ﴾2﴿ Short‐term exposure limit ﴾STEL﴿. U. Hoboken. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.0% Lewis. Department of Health & Human Services.S. Inc. 2014: http://www.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time‐Weighted Average: 0. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.ncbi. 11th Edition. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.﴿ 29 CFR 1910.S.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z‐2 Acceptable Ceiling Concentration: 25 ppm. Available from.1028. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.1000 (USDOL). as of January 28. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.cdc. p.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB https://pubchem. R.ecfr.. U. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.ecfr. 360  from HSDB vol% in air: 1.1028.1000 (USDOL).﴿ 29 CFR 1910. Available from. NJ.0  from ILO‐ICSC 12. Sr. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. ﴾This standard applies to the industry segments exempt from the 1 ppm 8‐hour TWA and 5 ppm STEL of the benzene standard at 1910.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z‐2 8‐hr Time Weighted Avg: 10 ppm. 2010‐168 (2010). 29 CFR 1910. U. 2014: http://www. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of benzene in excess of 5 ppm as averaged over any 15 min period.12 OSHA Standards Permissible exposure limits ﴾PELs﴿ ‐ ﴾1﴿ Time‐weighted average limit ﴾TWA﴿.1028.S.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12. NIOSH. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of benzene in excess of one part of benzene per million parts of air ﴾1 ppm﴿ as an 8 hr TWA.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z‐2 Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8‐ hour shift.cdc. U.2‐8.nlm. ﴾This standard applies to the industry segments exempt from the 1 ppm 8‐hour TWA and 5 ppm STEL of the benzene standard at 1910.nih. Wiley‐Interscience. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Available from: http://www.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.J. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.2.2. NIOSH. Available from. upper 8.1 ppm. 2014: http://www. 2014: http://www. as of January 28. Department of Health & Human Services.ecfr. as of January 28. Maximum Duration: 10 minutes.1028(c) (USDOL).13 NIOSH Recommendations NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration. Available from. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: http://www.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB 12.2. Wiley & Sons. ﴾This standard applies to the industry segments exempt from the 1 ppm 8‐hour TWA and 5 ppm STEL of the benzene standard at 1910.ecfr. 2004.4%.11 Explosive Limits and Potential Lower 1.

IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. oils. and the route of exposure. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as wheezing.3 First Aid Measures 12. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as wheezing.1 First Aid EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing.nih. INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.nlm. 1992﴿ https://pubchem. do not give anything by mouth. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area. length of exposure. throat.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 52/149 . or chest﴿ develop. physical and toxicity properties. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. Department of Health & Human Services. coughing. INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.cdc. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. the exposure level. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. take deep breaths of fresh air. physical and toxicity properties. Self‐Contained Breathing Apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿ should be used.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Minute Short‐Term Exposure Limit: 1 ppm. Do not put any ointments. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. shortness of breath. if not available. ﴾NTP. length of exposure. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. shortness of breath. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. coughing. OTHER: Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and potential recommendation for medical monitoring. or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. take deep breaths of fresh air. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious. its chemical.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB 12. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.3.ncbi. Whenever possible. Do not put any ointments. the exposure level. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing. or burning in the mouth. OTHER: Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and potential recommendation for medical monitoring. Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical problems. use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious. IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop. give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. do not give anything by mouth. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. or chest﴿ develop. oils. give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Whenever possible. and the route of exposure. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Available from: http://www. throat. Recommendations from the physician will depend upon the specific compound. use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing. its chemical. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area. Recommendations from the physician will depend upon the specific compound. 2010‐168 (2010). or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. Self‐Contained Breathing Apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿ should be used. ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. or burning in the mouth. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital for treatment after washing the affected areas. ﴾NTP. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. NIOSH. if not available.

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

 from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB

Eye: If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately wash the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the
lower and upper lids. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this
chemical. Skin: If this chemical contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this
chemical penetrates the clothing promptly remove the clothing and wash the skin with soap and water. Get medical
attention promptly. Breathing: If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh
air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform mouth‐to‐mouth resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at
rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible. Swallow: If this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention
immediately. ﴾NIOSH, 1997﴿
 from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB

﴾See procedures﴿
Eye:Irrigate immediately
Skin:Soap wash immediately
Breathing:Respiratory support
Swallow:Medical attention immediately
 from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH

12.3.2 Inhalation First Aid

Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.3.3 Skin First Aid

Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention .
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.3.4 Eye First Aid

First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes ﴾remove contact lenses if easily possible﴿, then refer for medical
attention.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.3.5 Ingestion First Aid

Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention .
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.4 Fire Fighting Measures
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors. Use water spray, dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. Use
water spray to keep fire‐exposed containers cool.
National Fire Protection Association; Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 14TH Edition, Quincy, MA 2010, p. 49‐27

 from HSDB

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding
quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water.
Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 53/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

Association of American Railroads; Bureau of Explosives. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation.
Association of American Railroads, Pueblo, CO. 2005, p. 111

 from HSDB

Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray, alcohol‐resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Sigma‐Aldrich; Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Product Number: 12540, Version 5.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Available
from, as of October 9, 2014: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center.html

 from HSDB

Advice for firefighters: Wear self contained breathing apparatus for fire fighting if necessary.
Sigma‐Aldrich; Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Product Number: 12540, Version 5.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Available
from, as of October 9, 2014: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center.html

 from HSDB

Use water spray to cool unopened containers.
Sigma‐Aldrich; Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Product Number: 12540, Version 5.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Available
from, as of October 9, 2014: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center.html

 from HSDB

12.4.1 Fire Fighting

Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids ﴾Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿]: CAUTION: All these products have a
very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. SMALL FIRE: Dry chemical, CO2, water
spray or regular foam. LARGE FIRE: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Do not use straight streams. Move containers
from fire area if you can do it without risk. FIRE INVOLVING TANKS OR CAR/TRAILER LOADS: Fight fire from maximum
distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until
well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of
tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles;
if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. ﴾ERG, 2016﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

Use foam, water spray, carbon dioxide, powder.
 from ILO‐ICSC

Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may
spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as
possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. ﴾ AAR, 1999﴿
 from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB

Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may
be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as
possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. ﴾ AAR, 1999﴿
 from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB

12.4.2 Explosion Fire Fighting

In case of fire: keep drums, etc., cool by spraying with water.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.4.3 Other Fire Fighting Hazards

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 54/149

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem

Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition & flash back. Liquid floats on water and may travel
to a source of ignition and spread fire.
National Fire Protection Association; Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 14TH Edition, Quincy, MA 2010, p. 49‐27

 from HSDB

Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture: Carbon oxides Flash back possible over considerable distance.
Container explosion may occur under fire conditions.
Sigma‐Aldrich; Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Product Number: 12540, Version 5.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Available
from, as of October 9, 2014: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center.html

 from HSDB

12.5 Accidental Release Measures

12.5.1 Isolation and Evacuation

Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids ﴾Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿]: As an immediate precautionary
measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions. LARGE SPILL: Consider initial
downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. FIRE: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire,
ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all
directions. ﴾ERG, 2016﴿
 from CAMEO Chemicals

12.5.2 Spillage Disposal

Remove all ignition sources. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: complete protective
clothing including self‐contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Do NOT let this chemical enter
the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in
sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.
 from ILO‐ICSC

12.5.3 Cleanup Methods

For spills on water, contain with booms or barriers, use surface acting agents to thicken spilled materials. Remove
trapped materials with suction hoses.
USEPA; Methods to Treat, Control and Monitor Spilled Hazardous Materials, EPA‐670/2‐75‐042 (1975) EPA 670/2‐75‐042

 from HSDB

Small spills of benzene can be taken up by sorption on carbon or synthetic sorbent resins. Flush area with water. For
large quantities, if response is rapid, benzene can be skimmed off the surface. Straw may be used to mop slicks.
USEPA; Intermedia Priority Pollutant Guidance Documents p.8‐1 (July, 1982)

 from HSDB

PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": A high‐efficiency particulate arrestor ﴾HEPA﴿ or charcoal filters can be used to
minimize amt of carcinogen in exhausted air ventilated safety cabinets, lab hoods, glove boxes or animal rooms. ...
Filter housing that is designed so that used filters can be transferred into plastic bag without contaminating
maintenance staff is avail commercially. Filters should be placed in plastic bags immediately after removal. ... The
plastic bag should be sealed immediately. ... The sealed bag should be labelled properly. ... Waste liquids ... should be
placed or collected in proper containers for disposal. The lid should be secured & the bottles properly labelled. Once
filled, bottles should be placed in plastic bag, so that outer surface ... is not contaminated. ... The plastic bag should
also be sealed & labelled. ... Broken glassware ... should be decontaminated by solvent extraction, by chemical
destruction, or in specially designed incinerators. /Chemical Carcinogens/

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 55/149

and W. and then collect with an electrically protected vacuum cleaner or by wet‐brushing and place in container for disposal according to local regulations Sigma‐Aldrich. L. Version 5. Remove all sources of ignition. Product Number: 12540. Pueblo. holding area to contain liquid or solid material. treatment and disposal of waste. cement powder. Remove trapped material with suction hoses.com/safety‐center.ncbi. Tomatis. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. D018.sigmaaldrich. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. soak holes. CO. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation.html  from HSDB Control of environmental exposure: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. lagoon. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal. Do not let product enter drains. E. protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment. Environmental precautions: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so.nlm. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash. as of October 9. ponds. Lyon. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Bureau of Explosives. as of October 9. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. soaps.sigmaaldrich. Swan. Vapours can accumulate in low areas. 33. Bartsch. MA 2010. alcohols﴿. transportation. 2005.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Montesano.5. IARC Scientific Publications No. Available from.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). 49‐27  from HSDB Environmental considerations: Land spill: Dig a pit. Association of American Railroads. if approved by EPA. Davis (eds. p. or commercial sorbents. CO. Do not let product enter drains. Available from. 2014: http://www. Discharge into the environment must be avoided. Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard. Stop or control the leak. G. 15  from HSDB Eliminate all ignition sources. Association of American Railroads. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Association of American Railroads. L. If dissolved. pits. Ensure adequate ventilation. Pueblo. in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration.4 Disposal Methods Generators of waste ﴾equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo﴿ containing this contaminant. p. Sigma‐Aldrich./ Dike surface flow using soil. 14TH Edition.).nih. p. sand bags. R. or foamed concrete. or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. /SRP: If time permits. National Fire Protection Association. Absorb in noncombustible material for proper disposal. Beware of vapours accumulating to form explosive concentrations. 1979.B. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. A. 2014: http://www.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 56/149 . lagoons. EPA hazardous waste number F005. Association of American Railroads. Bureau of Explosives. must conform with USEPA regulations in storage. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Association of American Railroads. Fishbein. Griesemer. H.Boyland. https://pubchem. 112  from HSDB Accidental Release Measures. Pueblo. Bureau of Explosives. if this can be done without undue risk.. Quincy. p. 112  from HSDB Environmental considerations: Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. protect personnel.com/safety‐center. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors. and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. Personal precautions. A. U019. foamed polyurethane. 2005. Della Porta. Avoid breathing vapours.html  from HSDB 12. pond. Association of American Railroads. Version 5. CO. 2005.. Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up: Contain spillage. R. p. mist or gas. Product Number: 12540. 112  from HSDB Environmental considerations: Air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Use surface active agent ﴾eg detergent.

A. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 33.. 1979. Alternatively. 14  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Total destruction .. Solvent mixtures and sludges of higher concn are burnt in special waste incinerators if a recovery process is uneconomical. in which a first‐stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air... by incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. E.. Geneva. Griesemer. 702‐799 (USEPA). Environment Canada.. transfer and disposal. 2014: http://www. Data Profile Series No. /given/ must be treated as guide only.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 40 CFR 240‐280. Lyon... A. otherwise it is necessary . R. therefore. Some .. L. 5. IARC Scientific Publications No. Disposal should be carried out by incineration at temp that . IARC Scientific Publications No.. SOLID WASTE: Carcasses of lab animals. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. 100  from HSDB This flammable liquid burns with a very smoky flame.. p. dermal and ingestion﴿ as well as fate during treatment. Not recommendable: Landfill. Data Profile Series No. If it is not practicable to manage the chemical in this fashion. L. G. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. R. Dec. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. aqueous & organic‐ solvent solutions. For spent charcoal filters.. and W. Available from. However.. are to be destroyed in laboratory.).nlm. Davis (eds. Swan.ncbi... Della Porta. R. p. Summary of avail methods & recommendations . ensure complete combustion. p. or contaminated sites should be contained and evaluated for subject chemical or decomposition product concentrations.. can be disposed of by incineration.B. to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material.. Swan. LIQUID WASTE: . pretreatment and/or discharge to a permitted wastewater treatment facility is acceptable only after review by the governing authority and assurance that "pass through" violations will not occur. discharge to sewer... 15  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": HEPA ﴾high‐efficiency particulate arrestor﴿ filters . Recommendable methods: Use as boiler fuel. as of November April 6.. Geneva.. incineration: Benzene is biodegradable. Diluted aqueous soln. in order to determine the appropriate local. Concentrations shall be lower than applicable environmental discharge or disposal criteria. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 1985. is probably the gas‐fired type.Boyland.. published have not been tested on all kinds of carcinogen‐containing waste. it must be evaluated in accordance with EPA 40 CFR Part 261. United Nations. L..Boyland. E. esp when small quantities . G. Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme.. Fishbein. Dilution with alcohol or acetone is suggested to minimize smoke. The most efficient type ..S. Treatment and Disposal Methods for Waste Chemicals (IRPTC File). the adsorbed material can be stripped off at high temp & carcinogenic wastes generated by this treatment conducted to & burned in an incinerator. Tech Info for Problem Spills: Benzene (Draft) p. 33. such as sawdust.nih. H. 100  from HSDB Incinerate or dispose of via a licensed solvent recycling or disposal company. A. Lyon. Alternatively. . H. p... National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. cleaning of protective clothing/equipment.. Griesemer. and W. state and federal requirements for disposal. Davis (eds. 1979. Bartsch. United Nations. not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. are drained into sewage treatment plants and decomposed there by anaerobic bacteria.ecfr. . L. incineration. U. 5. Dec. Tomatis.  from HSDB Biodegradation.. R. Tomatis..)..101 (1981)  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction . Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme.B. are designed to accept . A. Bartsch. 300‐306. specifically Subpart B.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 57/149 . 1985. Treatment and Disposal Methods for Waste Chemicals (IRPTC File).gov  from HSDB SRP: Wastewater from contaminant suppression. Della Porta. Fishbein. Due consideration shall be given to remediation worker exposure ﴾inhalation.. chem destruction may be used. cage litter & https://pubchem. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

L. Bartsch. Tomatis.. EPA Contract No. p..E‐42 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem misc solid wastes . Bartsch.nih.. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. and W. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 15  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": . E. and W. A. IARC Scientific Publications No. A. Griesemer. L... A. EPA Contract No. such as sat soln of potassium permanganate in acetone. H. 33... Concn or 50% aqueous sodium hypochlorite can also be used as an oxidizing agent.. The time necessary for destruction .Boyland. Scale of Study: Respirometer Study. Bartsch. Results of Study: 1. Fishbein. Small quantities of . . No method should be applied .ncbi. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. ﴾completely mixed activated sludge process﴿. but no general rules can be given. it is suggested that the agents be dissolved in ethanol or similar solvents... USEPA. Carcinogens that are easily oxidizable can be destroyed with milder oxidative agents. 68‐03‐2766 p..B. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. USEPA. 1979. Concentration Process: Biological Treatment. EPA Contract No. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater. A. 68‐03‐2766 p. L.. Swan. A. For example. H. 17  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 68‐03‐2766 p. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate... Scale of Study: Respirometer Study. Della Porta. Scale of Study: Full Scale. H.. Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic Wastewater.). Davis (eds. L. Lyon. it is possible to detect residual compounds by reaction with 4﴾4‐nitrobenzyl﴿‐pyridine. and W.. p. treatment with sodium dichromate in strong sulfuric acid can be used. Lyon. 1979. some carcinogens can be destroyed using chem reactions . . Concentration Process: Biological Treatment. is seldom known .. A. Griesemer. hydroxyl ions. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. EPA Contract No.. Concentration Process: Biological Treatment.B. Della Porta... such as water. Tomatis. R.E‐42 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. L.). 33. USEPA. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater. R. ﴾treated by aerated lagoon﴿. G.. Results of Study: 95‐100% reduction. To facilitate the complete reaction. 68‐03‐2766 p.. Davis (eds.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 58/149 . Swan. 1979. IARC Scientific Publications No. until it has been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness & safety on material to be inactivated. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. R. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.. Concentration Process: Biological Treatment. but 1‐2 days is generally considered sufficient when freshly prepd reagent is used. Fishbein. R. ammonia... Swan. As a general technique . & is also influenced by sol of agent in the reaction medium. Fishbein. USEPA. should be disposed of by incineration at temp high enough to ensure destruction of chem carcinogens or their metabolites. L. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. IARC Scientific Publications No. E.. .E‐42 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. 16  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Carcinogens that are alkylating. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. G. Results of Study: 90‐100% reduction. Griesemer. Type of Wastewater Used: Domestic Wastewater.. arylating or acylating agents per se can be destroyed by reaction with appropriate nucleophiles. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. which appears to be a suitable agent for destruction of hydrazines or of compounds containing isolated carbon‐carbon double bonds. 33. Della Porta. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. E. Tomatis.B. R. G. Scale of Study: Full Scale. Lyon. thiols & thiosulfate... Results of Study: Oxygen uptake of 34 ppm oxygen/hr for 50 ppm chemical and 37 ppm oxygen/hr for 500 ppm chemical. The reactivity of various alkylating agents varies greatly . /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano.)..Boyland.nlm.44‐1. R.Boyland. in case of destruction of alkylating agents. p.45 g of oxygen utilized/g of substrate added after 72 hr of oxidation.E‐42 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Davis (eds. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate.

Concentration Process: Stripping. 68‐03‐2766 p. ﴾Extraction of wastewater from styrene manufacture using isobutylane ﴾S/W= 0.1 ppb effluent conc﴿ achieved in 8.E‐142 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. USEPA. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. EPA Contract No. 97% reduction. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate.E‐96 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene.097﴿ RDC extractor used﴿. ﴾estimated cost of $3. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. EPA Contract No. Continuous Flow. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater.E‐111 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. USEPA. EPA Contract No. Scale of Study: Literature Review. Type of Wastewater Used: Pure Compound. Concentration Process: Solvent Extraction. 68‐03‐2766 p. Concentration Process: Solvent Extraction. ﴾extraction of ethylene quench wastewater using isobutylene ﴾S/W= 0. ﴾Spilled material treated using EPA's mobile treatment trailer﴿. EPA Contract No. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. EPA Contract No. Continuous Flow. USEPA. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. EPA Contract No. 68‐03‐2766 p. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater.5 min contact time. USEPA. 68‐03‐2766 p.101﴿ RDC extractor used﴿. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Scale of Study: Laboratory Scale. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. EPA Contract No.nih.E‐111 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Scale of Study: Literature Review. Concentration Process: Solvent Extraction.E‐111 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater.107﴿. 68‐03‐2766 p. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Waste. USEPA.E‐96 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Type of Wastewater Used: Synthetic Wastewater. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Type of Wastewater Used: Hazardous Material Spill Results of Study: 90% removal ﴾to 0. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Results of Study: Extractable with suitable solvent.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 59/149 . USEPA.nlm. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate.E‐142 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem.35/1000 gal based on 0. 68‐03‐2766 p. Results of Study: 95‐100% reduction.7 mg/g carbon capacity. 96% reduction.6 gal/hr. Scale of Study: Continuous Flow. Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown. Scale of Study: Full Scale. Concentration Process: Stripping. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Continuous Flow. Results of Study: 81 ppm @ 4. Scale of Study: Isotherm Test.03 MGD﴿.ncbi. USEPA. Results of Study: Air and steam strippable.6 gal/hr.E‐111 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. ﴾Activated sludge process﴿. 68‐03‐2766 p. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Results of Study: 71 ppm @ 4. Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Scale of Study: Laboratory Scale. EPA Contract No. ﴾extraction of ethylene quench wastewater using isobutane ﴾S/W= 0. Results of Study: 95‐99% reduction by steam stripping. 97% reduction. EPA Contract No. Results of Study: 0. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. Concentration Process: Solvent Extraction. Pilot Scale.E‐42 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. USEPA. RDC extractor used﴿. USEPA. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Concentration Process: Biological Treatment. Scale of Study: Pilot Scale. Continuous Flow. Scale of Study: Laboratory Scale. Results of Study: 290 ppm @ 3 gal/hr. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. 68‐03‐2766 p. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. 68‐03‐2766 p.

98% removal.nih. Scale of Study: Isotherm Test. Type of Wastewater Used: Pure Compound. Contact a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. 68‐03‐2766 p.E‐143 (1982)  from HSDB A good candidate for liquid injection incineration at a temperature range of 650 to 1. Filtrasorb: K= 18.E‐143 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. 95% removal. USEPA. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Results of Study: 95% removal at 0.000 ug/L. and longer for solids. Scale of Study: Isotherm Test.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. carbon dose ﴾mg/L﴿ required to reduce 1 mg/L to 0. USEPA. carbon dose was 10 times chemical concn﴿. 21 ppm final concn. USEPA. pretreatment including pH adjustment﴿. Contaminated packaging: Dispose of as unused product. Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial Wastewater. Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.5.nlm. 2014: http://www.600 deg C and a residence time of 0.sigmaaldrich. 60% removal.3‐11 (1981) EPA 68‐03‐3025  from HSDB Full‐scale activated carbon column treatment: Influent concn: 28.15 MGD flow.8. Product: Burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber but exert extra care in igniting as this material is highly flammable. EPA Contract No. Offer surplus and non‐recyclable solutions to a licensed disposal company. Sigma‐Aldrich. l/n= 1.ncbi. as of October 9. 68‐03‐2766 p.336 (1985)  from HSDB Waste treatment methods. 68‐03‐2766 p. USEPA.080 g/g carbon capacity. A good candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1. A good candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases.5 Other Preventative Measures https://pubchem.html  from HSDB 12. 50. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. Scale of Study: Literature Review.158. USEPA. Type of Wastewater Used: Pure Compound.1 to 2 seconds. Results of Study: Effluent Character ﴾ppm﴿: 500.305. 2﴿ 73 ug/L with 48‐80% removal. EPA Contract No. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technolgy 2nd Edition p. Scale of Study: Literature Review. ﴾24 hr contact time. 68‐03‐2766 p. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. USEPA. Daro‐678 Filtrasorb‐705. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. 250. Type of Wastewater Used: Pure Compound. 0. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. ﴾Carbon dose with 5 g/l Westvaco Nuchar﴿.5 l/n= 1.600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases. Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate. Results of Study: Isotherm kinetics were as follows: Carbon: K= 26.E‐142 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. EPA Contract No. ﴾at contact time of 55 min 0.E‐143 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. EPA Contract No. Available from. Concentration Process: Activated Carbon. EPA Contract No. Effluent concn: 1﴿ < 10 ug/L with +99% removal.E‐143 (1982)  from HSDB Chemical Treatability of Benzene. Product Number: 12540. Results of Study: 95% reduction.com/safety‐center. and hours for solids. Scale of Study: Isotherm Test. Version 5. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Results of Study: Effluent concn of 30 ppm TOC achieved.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 60/149 .5% carbon dose.1 mg/L. Chemical Classification: Aromatic. Patterson JW. 68‐03‐2766 p.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). 91% removal.

. there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. procedures should be removed.. 33. eating... p.. after completion of procedures in which carcinogens have been used.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses by industrial workers is inconsistent. Lyon. Bartsch.. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. Swan. Davis (eds. should be carried out under well‐ventilated hood. provided that the exhaust air flow is sufficient to provide an inward air flow at the face opening of the cabinet. the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.Boyland. should be carried out with care & vapors evolved during . p. In those specific cases. 8  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Vertical laminar‐flow biological safety cabinets may be used for containment of in vitro procedures . Bartsch... 8  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": In animal laboratory. Fishbein.. Glove boxes should be kept under negative air pressure. H. where filtered air is blown across the working area towards the operator.. This test should be repeated periodically & after any structural changes. L. but also on factors including the form of the substance. R. A. Bartsch. thoroughly. H. H. characteristics and duration of the exposure. Fishbein.). No standard procedure can be recommended. & when new fume cupboards are installed. personnel should remove their outdoor clothes & wear protective suits ﴾preferably disposable. Della Porta. E. A. & the application of cosmetics should be prohibited in any laboratory.. A. and W. Consideration should be given to appropriate methods for cleaning the skin. powder being blown around the hood.. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.. 8  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": .. A. In chemical laboratory. Davis (eds. Fishbein. giving date of test & avg air‐flow measured. gloves & gowns should always be worn . gloves. G. Each cabinet or fume cupboard to be used . Griesemer. storage of food or of food & beverage containers or utensils. However.  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Smoking. L. Air changes should be adequate... 1979. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 61/149 .ncbi. contact lenses should not be worn. discarded immediately if obvious contamination occurs . if worn.. preferably using dispensers of liq detergent. Della Porta.  from HSDB SRP: Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emmissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. G. should never be used . gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection. R. Griesemer. IARC Scientific Publications No. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. A. A. It is desirable that there be means for decreasing the rate of air extraction. so that concn of vapors of volatile carcinogens will not occur. and W. 33.nlm. Swan.. E.Boyland. & rinse . . They should . IARC Scientific Publications No.). Horizontal laminar‐flow hoods or safety cabinets.. L.. L. R./ workers should shower immediately. one‐piece & close‐fitting at ankles & wrists﴿. Lyon. Expert advice should be obtained before existing fume cupboards are used . France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon..B... 1979. R.Boyland. hair covering & overshoes. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants.. Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases... R. Davis (eds. Tomatis. G. Della Porta. In any event.. The benefits or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance.. Swan. drinking. & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection.... Clothing should be changed daily but .nih. E. /also... depending on nature of the contaminant.. 33. 1979. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano.. All personnel should remove gloves.. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. If gowns are of distinctive color. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. Tomatis. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety.). and W.. however.. L. Griesemer. the uses of other eye protection equipment. IARC Scientific Publications No.. so that carcinogenic powders can be handled without . /Chemical Carcinogens/ https://pubchem.. should be tested before work is begun ﴾eg. R. but the use of organic solvents should be avoided. this is a reminder that they should not be worn outside of lab.B.B. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. and the hygiene of the lenses. Operations connected with synth & purification . . & contaminated air plenums that are under positive pressure are leak‐tight. Analytical procedures . Tomatis. wash . L. hands. p. with fume bomb﴿ & label fixed to it.

IARC Scientific Publications No. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. In cleaning labs. they should not be sent to laundry. If chem will be exhaled. be simple & sensitive.. A prominently displayed notice should give the name of the Scientific Investigator or other person who can advise in an emergency & who can inform others ﴾such as firemen﴿ on the handling of carcinogenic substances.). surfaces. R. Admin by topical application. R. Sensitive methods are required when testing lab atmospheres for chem such as nitrosamines. R..). E. contaminated /cages/. Davis (eds. Fishbein. decontaminated or burnt. 10  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Doors leading into areas where carcinogens are used . Situations may exist in which the use of disposable cages should be recommended.. L. p. H. Design of expt should . France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Scientific Publications No.. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano.. Lyon. gavage. E. Fishbein. Tomatis. wet mop or vacuum cleaner equipped with high‐efficiency particulate filter on exhaust. admin in diet or applied to skin. Fishbein. R. A. Della Porta. p. Swan. It is difficult to ensure that cages are decontaminated. Fishbein. but .. Lyon.. Tomatis. such as spillage. A. Mixing of carcinogen in diet should be carried out in sealed mixers under fume hood. and W. A. & . . Swan. L. possibly. . . to avoid moving of . Cages which have been used to house animals that received carcinogens should be decontaminated. IARC Scientific Publications No. R. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. & monitoring methods are necessary. Swan. 33. /Chemical Carcinogens/ https://pubchem. When volatile carcinogens are given.. L. 1979. L. Bartsch.B.).. A. special protective clothing &. Methods .. p.. Unless specifically required. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety.. E. E. 33. H. Tomatis. Grossly contaminated cleaning materials should not be re‐used. H. and W.. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. L. Access . Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. A.. A..Boyland. Tomatis. 1979. Inhalation exposure requires special equipment. Della Porta. Davis (eds. procedures should be used which do not produce aerosols or dispersal of dust. R. Bartsch. Lyon.B. G.. ie... R.nlm. Bartsch. and W. L. Techniques for cleaning mixer & hood should be devised before expt begun.. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. When mixing diets. 1979.. Griesemer.. Sweeping. which are avail commercially.Boyland. Griesemer.B.Boyland. Della Porta..). and W. 33. where possible..B. IARC Scientific Publications No. Cage‐cleaning facilities should be installed in area in which carcinogens are being used.. Griesemer.Boyland. H..Boyland. or intratracheal instillation should be performed under hood. 9  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When . and W. 1979. 1979. .. should be decontaminated by lab personnel engaged in expt. A. As well as regular monitoring. . Della Porta. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. brushing & use of dry dusters or mops should be prohibited. filter tops should not be used..B. L. . Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. Davis (eds. Lyon.. L.. L. Griesemer. 10  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": To eliminate risk that .. Swan. limited to persons involved in expt. A. Bartsch.. animals should be kept under hood during this period.. to avoid any hazard to laundry personnel.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 62/149 . Davis (eds..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Montesano.. p. Tomatis.... Davis (eds. Bartsch. Griesemer. depending on type & amt of carcinogen & efficiency with which it can be removed. If gowns or towels are contaminated. Lyon. animals should be kept in cages with solid bottoms & sides & fitted with a filter top. 33. should . G. routes of admin other than in the diet should be used.... should be used.. . Swan. E.. check must be carried out after cleaning‐up of spillage.. L. respirators may be required. floors & benches. interior of fume hoods & airducts. H.. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. avoid contamination of permanent equipment. should be marked distinctively with appropriate labels.nih. 9  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Principles that apply to chem or biochem lab also apply to microbiological & cell‐culture labs. contamination in lab could build up during conduct of expt. A. from which the exhaust is fitted with an efficient particulate filter. A. Special consideration should be given to route of admin. Fishbein. Safest method of administering volatile carcinogen is by injection of a soln.. . IARC Scientific Publications No. G. G. Particular care should be taken to avoid contamination of drains or ventilation ducts. Della Porta.ncbi.. p. such as walls. R. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.). R. Procedures should ensure that maintenance workers are not exposed to carcinogens. 33. R. periodic checks should be carried out on lab atmospheres. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 10  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Rooms in which obvious contamination has occurred. G. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

p.Take measures to prevent the build up of electrostatic charge. R. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. H. 33. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Association of American Railroads. Association of American Railroads. Product Number: 12540. Product Number: 12540. Della Porta. Sigma‐Aldrich. Association of American Railroads. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. 111  from HSDB The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. Sigma‐Aldrich. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation.html  from HSDB Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use explosion‐ proof equipment. R. L. and W. Davis (eds. as of October 9. Use proper glove removal technique ﴾without touching glove's outer surface﴿ to avoid skin contact with this product.sigmaaldrich. Swan.. 2014: http://www. Version 5.Boyland. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. dispose. CO. G. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).ncbi. 1979. Bartsch.e. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 111  from HSDB Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Product Number: 12540. 2010‐168 (2010). Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Sigma‐Aldrich. NIOSH. E. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard.sigmaaldrich. Pueblo. for liquids with a flash point <100 deg F﴿. 2005. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. 2010‐168 (2010). IARC Scientific Publications No..gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard ﴾i. Avoid inhalation of vapour or mist. Bureau of Explosives. Keep upwind.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Available from: http://www.. as of October 9. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Pueblo. 2014: http://www. as of October 9.com/safety‐center. . NIOSH. Available from. CO. 2014: http://www. Department of Health & Human Services. Department of Health & Human Services.. Available from.nlm.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Montesano. flames.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Precautions for safe handling: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. L.). Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Lyon. Bureau of Explosives. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Keep away from sources of ignition ‐ No smoking. Available from.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 63/149 . Griesemer. A. and other sources of ignition away. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.com/safety‐center. Fishbein. Version 5. Wash and dry hands. p. 11  from HSDB SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.sigmaaldrich. Tomatis. Association of American Railroads.cdc.nih. Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. A. Version 5. 2005.com/safety‐center.html  from HSDB Appropriate engineering controls: Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice.html https://pubchem. Use water spray to knock‐down vapors. Available from: http://www. p. or clean the clothing. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.cdc.B.  from HSDB If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks.

Davis (eds.. Cambridge. 13  from HSDB Conditions for safe storage. foamed polyurethane.. 188  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Storage site should be as close as practicable to lab in which carcinogens are to be used. Swan.2 Safe Storage Fireproof. and other sources of ignition away. flares.ncbi. H.6.. (ed. 1999﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Keep sparks. Dike surface flow using soil. lagoon. an explosion‐proof refrigerator or freezer ﴾depending on chemicophysical properties . A vapor‐suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.. Fishbein.1 Nonfire Spill Response Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids ﴾Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿]: ELIMINATE all ignition sources ﴾no smoking. showing quantity of carcinogen & date it was acquired . sand bags.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 64/149 . R. Land spill: Dig a pit.﴿ that bears appropriate label. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety.. Griesemer. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. ﴾ AAR. and W.nlm. and Biologicals.3 Storage Conditions Keep in well closed containers in a cool place and away from fire. sewers. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Facilities for dispensing .  from ILO‐ICSC 12.6. Carcinogens should be kept in only one section of cupboard. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. should be contiguous to storage area. Bartsch. holding area to contain liquid or solid material. sparks or flames in immediate area﴿. Della Porta.nih.Boyland. or foamed concrete. R. Use water spray to knock‐down vapors. E. Lyon. A. https://pubchem. 33. A.. Water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Water spray may reduce vapor. An inventory . The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals. so that only small quantities required for . Use clean.B. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. LARGE SPILL: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal.). G.. 1979. L. and other sources of ignition away. expt need to be carried. ﴾ERG. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Drugs. including any incompatibilities: Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well‐ventilated place.. M..6 Handling and Storage 12. O'Neil. pond. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Separated from food and feedstuffs. basements or confined areas. p. Absorb or cover with dry earth. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 12. IARC Scientific Publications No. ﴾ AAR. Prevent entry into waterways.. should be kept. but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Keep sparks. Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage. non‐sparking tools to collect absorbed material. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. flames. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. Tomatis. flames.J. sand or other non‐combustible material and transfer to containers..)..6. 2013. oxidants and halogens. L.. p. Use water spray to knock‐down vapors.

1028.3 PEL‐TWA 1 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 100 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 400 mg/m3  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. Available from.1028] TWA 1 ppm ST 5 ppm See Appendix F  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12.2 PEL SEE 29 CFR 1910. Product Number: 12540.7.ncbi. Version 5.1 ppm ST 1 ppm See Appendix A  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12.7 Exposure Control and Personal Protection 12.5 REL‐TWA 0.sigmaaldrich. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.7. as of October 9. FOR INDUSTRIES EXEMPT FROM THIS STANDARD THE PELs ARE LOCATED IN 29 CFR 1910.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Sigma‐Aldrich.7.nih.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 65/149 .1 REL CARCINOGEN ﴾Ca﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Ca TWA 0. 2014: http://www.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).nlm.com/safety‐center.4 PEL‐STEL 5 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12.7.1  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB [1910.1 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 100 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 400 mg/m3 https://pubchem.7.html  from HSDB 12.

7.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 66/149 .ncbi. BEI: 25 ug/g creatinine. p.7.nlm. ACGIH. BEI: 500 ug/g creatinine. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 500 ppm Ca  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 1000 ppm 10% of LEL  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Ca [500 ppm] See: 71432  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12. Such background concentrations are incorporated in the BEI value. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices.5 ppm. skin. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. ACGIH. 13  from HSDB A1. at a concentration which could affect interpretation of the result. Cincinnati. Cincinnati. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.t‐muconic acid in urine. OH 2014. ACGIH. Such background concentrations are incorporated in the BEI value. skin.6 REL‐STEL 1 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. p. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Sampling Time: end of shift. The determinant may be present in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices.7. 112  from HSDB https://pubchem. Confirmed human carcinogen.7 IDLH 500 ppm . ﴾NIOSH.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. p. Notation: The determinant may be present in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. ACGIH. A potential occupational carcinogen. p. at a concentration which could affect interpretation of the result. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.8 Threshold Limit Values 8 hr Time Weighted Avg ﴾TWA﴿: 0. 13  from HSDB Biological Exposure Index ﴾BEI﴿: Determinant: t. OH 2014. 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit ﴾STEL﴿: 2. OH 2014. Cincinnati. OH 2014. Sampling Time: end of shift.5 ppm. 112  from HSDB Biological Exposure Index ﴾BEI﴿: Determinant: S‐phenylmercapturic acid in urine.nih.

 from ILO‐ICSC https://pubchem. Germ cell mutagen group: 3A. 15 min. Tobacco smoke contains benzene and accounts for nearly half the national exposure to benzene. ﴾ACGIH 2004﴿. short‐term value. Commission of the European Communities: 0. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans..3 excess leukemia cases per 1000 workers﴿.5 ppm as TWA. Technical Guiding Concentration ﴾TRK﴿.7.25‐3. Poland: Ceiling ﴾skin﴿ 30 mg/cu m ﴾1976﴿. p. 3 ppm. the tests must be done shortly after exposure and are not helpful for measuring low levels of benzene. 1 ppm ﴾1996﴿. (Multivolume work). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.. VA 1999. The AIHA 1999 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines and Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guides Handbook.iarc. Cincinnati. 6th ed.9 Other Occupational Permissible Levels Belgium: TWA ﴾skin﴿ 30 mg/cu m. ERPG﴾3﴿ 1000 ppm ﴾not life threatening﴿ up to 1 hr exposure. 1972‐PRESENT. However. A1 ﴾confirmed human carcinogen﴿. Yugoslavia: Ceiling ﴾skin﴿ 50 mg/cu m. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices.nih. and evaporation from gasoline service stations and in industrial solvents. 15 ppm ﴾1971﴿.7.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12. motor vehicle exhaust. ﴾DFG 2004﴿. Ceiling 80 mg/cu m/10 min ﴾1976﴿. skin.11 Assessing Personal Exposure Measurement of benzene in an individual's breath or blood or the measurement of breakdown products in the urine ﴾phenol﴿ can estimate personal exposure. which may subsequently be breathed by the public. Category 1. USSR: Ceiling ﴾skin﴿ 5 mg/cu m ﴾1980﴿. Benzene is found in emissions from burning coal and oil. II. These sources contribute to elevated levels of benzene in the ambient air.5 mg/cu m. adverse effects﴿ for up to 1 hr exposure. Finland: TWA ﴾skin﴿ 32 mg/cu m.7. established human carcinogen ﴾1990﴿. 2 ppm ﴾1978﴿. Fairfax.10 Sources and Potential Exposure Individuals employed in industries that manufacture or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of benzene.nlm. BEI issued.5 ppm as STEL. Czechoslovakia: TWA 50 mg/cu m. 25  from HSDB Australia: 5 ppm. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Switzerland: TWA ﴾skin﴿ 6. p. p. 10 ppm ﴾1978﴿. 2.  from EPA Air Toxics 12. BENZENE‐1  from HSDB 12. Sweden: 0. capable of inducing malignant tumors in humans. IARC. transient effects﴿ for up to 1 hr exposure.12 Occupational Exposure Limits TLV: 0. III. V29 97 (1982)  from HSDB Emergency Response Planning Guidelines ﴾ERPG﴿: ERPG﴾1﴿ 50 ppm ﴾no more than mild.5 ppm ﴾corresponding to estimated lifetime risk of 0. International Agency for Research on Cancer.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 67/149 . ﴾skin﴿. Volumes I. may be exceeded 5 times/shift as long as avg does not exceed value ﴾1974﴿. Available at: http://monographs.7. Geneva: World Health Organization.fr/ENG/Classification/index. 1991. American Industrial Hygiene Association.ncbi.php . OH: ACGIH.5 ppm. Romania: Maximum ﴾skin﴿ 50 mg/cu m ﴾1975﴿. Federal Republic of Germany: no MAK. Group A1 carcinogen. ERPG﴾2﴿ 150 ppm ﴾without serious. MAK: Carcinogen category: 1.  from EPA Air Toxics 12. 10 ppm ﴾1975﴿. Individuals may also be exposed to benzene by consuming contaminated water. Hungary: TWA 20 mg/cu m. Inc. carcinogenic ﴾1991﴿. skin. United Kingdom: 5 ppm ﴾1997﴿.

ncbi. at any detectable concentration: ﴾APF = 10.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.000﴿ Any self‐contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or other positive‐pressure mode https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12.16 Acceptable Daily Intakes Insufficient data are available to calculate a one‐day Health Advisory for benzene.18 Respirator Recommendations ﴾See Appendix E﴿ NIOSH At concentrations above the NIOSH REL. The substance may have effects on the bone marrow. The Ten‐day Health Advisory ﴾0.7. aspiration into the lungs may result in chemical pneumonitis.  from ILO‐ICSC 12. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system.7. which may cause dryness or cracking.17 Personal Protection ﴾See protection codes﴿ Skin:Prevent skin contact Eyes:Prevent eye contact Wash skin:When contaminated Remove:When wet ﴾flammable﴿ Change:No recommendation Provide:Eyewash.nlm. USEPA.14 Effects of Short Term Exposure The substance is irritating to the eyes.7. Quick drench  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12.. skin and respiratory tract.15 Effects of Long Term Exposure The substance defats the skin.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 68/149 . The substance may have effects on the central nervous system and immune system. This may result in lowering of consciousness. See Notes.7.7. . or where there is no REL.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.. Exposure far above the OEL could cause unconsciousness and death.20 (1987) PB 87‐235578  from HSDB 12.13 Inhalation Risk A harmful contamination of the air can be reached very quickly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C. Health Advisories for 25 Organics: Benzene p.7. If swallowed the substance easily enters the airways and could result in aspiration pneumonitis.235 mg/l﴿ is considered to be adequately protective for a one‐day exposure as well. If this liquid is swallowed. May cause heritable genetic damage to human germ cells. This may result in anaemia.nih. This substance is carcinogenic to humans. Longer‐term Health Advisories have not been calculated because of the carcinogenic potency of benzene.

7.ncbi. ventilation. or smoke during work.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 69/149 . or handling.23 Skin Prevention Protective gloves.21 Exposure Prevention AVOID ALL CONTACT!  from ILO‐ICSC 12.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem ﴾APF = 10.g.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.25 Ingestion Prevention Do not eat.7.nlm.  from ILO‐ICSC https://pubchem. full‐facepiece respirator ﴾gas mask﴿ with a chin‐style. self‐contained breathing apparatus Important additional information about respirator selection  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12.7.19 Fire Prevention NO open flames. NO sparks and NO smoking. discharging.20 Explosion Prevention Closed system. Do NOT use compressed air for filling.  from ILO‐ICSC 12. explosion‐proof electrical equipment and lighting. Protective clothing.24 Eye Prevention Wear face shield or eye protection in combination with breathing protection. local exhaust or breathing protection. front‐ or back‐mounted organic vapor canister Any appropriate escape‐type.7.22 Inhalation Prevention Use ventilation.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.. Prevent build‐up of electrostatic charges ﴾e.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.7.  from ILO‐ICSC 12. by grounding﴿. Use non‐sparking handtools.7.nih.7. drink.000﴿ Any supplied‐air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or other positive‐pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self‐contained positive‐pressure breathing apparatus Escape: ﴾APF = 50﴿ Any air‐purifying.

8  from HSDB Performance data: For butyl rubber. .nih... 33. Swan. gloves & gowns should always be worn .] ﴾NIOSH. D. Washington. chemical goggles or face splash shield. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed.. and cleansing facilities shall be installed and maintained. NIOSH..H. Vendor Recommendations: C or D ratings from three or more ﴾apparently independent﴿ vendors. natural rubber. and W.. however. No. the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate. forced air masks should be used. Griesemer. a deluge shower should be readily available.12 (1974) DHEW Pub No 74‐137  from HSDB Where there is a possibility of benzene contact to eyes or skin. Government Printing Office. A. Dispensers of liq detergent /should be available. chlorinated polyethylene.26 Protective Equipment and Clothing Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Della Porta. L.. Coast Guard..B. CT: Appleton and Lange. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. Lifeline attended by . Fishbein. U..nlm. . this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. Norwalk. In chemical laboratory. E.  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": . 1979.Boyland./ . 193  from HSDB Hydrocarbon vapor canister.. for liquids with flash point < 100°F﴿ Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. wear protective suits ﴾preferably disposable. Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure.. Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard﴾i.S. H.. person outside contaminated enclosure is mandatory. Safety pipettes should be used for all pipetting. eye‐wash fountains.. Provide: Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance. Handbook of Poisoning. Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. whereas in others.. neoprene. one‐ piece & close‐fitting at ankles & wrists﴿. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Protective clothing consisting of coveralls or other full body clothing should be worn and changed at least twice weekly. safety showers. ACGIH. Bartsch. Department of Transportation.ncbi. & disposable plastic aprons might provide addnl protection.S. IARC Scientific Publications No. L.. G.. R.13 (1974) DHEW Pub. neoprene/natural rubber. /should be/ of distinctive color. p. Criteria Document: Benzene p. NIOSH. this is a reminder that they are not to be worn outside the laboratory.. If skin contact is unavoidable. 1987. R. .2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12. Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p. hydrocarbon‐insoluble apron such as neoprene. hydrocarbon insoluble rubber or plastic gloves. supplied air or a hose mask. 1984‐5. gloves should not be assumed to provide full protection.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 70/149 .C. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. neoprene gloves must be worn. 74‐137  from HSDB Where high vapor concn are unavoidable.7. 12th ed..: U. A. p. In animal laboratory.e. Tomatis. nitrile rubber.. Gowns . Carefully fitted masks or respirators may be necessary when working with particulates or gases. Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. R. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data. Lyon. neoprene. Davis (eds. personnel should . polyethylene.58 (1983)  from HSDB https://pubchem. and polyvinyl chloride give breakthrough times less ﴾usually significantly less﴿ than one hour reported by ﴾normally﴿ two or more testers. Volume II. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer..).. gloves. Dreisbach. polyurethane.. Criteria Document: Benzene p. hair covering & overshoes. In certain instances.

The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Respirator Recommendations: Escape: Assigned Protection Respirator Recommendations Factor ﴾APF﴿ Any air‐purifying. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010‐168 (2010). whereas in others. Available from: http://www. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. or where there is no REL. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. full‐facepiece respirator ﴾gas mask﴿ with a chin‐style.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Respirator Recommendations: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. NIOSH.000 demand or other positive‐pressure mode.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. 2010‐168 (2010). Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. at any detectable concentration: Assigned Protection Respirator Recommendations Factor ﴾APF﴿ Any self‐contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐ APF = 10. Available from: http://www. Available from: http://www. 2010‐168 (2010).cdc. NIOSH. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010‐168 (2010).gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 71/149 .] NIOSH. a deluge shower should be readily available. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Department of Health & Human Services. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Any supplied‐air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or APF = 10.ncbi. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. self‐contained breathing apparatus. Department of Health & Human Services. NIOSH. the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.gov/niosh/npg https://pubchem.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure.cdc. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2010‐168 (2010). Available from: http://www. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.cdc. 2010‐168 (2010). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Available from: http://www. Department of Health & Human Services. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Department of Health & Human Services. front‐ or back‐mounted APF = 50 organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape‐type.nlm.cdc.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. NIOSH. Department of Health & Human Services.nih. [Note: It is intended that these facilities should provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. Department of Health & Human Services.000 other positive‐pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self‐contained positive‐pressure breathing apparatus. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. NIOSH.cdc. this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.cdc. Available from: http://www. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. In certain instances.

Sigma‐Aldrich. Sigma‐Aldrich. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as nitric acid.nlm. 2014: http://www.sigmaaldrich.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 72/149 .2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). use a full‐face supplied air respirator.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). Product Number: 12540. Available from.com/safety‐center.8 Stability and Reactivity 12.com/safety‐center. Sigma‐Aldrich. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH ﴾US﴿ or CEN ﴾EU﴿.nih.4 Reactivity Profile BENZENE reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at ‐70° C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.  from CAMEO Chemicals 12. Product Number: 12540.html  from HSDB 12.sigmaaldrich. Sigma‐Aldrich. Version 5. Slightly soluble in water. Product Number: 12540.2 Reactive Group Hydrocarbons. Aromatic  from CAMEO Chemicals 12. https://pubchem. 2014: http://www. Product Number: 12540. Version 5. Flame retardant antistatic protective clothing. If the respirator is the sole means of protection.1 Air and Water Reactions Highly flammable.8.html  from HSDB Body Protection: Complete suit protecting against chemicals.sigmaaldrich.sigmaaldrich.html  from HSDB Respiratory protection: Where risk assessment shows air‐purifying respirators are appropriate use a full‐face respirator with multipurpose combination ﴾US﴿ or type ABEK ﴾EN 14387﴿ respirator cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. Ignites in contact with powdered chromic anhydride [Mellor 11:235 1946‐47]. Version 5. as of October 9. as of October 9.com/safety‐center.ncbi.com/safety‐center. Available from. Available from. 2014: http://www. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.html  from HSDB Skin protection: Handle with gloves.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Eye/face protection: Face shield and safety glasses Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH ﴾US﴿ or EN 166﴾EU﴿.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).8.3 Reactivity Alerts Highly Flammable  from CAMEO Chemicals 12. Version 5. as of October 9. as of October 9.8. Available from.8.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014). 2014: http://www. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene.

causes ignition. 1126  from HSDB Benzene ignites in contact with powdered chromic anhydride. ignites in contact with /iodine heptafluoride/ gas .. Bretherick. 4th ed.. MA 2010.. p. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. 1990.. is very vigorous. Boston. 491‐29  from HSDB An explosion of benzene vapors & chlorine ﴾inadvertently mixed﴿ was initiated by light.ncbi. Tech Info for Problem Spills: Benzene (Draft) p. Boston. 2002.. 4th ed. L. Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Boston. p. 1990. F. iodine heptafluoride and other interhalogens can ignite upon heating [Bretherick 5th ed.. KGaA. 14TH Edition. ﴾Hagedorn. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd.nlm.. 612  from HSDB Benzene ..﴿. oxygen ﴾liquid﴿. Nitriles..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 73/149 . 491‐29  from HSDB Reacts explosively with bromine pentafluoride. H. addition of a small particle to small samples of benzene . Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 1110  from HSDB Simultaneous contact of sodium peroxide with . p. /caused/ ignition. Gelbke. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd.. L. 60  from HSDB . 1990. Boston. Bretherick. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. The reaction of benzene and trichloroacetonitrile evolves toxic chloroform and HCl gases. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards.. 1383  from HSDB Interaction /of uranium hexafluoride/ with benzene . KGaA. silver perchlorate. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. 4th ed.. nitryl perchlorate. iodine pentafluoride. at ambient temp . Boston. benzene . chlorine trifluoride. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Bretherick. National Fire Protection Association. Benzene and cyanogen halides yield HCl as a byproduct ﴾Hagedorn. 4th ed. 1995]. Quincy.. ozone. 2002. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.nih.. Nitriles. L. H.. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. & an exotherm to 280 deg C developed.. 14TH Edition. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards.8. Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 1127  from HSDB Dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate is a very powerful oxidant. Boston. Gelbke. nitric acid. diborane. L.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Mixtures with bromine trifluoride. A 2% solution /dioxygen difluoride/ in hydrogen fluoride ignites solid benzene at ‐78 deg C. and Federal Republic of Germany.. p. Bretherick.. National Fire Protection Association. p. Quincy. Bretherick. p. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. Bretherick.. MA 2010. 1990. ﴾equivalent to contact with concn hydrogen peroxide﴿.5 Reactivities and Incompatibilities Reacts violently with iodine pentafluoride. chlorine.. https://pubchem. 1990. Increasing the bed temp by 10 deg C & the hydrogen flow led to a large increase in reaction rate which the interbed cooling coils could not handle.﴿... 4th ed. 1990. with separation of carbon . p.. but a fall in conversion was apparent. L. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. p.  from CAMEO Chemicals 12.. L. with a hot spot around 600 deg C which bulged the reactor wall.96 (1981)  from HSDB Hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane was effected in a fixed bed reactor at 210‐230 deg C. F.. bromine pentafluoride.‐P. and Federal Republic of Germany. Environment Canada.

benzene . may cause explosion. L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards.. Bretherick. Boston. L. The vapor‐air mixture produced was ignited by interaction of benzene & nitric acid at 100‐170 deg C & caused an extremely violent explosion. 1990. Bretherick.. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. p.. but the benzene‐oxygen system itself has high potential for hazard. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. whereas in benzene as solvent repeated explosions occurred... Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. p. 4th ed. 4th ed.. 1990. Boston. Boston. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. uncontrolled contact with . 1990.. /is/ a very powerful oxidant.. p.. L.. 4th ed. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. L. Bretherick. p. 51  from HSDB The effects of the presence of moisture or benzene vapor in air on the spontaneously explosive reaction /of diborane/ have been studied. L. p. Bretherick. 4th ed. https://pubchem. 1223  from HSDB Mixtures of /liquid oxygen &/ benzene are specifically described as explosive. L. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. L. benzene .. 1990. A sample of the benzene complex exploded violently on crushing in a mortar. p. toluene.. 1419  from HSDB Mixtures /of peroxomonosulfuric acid/ with . Boston. A rubber ozonide may have been involved. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Bretherick. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. p. . since the solution remained clear. pyridine. will explode on contact with benzene . benzene & many other aromatic hydrocarbons. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. p. Boston. /due/ to formation of benzene triozonide ﴾which separates as a gelatinous precipitate after prolonged ozonization﴿...nih.. 1408  from HSDB During ozonization of rubber dissolved in benzene.. 1166  from HSDB Peroxodisulfuric acid . 70  from HSDB Silver perchlorate forms solid complexes with aniline. 4th ed. 1990.ncbi. 4th ed. Boston.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 74/149 . This seems unlikely to have been ... Bretherick. 1990.. Bretherick. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. 1990. p.. Tech Info for Problem Spills: Benzene (Draft) p. p. 4th ed. Bretherick. 4th ed. Bretherick. . L. Bretherick. Boston. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 1990. an explosion occurred. L. Boston. 982  from HSDB The solution of permanganic acid ﴾or its explosive anhydride.96 (1981)  from HSDB Interaction of the pentafluoride & methoxide /from arsenic pentafluoride & potassium methoxide/ proceeded smoothly in trichlorotrifluoroethane at 30‐40 deg C. 4th ed. 1222  from HSDB Certain metal perchlorates recrystallized from benzene or ethyl alcohol can explode spontaneously. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 1990.. explodes.nlm... 4th ed. 7  from HSDB Interaction /of nitryl perchlorate/ with benzene gave a slight explosion & flash. Boston..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Environment Canada. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. 1990. dimanganese heptoxide﴿ produced by interaction of permanganates & sulfuric acid. Boston. 1146  from HSDB Large‐scale addition of too‐cold nitrating acid to benzene without agitation later caused an uncontrollably violent reaction to occur when stirring was started... Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. L.

J. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas ﴾sewers. Explosions have been reported ﴾NFPA 491M 1991﴿. many fluorides & perchlorates. nitric acid  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 12. bromine pentafluoride. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 2004. such as Cl2. outdoors or in sewers. R. Available from. Department of Health & Human Services. oxygen. ozone. 360  from HSDB Incompatible materials: Acids. Lewis. Wiley & Sons. K2O2. even at minus 70C. Forms sensitive. N2O2. Sr. ﴾REACTIVITY. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. peroxomonosulfuric acid. Available from: http://www. 11th Edition.sigmaaldrich. ﴾sulfuric acid + permanganates﴿. basements. Hoboken. nitric acid. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Sigma‐Aldrich. sparks or flames. liquid oxygen.S. p. 2012  from HSDB https://pubchem.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Vigorous or incandescent reaction with hydrogen + Raney nickel ﴾above 210 deg C﴿ uranium hexafluoride. . in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Sr. MA 2010. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Quincy. and bromine trifluoride. p. CrO3.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 75/149 . R.html  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Allyl chloride or other alkyl halides will react vigorously with benzene or toluene. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Product Number: 12540. Department of Transportation. Lewis. 1999﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB This compound is incompatible with the following:Strong oxidizers ﴾NIOSH. bases. and peroxodisulfuric acid. 14TH Edition. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. NJ. 2014: http://www.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem National Fire Protection Association. NIOSH.cdc. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.ncbi. Those substances designated with a ﴾P﴿ may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. 2010‐168 (2010). halogens. 360  from HSDB Explodes on contact with diborane. Wiley‐Interscience. many fluorides & perchlorates.. Most vapors are heavier than air. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. 1997﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Strong oxidizers. ﴾AlCl3 + FClO4﴿. 2004.9 Transport Information 12.2 (Revision Date 06/23/2014).9. Version 5. Inc.. Hoboken. D. Material Safety Data Sheet for Benzene. p. Benzene ignites in contact with the powdered chromic anhydride ﴾Mellor 11:235 1946‐47﴿. permanganic acid.nlm.nih. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 491‐29  from HSDB Strong oxidizers.. nitryl perchlorate.1 DOT Emergency Guidelines /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat. as of October 9. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.com/safety‐center. silver perchlorate. 11th Edition. Containers may explode when heated.J. Many liquids are lighter than water. NJ. Wiley & Sons.C. Wiley‐Interscience. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials.. U. Vapor explosion hazard indoors. ozone. tanks﴿. ﴾AgClO4 + acetic acid﴿. perchlorates. metallic salts. strong oxidizing agents. Inc. NClO4. explosive mixtures with iodine pentafluoride. nitric acid. arsenic pentafluoride + potassium methoxide ﴾explodes above 30 deg C﴿. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Washington.

ingestion or skin contact﴿ to substance may be delayed. Fire will produce irritating. rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire. Large Fire: Water spray.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 76/149 . refer to appropriate telephone number listed on the inside back cover. Keep unauthorized personnel away. In case of burns.S. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first. U. U. Washington. Stay upwind. Wash skin with soap and water. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Evacuation: Large Spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. Department of Transportation. consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. Department of Transportation. Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. basements or confined areas. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material﴾s﴿ involved and take precautions to protect themselves. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources ﴾no smoking. U. CO2. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Stop leak if you can do it without risk.ncbi. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Prevent entry into waterways. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Effects of exposure ﴾inhalation. D. Washington.S. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook.C. Small Fire: Dry chemical. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air.C.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin. Department of Transportation. Department of Transportation. sewers. Washington. Washington. withdraw from area and let fire burn. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. Department of Transportation. Fire involving Tanks or Car/Trailer Loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Water spray may reduce vapor. Absorb or cover with dry earth.C. isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Call 911 or emergency medical service.S. In case of contact with substance. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. Do not use straight streams. also.nih. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Large Spill: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. if this is impossible.C.C. fog or regular foam. immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Fire: If tank.C. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer. D. water spray or regular foam. sparks or flames in immediate area﴿. flares. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. https://pubchem. U. Use clean non‐sparking tools to collect absorbed material. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. Keep victim warm and quiet. For massive fire. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.nlm. Keep out of low areas. D. D. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. As an immediate precautionary measure. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook.S. corrosive and/or toxic gases. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. U. Washington. sand or other non‐combustible material and transfer to containers.S. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self‐contained breathing apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿. ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. Department of Transportation.S. Washington. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. D. D. U.

gov  from HSDB The International Air Transport Association ﴾IATA﴿ Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.. 47th Edition. If parcel is not received when expected. 2014: http://www..B. Fishbein. These authorities should be consulted before . Davis (eds. International Air Transport Association..nih.3 DOT ID and Guide https://pubchem. watertight container ﴾primary container﴿. Quebec Canada. 13  from HSDB 12. Montreal..Boyland. A. R. 148  from HSDB The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. p. H. Tomatis. Griesemer. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. IARC Scientific Publications No.9./ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance .9. Swan. E. To avoid spilling. E. International Maritime Organization. IMDG Code. D. leakproof container that will withstand chem attack from the carcinogen ﴾secondary container﴿. G. which should themselves be placed inside strong screw‐cap or snap‐top container that will not open when dropped & will resist attack from the carcinogen.. packaged. 1979.S. Della Porta. IARC Scientific Publications No. /the hazardous materials regulations ﴾49 CFR 171‐177﴿.. Dangerous Goods Regulations... Both bottle & the outside container should be appropriately labelled. Davis (eds./ 49 CFR 171. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code Volume 2 2006. . National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. labeled. The space between primary & secondary container should be filled with absorbent material. carcinogens should be transported in securely sealed glass bottles or ampoules. 33. National post offices... A. R.Boyland. material is shipped. Department of Transportation. the following procedure must be adopted. Tomatis.. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. p. and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by . which would withstand chem attack from the carcinogen & is sufficient to absorb the entire contents of the primary container in the event of breakage or leakage. arrival on weekend or holiday. p. Lyon. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano.). Each secondary container should then be enclosed in a strong outer box.ecfr. described. L. Available from.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 77/149 . unbreakable. and W.C. road haulage companies & airlines have regulations governing transport of hazardous materials. G. L. of unduly large amt . 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano. H. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety.).. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article. Bartsch... as of February 5. 13  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": When no regulations exist. The space between the secondary container & the outer box should be filled with an appropriate quantity of shock‐absorbent material... Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. Swan.nlm. Traffic schedules should be consulted to avoid . France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. railway companies. L.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem U. should be avoided..S. A. and W. Della Porta.. 33. L.2 (USDOT). which should be enclosed in a second.. carrier should be informed so that immediate effort can be made to find it. Griesemer. Sender should use fastest & most secure form of transport & notify recipient of its departure. The carcinogen should be enclosed in a securely sealed. and the hazardous material is properly classed. Lyon. 1979.B.. Washington. Bartsch. 46  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": Procurement . . France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Fishbein.ncbi. A. p. 2012  from HSDB 12.2 Shipment Methods and Regulations No person may /transport. R. marked. U. R. 2006..

nlm.10 Regulatory Information 12.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 78/149 . * Keep unauthorized personnel away. PUBLIC SAFETY * CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first. EVACUATION Large Spill * Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. * Stay upwind. T. * Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. basements. F3. * Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. * Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air.9.8 Emergency Response NFPA Code: H2. R: 45‐46‐11‐36/38‐48/23/24/25‐65. * Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. UN Pack Group: II  from ILO‐ICSC 12. * Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. S: 53‐45. Note: E  from ILO‐ICSC 12.6 EC Classification Symbol: F. refer to appropriate telephone number listed on the inside back cover. * Ventilate closed spaces before entering. tanks﴿. * As an immediate precautionary measure. sparks or flames.  from ILO‐ICSC 12. * Keep out of low areas. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOS… 12. ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ https://pubchem. * Vapor explosion hazard indoors.  from ILO‐ICSC 12.10.7 UN Classification UN Hazard Class: 3.ncbi. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING * Wear positive pressure self‐contained breathing apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿. * Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back.4 DOT Label Flammable Liquid  from CAMEO Chemicals 12. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas ﴾sewers. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer.nih. * Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. * Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. * Most vapors are heavier than air. HEALTH * May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin.9. * Containers may explode when heated. * Fire will produce irritating. corrosive and/or toxic gases.9. isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions.9.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 1114 130  from DOT Emergency Response Guidebook.5 Packaging and Labelling Do not transport with food and feedstuffs.9. rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire. outdoors or in sewers.1 DOT Emergency Response Guide 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar / Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿ POTENTIAL HAZARDS FIRE OR EXPLOSION * HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat. R0. * Many liquids are lighter than water. Fire * If tank.

* Use clean non‐sparking tools to collect absorbed material. flares. * Wash skin with soap and water. * Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC).2 Federal Drinking Water Standards Maximum contaminant levels ﴾MCL﴿ for organic contaminants apply to community and non‐transient. U. * Water spray may reduce vapor. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB https://pubchem. * Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Large Spill * Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB ﴾FL﴿ FLORIDA 1 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes.nlm. ingestion or skin contact﴿ to substance may be delayed. 40 CFR 141. fog or regular foam.3 State Drinking Water Standards ﴾CA﴿ CALIFORNIA 1 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water.61(a) (USEPA). * In case of burns. but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 12. * Keep victim warm and quiet.ncbi. * Effects of exposure ﴾inhalation. consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. sparks or flames in immediate area﴿. * Stop leak if you can do it without risk.nih. * Prevent entry into waterways. * Call 911 or emergency medical service. non‐community water systems: Benzene. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. * Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). * Absorb or cover with dry earth. immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. sewers. 2014: http://www. if this is impossible. withdraw from area and let fire burn. * ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. * Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. as of January 28. * All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. FIRST AID * Move victim to fresh air. * For massive fire.005 mg/L. * In case of contact with substance.S. * Do not touch or walk through spilled material. * A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Available from. * Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. CO2.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB EPA 5 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. Fire involving Tanks or Car/Trailer Loads * Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin.ecfr. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB ﴾NJ﴿ NEW JERSEY 1 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. MCL 0.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 79/149 . Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB 12. * Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes.10. sand or other non‐combustible material and transfer to containers.10. SPILL OR LEAK * ELIMINATE all ignition sources ﴾no smoking. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). * Do not use straight streams. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). * Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material﴾s﴿ involved and take precautions to protect themselves. basements or confined areas. Small Fire * Dry chemical. also. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Large Fire * Water spray. water spray or regular foam. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FIRE CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem in all directions.

40 CFR 302. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB ﴾CT﴿ CONNECTICUT 1 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water.15 (USEPA). when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance. as of January 28.ecfr.4 State Drinking Water Guidelines ﴾AZ﴿ ARIZONA 1. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB ﴾ME﴿ MAINE 6 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB 12. Available from. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Available from. 2014: http://www.S.b﴿. in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 10 lb or 4.10.54 kg. as of January 28. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.S.ecfr.10. U. 2014: http://www.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB 12. as of January 28.D.10. 40 CFR 116.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB Benzene is designated as a hazardous substance under section 311﴾b﴿﴾2﴿﴾A﴿ of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978.3 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. 2014: http://www. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302. U. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB ﴾MN﴿ MINNESOTA 3 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. as well as any solutions and mixtures containing this substance. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB 12. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC).6 CERCLA Reportable Quantities Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center ﴾NRC﴿ immediately. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). The toll free number of the NRC is ﴾800﴿ 424‐8802.nlm. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.ecfr.4 (USEPA). These regulations apply to discharges of this substance. Available from. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC).4 ﴾section IV.10. This designation includes any isomers and hydrates.3. U.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 80/149 . National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.4 (USEPA).ncbi.5 Clean Water Act Requirements Toxic pollutant designated pursuant to section 307﴾a﴿﴾1﴿ of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and is subject to effluent limitations.nih.7 RCRA Requirements https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 12. 40 CFR 401.S.

S.33. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. 2014: http://www. or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill. contaminated soil.10. as stated in 40 CFR 261.105 (USFDA). Available from. Available from. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations ﴾40 CFR 261. When benzene is a spent solvent. 2014: http://www. 21 CFR 175. U.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 81/149 . 40 CFR 261. 14TH Edition.24.11 Other Safety Information 12.S.11. Available from. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. U. it is classified as a hazardous waste from a nonspecific source ﴾F005﴿. and must be managed according to State and/or Federal hazardous waste regulations.ecfr. U.33 (USEPA). 40 CFR 261. it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations.S. Quincy. becomes a waste.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB 12. 2014: http://www. U. as of January 28. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue. 49‐27  from HSDB https://pubchem. into water or on dry land. 40 CFR 261. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.8 FDA Requirements Benzene is an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives. as of January 28.1 Other Hazardous Reactions May accumulate static electricity National Fire Protection Association.S.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB 12.24 (USEPA).5﴿. as of January 28. MA 2010.31 (USEPA). p. as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off‐specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate.nih.31. 2014: http://www.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB F005.ecfr. Available from. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. of this waste. as of January 28.ecfr. A solid waste containing benzene may or may not become characterized as a hazardous waste when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure listed in 40 CFR 261.ecfr.nlm. As stipulated in 40 CFR 261. when benzene. water.gov/cgi‐bin/ECFR?page=browse  from HSDB U019.ncbi.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem D018. must be managed as a hazardous waste. and if so characterized.

nlm. 2﴿ evidence in animals: sufficient. (Multivolume work). S7 120 (1987)  from HSDB A1.1. 1972‐PRESENT. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Confirmed human carcinogen. Available at: http://monographs.ncbi. ACGIH. EPA: Known human carcinogen.php . 13  from HSDB https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 13 Toxicity 13.1 NIOSH Toxicity Data  Download 1 to 6 of 280 View More Measurement Count Skin and Eye Irritation 5 Mutation Data 105 Reproductive Effects Data 30 Tumorigenic Data 25 Acute Toxicity Data 55 Other Multiple Dose Data 60  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH  Download 1 to 4 of 16 View More Measurement Count Skin and Eye Irritation 2 Tumorigenic Data 1 Acute Toxicity Data 9 Other Multiple Dose Data 4  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 13.1 Toxicological Information 13. IARC: Carcinogenic to humans  from CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal Classification of carcinogenicity: 1﴿ evidence in humans: sufficient.1.2 Carcinogen NTP: Known to be a human carcinogen.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 82/149 .iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index. /From table/ IARC. p. Cincinnati. Overall summary evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans is group 1: The chemical is carcinogenic to humans.nih. p. International Agency for Research on Cancer. OH 2014. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Geneva: World Health Organization. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices.

including the hematopoietic system. as of February 21.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/Benzene. NIOSH‐Ca.nih. benzene is characterized as a known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure based upon convincing human evidence as well as supporting evidence from animal studies. as of February 21. DHHS/National Toxicology Program. shoemaking and oil refineries. and mammary gland .. Hodgkin's lymphoma.. Throat.. and mammary gland﴿. forestomach. skin and/or eye contact  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 13. TLV‐A1  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 13.niehs. Health Effects Division. ovary. U. These human data are supported by animal studies.. many experimental animal studies. to leukemogenesis from exposure to benzene.4 Exposure Routes The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation.htm  from HSDB Benzene: known to be a human carcinogen.. 1996﴿.1. It is likely that these responses are due to interactions of the metabolites of benzene with DNA .1. Nose. Carcinogenicity: Benzene is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans. K. forestomach..  from ILO‐ICSC inhalation. oral and nasal cavities. IARC‐1.epa. have been reported in benzene‐exposed workers in the chemical industry. lung. OSHA‐Ca. both inhalation and oral. The experimental animal data add to the argument that exposure to benzene increases the risk of cancer in multiple species at multiple organ sites ﴾hematopoietic.3 Health Effects Irritation‐Eye. Epidemiologic studies and case studies provide clear evidence of a causal association between exposure to benzene and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and also suggest evidence for chronic nonlymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. lung. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA:.S. Available from. NTP‐K.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 83/149 . Significantly increased risks of leukemia. also support the evidence that exposure to benzene increases the risk of cancer in multiple organ systems.ncbi. chiefly acute myelogenous leukemia. ovary. liver. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Benzene is a known human carcinogen based upon evidence presented in numerous occupational epidemiological studies. skin absorption.1.5 Symptoms https://pubchem. through the skin and by ingestion. oral and nasal. Twelfth Report on Carcinogens: Benzene (71‐43‐2) (2011). and myelodysplastic syndrome. Summary on Benzene (71‐43‐2). preputial gland..nih. Science Information Management Branch: "Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential" (April 2006)  from HSDB WEIGHT‐OF‐EVIDENCE CHARACTERIZATION: Benzene is classified as a "known" human carcinogen ﴾Category A﴿ under the Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986.nlm. 2014: http://www.gov/IRIS/subst/0276.pdf  from HSDB EPA‐A. Skin‐‐‐Mild ﴾HE16﴿ Narcosis ﴾HE8﴿  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information 13. preputial gland. 2014: http://ntp. Available from. Under the proposed revised Carcinogen Risk Asessment Guidelines ﴾USEPA. blood disorders such as preleukemia and aplastic anemia. ingestion.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Cancer Classification: Carcinogenic to Humans USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). liver. in particular. Other neoplastic conditions that are associated with an increased risk in humans are hematologic neoplasms. Recent evidence supports the viewpoint that there are likely multiple mechanistic pathways leading to cancer and.

1. blood.  from ILO‐ICSC 13.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 84/149 . Further see Inhalation. Drowsiness.nih.1.1. eyes.1. skin  from OSHA Chemical Sampling Information Eyes. Pain.12 Acute Toxicity Link Chemical: BENZENE  from USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center https://pubchem.8 Eye Symptoms Redness.7 Skin Symptoms MAY BE ABSORBED! Dry skin. respiratory system. Further see Inhalation.6 Inhalation Symptoms Dizziness. skin. Headache.  from ILO‐ICSC 13. Unconsciousness.9 Ingestion Symptoms Abdominal pain.1. staggered gait.  from ILO‐ICSC 13.10 Target Organs Hematological ﴾Blood Forming﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem irritation eyes. Convulsions.1. Pain.11 Cancer Sites [leukemia]  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 13. anorexia. lassitude ﴾weakness.ncbi. Shortness of breath. Neurological ﴾Nervous System﴿  from CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal Respiratory system. respiratory system. Redness. exhaustion﴿. [potential occupational carcinogen]  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 13. headache. skin. central nervous system.1. Sore throat. nausea.nlm. bone marrow  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 13. Nausea. bone marrow depression. dizziness. dermatitis. Immunological ﴾Immune System﴿. Vomiting.  from ILO‐ICSC 13. nose.

 from EPA Air Toxics 13. and unconsciousness in humans. EPA estimates https://pubchem. that person would theoretically have no more than a one‐in‐a‐million increased chance of developing cancer as a direct result of continuously breathing air containing this chemical.03 milligrams per cubic meter ﴾0.1.to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from breathing air containing a specified concentration of a chemical.13 to 0. The reference concentration for benzene is 0. moderate acute toxicity from ingestion. At lifetime exposures increasingly greater than the reference exposure level. dizziness.1. dizziness. Animal studies show neurologic. The RfD is an estimate ﴾with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude﴿ of a daily oral exposure to the human population ﴾including sensitive subgroups﴿ that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. headaches.03 mg/m3﴿ for benzene based on hematological effects in humans. the potential for adverse health effects increases. and low or moderate acute toxicity from dermal exposure.8 x 10‐6 as the increase in the lifetime risk of an individual who is continuously exposed to 1 µg/m3 of benzene in the air over their lifetime. rabbits.ncbi. known human carcinogen. EPA uses mathematical models. chronic inhalation and oral exposure to benzene produces the same effects as seen in humans.nlm.13 Acute Effects Coexposure to benzene with ethanol ﴾e.3x10‐385/149 . but rather a reference point to gauge the potential for effects. Benzene specifically affects bone marrow ﴾the tissues that produce blood cells﴿. EPA has classified benzene as a Group A. excessive bleeding.3x10‐4 to 4. immunologic.5x‐4mg/m3﴿ over his or her entire lifetime. The RfC is an inhalation exposure concentration at or below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur. It is not a direct estimator of risk. EPA estimates that. Ingestion of large amounts of benzene may result in vomiting.  from EPA Air Toxics 13.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 13. EPA has established an oral Reference Dose ﴾RfD﴿ for benzene of 0. EPA has established a Reference Concentration ﴾RfC﴿ of 0.5 µg/m3 ﴾1.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top that continuously breathing air containing 1. and damage to the immune system ﴾by changes in blood levels of antibodies and loss of white blood cells﴿ may develop. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfD.03 mg/m3 based on hematological effects in humans. alcoholic beverages﴿ can increase benzene toxicity in humans. mice.nih. and convulsions in humans. It is not a direct estimator of risk. eyes. In animals. Benzene causes both structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in humans.2 x 10‐6 to 7. Aplastic anemia ﴾a risk factor for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia﴿. and hematologic effects from inhalation and oral exposure to benzene. Exposure to liquid and vapor may irritate the skin.14 Chronic Effects Chronic inhalation of certain levels of benzene causes disorders in the blood in humans. EPA calculated a range of 2. but rather a reference point to gauge the potential for effects.004 milligrams per kilogram per day ﴾mg/kg/d﴿ based on hematological effects in humans. if an individual were to continuously breathe the air containing benzene at an average of 0.. Neurological symptoms of inhalation exposure to benzene include drowsiness. based on human and animal studies. and upper respiratory tract in humans.g. Redness and blisters may result from dermal exposure to benzene. The RfC is an estimate ﴾with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude﴿ of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population ﴾including sensitive groups﴿ that is likely to be without appreciable risk deleterious noncancer effects over a lifetime. Lifetime exposure above the RfD does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur. and guinea pigs have demonstrated benzene to have low acute toxicity from inhalation. the potential for adverse health effects increases.45 µg/m3 ﴾1.1.15 Cancer Risk Increased incidence of leukemia ﴾cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells﴿ has been observed in humans occupationally exposed to benzene.3 to 4. Similarly. Tests involving acute exposure of rats.

2014: http://www. Ingelman‐Sundberg M et al. ECAO Atlas Document: Benzene IV‐12 (1980)  from HSDB Toluene. Abstract: PubMed Kocsis JJ et al. acetone. DMSO.cdc.5 x 10‐2 to 5. Adverse effects on the fetus. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.17 Interactions Dimethyl sulfoxide ﴾DMSO﴿ enhanced the hypertaurinuria produced by benzene. Benzene oxidation by the benzene‐inducible form of cytochrome P450 was almost completely inhibited by catalase. increased the excretion of unchanged benzene in the expired air.5 µg/m3 ﴾1. Dev Biiochem 23 (Iss Cytochrome P450.  from EPA Air Toxics 13. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. EPA estimates that continuously breathing air containing 1. Available from. as of August 12.1. however these effects were only observed at exposure levels over the maximum tolerated dose .gov/toxprofiles/index.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 86/149 .asp  from HSDB https://pubchem. EPA has calculated an oral cancer slope factor ranging from 1. and toluene in rats.asp  from HSDB SKF‐525A inhibited benzene metabolism in the rat. including low birth weight. Injection of 80 mg/kg of SKF‐525A in rats resulted in a depression of phenol excretion. phenobarbital.16 Reproductive and Developmental Effects There is some evidence from human epidemiological studies of reproductive and developmental toxicity of benzene. It also prolonged phenol excretion and interfered in the conversion of benzene to glucuronides and free phenols. Animal studies have provided limited evidence that exposure to benzene may affect reproductive organs.atsdr. and ethanol are known to alter the metabolism and toxicity of benzene. delayed bone formation. Available from.gov/toxprofiles/index.212 PB2008‐100004 (2007).3x10‐3 to 4.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem containing this chemical. Similarly.3 x 10‐2 to 4. please see IRIS. Science 160: 427 (1968)  from HSDB Benzene & ethanol induced a common cytochrome P450 species in rabbit liver specifically effective in hydroxyl radical‐mediated oxygenation of ethanol.3 to 4.ncbi. and air containing 13 to 45 µg/m3 ﴾1. 2014: http://www.atsdr. Supernatants ﴾9000g﴿ prepared from livers of rats treated with DMSO 24 hours earlier metabolized more benzene than those from control rats. Biochem Biophys Environ Implic): 19‐26 (1982)  from HSDB Simultaneous treatments with both benzene and toluene. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. have been observed where pregnant animals were exposed to benzene by inhalation.cdc. & mannitol. U. and bone marrow damage. as of August 12.5 x 10‐2﴾mg/kg/d﴿‐1 that is an extrapolation from inhalation dose‐response data. These compounds apparently act by inhibiting benzene metabolism. USEPA.nih.5 x 10‐2 mg/m3﴿ would result in not greater than a one‐in‐ ten thousand increased chance of developing cancer.S. Aroclor 1254.214 PB2008‐100004 (2007).  from EPA Air Toxics 13. For a detailed discussion of confidence in the potency estimates. or benzene and piperonyl butoxide.1.S. however the data do not provide conclusive evidence of a link between exposure and effect ﴾4﴿. U.5x10‐3 mg/m3﴿ would result in not greater than a one‐in‐a‐hundred thousand increased chance of developing cancer. Undiluted DMSO was more effective than DMSO diluted with water in potentiating the toxicity of benzene in both rats and mice. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.nlm. superoxide dismutase. chlorobenzene.

nlm.7 ppm. Our results evidence that progesterone changes benzene toxicity ﴾generation of ROS.nih. western blot analysis of bone marrow lysate. 55 to both compounds. 0.4‐benzoquinone ﴾1. and for hydroquinone.4‐BQ﴿ followed by the reductive addition of glutathione ﴾GSH﴿.4‐BQ‐adduction of cysteine residues may be a transient interaction.5‐GS‐HQ]. 59 (1):1‐9 (2008)  from HSDB https://pubchem. aniline. Multiple correlation coefficients for toluene and its two metabolites were 0. phenol. however. Following administration of PHE/HQ ﴾1. The subjects.. Progesterone applied to benzene‐treated rats inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. oxidative stress﴿.740.3 and toluene at 20. where physiological conditions dictate adduct stability. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. were divided into four groups based on occupational exposure: 65 were exposed to benzene.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Carbon monoxide. and 2‐﴾N‐acetylcystein‐S‐yl﴿HQ [2‐﴾NACys﴿HQ] were also found in the bone marrow of PHE/HQ and benzene treated rats and mice. 2‐ ﴾glutathion‐S‐yl﴿HQ [GS‐HQ]. Moreover. cytochrome C. Rana SV.762.649 for hippuric acid and 0. but mechanisms of their action are poorly understood. 2. All of the HQ‐GSH conjugates retain the ability to redox cycle and generate reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. for catechol. audio equipment manufacture.ncbi. printing.4. 0. using HQ‐GSH and 4‐hydroxy‐2‐nonenal ﴾4HNE﴿ specific antibodies. and cytochrome P450 2E1 ﴾CYP2E1﴿ in the liver and kidneys of female rats.066 mg/l. The generation of ROS and alkylation of proteins may both contribute to benzene‐mediated myelotoxicity. indicating the presence of an active mercapturic acid pathway within bone marrow.9 + ‐ 29.5‐bis‐﴾glutathion‐S‐yl﴿HQ [2.4‐BQ.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 87/149 . No improvement in CYP2E1 activity was observed in progesterone treated rats. reproduces benzene myelotoxicity. 0. the precise molecular mechanism by which benzene and HQ‐GSH conjugates induce hematotoxicity remains to be determined. 184 ﴾1‐2﴿: 212‐7 ﴾2010﴿] Full text: PMC2846198 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB Benzene is a frequently used industrial solvent. In contrast 1. hydroquinone. Inove O et al.9 and of toluene 44.5‐GS‐HQ] were all identified in bone marrow. At this early time point.9. respectively. 2014: http://www. The regression lines for toluene in the mixture and excretion level of hippuric acid and hydroquinone showed reduced metabolic conversion compared to when exposure was limited to toluene alone. GS‐HQ and 2‐﴾NACys﴿HQ adduction. Concomitant with the decrease in lymphocyte count. Available from. revealed the presence of HQ‐ GSH‐ and 4HNE‐derived protein adducts.3.9 mmol/kg. The arithmetic mean exposure level of benzene was 31. and to arylate target proteins. the probable antioxidative effect of progesterone needs to be confirmed by further studies. and metyrapone inhibited benzene metabolism in vitro by mouse liver microsomes. and 35 served as comparisons. Identification of these adducts is required before the functional significance of such protein modifications can be determined.6‐GS‐HQ and 2.gov/toxprofiles/index. 35 to toluene. However.asp  from HSDB The mutual metabolic suppression between benzene and toluene was studied. HQ readily oxidizes to 1. The exposure levels were measured using individual diffusive samplers. Within 18h of administration of PHE/HQ to SD rats a significant decrease in blood lymphocyte count was observed. and o‐cresol. We have examined the influence of progesterone on lipid peroxidation ﴾malondialdehyde﴿. Multiple correlation coefficients for benzene exposure versus its three metabolites were for phenol. and 0. and 2. 190 male Chinese workers employed in shoe manufacturing. 9. 4. ip﴿ to male Sprague‐Dawley ﴾SD﴿ rats. Its toxic manifestations could be modified by sex hormones. in unexposed workers were 6. However. Subsequent cycles of oxidation and GSH addition give rise to a variety of mono‐.[Lau SS et al. Chem Biol Interact. the regression lines for benzene in mixture versus catechol were out 80% of higher than the lines observed with benzene as the sole pollutant. and the two processes may be inter‐ dependent.5‐tris‐﴾glutathion‐S‐yl﴿HQ [2.6‐GS‐HQ].214 PB2008‐100004 (2007). reduced glutathione ﴾GSH﴿. The mixture contained benzene at 17. but in ovariectomised benzene‐treated rats it significantly increased GSH in the liver. 72. catechol. Values corrected for creatinine and specific gravity were different from the values cited above. 2‐﴾cystein‐S‐yl﴿HQ [2‐﴾Cys﴿HQ].S. as of August 12.6‐bis‐﴾glutathion‐S‐yl﴿HQ [2. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory revealed lysine and arginine residues as primary targets of 1. Internat Arch Occupat Environ Health 60 (1): 15‐20 (1988)  from HSDB Hydroquinone ﴾HQ﴿ is a metabolite of benzene. U.8 ppm.5 + ‐ 25.atsdr. 2. The slopes of regression lines for the exposure to benzene in the presence of toluene were less than half of those obtained when the workers were exposed to benzene alone. and in combination with phenol ﴾PHE﴿.629. and multi‐GSH substituted conjugates. The geometric mean levels of the metabolites. 2. aminopyrine.1 mmol/kg/0. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol.3. Abstract: PubMed Verma Y. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. and automobile industries.5. 2‐﴾Cystein‐S‐ylglycine﴿HQ [2‐ ﴾CysGly﴿HQ].583 for o‐cresol. hippuric acid.8. erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentrations remained within the normal range.3.5‐GS‐HQ were hematotoxic when administered to rats.cdc.

whereas their combination still induced severe pulmonary toxicity. Supplementation with Zn and Se resulted in a significant decrease in MDA. 2.iarc.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem The presented study investigates the protective role of zinc ﴾Zn﴿ and selenium ﴾Se﴿ in attenuating benzene‐induced toxicity in rats. superoxide dismutase ﴾SOD﴿ enzymes. No suppression was found after 1 & 12 hr & also 72 hr. Environ Toxicol.php .nih.5 mL/kg body weight ip﴿ and received a diet supplement containing Zn and Se. Toxicol Ind Health. & ﴾3﴿ benzene did not damage hemopoietic stem cells which were in the g0 state at the time of benzene injection. (Multivolume work). Available at: http://monographs.34 mg/kg ﴾containing 6. At 3‐day postexposure. acid phosphatase ﴾ACP﴿.67 mg/kg MWCNTs and 2. whereas dose‐dependent inhibition of ﴾59﴿Fe uptake was observed 24 hr & 48 hr after treatment with 440 or 2200 mg/kg dose. p. 25 (4): 409‐17 (2010)  from HSDB Toluene and benzene administered concurrently were reported to have an additive effect on induction of chromosomal aberrations. elevation in GSH.67 mg/kg benzene﴿. or subcutaneously to NMRI mice.nlm. as well as reduced glutathione ﴾GSH﴿ when compared to the control group. Environ Health Perspective 39: 29‐37 (1981)  from HSDB 13. benzene and MWCNTs‐benzene combination at doses of 6. This study shows that Zn and Se supplementation can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats and decrease the histological anomalies induced by benzene toxicity as well. In this article.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Abstract: PubMed Ibrahim KS et al.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 88/149 . alkaline phosphatase ﴾ALP﴿. IARC. The biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ﴾BALF﴿ and pathological lesions in lungs were used as endpoints to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity of the three test materials at 3‐day and 7‐day postexposure. Lee EW et al. intraperitoneally to Sprague‐Dawley rats. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Benzene‐injected rats showed increased plasma malondialdehyde ﴾MDA﴿ and decreased activity of: glutathione peroxidase ﴾GSH‐Px﴿. International Agency for Research on Cancer. SOD and catalase levels. MWCNTs induced obvious pulmonary toxicity and benzene only induced slight pulmonary toxicity. Male Sprague‐Dawley rats were injected with benzene ﴾0.18 Toxicity Summary https://pubchem. the total protein. the data can be interpreted to suggest that ﴾1﴿ benzene did not interfere with an incorporation of iron into heme. the acute pulmonary toxicity. MWCNTs and benzene did not induce pulmonary toxicity individually. GSH‐Px. Histopathological investigations revealed structural changes in benzene‐injected rats' liver. They have high absorption ability to organic contaminants ﴾such as benzene﴿ and can form CNTs‐benzene combination with benzene. the MWCNTs can alone induce acute pulmonary toxicity in mice and the benzene does not induce pulmonary toxicity. respectively. benzene. After the mice were intratracheally instilled with MWCNTs. was studied by administrating the three test materials into mice lungs via intratracheal instillation. and their combination. whereas their combination induced very severe pulmonary toxicity. Histopathological examinations were performed. Several hematological and biochemical parameters ﴾representing antioxidant status﴿ were estimated.67 mg/kg. Geneva: World Health Organization.67 mg/kg. These data indicated that. V47 99 (1989)  from HSDB Mice were given single doses of benzene sc & its effect on ﴾59﴿Fe uptake was evaluated.1. 1972‐PRESENT. 27 (6): 537‐45 (2011)  from HSDB Carbon nanotubes ﴾CNTs﴿ have been synthesized and produced on large scale for their wide application. The enhanced pulmonary toxicity may be due to the change of MWCNTs aggregation ability after benzene is adsorbed on them.ncbi. ﴾2﴿ benzene interfered with proliferation of normoblasts & pronormoblasts. at the instilled doses in this experiment. catalase. Abstract: PubMed Li YS et al. Results showed that food intake and body weight gain of benzene‐injected rats were significantly lower than that of the control rats. and 9. Thus. but the pulmonary toxicity of MWCNTs is enhanced after they form MWCNTs‐benzene combination with low dose of benzene. Toluene reduced the number of sister chromatid exchanges induced by benzene when both compounds were administered intraperitoneally to DBA/2 mice and reduced the clastogenic activity of benzene when the two compounds were simultaneously administered orally to CD‐1 mice. At 7‐day postexposure. induced by multiwall carbon nanotubes ﴾MWCNTs﴿. and lactate dehydrogenase ﴾LDH﴿ in BALF and pathological lesions in lungs were examined.

Eating foods or drinking beverages containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting. plastics and resins. Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. rapid or irregular heartbeat. if possible﴿ to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. It is used mainly as a starting material in manufacturing other chemicals. /Benzene and Related Compounds/ Currance. irritation of the stomach.2 to 2.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem IIDENTIFICATION AND USE: Benzene is a clear. paints and coatings.460 benzene exposed workers and 28. resulting in anemia and excessive bleeding. death. 3Rd edition. The major metabolites of benzene are phenol. convulsions. Blue crab juveniles when exposed to sublethal concentrations of benzene ﴾0. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather https://pubchem. dizziness. photographic chemicals. rapid or irregular heartbeat. The mortality due to benzene leukemia was high in organic synthesis plants followed by painting and rubber synthesis industries.nlm.000 person‐years in the control cohort. aviation fuel. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 233 benzene factories and 83 control factories in 12 cities in China. 160 & 1600 mg/cu m﴿ of benzene for 7 hr/day had low incidence of brain and skeletal defects.1. death. headaches. Metabolic activation of benzene by rat liver microsomes induced sister chromatid exchanges and cell division delays in cultured human lymphocytes. preferably with a demand‐valve resuscitator.nih. A. Acute deaths from benzene exposure at high concentrations have been due to ventricular fibrillation caused by exertion and release of epinephrine. as compared to 33 days for controls﴿. Long‐term ﴾a year or more﴿ exposure to benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow. colorless liquid with a sweet aromatic odor. 10‐35 ppm caused delay in development of larvae.L. Benzene is genotoxic in humans: a significantly increased frequency of chromatid and isochromatid breaks in the cultured lymphocytes of exposed workers has been reported. pesticides. 1/10 rats exposed to 19.8 ppm had resorbed embryos.224 ppm of benzene in a closed chamber for 15 minutes exhibited an increased number of ectopic ventricular beats. explosives. both inhalation and oral. forestomach. bag‐valve‐mask device. PCB gasoline. preputial gland.C.19 Antidote and Emergency Treatment Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. Perform CPR as necessary. Genotoxicity studies have demonstrated the induction of chromosomal aberrations in bone‐marrow cells from mice. as trained. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Immediate signs and symptoms of exposure to benzene: People who breathe in high levels of benzene may develop drowsiness. rats. Rats exposed continuously to 209. sleepiness. or 500 ppm ﴾32. including the hematopoietic system.1 or 5.526‐8.ncbi. Herring and anchovy larvae studies showed that 35‐45 ppm caused delay in development of eggs and produced abnormal larvae. and dermal contact with consumer products containing benzene. 50. and increase in respiration. including detergents. Occupational exposure to benzene may occur through inhalation and dermal contact. Most ﴾76. rats exposed to 10. (Eds). If patient is not breathing.7 ppm for 10 days prior to breeding showed a complete absence of pregnancy. The route of exposure has little effect on the subsequent metabolism of benzene to hemotoxic metabolites. start artificial respiration. Benzene causes cancer in humans. It can also affect the immune system. dye.  from HSDB 13. confusion unconsciousness. decrease in feeding and growth.000 person‐years in the benzene cohort and 2/100. ingestion of food and drinking water. The concentration of benzene to which patients with a leukemia were exposed ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/cu m ﴾mostly from 50 to 500 mg/cu m﴿. Suction if necessary.6%﴿ cases of benzene leukemia were of the acute type. The general population may be exposed to benzene via inhalation of ambient air. dizziness. If vomiting occurs. MO 2005. The benzene cohort and the control cohort consisted of 28.0 ppm benzene. oral and nasal cavities. ovary.257 control workers. St. as well as a significant increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations. Obtain medical attention. The leukemia mortality rate was 14/100. lean patient forward or place on left side ﴾head‐down position.0 ppm﴿ in a static system showed an increase in the time needed to complete a molt cycle ﴾50 days in case of benzene‐exposed crab. Elsevier Mosby. and mammary gland. 213‐4  from HSDB Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway ﴾oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway. and catechol. also support the evidence that exposure to benzene increases the risk of cancer in multiple organ systems. In developmental study.. flavors and perfumes. P. hydroquinone. Clements. liver. ECOTOXICITY STUDIES: Young Coho salmon mortality was 12/20 at 50 ppm after 24 hr up to 96 hr and 30/30 at 100 ppm after 24 hr in artificial seawater at 8 deg C. pharmaceuticals. Rats exposed to 3. nylon intermediates. if needed﴿. Oxygen consumption by the crab decreased from exposure to 1. Louis. p.. Bronstein. tremors. lung. Do not induce vomiting. and a depressed activity of ATPase in mitochrondria. increasing the chance for infection. or pocket mask. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure. ANIMAL TOXICITY STUDIES: Experimental animal studies. B. synthetic rubber. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary.0 mL/kg per day given either sc or ip. and rabbits treated with single or multiple daily doses of benzene ranging from about 0. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. a slower rate of growth of regenerating limb buds.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 89/149 .

Immediately move the victim to fresh air and administer oxygen if available. Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ...nlm. Whenever medical surveillance is indicated. p. 3. Clements. (eds). Administer activated charcoal orally if conditions are appropriate. Poisoning and Drug Overdose.R. MO 2005. . p. A.. /Benzene and related Compounds/ Currance. has severe pulmonary edema. Start IV administration of D5W /SRP: "To keep open". Poisoning and Drug Overdose. . . 213‐4  from HSDB Advanced treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient who is unconscious. New York. 140  from HSDB Enhanced elimination.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem mask at 10 to 15 L/min. H.1. OLSON. has a strong gag reflex.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 90/149 . Elsevier Mosby. P. NY 2012.9% saline ﴾NS﴿ during transport . NY 2012. K. J. Consider gastric aspiration with a small flexible tube if the ingestion was large ﴾eg. NY 2012. Skin and eyes. trans‐muconic acid appeared to be the most reliable of benzene metabolites to employ for low‐level benzene exposure monitoring between 0. IARC Scientific Publications No. Griesemer.. Maintain an open airway and assist ventilation if necessary. 214  from HSDB Emergency and supportive measures. Tomatis. Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation .... Davis (eds. Do not use emetics. in particular when exposure to a carcinogen has occurred. For ingestion.L.. irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of water or saline. or is in severe respiratory distress. L. Pennsylvania 1999. A. 755  from HSDB PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": . Krieger G.. Clements. In relation specifically to cancer hazards.. L. > 150‐200 mL﴿ and occurred within the previous 30‐60 minutes. K. Positive‐pressure ventilation techniques with a bag valve mask device may be beneficial.5 ppm... rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 mL of water for dilution if the patient can swallow. McGraw‐Hill.9% saline ﴾NS﴿ or lactated Ringer's ﴾LR﴿ if signs of hypovolemia are present. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure.R.R.). Dialysis and hemoperfusion are not effective. OLSON. P. administer fluid cautiously. Second edition.. 1. Bronstein. . (Ed). 140  from HSDB 13. ad hoc decisions should be taken concerning additional tests that might become useful or mandatory. there are at present no health monitoring methods that may ensure the early detection of preneoplastic lesions or lesions which may preclude them. E. /Benzene and Related Compounds/ Currance.. 4. Poisoning and Drug Overdose. p.ncbi. Sullivan. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Consider administering a beta agonist such as albuterol for severe bronchospasm .. Louis. (Eds).C... For hypotension with signs of hypovolemia. New York. Fishbein. Be cautious with the use of any beta‐adrenergic agents ﴾eg. 3Rd edition. Swan. . Sixth Edition. (Eds). A. p. Treat coma. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary . St. Inhalation.R. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema .. Della Porta. minimal flow rate/.B. Lyon. New York. . Use 0. Watch for signs of fluid overload .. 1. Louis.. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 1979. . Bronstein. p.. 2.. p.L. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias as necessary . flush eyes immediately with water. arrhythmias. G.. 3. and W. Philadelphia. Sixth Edition. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. Elsevier Mosby.. OLSON. 3Rd edition. p. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure. 33.C. Monitor vital signs and ECG for 12‐24 hours after significant exposure.. 23 https://pubchem.B.. R. Sixth Edition.nih. B. B.. (Ed)..20 Medical Surveillance . Administer activated charcoal . .Boyland.trans. A.. St. and other complications is they occur.. Bartsch. Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary . R. remove clothing and wash the skin. McGraw‐Hill. epinephrine. . Treat seizures with diazepam or lorazepam .. Irrigate each eye continuously with 0. 140  from HSDB Decontamination. albuterol﴿ because of the possibility of dyshythmias due to myocardial sensitization. (Ed)... 2. . McGraw‐Hill. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. K. /Chemical Carcinogens/ Montesano.. and does not drool.25 and 3. For eye contamination. MO 2005. . seizures. Ingestion.

Rapid or irregular heartbeat..ncbi. 140  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Numerous earlier studies of benzene‐exposed workers demonstrated that chronic exposure to benzene air concentrations of 10 ppm or more resulted in adverse hematological effects. CDC. which increased in severity with increasing benzene exposure levels.Death ﴾at very high levels﴿.. and even as low as 1 ppm or less.M. as of August 12. delayed bone formation.cdc. CDC. The Department of Health and Human Services ﴾DHHS﴿ has determined that benzene causes cancer in humans. Abstract: PubMed Snyder R et al.﴿ Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells.asp  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Immediate signs and symptoms of exposure to benzene: People who breathe in high levels of benzene may develop the following signs and symptoms within minutes to several hours:Drowsiness. RBC. p. causing aplastic anemia & tendency to hemorrhage.Confusion Unconsciousness. 2014: http://www. 2014: http://www. It has not been established that benzene can induce retrobulbar neuritis or optic neuritis . increasing the chance for infection.cdc. Toxicology of the Eye. Available from. 2014: http://www. With continued exposure the disease progresses to pancytopenia resulting from bone marrow aplasia. Evidence has accumulated implicating benzene in the etiology of leukemias in workers in industries where benzene was heavily used.bt. Several more recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated hematological effects ﴾including significant reductions in WBC. cancer of the blood‐forming organs. ﴾Long‐term exposure means exposure of a year or more. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Facts about Benzene.asp  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Benzene ﴾benzol﴿ . and platelet counts﴿ in workers chronically exposed to benzene levels below 10 ppm. 3rd ed. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men..Convulsions. Eating foods or drinking beverages containing high levels of benzene can cause the following symptoms within minutes to several hours: Vomiting. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system. Long‐term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia. W. leading to anemia. skin. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p.bt. Available from. U.Sleepiness. Occasionally hemorrhages in retina & in conjunctiva are found in systemic poisoning by benzene. It has been suggested that leukemia is as frequent a cause of death from chronic benzene exposure as is aplastic anemia.gov/toxprofiles/index. as of February 21. Grant. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Facts about Benzene. Springfield.Dizziness. or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation.21 Human Toxicity Excerpts /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Direct exposure of the eyes. CDC. IL: Charles C.17 PB2008‐ 100004 (2007).cdc. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 13. and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. Thomas Publisher. Available from.1. Available from.nih.Death ﴾at very high levels﴿.Rapid or irregular heartbeat.gov/agent/benzene/basics/facts.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 91/149 .atsdr.. Headaches. has specific toxic effect on blood formation. Life Sciences 21 (12): 1709‐22 (1977) https://pubchem. 2014: http://www. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Facts about Benzene.nlm. Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. Animal studies have shown low birth weights.gov/agent/benzene/basics/facts. or thrombocytopenia ﴾leukemogenic action﴿. In rare instances neuroretinal edema & papilledema have been described accompanying retinal hemorrhages.. as of February 21.cdc.S.asp  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Long‐term health effects of exposure to benzene: The major effect of benzene from long‐ term exposure is on the blood.asp  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Chronic benzene toxicity is expressed as bone marrow depression resulting in leucopenia.Dizziness.bt. anemia... as of February 21.gov/agent/benzene/basics/facts.Tremors. 1986. Irritation of the stomach.

dizziness.E. 5th ed. U. the man who went into the tank car to carry out an unconscious worker died during the effort of lifting the unconscious man up the ladder. Available from. autopsy reports on three victims revealed hemorrhagic. the vomit could be sucked into the lungs and cause breathing problems and coughing. as of February 21.32 PB2008‐ 100004 (2007). Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.gov/agent/benzene/basics/facts. CDC. 5th ed. Available from. Abstract: PubMed Vigliani EC.S..bt. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products.. Acute granular tracheitis.000 mg/cu m ﴾20.. respectively..asp  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ After a fatal occupational exposure to benzene vapors on a chemical cargo ship for only minutes. sometimes aleukemia. p.cdc.asp  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ If a person vomits because of swallowing foods or beverages containing benzene.P. Thienes. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. p. due to ventricular fibrillation .atsdr. Ann NY Acad Sci 271: 143 (1976)  from HSDB https://pubchem.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 92/149 .. There may be a latent period extending over several years between cessation of exposure with more or less pronounced anemia. 1972. Hodge. Frequently.gov/toxprofiles/index. U. edematous lungs. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Geneva: World Health Organization. Abstract: PubMed Vigliani EC. p. and massive hemorrhages of the lungs were observed at autopsy of an 18‐year‐old male who died of benzene poisoning after intentional inhalation of benzene. irregular heart‐beat.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ An acute hemorrhagic pneumonitis is highly likely if . as of August 12. R.ncbi. acute pulmonary edema was found during the autopsy of a 16‐year‐old who died after sniffing glue containing benzene. Gosselin. & the onset of leukemia.. /caused by exertion/ & release of epinephrine. IARC.cdc.php . Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Similarly. (Multivolume work). 2014: http://www.000 ppm﴿ commercial benzene have been reported to be fatal in man within 5‐10 minutes. This was probably the mechanism involved in the death of workers in tank cars which had contained benzene..32 PB2008‐ 100004 (2007). Environ Res 11 (1): 122‐7 (1976)  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ Italian shoemakers exposed to 200‐500 ppm benzene in inks and glues showed an incidence of leukemia of 1 per 1. At lower levels. 1984. 2014: http://www. Available from.000. bronchitis. 124  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ Many cases of acute leukemia developing as terminal stage of aplastic anemia resulting from exposure to benzene may have been missed because bone marrow puncture was not performed.fr/ENG/Classification/index. for more than 1 year. R. H. aspirated into lung. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Facts about Benzene. headache and nausea are observed.J. laryngitis. 2014: http://www..atsdr.nih.. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. III‐398  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Single exposures to concentrations of 66. and T. Forni A. 1972‐PRESENT. as of August 12. Benzene leukemia is acute stem cell or myeloblastic leukemia.asp  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ Many acute deaths /from benzene exposure at high concn have been/ . International Agency for Research on Cancer. loss of consciousness.cdc. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. Clinical Toxicology.nlm.gov/toxprofiles/index..C. V29 116 (1982)  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Nasal irritation and sore throat were reported by male and female workers exposed to 33 and 59 ppm benzene. Smith. Haley.iarc.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. C. Available at: http://monographs.

gov/toxprofiles/index. particularly the very rare hairy cell leukemia. The /researchers/ concluded that since three other cases of chronic leukemia have been previously associated with exposure to benzene. The individual had a practice of sniffing the solutions as control measure.C‐58 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ /A subset of 292 men of the 594 in the benzene exposure of Dow cohort who were still employed in 1967/ had an examination of the health status /evaluation/ carried out between 1967‐1974 and compared to a control population selected from employees not exposed to benzene. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p.002﴿ excess of leukemia was found when compared against two control populations. using a matched pair design ﴾matched for age.cdc. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. USEPA. The data suggests that differences in distribution of acute or chronic leukemias in chronic benzene exposure may be related to exposure levels. Subsequent exposure included cleaning solutions without benzene. Case 2 was a 51 year old man with pain in the right quadrant. There was a 5 fold excessive risk of all leukemias and a 10 fold excessive risk of myelocytic and monocytic leukemias combined. He admitted having removed the dirt from his hands using thinners containing benzene. 2014: http://www. The toluene solution on analysis was shown to contain 2. A statistically significant ﴾p < or = 0. The proposed new regulation is a limit of an eight hr time‐weighted average of 1 ppm in place of the current limit of 10 ppm. Available from. as of August 12. it was admitted that at the job site he did not usually take the normal protective measures to prevent exposure to the chemicals in the paints. Workers with more than 2 days ﴾16 hours﴿ exposure reported mucous membrane irritation ﴾80%﴿. Brit J Haematol 67 (1): 116 (1987)  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ Fifteen male workers were exposed to benzene vapors ﴾>60 ppm﴿ over several days during the removal of residual fuel from shipyard fuel tanks. The fundamental rationale for the change is a perception that the current standard is associated with an inordinate excess of leukemia. Askoy M. mode of exposure.3% toluene. cigarette smoking habits and length of employment﴿. The third case was a 50 year old manager of a plastic facility who was diabetic for 15 years and was hospitalized due to recurrent gluteal and inguinal furunculosis during the last 3 years. more retrospective demographic studies which take occupational exposures into account confirm the possible link between chronic benzene toxicity and leukemia.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 93/149 .S. These three patients were part of a larger group of 58 leukemia patients with benzene exposure histories. U.ncbi. Exposures to benzene range from 1 day to 3 weeks ﴾mean of 5 days﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /CASE REPORTS/ Three cases of chronic leukemia were presented which had a history of chronic benzene exposure. No clinically significant differences were reported although slight decr in total bilirubin levels and red blood cell counts were noted.3% benzene.8% benzene 95. He had been heavily exposed to benzene between 1957 and 1965. When that patient was questioned. Case 1 presented at age 43 due to cardiac complaints.nih. 2. The subject had been employed as a coach paint sprayer for over 25 years at the time of diagnosis. Blood and bone marrow examination revealed chronic lymphatic leukemia.nlm.asp  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ An epidemiological study implicating benzene as a leukemogen ﴾acute myelocytic leukemia﴿ followed 748 white males exposed to benzene in the manufacture of a rubber product from 1940‐1949. due to the use of benzene containing solvents. J Occup Med 20: 543‐8 (1978)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Benzene is widely recognized as a leukemogen. Hairy cell leukemia was diagnosed. The https://pubchem.atsdr. The patient owned a printing shop at which he mixed pigmented dyes with solutions of toluene or methyl alcohol ketone. Brit J Haematol 66 (2): 209‐11 (1987)  from HSDB /CASE REPORTS/ The case of a 55 year old male with hairy cell leukemia associated with chronic exposure to benzene in an occupational setting was described. Ng JP et al.5 hours﴿. He was also diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukemia. Abstract: PubMed Towsent et al. and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration is currently attempting to limit exposure to it more strictly. This individual had owned a small plastics facility between 1955 and 1965 where he was intermittently exposed to thinners containing 27.5‐8 hours/day ﴾mean of 5. The /investigators noted/ that spray painting is the one of the occupations which can involve exposure to benzene. and skin irritation ﴾13%﴿ after exposure to the vapor.138 PB2008‐100004 (2007). or exposure to benzene homologs or other chemicals. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.

A matched comparison group consisted of 24 administrative and outdoor workers. The subjects worked in a factory and three workshops in which no protective measures against inhalation of vapors were taken. . The implications of this result were discussed principally in relation to benzene. 1‐10 ppm﴿ of benzene. duration of exposure. The average latency of benzene leukemia was 11. Mutat Res 189 (3): 357‐62 (1987)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Dose response analyses for a cohort study of chemical workers exposed to benzene were reported. Abstract: PubMed Souza V.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem epidemiologic literature on benzene and leukemia supports the inference that benzene causes acute myelocytic leukemia.4 years. Puig M.6%﴿ cases of benzene leukemia were of the acute type. the standardized mortality ratio was 5.4 ppm. methanol 0. to substantiate the idea that this causal association applies at low levels ﴾ie.0 ppm. a mixture of seven organic solvents used in the Mexican auto and paint industry.[Jin C et al. reticulosarcoma.000 person‐years in the control cohort. However. and hexane 3.3 ppm. Nonetheless. under the assumption that causation does apply at such low levels. Air samples to determine concentrations of thinner components in the working atmosphere were taken on the day of blood sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography. Exposure information included 8 hour time‐weighted averages and peak exposures and was used to calculate the latency.3 ppm. Of the 25 cases of leukemia. toluene 3. A comparison group included 3.460 benzene exposed workers ﴾178. Workers exposed to benzene 5 and 14 years showed an increased risk of lung cancer with a statistically significant enhancement of the standardized mortality ratio. a number of researchers have performed risk assessments using similar data but different methodologies. among 1. One way analysis of variance of the sister chromatid exchanges frequency for the exposed and comparison groups showed no differences for exposures of either 5 years or less of 6 to 35 years.. Solvent concentrations in the samples from the factory air were methyl isobutyl ketone 2. Workers with a cumulative exposure of 180 to 719 ppm month showed a significant increase in lung cancer. Most ﴾76. The concentrations were below the limits recommended by NIOSH . No dose response relation was detected for any other causes of death. and presence of viral infections within the 3 previous months were determined by questionnaire.. benzene 6.nlm. lymphosarcoma. seven had a history of chronic benzene poisoning before the leukemia developed.602 male chemical workers from seven companies who were occupationally exposed to benzene for at least 6 months between 1946 and 1975.. Blood was cultured for 72 hr with phytohemagglutinin. there would occur about 50 excess deaths due to leukemia in addition to the baseline expectation of seven deaths.6 ppm. except for benzene which was six times the NIOSH limit.. Increased in reticulosarcoma and lymphosarcoma were related to the duration of continuous benzene exposure.074 workers at the same plants who were employed for at least 6 months without exposure to benzene. or /have/ other limitations.000 men exposed to benzene at 10 ppm for a working lifetime of 30 years. Am J Epidemiol 127 (3): 419‐39 (1988)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 233 benzene factories and 83 control factories in 12 cities in China. The leukemia mortality rate was 14/100. isopropanol 3. Abstract: PubMed Austin H et al.ncbi. Sister chromatid exchanges were scored from 50 metaphases from each individual. The cohort included 4.556 person‐years in 1972‐81﴿ and 28.000 person‐years in the benzene cohort and 2/100. The concentration of benzene to which patients with a leukemia were exposed ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/cu m ﴾mostly from 50 to 500 mg/cu m﴿.201 person‐years﴿. a significant increase of sister chromatid exchanges was found for tobacco use in the exposed group but not for the comparison group. However. with the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in the peripheral lymphocytes of 24 industrial workers was investigated.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 94/149 . and medicines.01 by U test﴿. alcohol. with 5‐ bromodeoxyuridine added at 24 hr and colchicine at 70 hr. Wong O. The assessments that is considered acceptable suggest that.nih. The benzene cohort and the control cohort consisted of 28. Thirty cases of leukemia ﴾25 dead and 5 alive﴿ were detected in the former and four cases ﴾all dead﴿ in the latter. Brit J Indust Med 44 (6): 382‐95 (1987) https://pubchem. Increased latency was related to a slight enhancement for all cancers among the exposed workers.257 control workers ﴾199. and leukemia. this estimate is speculative and whether or not enough confidence can be placed in it to justify a lower occupational benzene standard remain a decision for policy makers. Analysis by cumulative exposure demonstrated an increasing trend for death due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer. However. Working conditions should be improved by a ventilation system and that a benzene free thinner be substituted for the one being used. Use of cigarettes. The mortality due to benzene leukemia was high in organic synthesis plants followed by painting and rubber synthesis industries. Br J Ind Med 44 ﴾2﴿: 124‐8 ﴾1987﴿] Full text: PMC1007793 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES//The possible association of thinner. and peak exposure for several types of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers.3 ppm.74 ﴾p less than 0. the available data are too sparse.

and non‐Hodgkin's lymphopoietic cancer. respectively. The average 7 hr time weighted exposure to benzene was 33 and 59 ppm for men and women. Benzene in breath was related to number of cigarettes smoked. The prevalence of subjective symptoms was dose related and statistically significant for both men and women. Exposed workers were compared to 127 unexposed referents. Statistically significant associations were demonstrated between benzene exposure and both lymphopoietic cancer and leukemia. Both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to passive smoking at home or work had increased levels of benzene compared to nonsmoking situations ﴾p< 0. Indoor air levels in homes with smokers were significantly greater than in nonsmoking homes in fall and winter but not during spring and summer. The subjects were employed at nine plants belonging to seven member companies of the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Wong O. Brit J Indust Med 44 (6): 365‐81 (1987)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Comprehensive comparative studies were conducted on the three groups of 148 male and 167 female workers exposed to benzene. respectively. non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Concentrations were also measured in a subsample of homes and outdoor air. benzene was significantly higher in the breath of persons who had smoked tobacco the day they were monitored ﴾p< 0. and their subjective symptoms were obtained from questionnaires. Eighty‐two patients with hematopoietic neoplasms and https://pubchem. and that both liver and kidney functions are unchanged under exposure conditions.nih. Hematological examinations showed no significant differences between exposed and nonexposed workers. pathology reports. Approximately 40% of the cohort were not occupationally exposed to benzene. Compared to nonsmokers. it was calculated that the typical smoker inhales 2 mg/day compared to the nonsmokers' intake of <0.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 95/149 . The number of observed deaths in the continuous exposure group was slightly but not significantly greater than expected. values for smokers were 12 to 16 ug/cu m. and headache which occurred during work as well as during non work time.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ A mortality study of 7. Abstract: PubMed Wallace L et al. The mean age of the workers ranged from 26. In the mixed exposure group. In a follow‐up study of 74.805 non‐exposed workers in China.7 to 39. Values for personal air samplers were not always significantly higher. The exposure intensity of the workers was estimated by diffusion dosimetry. Based on direct measurements of mainstream smoke. the exposure concentrations of toluene were 46 and 41 ppm for men and women. most of the analytic cohort investigations examining the relationship between benzene and hematologic neoplasms have evaluated only death certificates to validate diagnoses. The monitor measured only sidestream and exhaled mainstream smoke. Indust Health 25 (3): 113‐30 (1987)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Personal air monitors and breath samples were used to measure benzene and other volatile compounds in the breath of 200 smokers and 322 nonsmokers in New Jersey and California during 12 hr sampling periods. leukemia. Occupationally exposed workers received at least 6 months of continuous or intermittent job exposure to benzene between 1946 and 1975.nlm. sore throat. the toluene group was engaged in shoe making and audio equipment production. medical records. the female mixed exposure was 18 ppm of benzene and 21 ppm of toluene. Deaths from lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and from leukemia were greater than expected in the continuous exposure group. men were exposed to 14 ppm of benzene and 18 ppm of toluene.0 years.676 male chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene was described. The mortality of the intermittent exposure group was comparable to the expected mortality.ncbi. The standardized mortality ratios of the total group were greater than the comparison group.05﴿. Yin S et al. The workers in the benzene group were engaged in shoe making and printing. This study provides no indication of pancytopenia. toluene. Workers were classified according to their benzene exposure into occupationally exposed or comparison groups. Standardized mortality ratios were determined for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer.2 mg/day. The observed mortality of the cohort was compared with the expected based on the United States mortality rates appropriately standardized. The number of symptoms per person during work was at least ten fold higher in the exposed than in the nonexposed groups. The comparison group comprised workers with at least 6 months of employment at the same plant with no benzene exposure. The remaining 14% fell into the intermittent exposure group. nearly 10 times the breath level of nonsmokers.001﴿.828 benzene‐exposed and 35. and about 46% of the cohort had received continuous exposure to benzene. or a combination of the two to evaluate subjective symptoms and hematologic effects of the compounds. Arch Environ Health 42 (5): 272‐9 (1987)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Although the relationship between benzene and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia ﴾ANLL﴿ is well established. and/or histopathologic material were reviewed for all patients with hematopoietic malignancies to ensure correct classification and to provide clinicopathologic descriptions. although leukocytes were marginally decreased. The most frequent symptoms were dizziness. and the mixed exposure group was employed in spray painting in automobile body shops.

5‐ fold higher level of DNA‐SSB than did the genotype predicted to yield the least genotoxicity. and 2 others. including 6 patients with acute leukemia. hematological parameters returned to normal in 120 workers.9 expected. and one subject died. however. 208 Bulgarian petrochemical workers and controls. the results would then be 24 observed/20. and one was still hospitalized. Travis LB et al. Individuals carrying the NAD﴾P﴿H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 ﴾NQO1﴿ variant had significantly twofold increased DNA‐SSB levels compared to wild‐type individuals. 9‐‐aplastic anemia. also indicate that a greater diversity of hematologic neoplasms is evident among benzene‐exposed workers than previously described. The hematopathologic characteristics of the benzene‐exposed ANLL cases resembled those following chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Combinations of two genetic polymorphisms showed the same effects on DNA‐SSB as expected from the data on single genotypes. ANLL in workers exposed to benzene may represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Savilahti M. with characteristics similar to treatment‐related ANLL. including a preceding preleukemic phase in some patients. 3‐‐ML. The frequency of DNA single‐strand breaks ﴾DNA‐SSB﴿ was determined by alkaline elution. Abstract: PubMed Garte S et al. the most common one being thrombocytopenia. Arch Gewerbpathol Gewerbhyg 15: 147‐57 (1956)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ A retrospective mortality study of a cohort of 594 men exposed to benzene at levels ranging between 2 and 25 ppm ﴾TWA﴿ was carried out at the Dow Chemical Co between 1940‐1973. which occurred in 62% followed by anemia ﴾35%﴿ and leucopenia ﴾32%﴿.2 expected.3 expected.nlm. One individual was diagnosed as suffering from mild benzene poisoning and a small number of workers in the group had blood changes considered abnormal. Deletion of the glutathione S‐transferase T1 ﴾GSTT1﴿ gene also showed a consistent quantitative 35‐40% rise in DNA‐SSB levels.ncbi. The same result was observed for subjects with microsomal epoxide hydrolase ﴾EPHX﴿ genotypes that predict the fast catalytic phenotype. nevertheless.nih.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem related disorders were identified among benzene‐exposed workers. 9‐‐chronic granulocytic leukemia ﴾CGL﴿. Arch Environ Health 33: 3‐10 (1978)  from HSDB https://pubchem. The three locus genotype predicted to produce the highest level of toxicity. one of the largest to data. Abstract: PubMed Ott MG et al. J Toxicol Environ Health A. Neither glutathione S‐transferase M1 ﴾GSTM1﴿ nor myeloperoxidase ﴾MPO﴿ genetic variants exerted any effect on DNA‐SSB levels. produced a significant 5. 20 of the remaining workers had only minor abnormalities. During the 3 months following removal from exposure.8 expected. To determine whether the genotype at these loci might influence susceptibility to the adverse effects of benzene exposure. SMR 108.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 96/149 . were studied. six were still off work. No incr in total mortality was noted with 102 observed/128 expected ﴾Standard Mortality Ratio ﴾SMR﴿ 80﴿. Abstract: PubMed Pagnotto LD et al. including 32 cases of acute leukemia.8 expected﴿ and cancers of the digestive organs and peritoneum ﴾9 observed/6. but blood dyscrasia or leukemia has not developed in 13 years after benzene use was terminated in 1964. SMR 125﴿. would appear to support the former ACGIH TLV of 25 ppm. Pancytopenia occurred in 21% of the workers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 40: 137 (1979)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ A hematological investigation was carried out on 147 workers ﴾employed for +10 years﴿ exposed to high benzene levels ﴾320‐470 ppm﴿. SMR 132﴿ and suicide ﴾5 observed/3. 2‐‐CGL. 71 (22): 1482‐9 (2008)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ This paper is a follow‐up on thirty‐eight workers exposed from 1 to 24 years to average benzene concentrations generally between 5 and 50 ppm. The population studied was small. Among the comparison group. and 5 others. If 53 workers exposed to other chemicals are excluded from malignancies. Leukemia and Lymphoma 14: 91‐102 (1994)  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ Human metabolism of benzene involves pathways coded for by polymorphic genes. A slight increase was noted in total deaths due to malignancies ﴾30 observed/22. but as high as 90 ﴾peak of 140﴿ in the case of one worker. One case of mild benzene poisoning reported from benzene exposures of the order of 40 ppm suggests. Abnormalities were noted in at least one parameter in 73%. but the data. 7‐‐ myelodysplastic syndrome ﴾MDS﴿. SMR 147﴿ as well as deaths from leukemia ﴾3 observed/0. Results in our series. based on metabolic pathways. that the margin of safety may be small. and genotype analysis was performed for five metabolic loci. 13 hematologic malignancies were observed. After one year. whose exposure to benzene was determined by active personal sampling. 20‐‐malignant lymphoma or related disorder ﴾ML﴿.

also. 1977 at which time 58 known deaths were identified. The study group included all persons who were employed by the Company any time between January 1. An incr capacity of Ig formation.500 shoe‐workers in Turkey /was estimated/ on basis of case ascertainment by contact with medical care. International Agency for Research on Cancer. ten were farmers.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 97/149 . There was said to be exposure only to benzene in small. two orthopedists. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1972‐PRESENT. The findings are consistent with previous reports of leukemia following occupational exposure to benzene and raise the possibility that multiple myeloma could be linked to benzene.php . 9 yr﴿. The only unusual finding was four deaths from lymphoreticular cancers when 1. Est latency ﴾years from start of exposure to clinical diagnosis of leukemia﴿ ranged from 3‐24 yr ﴾median.. eight worked in construction as painters. 1947 and December 31... six were engineers and 49 held various technical or office positions. Thirty four cases were identified. p. Occupational exposures were determined by work histories & by environmental measurements. decorators or masons. but whose hobbies and paraprofessional activities involved use of benzene or other solvents. 52 were able to document exposure to benzene or other solvents.iarc. were reported to be 210‐650 ppM ﴾670‐2075 mg/cu m﴿.1 would have been expected on the basis of national mortality rates. https://pubchem. Chircu V et al. In addition. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. IARC.7 yr﴿. (Multivolume work). Duration . Abstract: PubMed Decoufle P et al.. (Multivolume work). one radiologist. The cohort was followed through December 31. Available at: http://monographs. Benzene concn near rotogravure machines were 200‐400 ppM ﴾640‐1280 mg/cu m﴿. Rev Roum Med Interne 19 (4): 373‐8 (1981)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ The possibility of there being a link between the apparent predominance of men with specific on the job exposures to toxic materials among patients with hairy cell leukemia was explored. 1960. Of a total of 105 hairy cell leukemia patients.php . Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /SURVEILLANCE/ . poorly ventilated work areas.nih. giving approx relative risk of 2 when compared with annual est for general population. Incidence of acute leukemia or 'preleukemia' among 28. and one internist﴿.iarc. but were mostly around 200‐500 ppM ﴾640‐1600 mg/cu m﴿. three were in the printing industry as photogravure and equipment maintenance workers. . one of the leukemia deaths had multiple myeloma listed on the death certificate. ﴾The relative risk is based on a non‐validated estimate﴿. than in the general population. . & how many of the study population were exposed & how many unexposed﴿. was est to have been 1 to 15 yr ﴾mean 9.. which was used as a solvent by these workers. two pneumologists. of cells with irregular macronucleoli & an enlargement of the nucleolar area reflected incr endolymphocytic amt of RNA. Of the 69 interviewed.nlm. 1972‐PRESENT.ncbi.. with peaks up to 1500 ppM ﴾4800 mg/cu m﴿. ﴾These est are limited by study design characteristics & by uncertainty about the way in which cases were ascertained. Annual incidence was est to be 13/100000. All those in medicine had used radioscopy for periods exceeding 10 years. The numerical rise of bi‐ & polynucleolated cells. V29 122 (1982)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ A historical cohort mortality study was conducted of 259 male employees of a chemical plant where benzene has been used in large quantities. 6/100000. Exposure to petroleum derived substances was high not only among the garage mechanics and drivers... Interviews were conducted with 69 of the patients. IARC. 21 were garage mechanics or divers of trucks or other heavy vehicles. eight were in the medical profession ﴾two X‐ray technicians. but among those 49 individuals whose occupations did not have particular exposure. Three of the deaths were due to leukemia and one was caused by multiple myeloma.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Incidence of acute leukemia was significantly greater among workers chronically exposed to benzene.. when compared with general population. International Agency for Research on Cancer. was also observed. peak exposures . particularly of IgM. Available at: http://monographs. benzene concn in air near workers handling glue in shoe factories were 25‐600 ppM ﴾80‐1920 mg/cu m﴿. V29 121 (1982)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ Occupational exposures were identified in rotogravure plants & shoe factories. Environ Res 30 (1): 16‐25 (1983)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ Hematologic & immunochemical investigations carried out in 270 workers with chronic exposure to benzene demonstrated changes of the nucleologram & of the area of lymphocyte nucleoli & disorders of the humoral immune response revealed by radial immunodiffusion.. The relative risk of acute leukemia was /est to be/ at least 20:1 for workers heavily exposed to benzene in rotogravure & shoe industries in the provinces studied.fr/ENG/Classification/index. p. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Case reports were presented for five workers with 2 to 15 years of exposure who had developed acute myeloblastic leukemia. There has been a decline in the use of benzene in Turkey since an earlier study in 1972. Abstract: PubMed Cody RP et al. Askoy M et al. J Occup Med 35 (8): 776‐82 (1993)  from HSDB /BIOMONITORING/ A study conducted to measure the concentration of benzene in the air and solvents at 40 small and large workplaces in Turkey where workers had contracted leukemia and lymphoma. Altogether 2. The general utility of repeated‐measures analytic techniques for medical surveillance data is also demonstrated by this analysis.729 workers exposed to benzene or benzene mixtures in China.ncbi. 453 were automobile mechanics and 134 were persons who had been employed in the gasoline service station industry. The geometric mean concentration of benzene in 50. The present analyses are restricted to 161 workers with "preemployment" counts done before exposure and rely on their subsequent counts from the first 12 months of employment. Using repeated‐measures analysis of variance. and farm equipment.. The age of the workers ranged from 14 to 57 years and the mean duration of exposure was 8. rectum and lymphatic tissue.8 times that occurring in the general population. While blood cell counts declined approximately 1000 cells/cu mm over the first 4 months of exposure. age. The results of this investigation show the need for a practicable hygiene standard to prevent benzene poisoning.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 98/149 . The prevalence of benzene induced aplastic anemia in shoemakers was about 5. and Xian. Occupation. Workers in the gasoline service station industry had statistically significant increases in mortality from leukemia and mental and psychoneurotic and personality disorders. 508. . A proportionate mortality ratio analysis of all deaths occurring among male residents 20 years or older who lived in New Hampshire between 1975 and 1985 was performed.255 workplaces was 18. Nonsignificant increases in proportionate mortality ratio for leukemia. Shenyang. a component of gasoline. A total of 37. the number of deaths was small.nlm.5%. and gasoline should not be siphoned by mouth. Automobile mechanics had statistically significant proportionate mortality ratio elevations for suicide. acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition. Schwartz E. Proportionate mortality ratio increases were also observed for emphysema and suicide. Benzene concentrations in the solutions and thinners used ranged from 3 to 7. There was a positive correlation between the prevalence of benzene poisoning and the concentration in shoemaking factories. hematological examinations were performed on the 231 workers employed at the facilities.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Flandrin G. These decreased counts suggest that clinically detectable bone marrow depression accompanied the onset of work in this plant during the 1940s and support exposure assessments that favor higher benzene levels in the 1940s when compared with subsequent decades. a prevalence of 0. Nanjing.1 mg/cu m but 64.676 cases of benzene poisoning were found.nih.818 ﴾96. workers exposed above the median benzene exposure at the plant had significantly lower average white and red blood cell counts at each month during the first year of work when compared with workers exposed below the median. Workers who pump gasoline should be informed of the potential cancer hazard. cancers of the oral cavity.23%﴿ were examined. and date and cause of death were obtained from death certificates. Of these.15%.[Yin SN et al. Amer J Indust Med 12 (1): 91‐9 (1987)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ Of a total of 528. tires. The finding of excess mortality from leukemia in both groups is consistent with exposure to benzene. Hefei. One or more of the exposures experienced by automobile mechanics and service station workers presents a carcinogenic risk. automobiles. respectively. proportionate mortality ratio 328 and 394. Br J Ind Med 44 ﴾3﴿: 192‐5 ﴾1987﴿] Full text: PMC1007803 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ Hematologic surveillance data from 1940 to 1975 were analyzed for a benzene‐exposed cohort of 459 rubber workers.. The facilities manufactured and repaired shoes. Hematological examinations of the workers showed that 32% of them had abnormal values. bladder. Brit J Haematol 67 (1): 119‐20 (1987)  from HSDB /SURVEILLANCE/ A study of mortality in automobile mechanics and gasoline service station workers in New Hampshire was conducted. but that the percentages of benzene in most of the materials are still above permissible limits.8 years ﴾range 1 month to 40 years﴿. The concn of benzene in air samples from the plants ranged from 0 to 110 ppm while 76. Brit J Indust Med 44 (11): 785‐7 (1987) https://pubchem.6% of the workplaces had less than 40 mg/cu m. and nonmalignant blood dyscrasias and cirrhosis of the liver were observed. however. A higher prevalence of benzene poisoning was found in the cities of Hangjou. lung.4% of solvents contained more than 1% of benzene. Hodgkin's disease and poorly differentiated lymphoma. acute myelomonocytic leukemia. industry. Collado S. Gasoline should not be used as a solvent for removing grease and cleaning hands. leather works.426 deaths were recorded.

. and exchange figures﴿ in peripheral lymphocytes at 2‐3 times the rates found in controls. Waldbott GL.nih.. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Benzene p..C‐46 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ A report on 52 workers exposed to benzene found chromosomal aberrations ﴾chromosome breaks. Available at: https://pubchem. although only 40% of cells were now abnormal. Japan J Ind Health 8: 23‐5 (1976)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ A significantly increased frequency of chromatid and isochromatid breaks in the cultured lymphocytes of workers in chemical laboratories and in the printing industry has been reported. translocations.. Biol Zh Arm 26 (12): 38‐43 (1973)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ A dose‐related increase in the number of cells with chromosomal aberrations occurred in human lymphocyte cultures treated with 4X10‐5 M and 3. lymphocytes.ncbi.. 50. Aberrations of chromosomes were present for several years after cessation of the exposure and after recovery from poisoning.. .2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ In expt in vitro.0X10‐3 M benzene for 53 hr prior to metaphase analysis. dicentric chromosomes. but not in those exposed to toluene and xylene.nlm. Mnatsakanov ST.. & . The 8 hr TWA exposure was 2‐3 ppm. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Benzene p. USEPA. 100. and the peak concn was 50 ppm. significant incr in chromosomal aberrations have been seen. USEPA. the average concn determined by 15 min sampling was 25 ppm. 5 patients studied still showed stable ﴾cs﴿ & unstable ﴾cu﴿ chromosomal aberrations in . /follow‐up studies have been done on/ several workers by repeated cytogenetic studies up to 12 yr after recovery from benzene‐induced pancytopenia.C‐47 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Thirty two patients who had recovered from a blood disease ﴾bone marrow impairment﴿ caused by benzene poisoning had significantly increased rates of "unstable" and "stable" chromosomes. Morimoto K. Health Eff of Envir Poll p... Five yr after poisoning. benzene did not change the number of sister‐chromatid exchanges or the number of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes.. 70% of the bone‐marrow cells & lymphocytes in pt with acute poisoning showed karyotypic abnormalities. 1972‐PRESENT. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Benzene p.C‐46 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ A significant increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations in workers exposed to benzene was reported. Cells in late G2 stage were the most susceptible to the effect of benzene. It caused elongation of centromere portions of chromosomes & chromosomal aberrations were mainly of single & paired fragment type. no cytogenetic abnormalities remained in the 4 patients studied. Mutagenic activity was about the same in the G0 & G1‐S periods. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Benzene is a weak mutagen. Geneva: World Health Organization. Mutat Res 58 (2‐3): 313‐6 (1978)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ The mutagenic activity upon human lymphocytes was studied after its addn to culture on the 28th hr of cultivation ﴾G1‐S periods﴿. . The authors could not relate the frequency or type of chromosomal alterations to the severity of blood dyscrasia. 10. Friedrich U. Abstract: PubMed Gerner‐Smidt P. By 12 yr .214 (1973)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Numerous studies have been carried out on the chromosomes of bone‐marrow cells & peripheral lymphocytes from people known to have been exposed to benzene. Concn of 1. Gross chromosomal abnormalities were characteristic of these cells. Bone‐marrow cells & peripheral lymphocytes /have been exam/ from workers with current severe blood dyscrasias. Pogosyan AS.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 99/149 . In many of these studies... (Multivolume work). which in some cases have persisted for years after cessation of exposure. & 250 ug/mL were studied. USEPA. IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Persistence of an increase of the "stable" changes was particularly remarkable. 25. all .

Suicide inhibition or knockdown of NQO1 decreased NFkappaB p105 precursor and NFkappaB p50 subunit levels as well as leading to decreased nuclear levels of NFkappaB phospho‐p65. Immortalized human lymphocyte cell lines with independent genotypes on four CYP2E1 SNP sites were induced with 0. Abstract: PubMed deJong G et al..fr/ENG/Classification/index.php . have been shown to produce DNA damage in hman lymphocytes.[Ross D et al. NQO1 is expressed in endothelial cells of bone marrow which form the vascular stem cell niche important in stem cell homing and mobilization. There were optimal concn of S‐9 mix for the conversion of benzene into the active metabolites that exerted these cytotoxic effects.iarc. V29 118 (1982)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Metabolic activation of benzene by rat liver microsomes & a reduced nadp‐generating system ﴾S‐9 mix﴿ induced sister chromatid exchanges ﴾SCE﴿ & cell division delays in cultured human lymphocytes. 755  from HSDB /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ The homozygous NQO1*2 polymorphism results in a null NQO1 phenotype and is a susceptibility factor for occupational benzene poisoning. . Pennsylvania 1999. ie vinyl chloride. Mutat Res 204 (3): 451‐64 (1988)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Benzene and its five metabolites. epoxy resins.. DNA damage was measured by Single‐Cell Gel Electrophoresis ﴾SCGE﴿.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 100/149 . CYP2E1 gene function was evaluated by mRNA expression and enzyme activity. a metabolite of benzene. due to the variable and high background levels of chromosome aberrations in control populations and in individuals.nlm.01% phenol. Average exposure levels to these chemicals were well below the occupational exposure limits. muconic acid.nih. Metabolic susceptibility factors such as NQO1 have roles in addition to detoxification of reactive intermediates and interrogation of these novel roles can inform both mechanisms of toxicity and human risk assessment. Results of thesse studies indicate that no biologically significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the exposed populations occurred compared with control populations. Cancer Res 43 (3): 1330‐4 (1983)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Currently the most applied technique for monitoring biological effects of exposure to genotoxic chemicals in industrial workers is the measurement of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Among the four SNPs. and to test whether a model using immortal human lymphocytes might be an efficient tool for detecting genetic biomarkers. Chem Biol Interact.B. catechol. Second edition. These data demonstrate that NQO1 plays an upstream role in NFkappaB signaling and adhesion molecule expression in HBMEC and that NQO1 has important regulatory effects in its own right in addition to being a marker for Nrf‐2 activation. It is concluded that the method is not sufficiently sensitive for routine monitoring of cytogenetic effect in workers exposed to the low levels of genotoxic compounds. Sullivan. /The authors/ aimed to identify the CYP2E1 genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to benzene toxicity in support of environmental and occupational exposure prevention.R. in workers potentially exposed to a variety of genotoxic chemicals. VCAM‐1 and ICAM‐1 and decreased functional adhesion of CD34+ progenitor cells after TNF‐alpha stimulation.. p‐benzoquinone and benzenetriol. p. In the Shell petrochemical complex in the Netherlands cytogenetic monitoring studies have been carried out from 1976 till 1981 inclusive. /The authors/ therefore employed a transformed human bone marrow endothelial cell ﴾HBMEC﴿ line to define the effects of compromising NQO1 on endothelial function. a chemical associated with bone marrow toxicity and leukemia. hydroquinone. An additional function of endothelial cells is tube formation and angiogenesis which was inhibited by the benzene metabolite hydroquinone suggesting that endothelial function may be affected at multiple levels after exposure of NQO1*2 polymorphic individuals to benzene. Philadelphia. Either inhibition or knockdown of NQO1 led to decreased expression of the adhesion molecules E‐selectin. ethylene oxide. cells with rs2070673TT and rs2030920CC showed higher levels of CYP2E1 transcription and enzymatic activity than the other genotypes in the same SNP site. 192 ﴾1‐2﴿: 145‐9 ﴾2011﴿] Full text: PMC3155573 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Cytochrome P450 2E1 ﴾CYP2E1﴿ is an important metabolizing enzyme involved in oxidative stress responses to benzene. Krieger G. Abstract: PubMed Morimoto K. Cells with higher gene https://pubchem.. Experience with this methodology has shown that the results of chromosome analyses are difficult to interpret. J. p. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. benzene. (eds).ncbi. NQO1 plays an important role in detoxification of benzene‐derived quinones but plays a role in numerous other non‐metabolic cellular functions. epichlorohydrin.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem http://monographs.

This is manifested as a marked decrease in circulating formed elements. and platelets. IgG.. In both man and laboratory animals the extent of bone marrow damage appears proportional to the dose of benzene. ie acute leukemia. association in the literature between benzene exposure and the two common forms of chronic leukemia: chronic myelogenous leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.nih. Although /the/ study does not rule out counterbalancing alterations of TREC levels in specific T cell subsets. /the authors/ measured total TREC levels in 45 benzene‐exposed workers and 45 unexposed controls. in which are decreases in white blood cells ﴾leukopenia﴿. and https://pubchem. and granulocytes. A large number of workers exposed to but not seriously intoxicated by benzene /were studied & results showed/ that serum complement levels. may explain why benzene‐intoxicated individuals readily succumb to infection & why terminal event in severe . The other major acute form of leukemia. overwhelming infection.ncbi.52 (1983)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ The type of leukemia most commonly associated with benzene is acute myelogenous leukemia and its variants. ie red blood cells.8‐6. There was no significant difference in TREC levels per 10﴾6﴿ peripheral blood leukocytes in the benzene‐ exposed workers compared to the controls.. lymphocytic lymphoma. the discovery of one individual with significant bone marrow toxicity has led to evaluation of the exposed work force and the finding of a wide variation in the extent of hematotoxicity. (Multivolume work). although still inconclusive. non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma ﴾odds ratio 3. until recent advances in chemotherapy. p. 24 (3): 300‐9 (2011)  from HSDB /IMMUNOTOXICITY/ . toxicity is often an acute. Chem Biol Interact. Geneva: World Health Organization. ed. 153‐154: 111‐5 (2005)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ The hematotoxicity of benzene is expressed primarily as a bone marrow effect leading eventually to complete destruction of myeloid and erythroid marrow components. including erythroleukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Classically.iarc. and platelets ﴾thrombocytopenia﴿ to a situation in which only one of these is slightly below normal range. 1972‐PRESENT. There is a somewhat stronger. . Other hematological disorders possibly associated with benzene exposure include Hodgkin's disease.fr/ENG/Classification/index..nlm. & IgA. In the latter case it is of course difficult to distinguish a benzene effect from that due to the extremes of normal variation or to mild intercurrent disease. a marker of naive T cells that have recently emigrated from the thymus. has been reported to be associated with benzene exposure but evidence of a causal association is weak. red blood cells ﴾anemia﴿. Mehlman MA. Adv Mod Environ Toxicol Vol IV: Carcinogenicity and Toxicity of Benzene p. it was a rapidly fatal disease.. Acute myelogenous leukemia is the adult form of acute leukemia and. ed. Adv Mod Environ Toxicol Vol IV: Carcinogenicity and Toxicity of Benzene p.. were depressed but that IgM levels did not drop & were in fact slightly higher ﴾Lange et al 1973. These /& other/ observations. benzene's lymphotoxicity does not appear to be mediated through diminished thymus function. Abstract: PubMed Zhang J et al.3﴿ and myeloma. taken together with well‐ known ability of benzene to depress leukocytes .gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 101/149 . Diminished thymus function has been implicated as a mechanism for CD4+‐T cell loss in other conditions such as AIDS by assays of T cell receptor excision circles ﴾TRECs﴿. Available at: http://monographs. Smolik et al 1973﴿. myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia. paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.. including CD4+‐T cells. NK cells. Mehlman MA. acute lymphocytic leukemia. Abstract: PubMed Lan Q et al.6﴿.. and multiple myeloma. To evaluate alteration of thymic function as a mechanism for benzene's effects on CD4+‐T cell counts. Biomed Environ Sci. The resultant aplastic anemia is a potentially fatal disorder which in its severe form has better than a fifty percent mortality rate.php . Hodgkin's disease ﴾odds ratio 2.. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer.52 (1983)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ A variety of malignant disorders have been associated with solvent exposure. V29 116 (1982)  from HSDB /IMMUNOTOXICITY/ /The authors/ have previously reported that benzene decreases peripheral white blood cell and platelet counts and specifically lowers subsets of several blood cell types. B cells. Lesser degrees of bone marrow toxicity than aplastic anemia are more common in occupational exposure situations.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem expression genotypes also showed higher comet rates compared with lower gene expression genotypes. This has ranged from clinically significant pancytopenia.These results suggest that CYP2E1 rs2070673 and rs2030920 might be the genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to benzene toxicity and that the immortalized human lymphocytes model might be an efficient tool for the detection of genetic biomarkers of susceptibility to chemicals. IARC.

III‐398  from HSDB 13. The carcinogenic effect of benzene is epidemiologically and experimentally well documented and there are some indications that other solvents may also be hazardous. p. Administration of tryptophan to benzene pretreated rats showed a reversal of benzene effects on heme synthesizing enzymes: there is an increase in the heme saturation of tryptophan pyrrolase and decrease in delta‐aminolevulinate synthetase. It was stated recently that there is a lack of adequate experimental models of benzene blastomogenesis. concerning increased leukemogenic risk on working place with high benzene concentrations in past years ﴾tens and even hundreds of ppm﴿. Hodge. Abstract: PubMed Sokolov VV. However. Benzene associated relative risk for overall leukemia generally range from 1. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 1984. Results of experimental investigations on problem of leukemogenic effects of benzene are contradictory. no evidence of a causal sequence of events has been obtained. Acute nonlymphocytic accounts for about 30% of the total leukemia incidence and for over 85% of the acute leukemia seen in persons over 40 years of age.P. Most epidemiological studies.0. ferrochelatase and heme oxygenase activities were unaltered.C. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 31 (2): 135‐43 (1987)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Animal expt show that benzene sensitizes the myocardium to epinephrine. There was a significant decrease in the heme saturation of hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase. Environmental risk factors such as ionizing radiation. R. however. A number of case reports and cohort studies have linked benzene exposure and acute leukemias. Leukemia is more common in whites than nonwhites and more common in males.. H. Recent mortality data show very little change in leukemia death rates except for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia which increased by 20% from 1969 to 1977. Taking into consideration increasing economic significance of benzene and existence of large contingents of workers dealing with benzene. 5th ed. Smith.5 mL/kg body wt ip﴿ on the heme saturation of tryptophan pyrrolase activity in liver was examined /in female albino rats/. After benzene administration there was significant increase in delta‐aminolevulinate synthetase activity while delta‐ aminolevulinate dehydratase activity was significantly decreased.5 to 2.. Frasch VN.E. it is necessary to continue appropriate experimental and epidemiological investigations. ionizing radiation. although practical valuable dose‐effect relationship between benzene concentrations and rate of leukemogenic risks is still unknown. Benzene is considered the best known and most widely occurring human leukemogen. Exposures to benzene. indicate now that this risk is also elevated in more favorable working conditions. Amer J Epidemiol 126 (6): 1017‐32 (1987)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ /Evidence supports the conclusion that/ there exists reliable clinical and epidemiological /studies/.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 102/149 .. Gosselin. Abstract: PubMed Brandt L. Genetic and environmental factors were considered. R.Some studies have shown that prior chemical exposures are associated with chromosome aberrations in acute nonlymphocytic leukemic patients.000 for males. . there was no significant alteration in the activity of delta‐ aminolevulinate dehydratase.22 Non‐Human Toxicity Excerpts /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ The effect of a single dose of benzene ﴾0.nih. Siddiqui SM et al.. Toxicol 48 (3): 245‐51 (1988)  from HSDB https://pubchem. suggesting depletion of regulatory heme.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem there are some indications that solvent exposure may be a risk factor for myelofibrosis. however. Sandler DP.nlm. Chromosome disorders and a family history may be etiological factors in both acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and lymphocytic leukemia. cigarette smoke.000 for females and 11 cases per 100. The average annual incidence is eight cases per 100. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 4 (3/4): 199‐205 (1987)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ The leukemias currently account for approximately 3% of the total cancer incidence and 4% of the cancer deaths in the USA. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products.1. Collman GW.ncbi. so that the endogenous hormone may precipitate sudden & fatal ventricular fibrillation. and chemicals were described. and antineoplastic agents are known to cause chromosomal aberrations and leukemia.

When the animals were exposed to toluene ﴾300 ppm﴿ in combination with benzene ﴾300 ppm﴿. J Toxicol Environ Health 19 (4): 581‐9 (1986)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Granulocytic hyperplasia has been detected in the bone marrow of mice exposed to 300 ppm benzene in air for 6 hr/day... and serotonin content of rat medulla oblongata was observed. Brains were dissected . and held 18 mos after the last exposure. norepinephrine.4‐Dihydroxyphenylalanine and norepinephrine content decreased in the rat midbrain. the increase in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity was considered to be specific to benzene exposure. Ind Health 32: 145‐64 (1994)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ In series of chronic studies. Washington. Kanada M et al. p. 689  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Female Wistar rats were exposed to various solvent vapors 8 hr/day for 7 days.4‐dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The control group received nothing.nih. methyl ethyl ketone. Farris GM et al. Li L et al.ncbi. myeloblasts. 3. The parallel inhibitory effects of toluene on benzene induced increase in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay and leukopenia suggest that a relation may exist between increase in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity and leukopenia. Examination of the bone marrow showed decreases in myelocytes.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Rats exposed to 3. 1977. Dopamine... Dopamine. Thus. Magos GA et al. the exposure at 100 to 300 ppm resulted in a dose‐dependent increase of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity up to more than 100% over the control. premyelocytes.nlm.52 ppm benzene 2 hr/day.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 103/149 . Neurotoxicol Teratol 12 (2): 119‐24 (1990)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Sprague‐Dawley rats received a single dose of 950 mg/kg benzene by gavage and were sacrificed 2 hr after treatment.. and 5‐hydroxyindoleacetic acid content increased and serotonin content decreased in the rat hypothalamus after oral administration of benzene. m‐xylene. or methyl alcohol did not induce any changes in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity. serotonin and 5‐hydroxyindoleacetic acid content increased in the rat midbrain. n‐hexane. ethyl acetate. 3. 5 days/wk for 16 wk. Drinking Water & Health Volume 1. trichloroethylene. Fundam Appl Toxicol 20 (4): 503‐7 (1993)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ /Researchers/ observed a 26% decrease in spleen weight in male Kunming mice exposed to 12. homovanillic acid. Abstract: PubMed Li GL et al. The leukocyte suspension and serum were prepared from peripheral blood and utilized for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity with disodium phenyl phosphate as a substrate ﴾leukocyte alkaline phosphatase and serum assay﴿. but the benzene induced increase in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity was no longer observed. bilateral cataracts were found in 50% of rats exposed /to/ . Polychromatic erythrocytes were affected by benzene inhalation independent of exposure duration and regimen. 50 ppm for 600 hr . DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council.. No changes in serum alkaline phosphatase assay activities were observed in the rats under the exposure conditions examined. while https://pubchem. not only was the benzene induced leukopenia alleviated as previously reported. Decreased norepinephrine and 5‐hydroxyindoleacetic acid content of rat medulla oblongata by benzene treatment was observed. While the exposure to benzene at 20 or 50 ppm did not cause significant changes in leukocyte alkaline phosphatase assay activity. and metamyeloblasts at the same dose level. No further increase was observed at 1000 or 3000 ppm.224 ppm of benzene in a closed chamber for 15 min exhibited an increased number of ectopic ventricular beats.. 3‐methoxy‐4‐hydroxyphenylglycol. Biomed Environ Sci 5 (4): 349‐54 (1992)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Experimental DBA/2 mice were exposed to 300 ppm benzene for 6 hr/day for 5 days/wk ﴾Regimen 1﴿ or 3 day/wk ﴾Regimen 2﴿ for a duration of 1‐13 wk. Similar exposure at 300 ppm to either toluene. Results showed that benzene decreased acetylcholine content of rat hippocampus. Increased dopamine. 6 days/wk for 30 days.526‐8.

respectively. 100 ppm ﴾320 mg/cu m﴿ or 300 ppm ﴾958 mg/cu m﴿. AKR mice were more sensitive to benzene‐induced leucopenia than . Avg survival time of the 8 tumor‐bearing mice was 262 days. longer than test animals.. for life to atmospheres containing . developed lymphocytic lymphoma with thymic involvement ﴾p< 0. 5 days/wk. neutrophilia & bone‐marrow hyperplasia. However. 30 Male AKR. (Multivolume work). (Multivolume work).. International Agency for Research on Cancer. and no evidence of carcinogenic activity was found in either the benzene‐treated mice or the negative controls.8 g/kg. lymphocytopenia & neutrophilia assoc with a relative incr in the number of immature leucocytes & decr in mature leucocytes in circulation... Available at: http://monographs... Available at: http://monographs. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. In addn to anemia. Butylnitrosourea induced leukemia. and/or intestinal neoplasms/were observed/ in almost all the positive controls.C‐48 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Two groups of 40 male C57Bl/6J mice. Two of the 40 control animals died from lymphocytic lymphoma with no thymic involvement after 282 & 608 days. IARC. Available at: http://monographs. Geneva: World Health Organization. /Mice also displayed agranulocytosis & reticulocytosis.. V7 209 (1974)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Lifetime exposure of C57Bl/6J mice to 100 or 300 ppM ﴾320 or 958 mg/cu m﴿ benzene produces anemia. the max lifespan being 730 days. IARC. The mice were killed 104 weeks after the first injection. Controls were 27 males of same strain & age..php . USEPA. Abstract: PubMed Green JD et al.. lymphomas. lymphocytopenia..01 for lymphomas. International Agency for Research on Cancer. No evidence of leukemia was reported/.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Sprague‐Dawley rats & AKR mice exposed to benzene ﴾300 ppm. p. Differences in incidence & induction time of tumors between the groups were statistically significant. 6 of 40 mice exposed . 900 mg/cu m ﴾300 ppm﴿ . Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. for life. 5 days/wk. gradually incr the dose from 450 mg/kg to 1. The exposure ended after 488 days with the death of the last test mouse. for 6 hr/day. There was no evidence of leukemic response in 45 male 6 wk old Sprague‐Dawley rats exposed to . 6 wk old. according to peto's log‐rank method﴿. No tumors were found in mice of DBA2. Males were more sensitive to benzene inhalation than females. rats. on avg. C3H or C57Bl6 mice were given weekly sc injections of 0. were exposed to atmospheres containing 0 or 900 mg/cu m ﴾300 ppm﴿ benzene for 6 hr/day. V29 108 (1982)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Weanling male C57BL/6N mice were subcutaneously injected twice weekly for 44 weeks and once weekly for the last 10 weeks. for life. 5 days/wk. 1972‐PRESENT. DBA2. Two mice in high‐exposure group develop myelogenous ﴾myeloid﴿ leukemia. in addition.nih.. 1972‐PRESENT.php .nlm.iarc. with little evidence of anemia. Luke CA et al.ncbi. Geneva: World Health Organization..1 mL olive oil for life.. 1 plasmacytoma & 1 hematocytoblastic leukemia. 5 days/wk for life had lymphocytopenia. 1972‐PRESENT. International Agency for Research on Cancer. p.fr/ENG/Classification/index. leukemia was also observed in 30/35 AKR untreated mice which lived.. levels of 0 ﴾control﴿. Exposure was terminated at wk 99 when the last test animal died. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 958 mg/cu m﴿ for 6 hr/day. p. C3H or C57Bl6 strains. Geneva: World Health Organization. IARC. (Multivolume work). 8 died before age of 9 mo without leukemia..iarc.. Between 7th & 16th mo of treatment 16/30 treated AKR mice died with leukemia. . whereas T‐ lymphocytes were more resistant.php . Subcutaneously admin benzene led to a selective depression in B‐lymphocytes in rabbits. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 46 (1): 9‐18 (1978)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Male Charles River CD‐1 mice ﴾number unspecified﴿ were exposed for 6 hr/day.fr/ENG/Classification/index.iarc. Mutat Res 203: 251‐71 (1988)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ . .001 mL benzene in 0.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem normochromatic erythrocytes were affected only following Regimen 1 exposure. V29 108 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 104/149 .

In this case. Based on a review of the literature and ongoing studies.008.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 105/149 . 289 (1986) NIH Publication No. & rabbits exposed to 80‐88 ppm ﴾256‐281 mg/cu m﴿ for 7 hr/day for 30‐40 wk had incr testicular wt & degeneration of seminiferous tubules. for male B6C3F1 mice and for female B6C3F1 mice.nih. Research Triangle Park.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Three groups of 30 or 35 male & . respectively. Abstract: PubMed Cronkite BP. International Agency for Research on Cancer.. female Sprague‐ Dawley rats. low‐ & high‐dose groups.7%. carcinomas and carcinosarcomas of the mammary gland. Groups of 30 male & 30 female controls received olive oil only. 2/30 & 1/32 developed leukemias. exposure to benzene reduced the cellularity of the bone marrow and the number of stem cells.. p. and that the levels of exposure reached at times as high as 250 to 300 ppm for at least a portion of working day. while for neoplasms the respective figures were 10% and 1%. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland squamous cell carcinomas. (Multivolume work). except that leukemias occurred in 4/32 high‐dose males ﴾Cochran‐Armitage test for pos trend..php . IARC.003﴿. ovarian granulosa cell tumors..php .. 13 wk old. Avg latent period of mammary gland carcinomas was 88 wk in each test groups versus 110 wk in control .iarc. In C3H﴾JAX﴿ mice whose ovaries were painted directly .6 or 9.fr/ENG/Classification/index. /Data indicates/ that benzene is carcinogenic in both animals and man and although it is unlikely that the slope for animals and man would be the same. 0/30. 1972‐PRESENT. Fisher exact test for control versus high‐dose group: p= 0. Available at: http://monographs.ncbi. & 1/30. which persisted through 4 generations. alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas. Alteration of estrous cycles has been reported in rats exposed to 1. 4/30 & 7/32 developed mammary gland carcinomas. while DNA synthesis increased. ovarian benigh mixed tumors. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.4 ppm ﴾5 or 30 mg/cu m﴿ for 4 mo . Harderian gland adenomas.iarc.. Background incidence of zymbal gland carcinomas in several thousand male & female rats of same strain . squamous cell papillomas... . . National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. & which were later mated. NC 27709  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Rats. the end of expt. p.S.. Available at: http://monographs... p= 0. Geneva: World Health Organization. but there was no effect on their subsequent fertility or litter size. alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas. National Toxicology Program. guinea‐pigs.. mice were exposed to benzene vapor for 6 hr/day. avg survival times were unspecified. IARC. Technical Report Series No.. For female mice.fr/ENG/Classification/index. the investigation of the linearity of the response would be helpful. alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas and alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas or carcinomas ﴾combined﴿.. according to the same schedule.. and squamous cell carcinomas of the preputial gland. developed zymbal gland carcinomas ﴾Cochran‐Armitage test for pos trend. for female F344/N rats.069﴿. Geneva: World Health Organization. and Zymbal gland squamous cell carcinomas. For male mice. Male and female CBA/Ca mice exposed to 100 ppm benzene. Under the conditions of these 2 yr gavage studies. Blood Cells 12 (1): 129‐37 (1986)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ . 1972‐PRESENT. Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). /was/ about 0. No such tumors were found in males.. p= 0. V29 111 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem. 86‐2545 U. 3/30. For female rats. (Multivolume work).nlm. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas. For male rats. The rats were allowed to live until spontaneous death or were killed at 144 weeks. V29 106 (1982)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Benzene hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis were investigated to verify epidemiological estimates to the effect that leukemia had developed in human beings exposed to benzene for about 15% of their lifetime. and squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.. Department of Health and Human Services. showed 30% mortality as compared to 12% in controls. 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Fisher exact test: p< 0. a high incidence of sc hemorrhages & tail defects was observed in offspring. lymphomas. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. received 50 or 250 mg/kg body wt benzene ﴾purity unspecified﴿ dissolved in pure olive oil by stomach tube once daily on 4 or 5 days each wk during 52 weeks. Of females of the control. Exposure of male CBA/Ca mice to 300 ppm benzene proved to be highly carcinogenic and leukemogenic compared to unexposed controls.001. . International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2/30 & 8/32. .. benzene caused increased incidences of malignant lymphomas. there was clear evidence of carcinogenicity of benzene for male F344/N rats.

Several other studies in pregnant mice exposed to benzene. In the fetuses ﴾day 16 of gestation﴿. ﴾2 & 4 mL/kg body wt sc. Environ Health Perspect 73: 125‐30 ﴾1987﴿] Full text: PMC1474570 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ /Benzene/ has been shown to be fetotoxic following inhalation exposure in mice ﴾1600 ug/cu m. Benzene administered by gavage produced ovarian atrophy..7 ppm﴿ and number of offspring. Similarly. Lifetime exposure of C57Bl/6J mice to 100 or 300 ppM ﴾320 or 958 mg/cu m﴿ benzene produces anemia. 10. Hyg Sanit 33: 327 (1968)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Groups of 5 to 10 pregnant Swiss‐Webster mice were exposed to concentrations of 0. 0. Subcutaneously admin benzene led to a selective depression in B‐lymphocytes in rabbits. Toxicology 42: 171‐81 (1986)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ A review was presented of data for . IARC. hyperplasia and neoplasia in mice. Granulocytic colony forming cells ﴾GM‐CFU‐C﴿ were affected by the 2 higher exposure concentrations..[Maronpot RR. (Multivolume work).nlm. In the neonates. The mean body wt & crown‐rump length were lower than control groups only at the highest exposure level. No teratogenic effect has been reported in rabbits injected sc with 0.. Gofmekler VA. gestation days 6‐15﴿ and in rabbits. International Agency for Research on Cancer. https://pubchem. Adult mice treated in utero when re‐exposed to benzene showed a more severe decrease in splenic GM‐CFU‐C than controls.. agnathia & micrognathia in offspring .. 1/10 rats exposed to 19. The female offspring appeared to be affected to a greater extent than male fetuses with respect to the incidence of delayed ossification of sternebrae. ﴾No controls were used. have been documented in recent studies /conducted by/ the National Toxicology Program.. Geneva: World Health Organization. numbers of dead. 5.ncbi. 7 hr/day..0 mL/kg body wt orally or 500 ppm ﴾1597 mg/cu m﴿ by inhalation for 7 hr/day all failed to show any teratogenic effect. In most cases. the number of CFU‐E cells was increased at 20 ppm benzene.7 ppm for 10 days prior to breeding showed a complete absence of pregnancy. although reduced fetal wt & occasional embryolethality were observed. or 500 ppm ﴾32. or in rabbits exposed by inhalation to 500 ppm ﴾1600 mg/cu m﴿ for 7 hr/day on days 6‐18 of pregnancy. & no abnormality or embryolethality at lower levels .php . ovarian atrophy was commonly found after 90 days of exposure. cysts. V29 111 (1982)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Rats exposed continuously to 209. 300.25 ml/kg of a 40% benzene soln daily during pregnancy . or both.. and ovarian hyperplasia and neoplasia after longer periods. Litter sizes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 46 (1): 9‐18 (1978)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Single sc injection of 3 ml/kg body wt . fetal weights. Females showed an inverse relationship between dose ﴾0. 50.3‐209. 160 & 1600 mg/cu m﴿ for 7 hr/day had low incidence of brain & skeletal defects but no embryolethality at 50 or 500 ppm. & 2200 ppm of benzene vapor in air for 6 hr daily on days 6‐15 of gestation. to 313 ppm ﴾1000 mg/cu m﴿ for 24 hr/day or for 6 hr/day . or 20 ppm benzene from days 6 through 15 of gestation and offspring of exposed dams were examined for untoward effects.nih. & it is very likely that these effects were produced by stress of the injection﴿.. Abstract: PubMed Keller KA. .. lymphocytopenia & neutrophilia assoc with a relative incr in the number of immature leucocytes & decr in mature leucocytes in circulation.. 1972‐PRESENT. the number of mature erythroid precursor cells ﴾CFU‐E﴿ was decreased at 20 ppm benzene. Abstract: PubMed Green JD et al. chemicals for which either ovarian toxicity or carcinogenicity. several inhalation studies in rats have shown embryolethality & reduced fetal wt but only occasional teratogenic effects: Sprague‐Dawley rats exposed to 10... Available at: http://monographs. . whereas T‐ lymphocytes were more resistant.fr/ENG/Classification/index..3 to 1. p. resorbed.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 106/149 . or to 400 mg/cu m ﴾125 ppm﴿ for 24 hr/day ﴾Tatrai et al 1980﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Sprague‐Dawley rats were exposed to 100.. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.8 ppm had resorbed embryos. Skeletal exam showed an incr in the number of fetuses with delayed ossification of sternebrae in the 300‐ & 2200‐ppm groups. on 1 of days 11‐15 of gestation to CFI mice caused cleft palate.iarc. or malformed fetuses were within control limits. No teratogenic effect was seen in pregnant rats exposed to 10 or 40 ppm ﴾32 or 128 mg/cu m﴿ for 6 hr/day . Snyder CA.

rabbits. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p..1 mM. 1972‐PRESENT.5 mL/kg body wt in rats.C‐44 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Chromatid deletions in metaphase chromosomes of bone marrow cells have been found in rats given single doses of subcutaneous benzene at 2 ml/kg and in rats given 1 g/kg/day for 12 days. manifested by a drop in peripheral blood leucocyte count. mice. /researchers/ evaluated the embryotoxic effects of benzene and several of its metabolites. and cytotoxicity at 2050 mg/kg. Mutat Res 31: 9‐15 (1975)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells have been reported as a consequence of experimental benzene exposure in a number of species including rats.ncbi..nih.C‐44 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Enzymes that activate and detoxify benzene are likely genetic determinants of benzene‐induced toxicity. and amphibians. when toxicity. Abstract: PubMed Siou G et al. whereas aberrations were significantly incr in mice 24 hr but not 7 days after receiving a similar dose. V29 115 (1982)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Bone marrow cells from mice orally dosed with 56‐2050 mg/kg on two successive days showed dose‐related incr in incidences of chromosomal gaps and single breaks.fr/ENG/Classification/index. however. A significant elevated level of aberrations are seen up to 8 days after a single ip injection of 0. Male and female NQO1‐/‐ and NQO1+/+ mice were exposed to inhaled https://pubchem.65 g/kg showed a positive dose‐related increase in polychromatic erythrocytes in the micronucleus test. /The authors/ examined the importance of NQO1 in benzene‐induced toxicity by hypothesizing that NQO1‐deficient ﴾NQO1‐/‐﴿ mice are more sensitive to benzene than mice with wild‐type NQO1 ﴾NQO1+/+. (Multivolume work). Benzene at 1. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. USEPA. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 128 (1): 129‐37 (1994)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ . and benzoquinone were all 100% embryolethal at 0. Mutat Res 90: 273‐8 (1981)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Mice orally dosed with 0. 0. Trans.0 mL/kg per day & given either sc or ip. catechol. Abstract: PubMed Schmidt W. USEPA.php .trans‐muconaldehyde was embryotoxic at 0. Geneva: World Health Organization. with or without hepatic activating enzymes.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem WHO. Available at: http://monographs.05 mM.2 to 2. particularly after prolonged exposure.5 mL/kg intraperitoneally.. IARC. incr chromatid and chromosomal aberrations were reported. Most of the induced aberrations were breaks or deletions.6 mM produced little embryotoxicity. . and rabbits treated with single or multiple daily doses of benzene ranging from about 0.22‐1. but phenol showed significant embryotoxicity in the presence of hepatic activation at concentrations as low as 0. International Agency for Research on Cancer. pulverization at or above 348 mg/kg.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 107/149 .NAD﴾P﴿H: quinone oxidoreductase‐1 ﴾NQO1﴿ detoxifies benzoquinones. appeared. proposed toxic metabolites of benzene.iarc.01 mM. Chapman DE et al. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. but chromosome‐type aberrations also occurred. NQO1 deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. rats. hydroquinone.16 (1993)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ In /a/ study of cultured rat embryos. no dominant lethality was found. and benzene poisoning. Environmental Health Criteria 150: Benzene p. Studies have demonstrated the induction of chromosomal aberrations in bone‐marrow cells from mice. specifically acute myelogenous leukemia.nlm.5 mL/kg body wt. 129/Sv background strain﴿.01 mM and embryolethal at 0. USEPA.. multiple breaks at or above 139 mg/kg. p.C‐44 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ After rats were dosed with 0.

50. Conversely. The purpose of the studies presented here was to determine the effects of benzene and benzene metabolites on macrophage functions and the ability of macrophages to be activated for functions which are important in host defense. All of the effects measured occurred using concentrations of compounds which did not disrupt the cell integrity or inhibit general functions such as protein synthesis. hydroquinone. Possible genetic determinants of benzene susceptibility include proteins involved in repair of benzene‐ induced DNA damage. Male and female mice were exposed to 0. mediated by DNA‐PK. Cancer Res. benzquinone. with benzene and toluene being least toxic. Hydroquinone inhibited hydrogen peroxide release and priming for cytolysis and 1. is strongly associated with leukemias in humans. interferon gamma priming for tumor cell cytolysis. or 100 ppm benzene for 6 hr/d.4‐benzenetriol inhibited phagocytosis and priming for cytolysis. encoded by Prkdc. as indicated by an increase in p21 mRNA levels in bone marrow that frequently corresponded with cell cycle arrest in G2/M. a carcinogen that induces chromosomal breaks. These cells were cultured and subsequently exposed to hydrocarbons in Leighton tubes.2. Benzene had no effects on macrophage function or activation for any of the functions tested. Peripheral blood counts and bone marrow histology were used to assess hematotoxicity and myelotoxicity. metabolites of benzene. 5 mM for nC9.0 millimolar ﴾mM﴿ for nC8. and bacterial lipopolysaccharide triggering of cytolysis.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem benzene ﴾0. None of the compounds tested inhibited the induction of class II histocompatibililty antigens on the cell surface.2. Catechol only inhibited the release of hydrogen peroxide. All hydrocarbons examined were cytotoxic to cultured pulmonary alveolar macrophages in a dose dependent manner. However.0 mM for nC7. 5 days/week. Mononuclear phagocytes participate in host resistance to Listeria and tumor cells. Toxicol Sci. Fc receptor‐mediated phagocytosis. Here /the authors/ compared the toxic effects of benzene on mice ﴾C57BL/6 and 129/Sv﴿ homozygous for the wild‐type Prkdc allele and mice ﴾129/SvJ﴿ homozygous for a Prkdc functional polymorphism that leads to diminished DNA‐PK activity and enhanced apoptosis in response to radiation‐induced damage. 50. or 100 ppm﴿ for 2 weeks. and 1. benzene and toluene. /The authors/ observed similar. Male and female NQO1‐/‐ mice exhibited greater hematotoxicity than NQO1+/+ mice. large increases in both micronucleated erythrocyte populations in all male mice. 10. catechol. which indicates an activated DNA damage response. the specific patterns of toxicity differed between the male and female mice. 75 (2): 321‐32 (2003)  from HSDB /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ Benzene is a potent bone marrow toxin in animals and man.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 108/149 . 2. Abstract: PubMed Lewis JG et al.nih. DNA‐PKcs is involved in the nonhomologous end‐joining ﴾NHEJ﴿ pathway of DNA double‐strand break ﴾DSB﴿ repair.4‐benzenetriol had potent and varied effects on macrophage function and activation. nC10. Moreover. https://pubchem. The p53‐dependent response was induced in all strains and genders of mice following benzene exposure. the induced genotoxic response in male mice was similar between the two genotypes ﴾> or = 10‐fold increase at 100 ppm versus 0 ppm﴿. Taken together these data suggest that benzene metabolites alter macrophage function through several mechanisms including inhibition of output enzymes and disruption of signal transduction systems. the role of NHEJ. Female NQO1‐/‐ mice had a 9‐fold increase ﴾100 versus 0 ppm﴿ in micronucleated reticulocytes compared with a 3‐fold increase in the female NQO1+/+ mice. p21 mRNA levels were induced significantly in male mice ﴾>10‐fold﴿ from both strains and female NQO1‐/‐ mice ﴾> 8‐fold﴿. Animal studies have shown that exposure to benzene can alter lymphocyte functions and decrease the resistance of animals to Listeria monocytogenes and transplanted tumor cells. Micronucleated peripheral blood cells were counted to assess genotoxicity. However. 6 hr/day. The concentration of hydrocarbon producing death in 50% of treated rat cells was 1. in restoring genomic integrity following benzene‐induced DSB remains equivocal. Male mice were more susceptible to benzene toxicity compared with females. Abstract: PubMed Faiola B et al. Female mice had smaller but significant increases in micronucleated cells. as well as benzene and toluene upon lysosomal enzymes of the lung were investigated. Female NQO1‐/‐ mice were more sensitive ﴾6‐fold﴿ to benzene‐induced genotoxicity than the female NQO1+/+ mice. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and from 3 month old New‐Zealand white rabbits by bronchial lavage. The catalytic subunit of DNA‐dependent protein kinase ﴾DNA‐PKcs﴿. Prkdc does not appear to be a significant genetic susceptibility factor for acute benzene toxicity.ncbi. 10. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 92 (2): 246‐54 (1988)  from HSDB /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ The effects of five straight alkane petroleum hydrocarbons ﴾nC6 to nC10﴿. 5 d/week for 2 weeks. and about 10 mM for nC6. Benzoquinone was also the most potent metabolite causing inhibition at lower concentrations than the other metabolites. Abstract: PubMed Bauer AK et al. 63 (5): 929‐35 (2003)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Benzene. Hematotoxicity was evident in all male mice but was not seen in female mice.nlm. Benzoquinone inhibited the broadest range of functions including release of hydrogen peroxide. p21 mRNA levels in bone marrow cells were used as determinants of DNA damage response. is one such protein. These results indicate that NQO1 deficiency results in substantially greater benzene‐induced toxicity.

Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry.nih. Exogenous NADPH is required for inhibition of mitochondrial RNA synthesis in all these systems which suggests that benzene must be bioactivated within the organelle.73 PB2008‐ 100004 (2007). as of August 12. Gig Sanit 37: 36 (1972)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Benzene is a mitotic poison. Available from. Dobrokhotov VB. U. Information from the electrocardiograms indicated that exposure to benzene vapor caused extra systoles and ventricular tachycardia of the prefibrillation type.asp  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Rabbits and rats injected subcutaneously with 0. ECAO Atlas Document: Benzene IV‐11 (1980)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Benzene‐induced hematopoietic toxicity is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ﴾AhR﴿‐ related adverse effect that is not exhibited in AhR‐knockout ﴾KO﴿ mice.. producing a decr in DNA synthesis in animal bone marrow cells in vitro. and 2﴿ that partial hepatectomy ﴾which decreases benzene metabolism﴿ also decreases benzene toxicity. investigated the effects of acute inhalation exposure to high concentrations of benzene vapor on the heart muscle of cats and monkeys. USEPA. which inhibits benzene metabolism.gov/toxprofiles/index..cdc.S. 2014: http://www.C‐45 (1980) EPA 440/5‐80‐018  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ The best evidence that benzene must be metabolized to produce bone marrow depression is based on: 1﴿ the observation that benzene toxicity is prevented by coadministration of toluene. These results support the concept of an association between chain length and cytotoxicity of hydrocarbons in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. to a lesser extent. Abstract: PubMed Suleiman SA. Toluene does not inhibit RNA synthesis and the simultaneous addition of equimolar toluene and benzene results in protection against benzene inhibition. the steady‐state https://pubchem.2 mg/kg/day showed an incr frequency of bone marrow mitoses. Toxicological Profile for Benzene p. These findings suggest that the arrhythmias were caused by catecholamine release and sympathetic discharge. Benzene also inhibits mitochondrial translation. animal study . Both liver and bone marrow mitochondria incubated ﴾3H﴿ with benzene appear to activate benzene to a metabolite which can covalently bind to guanine residues of DNA. Benzene also caused a dose‐dependent inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro in mitoplasts derived from cat and rabbit bone marrow mitochondria.atsdr.ncbi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 109/149 .. Inhibition of metabolism by toluene and by aminotriazole has been found to protect animals by decreasing the rate of formation of toxic metabolites.. In the hematopoietic system. Cathepsin‐D and. Chem‐Biol Interact 42 (3): 353‐70 (1982)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ /An/ . particularly nC7 and nC8 alkanes. Abstract: PubMed Kalf GF et al.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Concentrations of hydrocarbons that killed 50% of rabbit macrophages were about half those observed in the rat.nlm. A similar but more pronounced release of cathepsins was observed in isolated lysosomes as well. cathepsin‐B release were stimulated upon addition of hydrocarbons to the cell media. ECAO Atlas Document: Benzene IV‐11 (1980)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Reports indicate that protection against benzene toxicity in phenobarbital treated animals reflects the fact that phenobarbital increased the detoxification rate of benzene in the liver. Animals that had their adrenals and stellate ganglias removed did not exhibit extra systoles or ventricular tachycardia. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. A significant decrease in cell respiration rate and a time and dose dependent increase in lipid peroxidation were also observed following exposure of macrophages to the tested hydrocarbons. USEPA. USEPA. Arch Toxicol 59 (6): 402‐7 (1987)  from HSDB /ALTERNATIVE and IN VITRO TESTS/ When mitochondria are incubated in vitro with 2200 mg/kg of benzene there is an inhibition of RNA synthesis.

particularly the Lin﴾‐﴿c‐kit﴾+﴿Sca‐1﴾+﴿ ﴾LKS﴿ fraction. overexpressing human thioredoxin ﴾h‐Trx‐Tg﴿. Global gene expression analysis of bone marrow cells after benzene exposure reveals that MEF2c. no impairment is observed in the assay of granulo‐macrophage colony‐forming units ﴾CFU‐GMs﴿ in the bone marrow after benzene exposure of the reconstituted mice. In humans. Inoue T. and a consequently stable ROS level. and lifetime observation followed by molecular and histopathological examinations were carried out. The mechanism of benzene‐induced hematopoietic toxicity in the mature blood cells in AhR‐KO mice is assumed to be based on metabolites such as phenol and hydroquinone derived from hepatic AhR. /the authors/ examined whether the experimental elimination of ROS generated following benzene exposure prevents the development of benzene‐induced hematopoietic disorders to clarify the mechanism underlying the development of benzene‐induced hematopoietic disorders. are considered to trigger the development of hematopoietic neoplasms. as determined by cell sorting using 2'. respectively. owing to reconstruction by the marrow from AhR‐KO mice. all the mice lacking expression of NQO1 and NQO2 protein demonstrated myelogenous hyperplasia of the bone marrow and increased granulocytes in the peripheral blood. generated following benzene exposure. for 26 weeks. In response to these impairments of the hematopoietic progenitor cells and the niches. C57BL/6 mice. 184 (1‐2): 252‐8 (2010)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Quinone oxidoreductases ﴾NQO1 and NQO2﴿ are cytosolic proteins that catalyze metabolic reduction of quinones and its derivatives to protect cells against redox cycling and oxidative stress. Chem Biol Interact. Interestingly. 34 (12):1687‐97 (2006)  from HSDB https://pubchem. Decreased apoptosis contributed to myelogenous hyperplasia. The attenuation of benzene‐induced oxidative stress and that of the consequent lymphomagenesis were observed for the first time. the expression of aryl‐hydrocarbon receptor in h‐Trx‐Tg mice was downregulated. which may also contribute to the attenuation. benzene‐induced hematopoietic cytotoxicity is observed in the same reconstituted mice. the functions of which are known to maintain lymphocyte differentiation and promote proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem expression of AhRs is limited in the hematopoietic progenitor cells. this benzene‐induced hematopoietic cytotoxicity in mature white blood cells is not induced in the case of AhR‐KO mice repopulated with wild‐type bone marrow cells after a lethal dose of irradiation. a hierarchical hematopoietic impairment starts from hematopoietic progenitor cells after benzene exposure. stochastic and reciprocal upregulations of integrin beta 2 and the Runx family are observed. after benzene exposure revealed an increased amount of intracytoplasmic reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿ detected by ROS‐reacting dye as compared with other blood cell fractions. As underlying mechanisms. Exp Hematol. Chem Biol Interact. The NQO2 locus is also highly polymorphic in humans. as shown by the upregulation of the activity of superoxide‐dismutase. and these indicate a role of oxidative stress in benzene‐induced clastogenesis and lymphomagenesis. These mice showed no detectable developmental abnormalities and were indistinguishable from wild type mice. Abstract: PubMed Iskander K.nlm. /the authors/ generated NQO1‐/‐ and NQO2‐/‐ mice deficient in NQO1 and NQO2 protein and activity.﴿ During the constitutive overexpression of h‐Trx. Thus. however. In this study. were used to examine the possible nullification of ROS induction following benzene exposure.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 110/149 . the attenuation of oxidative stress was accompanied by a complete abrogation of hemato‐lymphoid toxicity. Jaiswal AK.nih. the former toxicity in mature white blood cells is assumed to be based on the metabolites of the wild‐type hepatic AhR. The studies on short‐term exposure of NQO1‐/‐ mice to benzene demonstrated substantially greater benzene‐ induced toxicity. When one looks at wild‐type recipient mice that have been lethally irradiated and repopulated with AhR‐KO bone marrow cells. 153‐154:147‐57 (2005)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Reactive oxygen species ﴾ROS﴿. Abstract: PubMed Hirabayashi Y. Abstract: PubMed Li GX et al. which are known to stabilize hematopoietic niches during the steady‐state. The experimental group was exposed to 300 ppm benzene 6 hours/day.ncbi. whereas the latter lack of toxicity in mature blood cells in AhR‐KO mice is due to the lack of benzene‐induced metabolism in the liver. This was associated with a 48% decrease in the incidence of clastogenic micronucleated reticulocyte induction in the h‐Trx‐Tg mice compared with the Wt control after 2 weeks of inhalation. 5 days/week. a high percentage of individuals with myeloid and other types of leukemia are homo‐ and heterozygous for a null mutant allele of NQO1. as compared to wild type mice. in mature white blood cells concern. thus. Recently. p21. is commonly downmodulated not only in C57BL/6 but also in C3H/He mice. although little supporting evidence has been found. Direct observation of the hematopoietic progenitor cells. along with a significant attenuation of the overexpression of a cell cycle‐dependent kinase inhibitor. ﴾These attenuations were not seen in nonthymic lymphomas. 7'‐dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. and no leukemias developed in C57BL/6 used in this study.The present study using h‐ Trx‐Tg mice showed a complete suppression of the development of thymic lymphoma induced by benzene inhalation ﴾0% in h‐Trx‐Tg vs 30% in wild‐type ﴾Wt﴿ mice﴿. In contrast.

11th Edition..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 13.php . Wiley‐Interscience. Krieger G. 11th Edition. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Inc.nlm.000 mg/cu m ﴾20. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Inc. Sr. Geneva: World Health Organization. (eds). IARC. Environmental Health Criteria 150: Benzene p. Hoboken.34 mL/kg Abstract: PubMed Kocsis JJ et al. 360  from HSDB LD50 Mouse sc 88‐2200 mg/kg bw IUCLID Data Set for Benzene (71‐43‐2). p. NJ.eu/doc/IUCLID/data_sheets/71432.J. Wiley‐Interscience.fr/ENG/Classification/index.ncbi.. Inc.23 Human Toxicity Values Estimated oral doses from 9‐30 g have proved fatal. p. Wiley & Sons.. R..nih. Inc. 2004.europa.J. Wiley‐Interscience.. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.24 Non‐Human Toxicity Values LD50 Mice ip 0. WHO. NJ. 11th Edition. Second edition. 360  from HSDB LC50 Mouse ihl 9980 ppm /time of exposure not stated/ Lewis. R. 2004.B. Hoboken.concentrations of 66. Wiley & Sons. Science 160 (3826): 427‐8 (1968)  from HSDB LD50 Rat oral 3306 mg/kg Lewis. NJ. Wiley & Sons. V29 116 (1982)  from HSDB Immediately dangerous to life and health = 500 ppm Sullivan. p. 360  from HSDB LC50 Rat ihl 10. Pennsylvania 1999. 2014: http://esis. R. 2004.J. 11th Edition. 2004. International Agency for Research on Cancer. (Multivolume work). Available at: http://monographs. 754  from HSDB 13. Wiley‐Interscience. Hoboken.J. p. NJ. Inc. 360  from HSDB LD50 Mouse oral 4700 mg/kg Lewis.000 ppm﴿ commercial benzene have been reported to be fatal in man within 5‐10 minutes.1. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. as of March 21. p. 2004. Philadelphia. Hoboken.J.1.jrc. p.000 ppm/7 hr Lewis.. Wiley & Sons. 1972‐PRESENT. 11th Edition. Wiley & Sons.ec.R. 360  from HSDB LD50 Rat ip 2890 ug/kg Lewis. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.pdf https://pubchem. Wiley‐Interscience. R. R. Sr. Sr.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 111/149 . NJ.. p.iarc. Hoboken. Sr. Available from. J. Sr.46 (1993)  from HSDB . (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials... (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.

Species: Tetrahymena pyriformis /protozoa/. 11th Edition. K. 3rd ed. Volumes 1‐2.). NY. Boca Raton . 263  from HSDB LC50. 2001. Concentration: 27 ppm for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Lide. 4th ed.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB LD50 Mouse ip 340 mg/kg Lewis.ec.jrc. Species: Poecilia reticulata ﴾guppy﴿.ec. G.ncbi. Concentration: 63 mg/L for 14 days /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren.pdf  from HSDB LD50 Guinea pig dermal >8260 mg/kg bw IUCLID Data Set for Benzene (71‐43‐2).gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 112/149 . 263  from HSDB LC50.eu/doc/IUCLID/data_sheets/71432. Hoboken. Wiley‐Interscience.. NY. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. p. Milne (eds.J. p. 2001. Volumes 1‐2. p. D. 263  from HSDB LC50. Species: Crangon franciscorum ﴾shrimp﴿.R. Wiley & Sons. 1994. New York.W. Sr. p.pdf  from HSDB 13. p. 360  from HSDB LD50 Rabbit dermal >8260 mg/kg bw IUCLID Data Set for Benzene (71‐43‐2). Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Concentration: 1000 mg/L for 24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 263  from HSDB LC50. John Wiley & Sons.A. Species: Palaemonetes pugio ﴾grass shrimp﴿. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons.nih. 4th ed. 2014: http://esis. K. Concentration: 5. Volumes 1‐2. Available from. NY.FL. Concentration: 108 ppm for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 4th ed. 2001. 2004. NY. Species: Cancer magister ﴾crab larvae﴿ stage 1.25 Ecotoxicity Values LC100. Species: Salmo trutta ﴾brown trout﴿ yearlings.1. p. John Wiley & Sons.nlm. as of March 21. 263  from HSDB LC50. Concentration: 12 mg/L for 1 hr https://pubchem.europa. CRC Press. NY.8 to 11 mg/L for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. New York.. p. Available from. 4th ed.. 262  from HSDB LC50. 2014: http://esis. Inc. 2001. New York. Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. K. Conditions: static bioassay. K. Volumes 1‐2. R. Inc. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2001. Volume I. NJ.jrc. Volumes 1‐2. Concentration: 20 ppm for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Species: Morone saxatilis ﴾bass﴿.eu/doc/IUCLID/data_sheets/71432. as of March 21. New York. K. John Wiley & Sons.europa.

Volumes 1‐2. New York. NY. p. K. 263  from HSDB LC50. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2001. K. p. 2001. Concentration: 22 mg/L for 24‐96 hr ﴾soft water﴿ /soft water/ Verschueren. John Wiley & Sons. Volumes 1‐2. Species: Brine shrimp. 263  from HSDB LC50. 2001. NY. Concentration: 34 mg/L for 24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Species: Ambystoma mexicanum ﴾Mexican axolotl﴿ 3‐4 wk after hatching. 4th ed. K. Volumes 1‐2. 263  from HSDB LC50. 4th ed. Concentration: 66‐21 mg/L for 24‐48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. New York. John Wiley & Sons. John Wiley & Sons. 2001. 4th ed. 4th ed. p. Volumes 1‐2. 4th ed.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 113/149 . New York. John Wiley & Sons. Species: /Lepomis macrochirus/ ﴾bluegill sunfish﴿. K. p. New York. Volumes 1‐2. New York. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 263  from HSDB LC50. K. John Wiley & Sons. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2001. 4th ed. Concentration: 60 mg/L for 2 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. John Wiley & Sons. 2001.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Verschueren. NY. 4th ed. Concentration: 35 to 33 mg/L for 24 hr‐96 hr ﴾soft water﴿ /soft water// Verschueren. K. 263  from HSDB LC100. NY. 264  from HSDB LC50. New York. New York. John Wiley & Sons. NY. Species: /Lepomis macrochirus/ ﴾Bluegill﴿. NY. Species: /Carassius auratus/ ﴾goldfish﴿. John Wiley & Sons. NY. p.nlm. 4th ed. NY. Concentration: 24 to 32 mg/L for 24‐96 hr ﴾hard water﴿ /hard water// Verschueren. 263  from HSDB https://pubchem. p. Species: /Pimephales promelas/ ﴾fathead minnow﴿.ncbi.nih. 2001. John Wiley & Sons. Volumes 1‐2. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. p. 4th ed. K. New York. NY. p. 2001. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. K. Volumes 1‐2. p. K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. NY. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Volumes 1‐2. 4th ed. p. 2001. Species: /Lepomis macrochirus/ ﴾bluegill sunfish﴿. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Concentration: 370 mg/L for 48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Concentration: 46 mg/L for 24 hr /soft water/ /Conditions of bioassay not specified in source examined/ Verschueren. New York. Species: /Lepomis macrochirus/ ﴾bluegill sunfish﴿. Species: /Pimephales promelas/ ﴾fathead minnow﴿. Volumes 1‐2. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 263  from HSDB LC100. K. Volumes 1‐2. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2001. Concentration: 20 mg/L for 24‐48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. 264  from HSDB LC50. 263  from HSDB LC50.

epa. Environ Toxicol Chem 11 (2): 187‐195 (1992) as cited in the ECOTOX database.htm  from HSDB EC50.nlm. 2001. 263  from HSDB LC50. Species: Xenopus laevis ﴾African Clawed Frog﴿ age 3‐4 wk.6.gov/ecotox/quick_query.htm  from HSDB EC50. static. hardness 65. as of February 21.epa. New York. 2014: http://cfpub. weight 300‐500 mg. 2014: http://cfpub. dissolved oxygen 7.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem LC50. 20 deg C. pH 7. Species: Eisenia fetida ﴾Earthworm﴿ adult. static. pH 7. Concentration: 395 mg/L for 24‐96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. 2014: http://cfpub. Available from. dermal 98 ug/sq cm for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 78‐123 ug/sq cm﴿ Neuhauser EF et al. John Wiley & Sons.htm  from HSDB EC50. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub.5 mg/L CaCO3. Environ Pollut 9 (3): 157‐174 (1975) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 20 deg C.epa. general /formulation/ Kauss PB. 2014: http://cfpub. static. p. Concentration: 525000 ug/L for 24 hr.nih. alkalinity 41 mg/L CaCO3. Volumes 1‐2. Volumes 1‐2. Effect: growth. Available from. Concentration: 190000 ug/L for 48 hr /formulation/ De Zwart D. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐169 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database.htm  from HSDB LC50. Species: Chlorella vulgaris ﴾Green Algae﴿. immobilization />97% purity/ Rose RM et al. Hutchinson TC. Effect: intoxication. 263  from HSDB LC50. Species: /Carassius auratus/ ﴾goldfish﴿ 34 mg/L for 24‐96 hr ﴾soft water﴿ Verschueren. hardness 45. as of February 21.epa. Conditions: freshwater. as of February 21.3 mg/L. Species: /Gambusia affinis/ ﴾mosquito fish﴿.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Effect: growth. New York. as of February 21. static.2 mg/L CaCO3. 2014: http://cfpub. as of February 21. John Wiley & Sons. general /formulation/ Herman DC et al. Conditions: freshwater.epa. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 38: 345‐351 (1987) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Available from. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34 (3): 248‐252 (1998) as cited in the ECOTOX database.7. Species: Ceriodaphnia dubia ﴾Water Flea﴿. Conditions: freshwater.ncbi.gov/ecotox/quick_query. general Galassi S et al. NY.htm  from HSDB LC50.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Available from.5% purity/ Marchini S et al. Species: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ﴾Green Algae﴿. Conditions: freshwater. K. 2001.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 114/149 . static. Conditions: freshwater. NY. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals.gov/ecotox/quick_query.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Species: Ceriodaphnia dubia ﴾Water Flea﴿ age <24 hr. Concentration: 18400 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 15400‐21900 ug/L﴿ /99. Conditions: freshwater. as of February 21. Effect: growth. J Environ Qual 14 (3): 383‐388 (1985) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 2014: http://cfpub. Concentration: 29000 ug/L for 72 hr. Available from.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Species: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ﴾Green Algae﴿ exponential growth phase.htm  from HSDB https://pubchem. 4th ed. 25 deg C. Concentration: 130 umol/L for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 97‐179 umol/L﴿. Aquat Toxicol 18 (2): 87‐100 (1990) as cited in the ECOTOX database. K. Available from. as of February 21. static. Concentration: 41000 ug/L for 8 days. Slooff W. p.epa. 4th ed.htm  from HSDB EC50.

2014: http://cfpub. Concentration: 10000 ug/L for 48 hr. Z Wasser‐Abwasser‐Forsch 10 (5): 161‐166 (1977) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24 (5): 684‐691 (1980) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 1130000 ug/L for 24 hr /formulation/ Bringmann G. pH 7. Concentration: 250000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾200000‐310000 ug/L﴿/> or = 80% purity/ LeBlanc GA. Kuhn R.4. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ age < or =24 hr.5‐9. Available from. Conditions: freshwater.4.4‐9. immobilization />99. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0.epa.htm  from HSDB LC50.gov/ecotox/quick_query. as of February 21. as of February 21.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Concentration: 400 mmol/cu m for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 285‐554 mmol/cu m﴿. 20‐22 deg C. Concentration: 18000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 14810‐21900 ug/L﴿. Environ Sci Technol 25: 695‐702 (1991) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ age 4‐6 days. static.htm  from HSDB LC50.nlm. 22 deg C.4‐9. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ juvenile.epa. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24 (5): 684‐691 (1980) as cited in the ECOTOX database. static. static. Available from. Conditions: freshwater.epa.1 g.epa. Environ Toxicol Chem 12: 711‐717 (1993) as cited in the ECOTOX database.epa. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ age < or =24 hr.gov/ecotox/quick_query.6‐7. Available from. 20 deg C. Available from. immobilization /> or =97% purity/ Bobra AM et al. Conditions: freshwater.gov/ecotox/quick_query. 2014: http://cfpub.epa. dissolved oxygen 6. Available from. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ age < or =24 hr. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50.1 mg/L. Persoone G.5 mm. pH 7. 2014: http://cfpub.7% purity/ Tosato ML et al.Jr. Persoone G. 2014: http://cfpub. Effect: intoxication. Conditions: freshwater. static.gov/ecotox/quick_query. dissolved oxygen 5‐9 mg/L. pH 7.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 13 (1): 105‐111 (1984) as cited in the ECOTOX database. static. Effect: intoxication. 19 deg C. Conditions: freshwater.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 115/149 . Available from.gov/ecotox/quick_query.1 mg/L. Effect: intoxication. Chemosphere 12 (9‐10): 1121‐1129 (1983) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 22 deg C.5‐9.7. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ mixed ages.htm  from HSDB LC50. immobilization /formulation/ Janssen CR. Conditions: freshwater.epa.htm  from HSDB LC50.htm  from HSDB EC50. 2014: http://cfpub. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ age <24 hr. 2014: http://cfpub.nih. hardness 130 mg/L CaCO3.htm  from HSDB EC50.gov/ecotox/quick_query. as of February 21. as of February 21. Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water Flea﴿ juvenile. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. pH 7. as of February 23.4. length 1. as of February 23. pH 6‐7. immobilization /formulation/ Janssen CR. as of February 23.ncbi.2. Conditions: freshwater. 2014: http://cfpub. Available from. as of February 23. 20 deg C. Concentration: 425000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 357000‐505000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Conditions: freshwater. 2014: http://cfpub.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem EC50.epa. pH 8. Available from. static. Environ Toxicol Chem 12: 711‐717 (1993) as cited in the ECOTOX database. dissolved oxygen 6.htm https://pubchem. as of February 23. 20 deg C. Concentration: 200000 ug/L for 48 hr ﴾140000‐320000 ug/L﴿ /> or = 80% purity/ LeBlanc GA. Ellersieck MR. 23 deg C.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 682000 ug/L for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 608000‐752000 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Eastmond DA et al. static. Available from. 22 deg C. Resour Publ No. Effect: intoxication. Conditions: freshwater.htm  from HSDB EC50. Concentration: 10000 ug/L for 24 hr. static.gov/ecotox/quick_query. static. USDOI/FWS.epa.

htm  from HSDB LC50. hardness 12 mg/L CaCO3. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub. Conditions: freshwater. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0. pH 8. Ellersieck MR. pH 8. Resour Publ No.Jr. static.2 g.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 425000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 357000‐505000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.4. USDOI/FWS.ncbi. hardness 300 mg/L CaCO3.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50.gov/ecotox/quick_query. as of February 23. as of February 23.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database.htm  from HSDB LC50. Available from. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Available from. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. static.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 260000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 213000‐311000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. as of February 23. 2014: http://cfpub. 2014: http://cfpub. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. 17 deg C.epa. Conditions: freshwater. Available from. as of February 23.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database.htm  from HSDB LC50. Conditions: freshwater. 17 deg C. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0. pH 7.Jr.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. USDOI/FWS.4.Jr.htm  from HSDB LC50.htm  from HSDB LC50. pH 8. Concentration: 140000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 107000‐183000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.Jr. hardness 162 mg/L CaCO3. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0.2 g.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. pH 8. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0. Ellersieck MR. Ellersieck MR.gov/ecotox/quick_query.gov/ecotox/quick_query.epa. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. 17 deg C.epa.5 g. Ellersieck MR. 22 deg C. pH 8. 22 deg C. Resour Publ No. pH 7. 2014: http://cfpub.Jr. Conditions: freshwater. USDOI/FWS. static.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Resour Publ No. pH 7. Resour Publ No. Concentration: 580000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 343000‐981000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. USDOI/FWS. USDOI/FWS. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0. as of February 23. Conditions: freshwater.epa.2 g.epa. Resour Publ No.1 g. Resour Publ No. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. 2014: http://cfpub. as of February 23.htm  from HSDB LC50.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 116/149 . 19 deg C. Ellersieck MR. Available from. USDOI/FWS. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0. 2014: http://cfpub. static.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Available from. Ellersieck MR.5 g. as of February 23. static.epa. USDOI/FWS. Concentration: 102000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 86000‐120000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. 17 deg C. static. Concentration: 165000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 116000‐234000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. static.gov/ecotox/quick_query.Jr.4. Conditions: freshwater. Conditions: freshwater. USDOI/FWS.5.nlm. as of February 23.Jr.nih. Species: Ictalurus punctatus ﴾Channel Catfish﴿ weight 0.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Conditions: freshwater.epa.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB LC50. Resour Publ No.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Concentration: 370000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 285000‐481000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. static.5 g. Ellersieck MR. Resour Publ No.Jr.htm https://pubchem. Ellersieck MR. Available from. Concentration: 400000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 285000‐570000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.5 g. 17 deg C.

Conditions: freshwater. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3.epa. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.epa.Jr.htm  from HSDB LC50.2 g. Concentration: 910000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 654000‐1267000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Conditions: freshwater.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Resour Publ No.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 102000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 86000‐120000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0. as of February 23. 2014: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Resour Publ No. 19 deg C. Ellersieck MR. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0. 2014: http://cfpub.2 g. 19 deg C. Ellersieck MR. pH 6.2 g. Concentration: 450000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 349000‐580000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Resour Publ No.2 g. pH 7.htm  from HSDB LC50.epa. 19 deg C. Concentration: 600000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 481000‐748000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Resour Publ No. Conditions: freshwater.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database.Jr. Available from.htm  from HSDB LC50. as of February 23. static. 19 deg C. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.Jr.2 g.ncbi. static.4. pH 7.5. pH 8. as of February 23. static.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. static.nih. pH 7. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub.gov/ecotox/quick_query.Jr.epa. Resour Publ No. Resour Publ No. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. pH 7. Conditions: freshwater. Ellersieck MR. 2014: http://cfpub.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. USDOI/FWS. Conditions: freshwater.nlm. Ellersieck MR.4. Conditions: freshwater.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB LC50. static.htm  from HSDB LC50. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50. as of February 23.epa. 22 deg C.5.4.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 2014: http://cfpub.htm https://pubchem. as of February 23. static. static. Available from. USDOI/FWS. Concentration: 100000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 70000‐142000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.gov/ecotox/quick_query.Jr.Jr. Conditions: freshwater.epa. as of February 23. as of February 23. 17 deg C. Available from. Available from. USDOI/FWS. Available from. Resour Publ No.4. 17 deg C. USDOI/FWS. pH 8.gov/ecotox/quick_query. USDOI/FWS. Available from. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Resour Publ No. pH 7. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.htm  from HSDB LC50.4. Ellersieck MR. Concentration: 290000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 178000‐473000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.2 g. 19 deg C. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Ellersieck MR. Concentration: 230000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 181000‐291000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.Jr.5 g.gov/ecotox/quick_query.htm  from HSDB LC50.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Ellersieck MR. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub. as of February 23. Conditions: freshwater.epa. USDOI/FWS.gov/ecotox/quick_query.2 g. USDOI/FWS.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 117/149 . Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0. 2014: http://cfpub.gov/ecotox/quick_query.gov/ecotox/quick_query.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 740000 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 584000‐937000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. hardness 162 mg/L CaCO3. static. Ellersieck MR.Jr. USDOI/FWS.

gov/ecotox/quick_query. Available from. as of February 23. pH 8. 17 deg C. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 54000 ug/L for 48 hr /formulation/ Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Conditions: freshwater. USDOI/FWS. 30 deg C.htm  from HSDB LC50. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3.epa.5 g. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50. pH 8. Available from.epa. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿. Available from.5 g. USDOI/FWS. as of February 23.Jr.htm  from HSDB LC50.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 118/149 . Conditions: freshwater.epa. 30 deg C. Resour Publ No. hardness 12 mg/L CaCO3. static.ncbi. Conditions: freshwater. 17 deg C. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿. 20 deg C. static.htm  from HSDB LC50. as of February 23. Conditions: freshwater. static. Concentration: 74000 ug/L for 48 hr /formulation/ https://pubchem.epa. pH 8. Available from. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿. Conditions: freshwater. 2014: http://cfpub. Ellersieck MR.gov/ecotox/quick_query.Jr. 10 deg C.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Available from.htm  from HSDB LC50. Conditions: freshwater.htm  from HSDB LC50. Ellersieck MR.nlm. 2014: http://cfpub. Concentration: 165000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 116000‐234000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Conditions: freshwater. static. as of February 23. 17 deg C. static. Concentration: 54000 ug/L for 24 hr /formulation/ Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. as of February 23. Concentration: 70000 ug/L for 24 hr /formulation/ Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Concentration: 74000 ug/L for 24 hr /formulation/ Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 2014: http://cfpub. 2014: http://cfpub. Concentration: 260000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 213000‐311000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query. as of February 23.Jr. 10 deg C. Ellersieck MR. Available from.gov/ecotox/quick_query. 2014: http://cfpub.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB LC50. Concentration: 370000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 285000‐481000 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL.gov/ecotox/quick_query.nih. Resour Publ No. hardness 300 mg/L CaCO3. static. Conditions: freshwater. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿. Available from. 2014: http://cfpub. static.htm  from HSDB LC50.5 g. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0. Conditions: freshwater. Resour Publ No. Concentration: 70000 ug/L for 48 hr /formulation/ Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Oryzias latipes ﴾Japanese Medaka﴿.htm  from HSDB LC50. static. as of February 23. as of February 23. 20 deg C.epa. USDOI/FWS. Available from. static.epa. 2014: http://cfpub. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿ weight 0.

alkalinity 39 mg/L CaCO3. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 25 deg C. dissolved oxygen 7. alkalinity 18 mg/L CaCO3. pH 7.8 mg/L. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ age <24 hr larva.epa. alkalinity 18 mg/L CaCO3.ncbi. alkalinity 39 mg/L CaCO3.8‐6.3 mg/L. Conditions: freshwater. Conditions: freshwater. as of February 24. 25 deg C.65. pH 7. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database. weight 1‐2 g. Available from. Conditions: freshwater.gov/ecotox/quick_query.htm  from HSDB LC50.8‐6.nlm.5 mg/L CaCO3. Henderson C. dissolved oxygen 7. dissolved oxygen 7. 25 deg C.5 mg/L CaCO3.8‐6.5 mg/L CaCO3. Henderson C.5% purity/ Marchini S et al.htm  from HSDB LC50. 2014: http://cfpub. 2014: http://cfpub. Available from. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3. weight 1‐2 g. Concentration: 24600 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 21400‐28100 ug/L﴿ />99. Available from. 25 deg C. Environ Toxicol Chem 11 (2): 187‐195 (1992) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 2014: http://cfpub.gov/ecotox/quick_query.htm  from HSDB LC50.65.epa. pH 8. hardness 45. pH 7. Concentration: 34420 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 24100‐42830 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Pickering QH. dissolved oxygen 7. weight 1‐2 g.epa.epa.epa.2.htm  from HSDB LC50. alkalinity 300 mg/L CaCO3. Conditions: freshwater. Concentration: 14010 ug/L for 7 days ﴾95% confidence interval 12370‐15860 ug/L﴿ />99. hardness 20 mg/L CaCO3.8 mg/L.4 cm.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 119/149 . alkalinity 300 mg/L CaCO3. Conditions: freshwater. alkalinity 39 mg/L CaCO3. dissolved oxygen 7. 25 deg C. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database.4 cm. static.8 mg/L. flow through. pH 8. weight 1‐2 g. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3. static. hardness 45.htm  from HSDB LC50. flow through.8‐6.5.8 mg/L.2. flow through. Available from. Available from. hardness 360 mg/L CaCO3. Available from.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Tsuji S et al: Eisei Kagaku 32 (1): 46‐53 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 25 deg C. hardness 360 mg/L CaCO3. static. Environ Toxicol Chem 11 (2): 187‐195 (1992) as cited in the ECOTOX database. dissolved oxygen 7.5% purity/ Marchini S et al. Environ Toxicol Chem 11 (2): 187‐195 (1992) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Henderson C. Conditions: freshwater. as of February 23. dissolved oxygen 7. Conditions: freshwater. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50. as of February 24.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Concentration: 35080 ug/L for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 26740‐43670 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Pickering QH. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ age 28‐33 days juvenile. static.epa.gov/ecotox/quick_query. static. Concentration: 32000 ug/L for 48 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 22330‐41160 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Pickering QH. pH 8. pH 7. as of February 24.gov/ecotox/quick_query. 2014: http://cfpub. 2014: http://cfpub. 25 deg C. as of February 23. dissolved oxygen 7.4 cm.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ age <24 hr larva. as of February 23. alkalinity 300 mg/L CaCO3. Concentration: 32000 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 22330‐41160 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ https://pubchem.8‐6. pH 7.8 mg/L.htm  from HSDB LC50.epa. Available from. as of February 24. Henderson C. 25 deg C. Concentration: 35560 ug/L for 24 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 25810‐45830 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Pickering QH.5% purity/ Marchini S et al. hardness 360 mg/L CaCO3. Available from.5. Concentration: 15590 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 14040‐17300 ug/L﴿ />99.htm  from HSDB LC50.3 mg/L. weight 1‐2 g. hardness 45. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3.3 mg/L.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3.4 cm. hardness 20 mg/L CaCO3.2.nih.epa.65.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Conditions: freshwater.4 cm. 2014: http://cfpub. as of February 23. 2014: http://cfpub.

htm  from HSDB LD50. Ellersieck MR. slight dose‐related reductions were observed ﴾less than 10% differences﴿. 14. alkalinity 18 mg/L CaCO3.epa. final mean body weights were 14%‐22% lower compared with vehicle controls and in mice.6 cm.0 mg/L. Available from. Conditions: freshwater.htm  from HSDB LC50.5 deg C.epa. weight 13. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Conditions: freshwater. ip 25. Available from. Available from. 12 deg C.9 cm.htm  from HSDB LC50.epa. Conditions: freshawater.0‐9.nih.26 National Toxicology Program Reports During the 17‐week studies. 2014: http://cfpub.8 mg/L.nlm.4 cm. Henderson C. dissolved oxygen 7.htm  from HSDB LD50. as of February 24. Conditions: freshawater. 2014: http://cfpub. dissolved oxygen 7.0. Concentration: 9200 ug/L for 24. 2014: http://cfpub. as of February 23. as of February 24. hardness 20 mg/L CaCO3. dissolved oxygen 5. Concentration: 33470 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval 25190‐41660 ug/L﴿ /formulation/ Pickering QH. as of February 24. J Water Pollut Control Fed 38 (9): 1419‐1429 (1966) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿ juvenile. No benzene‐ related deaths occurred.gov/ecotox/quick_query. static. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead Minnow﴿ length 3. Concentration: 5300 ug/L for 96 hr DeGraeve GM et al.6‐9. renewal. length 106 mm. Environ Toxicol Chem 3 (2): 243‐254 (1984) as cited in the ECOTOX database. https://pubchem.5. 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 7200‐11700 ug/L﴿ /100% purity liquid/ Mayer FL. 2014: http://cfpub. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11 (4): 487‐490 (1982) as cited in the ECOTOX database. dissolved oxygen > or =80%. hardness 535‐596 mg/L CaCO3. 2014: http://cfpub. Environ Toxicol Chem 3 (2): 243‐254 (1984) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐169 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database.4 mg/L. Available from. Concentration: 277 umol/L for 96 hr Hodson PV et al. static.gov/ecotox/quick_query. pH 7. pH 7. Environ Toxicol Chem 3 (2): 243‐254 (1984) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿ weight 2.gov/ecotox/quick_query.gov/ecotox/quick_query.4 g.9‐8. as of February 24.htm  from HSDB 13.6‐9. Concentration: 5900 ug/L for 96 hr Galassi S et al.epa. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿ length 4. 2014: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB LC50.ncbi.gov/ecotox/quick_query.Jr. 15 deg C. 12 deg C.htm  from HSDB LC50. as of February 24. flow through.4.9 g.6‐6.gov/ecotox/quick_query. flow through.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿ length 7.htm  from HSDB LC50. weight 1‐2 g. 2014: http://cfpub.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Pickering QH. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿.3 mmol/kg Hodson PV et al. Resour Publ No. groups of 10 or 15 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were gavaged 5 days per week with benzene in corn oil ﴾5 mL/kg﴿ at doses of 0 to 600 mg/kg.8‐6. pH 7.160: 505 (1986) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow Trout﴿ length 7.epa. gavage 32. Available from. Available from.1‐ 16. as of February 24.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 120/149 . alkalinity 147‐165 mg/L CaCO3.60‐8. as of February 24. hardness 44 mg/L CaCO3.epa. in rats that received benzene. Available from. pH 7.8 mmol/kg Hodson PV et al.epa.1.19.gov/ecotox/quick_query.epa. USDOI/FWS. Conditions: freshwater. Available from. 25 deg C. Henderson C. 2014: http://cfpub.4 cm.

FYI‐AX‐ 0482‐0127.. 2014: http://ntp. the dams were sacrificed and the fetuses removed by cesarean section. mean number of corpora and implantations. as of February 25. Inc. 1. Technical Report Series No. 86‐2545 U. Harderian gland adenomas. mean liver weights ﴾male pups at all levels﴿. Available from. or fetal development. Research Triangle Park. clinical observations.ncbi. and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. 10. . for female F344/N rats. 25. Fiche No. 86‐2545 U. 0110‐0  from HSDB Teratogenic effects were evaluated in pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats ﴾40/group﴿ exposed via inhalation to benzene at 0 ﴾two groups﴿. squamous cell papillomas. mean relative liver weights ﴾female pups at all levels﴿. An Inhalation Female Fertility Study With Benzene in Rats. Technical Report Series No.1.27 TSCA Test Submissions An evaluation of fertility was made in female Charles River CD rats ﴾26/group﴿ exposed by inhalation to benzene at 0. 5 days/wk for 103 wk. mean number dead pups. alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas and alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas or carcinomas ﴾combined﴿. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas. and decreased mean absolute liver weights ﴾high‐dose female pups﴿.niehs. and continued exposure for mated females daily for 6 hrs/day during gestation to day 20. 50. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. For female rats. or 200 mg/kg body weight benzene in corn oil ﴾5 ml/kg﴿ were administered by gavage to male rats. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland squamous cell carcinomas. for male B6C3F1 mice and for female B6C3F1 mice.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 121/149 .nih. lymphomas. FYI‐AX‐ 0481‐0110. For male rats.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr289. no dose‐ response﴿.S. or 100 mg/kg benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to female rats and to male and female mice for 103 wk. Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). 40 and 100 ppm for 6 hrs/day from days 6‐15 of gestation.nlm. EPA Document No. Daily exposure was resumed on day 5 of lactation until weaning ﴾day 21 of lactation﴿.nih. maternal gross pathology. There were no significant differences between treated and control animals in the following: maternal mortality. Research Triangle Park. benzene caused increased incidences of Zymbal gland carcinomas. National Toxicology Program. pregnancy rates. (1982). decreased mean pup weights ﴾days 14 and 21 of lactation for high‐dose level﴿. mean percentage of male fetuses/litter. Available from. 0127‐0  from HSDB https://pubchem. For female mice. Under the conditions of these 2 yr gavage studies. mortality.pdf  from HSDB 13. and squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.. 30 and 300 ppm for 6 hrs/day. There were significant differences between treated and control animals in the following: decrease in pup survival index ﴾for lactation day 4‐21 at 10 ppm.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). Final Report. pregnancy rates. or implantation efficiencies. There were no significant differences between fetuses from treated and control dams in the following: mean incidence of fetal resorptions. 50. 2014: http://ntp.7% pure﴿ were conducted in groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex and for each dose. There were significant differences between treated and control groups only in the decreased mean fetal body weights of fetuses from dams exposed at the high‐ dose level. Fiche No. carcinomas and carcinosarcomas of the mammary gland. 100. as of February 25. Benzene. alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas.. EPA Document No.. Inhalation Teratology Study in Rats. Bio Dynamics Inc.. mean relative and absolute kidney weights ﴾all female pups﴿. alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas. 10.pdf  from HSDB Two yr toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzene ﴾greater than 99. For male mice.S. Doses of 0. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. and Zymbal gland squamous cell carcinomas. Department of Health and Human Services. squamous cell papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. 1. body weight data. 5 days/week during a 10 week pre‐mating treatment period and ensuing mating period. NC 27709. 289 (1986) NIH Publication No. 289 (1986) NIH Publication No. . National Toxicology Program. mean fetal body lengths. Final Report.nih.niehs. ovarian benigh mixed tumors. There were no significant differences between treated and control dams in the following: mortality.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr289. Doses of 0.. benzene caused increased incidences of malignant lymphomas. (1980). Hazelton Laboratories America. On day 20 of gestation. body weights. Department of Health and Human Services. ovarian granulosa cell tumors. and squamous cell carcinomas of the preputial gland. there was clear evidence of carcinogenicity of benzene for male F344/N rats. in‐life observations. NC 27709. or gross postmortem examinations of adult females or pups.

body weight data and in‐life physical observations. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs and the frequency micronucleated NCEs achieved steady state by the 30 day sample time. Final Report. EPA Document No. 8 and 12 hours.0. 4.. 2. and 3. Following exposure. Fiche No. 1.nlm.0. 4. (1980). (1983). 10. 2. 8 and 12 hours for eye bleeding. 4. 10. Subchronic Inhalation Study in Mice and Rats.3. Also determined were levels of conjugates in rat and mouse blood. 15.1. Brookhaven National Laboratory.3ppm at intervals of 0. each male was mated with two untreated females per week for two consecutive weeks. Bone marrow slides of mice at the highest concentration ﴾300ppm﴿ exhibited statistically significant increases chromosome aberrations relative to the control.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 122/149 . No free catechol or hydroquinone were detected at any of the time intervals in mice. Fiche No. 2. catechol & hydroquinone﴿ were detected at any of the time intervals in rats. There was no effect of treatment for all dosed male rats as indicated by: mortality. FYI‐AX‐0481‐ 0110. 4. Males were sacrificed after a 10‐week post mating period and microscopic examination of testis/epididymides revealed two‐high dose males with testicular lesions.7. animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of colchicine and were sacrificed.ncbi. The mean levels of benzene in mouse blood were < 1.nih. Evaluation of Micronuclei Frequency in the Peripheral Blood of Male and Female CD‐1 Mice Exposed Chemically to Benzene for 90 Days. 5. (1985). The mean levels of free phenol in mouse blood were 2. 1. Exposure to 300ppm benzene caused a significant increases in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes ﴾PCEs﴿ and monochromatic erythrocytes ﴾NCEs﴿ in male and female mice at all sample times. 10. 8.4. 5days/week for 13 weeks ﴾Micronucleus Test﴿. Final Report. 5. Final Report. no. but these differences were not statistically significant compared to controls. 30 and 300ppm in dynamic air flow chamber for 6hours/day. 3.1 and 4.7. A Dominant‐Lethal Inhalation Study with Benzene in Rats.2. OTS0000203‐1  from HSDB As part of subchronic inhalation study. Fiche No. FYI‐AX‐ 0783‐0203.7. No free metabolites ﴾phenol. 2. No‐exposure related cytogenic effects were apparent in any of the male rats. The mean levels of conjugated phenol in rat blood were < 1. Fiche No. 10. No conjugated catechol or hydroquinone were detected at any of the time intervals in rats https://pubchem.4. The mean levels of benzene in the rat blood were < 1. respectively. Hazleton Laboratories America Inc. 8 and 12 hours. respectively.2.5 and 2. 1.. 5days/week for ten consecutive weeks.0. FYI‐AX‐ 0783‐0203. dead implants/total implants﴿ were noted for each week of the post treatment mating period for females mated to high dose males. as measured by per cent of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. 30 and 300ppm in dynamic air flow chamber for 6hours/day.0. Following the last day of exposure.3.0. 3.7 at intervals 0.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem The mutagenicity of benzene was evaluated in dominant lethal assay using four groups of 20 male Sprague‐Dawley rats receiving whole body exposures to nominal concentrations of test material at 1. EPA Document No. 5days/week for 13 weeks. Following the last day of exposure. 5days/week for 13 weeks.e. 1.7ppm and the mean levels in the mouse blood were 2. OTS0000110‐0  from HSDB As part of subchronic inhalation study. Groups of 20 mice ﴾10/sex/sample time﴿ were sacrificed after 0. FYI‐AX‐1085‐0393. EPA Document No. the ability of benzene to cause chromosome aberrations was evaluated in bone marrow cells of ﴾50/sex﴿ Sprague Dawley rats receiving whole body exposures to nominal concentrations of 0. (1983). Male mice exhibited a greater response than female mice.2. Subchronic Inhalation Study in Mice and Rats. 30 and 300ppm in a dynamic air flow chamber for 6hours/day. The rate of erythropoiesis. 60 and 90 days of exposure. 7. Slight increases in the mean number of dead implantations and mean mutagenic ratios ﴾i.7. Bone marrow slides of female rats at all exposure levels exhibited statistically significant increases in chromosome aberrations relative to the control. 4. Bio/dynamics Inc. and 7. Hazleton Laboratories America Inc. OTS0000203‐1  from HSDB The ability of benzene to increase the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was evaluated in male and female CD‐1 mice receiving nominal concentrations of 1. EPA Document No. 2. Final Report. OTS0000393‐1  from HSDB The levels of benzene and it's metabolites in the blood were evaluated in twenty male Sprague‐Dawley rats and eighty male Swiss albino mice receiving nominal concentration of benzene at 300ppm in a dynamic air flow chamber. animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of colchicine and were sacrificed. 5.0.0 and 1. 2. 9. Pregnancy rates and implantation efficiency ratios of females mated to treated males was not significant different from control group females.3. 8 and 12 hours respectively. 4. 8. 30 and 300ppm for 6hours/day. 2.4. 2..8. 4. 2. 1. 3.3ppm at respective intervals.1ppm at intervals of 0. 7.7. the ability of benzene to cause chromosome aberrations was evaluated in bone marrow cells of ﴾50/sex﴿ CD‐1 mice receiving whole body exposures to nominal concentrations of 0. 30. was not significantly altered by treatment. 3. Sixteen mice and four rats were removed from the chamber after 1.

Determination of Benzene.32 and < 2. 0. No conjugated catechol or hydroquinone were detected at any exposure level in rats or mice. Benzene in expired air of mice was only detected at the 48 hour sampling interval. Toxicokinetics of Percutaneo us Penetration of Petroleum Products. 48 and 72 hours.23 +/‐ 0. No level of benzene at or above the detection limit ﴾1. (1980).2ug/sampling interval ending at 6. (1980). 1. 101.0. catechol & hydroquinone﴿ were detected at any exposure level in rat blood. 2.0ppm﴿ were detected in rat and mice urine at any of the sampling intervals. Toluene and unleaded gasoline containing 14C‐ benzene ﴾20ul﴿ produced rates of permeation of 2. 30. OTS0000104‐0  from HSDB The in vitro percutaneous absorption of 14C‐benzene was evaluated in mammalian skin samples maintain in a dynamic culture system. No free catechol or hydroquinone were detected in mouse blood. FYI‐AX‐0281‐0104.29.0. 4.76ppm at 12. The mean levels of free catechol in rat urine were < 2. A mean level of 1. Phenol.6. 24.3 and 33. The mean level of conjugated phenol in rat blood were < 1.8 and 4. respectively in C3H mice which appeared linear.9 and 15. 14C‐ Benzene ﴾20ul﴿ was topically applied to cultured C3H mouse skin samples and radioactivity was detected in the effluent medium 15 minutes following treatment with no apparent lag phase.0. respectively. EPA Document No. respectively. EPA Documen t No.81 +/‐ 0. respectively.0.nlm.2ppm of free phenol was only detected at the high dose level in mice.04 and 2. EPA Document No. Bio/dynamics Inc. 48 and 72 hours. < 1.7 and 3. FYI‐AX‐0685‐0356.0 and 6. OTS0000104‐0  from HSDB The concentration of benzene and it's metabolites were determined after 12. (1980).97 +/‐ 0. In vitro penetration of benzene in hairless mice skin ﴾2.04%/hr. 3. OTS0000356‐1  from HSDB https://pubchem.01.02 and 0. 0.0. No free metabolites ﴾phenol. Fiche No.46 and 0.1. 24. 5. 3.07%﴿ was lower than C3H mice. 1. 7. < 1.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem or mice. Bio/dynamics Inc. 30. that its takes approximately one hour to achieve a steady state level of benzene in rat and mouse blood.31ppm at 12.46.0.6. Fiche No.nih. Determination of Time to Steady State Level in Blood During Inhalation Exposure of Benzene to Rats and Mice. respectively. Additional in vitro penetration studies with 14C‐benzene ﴾20ul﴿ were preformed with metabolically viable guinea pig. 3.4%/hr. The expired air of rats was bubbled through dichloromethane and the mean total levels of benzene detected were 440.56 and 7. The mean levels of benzene in rat blood were < 1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.0. 300 or 1000ppm in dynamic air flow chamber for 6 hours.87. Bio/dynamics Inc. Mice exposed to 1000ppm benzene had double the concentration of conjugated phenol in the blood relative to the 300ppm mice. 1. 0.0. Penetration was linear and the rates were 2. Draft Final Report. 24. respectively.. 30. 8. 24 and 48 hours. < 1. 48 and 72 hours. respectively.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 123/149 .70 +/‐ 0. 1.3ppm and the mean levels of conjugated phenol in mouse blood were < 1. In contrast. respectively. 12.. 300 and 1000ppm. 30. rabbit and guinea pig ﴾strain not specified﴿ dorsal skin. 1. FYI‐AX‐0281‐0104. 24. 300 and 1000ppm. however this difference was not observed between sexes in similar studies with hairless HRS mice. < 1.3ppm at 12. (no date).ncbi.6ppm at exposure levels 0.5ppm at exposure levels of 0.55 +/‐ 0.7.7.2ppm and in mouse urine were 15. 1. HRS mice. The mean levels of free hydroquinone in mouse urine were 12.04 +/‐ 0. Different rates of in vitro skin permeation were observed between male and female C3H mice.0. 1. The level of free phenol in the rat urine were 2. 2. rabbit and human skin with rates of penetration of 0. The mean levels of benzene in the mouse blood were < 1. Fiche No. The lag phase of these additional studies were between 45‐60 minutes and two hours from application followed by linear radioactivity. and human skin from elective surgery were all placed in culture medium chamber for penetration analysis.0.44 and 29.5ppm at exposure levels 0. 48 and 72 hours in the urine of five exposed male Sprague Dawley rats and 25 male Swiss albino mice which received a nominal concentration of benzene at 300ppm in dynamic air flow chamber for 6 hours. 1. Catechol and Hydroquinone in the Blood of Rats and Mice After Inhalation Exposure to Benzene at Various Concentrations. FYI‐AX‐0281‐0104. It was concluded that there was a direct correlation between increased exposure to benzene and increased blood concentration levels of benzene and conjugated phenol. 6.44 +/‐ 0. Part II: Determination of Material Balance in Rats. EPA Document No.0ppm and in mouse urine were 1.4. C3H Mice ﴾primary test subject﴿. Also determined were the levels of conjugates in rat and mouse blood..2. this effect was not observed in rats. not detected and 22.49.9.03 and 3.09. < 1.32 +/‐ 0. 300 and 1000ppm. respectively. respectively. Analysis of the effluent medium indicated negligible conversion of benzene to phenol. Fiche No. No free hydroquinone at or above the detection limit were determined in rat urine at any sampling time.03%/hr for metabolically viable ﴾fresh skin﴿ and nonviable skin ﴾frozen skin﴿. OTS0000104‐0  from HSDB The levels of benzene and its's metabolites in blood were evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats ﴾4/group﴿ and male Swiss albino mice ﴾16/group﴿ receiving nominal concentrations of benzene at 0.0. It was concluded.

No. Under the 2 skin conditions..5‐fold higher from a 100% relative humidity environment than from a 40% relative humidity environment. Volumes 1‐4 1998. OTS0000185‐1  from HSDB 13. Fiche No. FYI‐AX‐1087‐0185.4 microliter/sq cm. Volumes 1‐4 1998.1 ICSC Environmental Data The substance is toxic to aquatic organisms. EPA Doc. (1987). International Agency for Research on Cancer. 3 and 6 hours after administration. respectively. Switzerland: International Labour Office. 3 and 6 hours. International Labour Office. . 22 and 9% of the mean test value 1.2 Ecological Information 13. OTS0000104‐0  from HSDB The dermal absorption of benzene vapor was examined in 2 Rhesus monkeys exposed to the test article at saturated concentrations for 30 minutes using a hydration controlled chamber which was held tightly against the skin of the back. EPA Document No. 1. American Petroleum Institute.nlm. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Bio/dynamics Inc. the concentration of benzene was given by its density of 0. A correction factor was included to account for radioactivity excreted by other routes. Mice ﴾5/group﴿ had a mean total pretest benzene uptake rate of 188ml/min and a mean pretest total respiratory minute volume of 189ml/min. The mean total minute volume for groups of mice decreased 96. Under Conditions of Prolonged Exposure. Part I: Determination of Benzene Uptake by the Lungs in Rats and Mice. Total absorption was found to be 7. Five individual rats were determined to have an internal mean benzene uptake rate of 152ml/min prior to conducting the six hour test and an mean pretest respiratory minute volume of 145ml/min.ncbi. Rats had an estimated retained dose of 56mg/kg.iarc. and presumably other disorders in which there is increased bone marrow turnover. 3 and 6 hours of exposure. (Multivolume work).gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 124/149 . Geneva. 4th edition. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.28 Populations at Special Risk .. (no date). may predispose a person to benzene‐induced aplastic anemia.2  from HSDB . respectively. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.. Final Report. The mean benzene uptake rates as compared to pretest values for rats decreased to 33. V29 117 (1982)  from HSDB .fr/ENG/Classification/index.. 1972‐PRESENT. 3 and 6 hours after administration. https://pubchem. after 1. Geneva. respectively. of 40% hydration and 100% hydration. p..02 microliter/sq cm and ..1. 84 and 69% of the pretest after 1. The mean total retained dose per mice was estimated to be 377mg/kg. Switzerland: International Labour Office. 1998.. Fiche No.15 microliter/sq cm. 76 and 81% of the pretest value. The substance may cause long‐term effects in the aquatic environment. Workers with higher activities of /cytochrome P‐450﴾2E1﴿/ are at more risk /of benzene hematoxicity/. /This/ suggested that in some people benzene toxicity may be accounted for in part by an allergic blood dyscrasia. FYI‐AX‐0281‐0104. 78 and 66% of the pretest at 1.php . International Labour Office. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. In a benzene liquid exposure experiment. respectively.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem The benzene uptake rate was evaluated in five male Sprague Dawley rats and twenty five male Swiss albino mice receiving benzene at a nominal concentration of 300ppm in a dynamic air flow chamber for 6 hours. p. respectively. The mean minute volume for rats decreased to 85. Available at: http://monographs. It has been suggested that Thalassemia minor.8787 gm/cu cm and the dermal absorption was 5.. The mean total benzene uptake for the mice decreased 65. Absorption of Petroleum Products Across the Skin of Monkey and Man.2. 1. the absorption rates were determined to be 0.. 1998..2  from HSDB 13. The authors suggested that benzene absorption from the liquid state was less than expected due to a dehydrating effect on the stratum corneum. IARC.nih. 4th edition. /It has been observed/ that levels of leukocyte agglutins were elevated in selected individuals exposed to benzene.. The radioactivity measured in the urine was used to determined absorption rate.

and dermal and inhalation contact with consumer products containing this compound. ﴾SRC﴿  from HSDB 13. benzene is expected to have high mobility based upon a Koc of 85.5 days. pesticides. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon a Henry's Law constant of 5. resins. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (2) Graedel TE.. from forest fires.2. Hydrolysis is not expected to occur due to the lack of hydrolyzable functional groups. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. Adv Environ Sci Technol 24: 177‐235 (1992)  from HSDB 13. Baltimore. 44% in 5 weeks.). as a constituent of crude oil. natural rubber. meats. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's Henry's Law constant. p. and as a plant volatile. 724  from HSDB Benzene is found naturally in the environment from volcanoes. Vapor‐phase benzene will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals.nlm. Estimated volatilization half‐lives for a model river and model lake are 2. respectively. Jr. plastics. If released to air. etc. The Merck Index. and 47% in 10 weeks.8 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates benzene will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. ed.B. pharmaceuticals. the half‐ life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 13 days. p.8X10+9 L/mol sec which results in an estimated half‐life of 103 days. NY. benzene is not expected to adsorb to sediment and suspended solids in water based upon the Koc.. If released to soil. 40% of the Theoretical BOD was reached in 2 weeks indicating that biodegradation is important environmental fate process in water. 15th ed. Benzene is found in volcanoes.. Benzene concentrations range from 100‐200 parts per trillion over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans due to seepage and spillage of oil into the oceans﴾3﴿. Utilizing the Japanese MITI test. benzene will react with hydroxyl radical ﴾OH radical average concentration = 1. Sullivan. NY: Academic Press (1978) (3) Singh HB.ncbi. Using a base‐rich para‐brownish soil incubated for 10 weeks. MD: Williams and Wilkins. Chemical Cmpds in the Atmos. 188 (2013) https://pubchem.R. (1) IARC. from forest fires and as a plant volatile﴾1. 20 ppm benzene was 24% degraded in 1 week. Benzene may volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 125/149 .9 days was reported for photolysis of benzene dissolved in deionized water saturated with air exposed to sunlight. and dairy products with concentrations ranging from 2 ug/kg in canned beef to 2100 ug/kg for eggs. Benzene is a component of cigarette smoke and is widely detected in atmospheric samples due to its presence in gasoline.nih. a reference for quantitating compounds.4 Artificial Sources Benzene's production and use in the manufacture of industrial chemicals such as polymers. ingestion of food and drinking water.2. G. If released into water. Benzene has been reported to be a natural constituent of fruits.. (1) O'Neil MJ. indicating that biodegradation may be an important environmental fate process in soil.2﴿. Vapor‐phase benzene is also degraded by ozone radicals and nitrate found in the atmosphere but at such low rates as to not be important. and as a gasoline additive﴾1﴿ may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams﴾SRC﴿. J. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to benzene via inhalation of ambient air. it may be removed from the atmosphere by rain. existence in gasoline. as an organic solvent for waxes. 1992.2 Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary Benzene's production. Zimmerman PB.0X10‐17 molec/cu cm﴿ at a reaction rate of 7.2. dyes. Hazardous Materials Toxicology‐Clinical Principles of Environmental Health.1‐20 suggests bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Krieger (eds. Cambridge. Monograph. detergents.56X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole. A BCF ranging from 1. Occupational exposure to benzene may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where benzene is produced or used. and use in the production of ethylbenzene and styrene as well as many other chemicals may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. resins. Since benzene is very water soluble.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from ILO‐ICSC 13.. In aqueous solution. vegetables.3 Natural Occurring Sources . a vapor pressure of 94. oils. as a natural constituent of crude oil. A half‐life of 16.7 hrs and 3.

(1) Swann RL et al. Res Rev 85: 17‐28 (1983) (2) Hodson J. Adv Environ Sci Technol 24: 177‐235 (1992) (4) Johnston JJ et al. Leachate from landfills is also a source of benzene in the environment﴾4﴿. Anaerobic degradation of benzene in water is not expected to be an important loss process based on various studies﴾9﴿. transport.safe. Washington. eds. Environ Sci Res 53: 163‐75 (1996) (8) NITE. DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. storage.nite. indicates that benzene is not expected to adsorb to sediment and suspended solids in water﴾SRC﴿. and from production. Sauer TC. 40% of the Theoretical BOD was reached in 2 weeks﴾8﴿ indicating that biodegradation is important environmental fate process in water﴾SRC﴿. and as a solvent.56X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾4﴿. Chemosphere 17: 67‐77 (1988) (3) Mackay D et al. Hinchee RE. Olfenbuttel RF.html (9) Reinhard M et al. from spills. NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp 5 Vol (1989) (5) Haider K et al. Tokyo. Chemical Cmpds in the Atmos. 157‐72 in In Situ Bioreclamation. 25 Feb‐ 3 Mar 2013. Amer Inst Chem Eng New York. ethylbenzene is the largest chemical outlet for benzene. The potential for volatilization of benzene from dry soil surfaces may exist﴾SRC﴿ based upon a vapor pressure of 94. In one study of chemical biotransformation under nitrate‐ and sulfate‐reducing conditions.icis. Available from. Clayton FE. (1) IARC. respectively﴾SRC﴿. BCFs ranging from 1.2﴿. Div Environ Chem Preprints Ext Abst 36: 210‐212 (1996) (7) Hutchins SR. including oil spills. MA: Butterworth‐Heinmann (1991)  from HSDB AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme﴾1﴿. Other sources result from its use as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals.go. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (2) Graedel TE.1‐20﴾7﴿ suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. The world wide release of benzene into the environment is estimated to be 4‐5 Tg/yr with 0.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 126/149 . J Phys Chem Ref Data 17: 513‐882 (1988) (6) Franke C et al. New York. benzene will react with hydroxyl radical at a reaction rate of 7. Environ Sci Tech 13: 333‐36 (1979) (4) Daubert TE.5 days. According to a classification scheme﴾6﴿. from nonferrous metal manufacture. Div Environ Chem Preprints Ext Abst 36: 210‐212 (1996) https://pubchem. as of Feb 18. 4th ed. Design Inst Phys Prop Data. In one study of chemical biotransformation under nitrate‐ and sulfate‐reducing conditions. and transport of benzene itself. benzene was found to be stable for 60 days﴾6﴿. NY: John Wiley & Sons. as of Feb 20. wood processing. Williams NA. and nearly all is consumed for the production of styrene﴾1﴿. Environ Sci Tech 13: 333‐36 (1979) (5) Buxton GV et al. indicating that biodegradation may be an important environmental fate process in soil﴾SRC﴿. Biodegradation and Bioconcentration. In a related study.nih. 15‐1 to 15‐29 (1990) (4) Mackay D et al. NY: Academic Press (1978)  from HSDB Benzene is the largest volume aromatic petrochemical. Benzene has been detected in cigarette smoke ranging from 47‐64 ppm﴾2﴿. Japan: Natl Inst Tech Eval. Available from.7﴿. 1302 (1994) (3) Singh HB. 2014: http://www.56X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾3﴿. volatilization half‐lives for a model river and model lake are 1 hr and 3. benzene was found to be stable for 60 days﴾5﴿. Patty's Industrial Hygiene And Toxicology. venting. Arch Microbiol 96: 183‐200 (1974) (6) Reinhard M et al. Chemosphere 29: 1501‐14 (1994) (7) Neff JM. 44% in 5 weeks. benzene did not undergo biodegradation in situ nor in laboratory controlled soil samples under denitrifying conditions﴾7﴿. Monograph. Chemical Risk Information Platform (CHRIP). benzene would have a half‐life of 103 days﴾5﴿.6 Tg/yr coming from the United States alone﴾3﴿. Williams NA. a Koc value of 85﴾2﴿.. a Koc value of 85﴾2﴿. Using this Henry's Law constant and an estimation method﴾3﴿. Danner RP.ncbi. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation. Wilson JT. from its indirect production in coke ovens. Utilizing the Japanese MITI test.2. and from cigarette smoke﴾1. (1) Swann RL et al. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected﴾3﴿ based upon a Henry's Law constant of 5. pp. Vol IIB p. Res Rev 85: 17‐28 (1983) (2) Hodson J. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Using a base‐rich para‐brownish soil incubated for 10 weeks. 4‐9. Zimmerman PB. using the average OH radical concentration ﴾1. J Contam Hydrol 23: 263‐283 (1996)  from HSDB 13. Anaerobic degradation of benzene in soil is not expected to be an important loss process based on various studies﴾6. ore mining.com (2) Clayton GD. storage. Chemosphere 17: 67‐77 (1988) (3) Lyman WJ et al.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Benzene enters the environment from production. US Chemical Profile Benzene. and 47% in 10 weeks﴾5﴿.jp/english/db.8X10+9 L/mol sec. and combustion of gasoline. (1) ICIS Chemical Business. coal mining and textile manufacture.0X10‐17 molec/cu cm﴿. 2014: http://www. In aqueous solution. New York. 20 ppm benzene was 24% degraded in 1 week. indicates that benzene is expected to have high mobility in soil﴾SRC﴿.nlm.5 Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme﴾1﴿. Volatilization of benzene from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process﴾SRC﴿ given a Henry's Law constant of 5. Stoneham.8 mm Hg﴾4﴿.

Minnesota. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg. A half‐life of 16. Chemical Risk Information Platform (CHRIP).2 mg/L﴾2﴿.23X10‐12 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾3﴿. The half‐life in polluted atmospheres which contain nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide has been observed to shorten to 4‐6 hrs﴾4﴿. calculated from its rate constant of 1. Amer Inst Chem Eng New York. benzene concentration added ranged from 0‐3. (1) Wakeham SG et al. benzene. New York. Japan: Natl Inst Tech Eval. The reaction rate of benzene with nitrate radical in the atmosphere is estimated to be less than 0. 255 (2001) (3) Zhang WX. is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. J Phys Chem Ref Data.jp/english/db. benzene did not begin to degrade until 3 days after application and reached complete degradation after about 12 days﴾3﴿. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 170. or other conditions less conducive to microbial growth.4X10+8 molec/cu cm﴾6﴿. respectively. photolysis will play a important role in degradation﴾SRC﴿. Monograph No.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 127/149 . Aerobic biodegradation of benzene was studied in pre‐equilibrated soil‐water slurry microcosms﴾3﴿. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Ecotox Environ Safety 6: 311‐27 (1982) (5) Verschueren K. Vapor‐phase benzene is also degraded in the atmosphere by atmospheric ozone radicals at an extremely slow rate.2. Benzene reached 24% of its theoretical oxygen demand in a non‐ acclimated microbial population after 15 days﴾2﴿. whereas no degradation occurred in winter﴾4﴿. Water Res 38: 1520‐1529 (2004)  from HSDB ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere﴾1﴿. 255 (2001) (6) Atkinson. NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp 5 Vol (1989) (3) Atkinson R. Tokyo. Vapor‐phase benzene is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals﴾SRC﴿. Environ Sci Res 53: 163‐75 (1996) (4) Mackay D et al. (1) Bidleman TF. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be greater than or equal to 111 days based on an average concentration of nitrate radicals of 2. https://pubchem. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31: 582‐4 (1983) (2) Hustert K et al. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals.nite. R et al. In these cases biodegradation plays a major role and takes about 2 days﴾1﴿. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg. Biodegradation 8: 167‐175 (1997)  from HSDB AEROBIC: No degradation of benzene as measured by BOD was reported in coarse‐filtered ﴾through 1 cm cotton layer﴿ Superior harbor water incubated at 21 deg C for 12 days﴾1﴿. The half‐life in estuarine water was 6 days as measured by radio‐ labeled C02 produced﴾3﴿.3X10‐16 cu cm/molecule sec at 25 deg C﴾3﴿. 2 (1994) (4) Korte F. Klein W.000 days﴾5﴿. respectively. However. (1) NITE.080/day﴾5﴿.9 days was reported for photolysis of benzene dissolved in deionized water saturated with air exposed to sunlight﴾7﴿.nlm. Danner RP.56X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾4﴿. Switzerland during summer ﴾boating season﴿ is 0. Chemosphere 10: 995‐8 (1981) (8) May WE et al. Biodegradation and Bioconcentration.html (2) Verschueren K.ncbi. respectively﴾1﴿. According to one experiment.6 Biodegredation AEROBIC: Benzene present at 100 mg/L. Design Inst Phys Prop Data. Bouwer EJ. Using an enriched aerobic bacterial culture. Using a pre‐equilibrated soil‐water slurry microcosm. Chemosphere 10: 995‐8 (1981) (3) Neff JM. acclimation is critical and this takes much longer in the colder water in spring﴾1﴿. Atmos Env 24: 2647‐54 (1990) (7) Hustert K et al. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 13 days﴾SRC﴿.nih. it may be removed from the atmosphere by rainfall﴾8﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem  from HSDB AQUATIC FATE: Evaporation was the primary loss mechanism in winter in a mesocosm experiment which simulated a northern bay where the half‐life was 13 days﴾1﴿. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation. 4th ed.1 days. Available from. In a marine ecosystem biodegradation occurred in 2 days after an acclimation period of 2 days and 2 weeks in the summer and spring. reached 40% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test﴾1﴿. Sauer TC. New York. benzene began to degrade 12 hrs after incubation in an aqueous﴾soil‐free﴿ solution with 50% of benzene degrading after 60 hrs and almost complete degradation within 90 hrs. The half‐life of benzene in sea water is about 5 hrs﴾3﴿ based on its Henry's Law constant of 5. Due to benzene's high water solubility.safe. The average first‐order rate constant for elimination of benzene in the epilimnion region of Lake Zurich.go. In spring and summer the half‐lives were 23 and 3.8 mm Hg at 25 deg C﴾2﴿. as of Feb 18. 2014: http://www. In situations of cold water. benzene has a half‐ life of 17 days due to photochemical degradation﴾2﴿ which could contribute to benzene's removal. poor nutrients. which has a vapor pressure of 94. Environ Sci Technol 22: 361‐367 (1988) (2) Daubert TE. Biodegradation half‐lives of 28 and 16 days were reported in die‐away tests using groundwater and water from Lester River. Environ Sci Tech 13: 333‐36 (1979) (5) Schmidt TC et al. J Chem Ref Data 28: 197‐200 (1983)  from HSDB 13. 4th ed.

Biochem 7: 2653‐62 (1968)  from HSDB AEROBIC: Benzene at 50 ppm was 90% degraded by industrial wastewater seed incubated at 23 deg C for 6 hrs﴾1﴿. 20 ppm benzene was 24% degraded in 1 week. J Water Pollut Control Fed 53: 1503‐18 (1981) (5) Feiler HD et al.0X10‐17 molec/cu cm﴿. Microbial Degradation of Pollutants in Marine Environments. Benzene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of hydrolyzable functional groups﴾6﴿. Ryan C. percentage by evaporation and biodegradation were not determined﴾5﴿. 443‐50 USEPA‐600/9‐72‐012 (1979) (4) Wakeman SG et al. pp. J Great Lakes Res 12: 184‐91 (1986) (2) Vaishnav DD. Wilson JT. is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem (1) Vaishnav DD. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31: 582‐4 (1983)  from HSDB AEROBIC: Benzene. J Water Pollut Control Fed 55: 97‐109 (1983) (3) Setzkorn EA.000 days﴾3﴿.3X10‐16 cu cm/molecule sec at 25 deg C﴾1﴿. In a study of chemical biotransformation under nitrate‐ and sulfate‐reducing conditions. Arch Biochem Biophys 161: 551‐8 (1974) (4) Gibson DT et al. Geomicrobiology J 8: 167‐200 (1990)  from HSDB 13.ncbi. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 42: 1081‐4 (1965) (4) Tabak HH et al. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be greater than or equal to 111 days based on an average concentration of nitrate radicals of 2. Reported metabolites of benzene using pure cultures of microorganisms include phenol and unidentified phenols﴾3﴿.nlm. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 170. Proc Natl Conf Munic Sludge Manag 8th. Benzene was not biodegraded in aquifer sediment down gradient of the Wilder's Grove sanitary landfill near Raleigh. The half‐life in polluted atmospheres which contain nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide has been observed to shorten to 4‐6 hrs﴾2﴿.5 ppm total mixture﴿ in shallow ground water in the presence of oxygen in the unconfined sand aquifer at Canada Forces' Base Borden. pp. (1) Johnston JJ et al.8X10+9 L/mol sec. benzene would have a half‐life of 103 days﴾5﴿.23X10‐12 cu cm/molecule‐sec﴾1﴿. Huddleston RL. (1) Barker JF et al. Div Environ Chem Preprints Ext Abst 36: 210‐212 (1996) (3) Hutchins SR. In aqueous solution. Babeu L. Ontario.2‐dihydroxy‐1. Complete biodegradation in 16 days was reported under simulated aerobic groundwater conditions at 20 deg C﴾2﴿. In laboratory systems. Reaction of benzene with nitrate radical is estimated to be <0. using the average OH radical concentration﴾1.5% of the benzene being lost by air stripping﴾2﴿. pp. and 47% in 10 weeks﴾6﴿. laboratory batch experiments demonstrated that the degradation could be attributed to biodegradation﴾1﴿. Kincannon DF. This corresponds to an atmospheric half‐life of about 13 days at an atmospheric concentration of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm﴾1﴿. In a related study. The microbial inoculum employed in the study originally had been enriched from anaerobic municipal sludge. therefore.2. was readily biodegraded ﴾total degradation of 7. D.4X10+8 molec/cu cm in the ambient atmosphere﴾4﴿. In a bench scale activated‐sludge reactor with an 8 hour retention time. Rosazza SP. Although benzene appears to be recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions. benzene did not undergo biodegradation in situ nor in laboratory controlled soil samples under denitrifying conditions﴾3﴿. Soil Crop Sci Soc FL Proc 44: 9‐14 (1985) (3) Smith RV. Arch Microbiol 96: 183‐200 (1974)  from HSDB ANAEROBIC: Benzene was degraded under methanogenic conditions in an enrichment culture fed ferulic acid for five years.nih.2‐dihydrobenzene﴾4﴿. benzene will react with hydroxyl radical at a reaction rate of 7. Hinchee RE. Stoneham. benzene was found to be stable under these anaerobic conditions for 60 days﴾2﴿. Benzene was transformed into phenol by the microbial inoculum by using water as a source of oxygen﴾4﴿.7 Abiotic Degredation The rate constant for the vapor‐phase reaction of benzene with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals is 1.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 128/149 . catechol and cis‐1. complete degradation occurred with 0. 44% in 5 weeks. 157‐72 in In Situ Bioreclamation. Babeu L. 72‐81 (1979) (6) Haider K et al. Ground Water Monit Rev 7: 64‐72 (1987) (2) Delfino JJ. J Contam Hydrol 23: 263‐283 (1996) (2) Reinhard M et al. low concentrations of benzene are degraded in 6‐14 days﴾3. Olfenbuttel RF eds. Benzene has a maximum absorbance frequency of 253 nm﴾7﴿ and. Miles CJ.4﴿. (1) Davis EM et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39: 237‐44 (1987) (3) Lee RF. there was one experiment in which benzene underwent degradation under methanogenic conditions. It was also degraded under sulfate‐reducing conditions in microcosms containing benzene‐contaminated aquifer sediment﴾1﴿. Benzene inhibited industrial seed at concentration of 100 ppm and above and municipal seed at 50 ppm and above﴾1﴿. Vapor phase benzene is also degraded in the atmosphere by atmospheric ozone radicals at an extremely slow rate. Water Res 15: 1125‐7 (1981) (2) Stover EL. In a base‐rich para‐brownish soil. in a mixture with toluene and xylenes. NC﴾1﴿. MA: Butterworth‐ Heinmann (1991) (4) Grbic‐Galic. 44‐100% removal occurred at a sewage treatment plant.

Benzene has an estimated global life‐time of 16 days and 4. The sorption equilibrium for benzene in a soil/water mixture ﴾ratio soil/water 0. such as water﴾8﴿.12 kg/l﴿ took 72 hrs﴾3﴿. Klein W. this estimated Koc value suggests that benzene is expected to have high mobility in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 33: 561‐7 (1984)  from HSDB 13. 2 p. (1) Hodson J.0X10+5 molecule/cu cm and an ozone radical concentration of 7. nitrobenzene. NA. 2‐nitrophenol. Chemosphere 29: 1501‐14 (1994) (3) De Wolf W et al. Water Res 12: 1041‐4 (1978) (5) Korn S et al.nlm.4X10+11 molecule/cu cm﴾7﴿. Sauer TC.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem sunlight﴾SRC﴿. According to a classification scheme﴾2﴿. 4‐ nitrophenol.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 129/149 . and 4. Proc Int Clean Air Cong 4th. Ecotox Environ Safety 6: 311‐27 (1982) (3) Verschueren K. and Fate of Benzene in the Environment. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Atmos Environ 31: 3999‐4008 (1997) (8) Howard PH. Fathead minnows were found to have an average uptake rate of 7 L/kg/hr with an average elimination rate of 0. Sources of Contamination. slight shifts in wavelength of absorption might be expected in more representative environmental media.4‐dinitrophenol. (1) Farley FF.4 in pacific herring﴾5﴿.2. A typical experiment in the presence of active species such as NOx and SO2 showed that benzene photodegradation was considerably accelerated above that in air alone﴾2﴿. USEPA‐560/5‐75‐005 pp. pp. Klein W. 7‐5 (1990) (7) Trost B et al. Zimmerman PB. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Miyake Y. Chemosphere 10: 995‐8 (1981)  from HSDB While benzene is considered to be relatively unreactive in photochemical smog situations ﴾in the presence of nitrogen oxides﴿.1‐20﴾1﴿. 713‐27 USEPA‐600/3‐77‐001B (1977) (2) Yanagihara S et al. R et al. Fish Bull Natl Marine Fish Ser 75: 633‐6 (1977) (6) Ogata M et al. J Phys Chem Ref Data Mongraph No.93 ﴾Koc = 85﴿ was obtained via reverse phase HPLC ﴾high performance liquid chromatography﴿ with a cyanopropyl column and a mobile phase of water﴾1﴿.9 Soil Adsorption/Mobility An experimentally derived log Koc of 1. eg. Int J Air Water Pollut 8: 107‐20 (1964) (7) Singh HB. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg. Kokuritsu Kogai Kekyusho Kenkyu Hokoku 5: 43‐59 (1978) (6) Kopczynski SL. However.10 Volatilization from Water/Soil https://pubchem. 48 (1994) (2) Korte F.2.nih. Chemosphere 4: 77‐82 (1975) (5) Hoshino M et al. (1) Neff JM. Chemosphere 17: 67‐77 (1988) (2) Swann RL et al. Chemosphere 36: 1713‐1724 (1998) (4) Ogata M. Washington. a half‐life of 16.8 days in the tropics﴾7﴿.384/hr which corresponds to a BCF of 19﴾3﴿. New York.8 Bioconcentration Benzene has BCFs ranging from 1. The Koc for benzene has also been experimentally determined to be 79﴾4﴿. Williams. 4. Benzene has an estimated lifetime under photochemical smog conditions in southeastern England of 28 hrs﴾3﴿. 255 (2001) (4) Atkinson. Global conditions were considered as having an average temperature of 2 deg C. Durkin PR.3 in goldfish﴾6﴿. Biodegradation 8: 167‐175 (1997) (4) Johnston CD et al.6‐dinitrophenol. In a study of BCF values for various aquatic species. and peroxyacetyl nitrate﴾4‐6﴿. According to a classification scheme﴾2﴿.5 in eels﴾4﴿.ncbi.9 days was reported for photolysis of benzene dissolved in deionized water saturated with air exposed to sunlight﴾9﴿. 472‐7 (1977) (3) Korte F. Bouwer EJ. 2.0X10+6 molecule/cu cm and an ozone radical concentration of 7. while tropical conditions were considered as having an average temperature of 25 deg C. 4 th ed. 65 (1974) (9) Hustert K et al. (1) Atkinson R.4X10+11 molecule/cu cm. pp. J Phys Chem Ref Data 17: 513‐882 (1988) (6) Lyman WJ et al. Products of degradation include phenol. its rate of degradation is accelerated with about 16% decrease in concentration in 5 hr﴾1﴿. DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. Environ Sci Res 53: 163‐75 (1996) (2) Franke C et al. Its half‐life in the presence of active species was 4‐6 hr with 50% mineralization to CO2 in approximately 2 days﴾3﴿. 2. OH radical concentration of 2. Adv Environ Sci Technol 24: 177‐235 (1992)  from HSDB 13. Ecotox Environ Saftey 6: 311‐27 (1982) (4) Nojima K et al. formic acid. this BCF range suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Ambient Levels.2. Inter Conf on Photochemical Oxidant Pollution and Its Control. benzene was found to have a BCF value of 3. J Cont Hydrol 33: 377‐404 (1998)  from HSDB 13. 7‐4. The uptake and elimination rate constants for benzene in fathead minnows were studied﴾3﴿. OH radical concentration of 6. Res Rev 85: 17‐28 (1983) (3) Zhang WX. Atmos Env 24: 2647‐54 (1990) (5) Buxton GV et al.

The volatilization half‐life from a model lake ﴾1 m deep. the volatilization half‐life from a model river ﴾1 m deep. Environ 24: 6‐13. Contaminated drinking water wells in NY. Water Pollut Control 80: 614‐31 (1981) (3) USEPA.nih. (1) Brass HJ et al.000 ug/L at depths greater than 4. Harker RJ. L Keith ed.11 Water Concentrations GROUNDWATER: Benzene was the dominant dissolved organic compound in groundwater contaminated by gasoline in the Swan Coastal Plain near Perth. NJ. contained benzene ranging from 1‐10 ppb. In a study of Wisconsin drinking water wells ﴾data through Jun 1984﴿.6% tested positive for benzene at a median value of 3 ppb and max of 15 ppb﴾5﴿.207 wells. 7 sites tested positive for benzene with an average concentration of <0. 2. 0. This Henry's Law constant indicates that benzene is expected to volatilize rapidly from water surfaces﴾2﴿. 2000﴾2﴿. out of 466 samples selected at random from a 1000 sample survey. J Am Water Works Assoc 78: 70‐5 (1986)  from HSDB DRINKING WATER: There may be a large number of cases where well water is contaminated by benzene at low concentrations﴾1﴿. Vol 3 (1980) (5) Cotruvo JA. A National Survey of methyl tert‐butyl ether and other volatile organic compounds in drinking‐water sources. Western Australia at a concentration around 15. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 ﴾1996﴿ ﴾2﴿ Grady SJ. Health Advisories for 25 Organics: Benzene p. The potential for volatilization of benzene from dry soil surfaces may exist﴾SRC﴿ based upon a vapor pressure of 94. wind velocity of 3 m/sec﴿﴾2﴿ is estimated as 1 hr﴾SRC﴿.401 domestic wells sampled from 1985‐2002 revealed occurrence of benzene in 37 of 1. and CT ranged from 30‐300 ppb. In three separate surveys of community water supplies: 0 of 111 samples tested positive for benzene.95 ppb﴾4﴿. of 1174 community wells sampled. approximately 1.4 ppb﴾3﴿. Environ Health Perspect 115﴾11﴿: 1539‐1546 ﴾2007﴿ ﴾4﴿ Williams P et al. Federal drinking water surveys. Based upon U.[﴾1﴿ Wallace L. 19 (1987)  from HSDB DRINKING WATER: Out of 113 public drinking water supplies in 1976.5 m/sec﴿﴾2﴿ is estimated as 3. At a distance of 210 m from a petrol storage area. a chalk aquifer.1% detection frequency. A number of studies have reported finding benzene at levels on the order of 5 ng/L in surface and well waters﴾1﴿. (1) Johnston CD et al. the highest benzene concentrations in drinking water were derived from surface water sources at 4. Benzene occurs in both groundwater and surface public water supplies with higher levels occurring in groundwater supplies. Sci Total Environ 47: 7‐26 (1985) (6) Krill RM. a 3. Environ Sci Technol 36:4 721‐ 4728 ﴾2002﴿] Full text: PMC1469757 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB https://pubchem.05 m/sec. benzene concentrations rose to 1250 ppb﴾2﴿.5 m below ground surface﴾1﴿.006‐5 ug/L﴾3﴿. The concentration range was 0. Based on this Henry's Law constant. wind velocity of 0. 1982.33‐6 (1982) (4) NAS. and reservoirs throughout the USA and Puerto Rico from May 3.3% of all groundwater systems are estimated to contain benzene at levels greater than 0. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation. 7 of 113 samples tested positive with a mean concentration of 4 ppb. A 2006 US Geol Survey of 2.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem The Henry's Law constant for benzene is 5.8 mm Hg﴾3﴿. located in the United Kingdom. Benzene's Henry's Law constant﴾1﴿ indicates that volatilization from moist soil surfaces may occur﴾SRC﴿.56X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾1﴿. Environ Sci Technol 13: 333‐36 (1979) (2) Lyman WJ et al. 1999 through Oct 23. Danner RP.S.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 130/149 . The detection frequency in drinking water sources from California was <1% from 1995 to 2001﴾4﴿. 0. Amer Inst Chem Eng New York. Geological Survey.S.2 ppb﴾1﴿. In a USA Groundwater Supply Survey ﴾GWS.ncbi. Of five US cities from 1974‐5. rivers. and 4 of 16 samples tested positive with a benzene max concentration of 0. Benzene had a frequency of detection of less than 1% in 954 random drinking water sources samples from groundwater. finished drinking water﴿. flowing 0.5 days﴾SRC﴿. flowing 1 m/sec. Water‐Resources Investigations Report 02‐4079 ﴾2003﴿ ﴾3﴿ Rowe BL et al. pp. Ann Arbor MI: Ann Arbor Press Chap 21 (1976) (3) Burmaster DE.nlm. (1) Mackay D et al. DC: Amer Chem Soc pp.34% tested positive for benzene while of 617 private wells.3 ppb in drinking water supplies﴾2﴿. 305‐27 in Analysis and Identification of Organic Substances in Water. benzene concentrations ranged from 0‐0. Drinking Water Qual Enhancement Source Prot pp. US Dept Int. 15‐1 to 15‐29 (1990) (3) Daubert TE. J Contam Hydrol 33: 377‐404 (1998) (2) Tester DJ. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. at 120 m from the petrol storage area it contained benzene concentrations greater than 250 ppb. The highest level reported in the surveys for groundwater was 80 ug/L﴾3﴿. Washington. Design Inst Phys Prop Data. NY: Hemisphere Pub Corp 5 Vol (1989)  from HSDB 13. Drinking Water and Health.9% tested positive﴾6﴿. Sonzogni WC. U.5 ug/L. 393‐416 (1977) (2) Coleman WE et al.2. and at 10 m from the petrol storage area.

Menlo Park. Benzene concentrations emitted from plant A ﴾3 incinerators﴿ without APCS were 1.17‐9 mg/cu m with a max concentration of 11 mg/cu m﴾1﴿. paint and ink formulation ﴾36 samples. 46 max﴿.040 max﴿. 56.9. Yokohama Kokuritsu Daigaku Kankyo Kagaku Kenkyu Senta Kiyo 6: 11‐20 (1980) (2) IARC.4﴿. Org Geochem 3: 91‐101 (1981) (6) USEPA. 0.10.0058 mean.50 ppb﴾4﴿. benzene's average concentration ranged from 0. 2.1 ppm mean. 100% pos. 75 (1977) (2) Konasewich D et al.23.1‐1 to I.2. 120 max﴿. number of pos NR.81 ug/cu nm. and 1.012﴿. p. <14 mean. Human Exposure to Atmospheric Benzene. 2.2 ppb﴾1. respectively. 0. 29: 99‐106 (1982)  from HSDB 13. 81. 1.0 mean.4 ppm mean. 42 detections. 16.12 Effluents Concentrations Industries in which mean or max levels of benzene in raw wastewater exceeded 1 ppm are ﴾number of samples. 26.0 ppb﴾4﴿. timber products processing ﴾5 samples.3‐48 ppb while wastewater from plants which manufacture or use benzene ranged from <1‐179 parts per trillion﴾1﴿. and 21. photographic equipment/supplies ﴾4 samples. 63. 0. iron and steel manufacturing ﴾mfg﴿ ﴾13 samples. 10 max﴿. 23 ppm max﴿. Benzene concentrations in seawater taken from the Gulf of Mexico in 1977. petroleum refining ﴾13 samples. 19 (1987)  from HSDB RAIN/SNOW/FOG: Benzene was detected in rainwater in Japan and in the UK at a concentration of 87.1 max﴿. mean. photographic equipment/supplies ﴾48 samples.271 surface water samples. 60% pos. 9. Out of 700 random surface water sites throughout the US in 1975.4 ppb﴾3﴿. 100% pos. benzene was detected﴾3﴿.81. 2. <0. In 11.2% of groundwater samples taken from 178 CERCLA hazardous waste sites. ranged from 5‐15 parts per trillion in unpolluted areas and 5‐175 parts per trillion in areas affected by anthropogenic activities﴾5﴿. USEPA‐560/6‐77‐015 pp.16 ug/cu nm and with APCS were 2. rubber processing ﴾4 samples. and 0.8% pos. 0. percent pos.70 mean.8 mean. benzene levels rose on an incinerator https://pubchem.474 effluent samples. organic chemical/plastics mfg ﴾number of samples not reported ﴾NR﴿. Great Lake Water Qual Board (1978) (3) Kraybill HF. 0. <0. 15. 2. pharmaceutical mfg ﴾6 samples. benzene had an average concentration of 5. CA: SRI.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem SURFACE WATER: Surface water samples taken from 14 heavily industrialized areas with water basins between 1975‐ 1976.63 ug/cu nm before APCS and 14.033 max﴿﴾1﴿. 76. 100% pos. contained benzene in 20% of the samples at concentrations ranging from 1‐7 ppb﴾1﴿.39 mean.9 max﴿. 444. Approximately 3% of all surface water drinking systems are estimated to be contaminated at levels higher than 0. 0. 77. iron and steel manufacturing ﴾mfg﴿ ﴾9 samples. 100% pos.2 mean. Health Advisories for 25 Organics: Benzene p. ranged from 0‐1 ppb﴾2﴿. 1. (1) IARC. ranged from 0‐7 ppb﴾2﴿.2% pos.9% pos.ncbi.2% pos. 3. 54.5 ug/L﴾6﴿. 87 max﴿.8 max﴿.010 mean.16 mean. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (2) SRI.93.9. in ppm﴿: raw wastewater: auto and other laundries ﴾20 samples.83 and 1.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 131/149 . Benzene emissions were studied from seven Swedish incineration plants before and after air pollution control systems ﴾APCS﴿ were introduced﴾2﴿. 0.016 mean.9% pos. Monograph. Benzene concentrations in Lake Michigan from 1975‐6. 62. Oddly. 0. 1. timber products processing ﴾14 samples. aluminum forming ﴾21 samples.46.010 max﴿. Monograph.9% pos. Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 131‐42 (1985)  from HSDB In 4 municipal landfill gases in Southern Finland ﴾1989‐1990 data﴿. 12 mean.95. NY Acad Sci Annals 298: 80‐9 (1977) (4) Staples CA et al.0077 mean. 3. 92. Monitoring to Detect Previously Unrecognized Pollutants in Surface Waters. In the US EPA STORET database. (1) Kato T et al. out of 1. NR.0% tested positive for benzene with a median concentration of 5. treated wastewater: auto and other laundries ﴾4 samples.2 mean.0% pos. NR.37.4 max﴿. 0. 70% pos. rubber processing ﴾5 samples. 22. max NR﴿. 0. out of 1. Ground Water Monit Rev 7: 94‐100 (1987) (4) Staples CA et al. <1.5% pos.2 ppm max﴿.1 max﴿. organic chemical/plastics mfg ﴾number of samples not reported ﴾NR﴿. (1) USEPA. 63 detections. paint and ink formulation ﴾24 samples. 50% pos. Center for Resource and Environmental (1977) (3) Plumb H Jr. 10. aluminum forming ﴾32 samples. Treatability Manual. 0.20. pharmaceutical mfg ﴾9 samples. NR﴿.60 mean.8 max﴿. Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 131‐42 (1985) (5) Sauer TC Jr. <0. I.14 ug/cu nm after APCS.nlm. Stack emissions from coking plants located in Czechoslovakia contained benzene ranging from 15‐50 ppm﴾2﴿. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs.nih. max. (1) Ewing BB et al. Benzene concentrations in Lake Erie from 1975‐6. 0.021 max﴿. respectively﴾2﴿.2﴿. 0.1‐5 USEPA‐600/2‐82‐001A (1981)  from HSDB Wastewater from coal preparation plants ranged from 0.4% tested positive for benzene at a median concn of 2. Plant B ﴾3 incinerators﴿ benzene levels were 21. <8. 0. 100% pos. petroleum refining ﴾11 samples. 0. In the US EPA STORET database.

nih.39‐59.33 1. In the US EPA STORET database. benzene concentrations in Los Angeles. (1) Whelan JK et al. benzene concentrations were 2. Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 131‐42 (1985)  from HSDB SOIL: Soil near factories where benzene was used or produced contained benzene ranging from 2‐191 ug/kg﴾1﴿. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 56: 225‐260 (2005)  from HSDB 13.88 1. 9% tested positive for benzene at a median concentration of <5. At the fifth plant. In 24 hr sampling periods conducted in US cities in 1979.36 ug/cu nm after APCS. 255 (2001) (2) Zhang XJ.04 ppb﴿. benzene concentrations were 0. Atmospheric benzene concentrations were studied in New Jersey in 1978 with the following cities reporting detections: Rutherford.8 ppb in 2292 samples﴾1﴿. 8.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 132/149 . (1) IARC. New York. 3.55 ppb﴿﴾3﴿. had an average benzene concentration of 2.08 Median 1.80 Median 3.57 21.82 ug/cu nm before APCS and 0. measured in November. CA in April ranged from 0.73 to 1.26 2. 149 samples.79 ug/cu nm after APCS﴾2﴿.14 Atmospheric Concentrations URBAN/SUBURBAN: Benzene concentrations in 2001‐2003 exhibited an overall reduction of 60% from previous testing in 1990‐2003 but were still above the health risk threshold﴾1﴿. in Oakland. California 1966 averaged 15 ppb ﴾57 ppb max﴿﴾2﴿. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 50: 131‐36 (2000) (4) Liberti L et al. At the sixth plant.8 ppb mean https://pubchem.44 ug/cu nm before APCS and 1. Monograph.13 Sediment/Soil Concentrations SEDIMENT: Surface sediments taken from Walvis Bay ﴾off Capetown.52 6.1 kg/yr﴾3﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem after APCS. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Average benzene concentrations were 13 ppb ﴾98 ppb max﴿ in Toronto.89 ppb ﴾mean 4.85 2.13 ug/cu nm before APCS and 1.71 7.ncbi.91 4.0 ppb﴾2﴿.49.09 2. Average benzene concentrations in Los Angeles. At the seventh plant ﴾3 incinerators﴿ benzene concentrations were 4. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982)  from HSDB 13. out of 355 samples.74 ppb﴿.10 (1) Aleksic N et al. benzene concentrations were 2.2.26 Max 104. December 2001 and May 2002﴾4﴿. Benzene emission factors of 29‐54 tons/yr were estimated from a large steel factory in Taranto.nlm. Atmos Environ 39: 7894‐7905 (2005)  from HSDB URBAN/SUBURBAN: Air samples taken in the US from 1977‐1980.30 and 5.06‐4.63 ppb ﴾mean 1.87 ppb﴾mean 6. Canada 1971﴾2﴿.09 2.37 ug/cu nm after APCS﴾2﴿. J Environ Sci Health A33: 279‐306 (1998) (3) Alvim Ferraz MCM et al.68 1. benzene concentrations were 3.31 1.51 15. CA from June‐July benzene ranged from 0. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg.35 1. The amount of benzene in the gaseous emissions of medical waste incinerator in 1000‐bed hospitals in Portugal ranged from 0. and 11.39 0.31.81 1.92 Max 16. Statistic Lakawana Brooklyn Troy Niagara Falls 1990‐2003 Mean 5. At the third plant. At the fourth plant. in Phoenix. respectively﴾2﴿.92 ug/cu nm before APCS and 1.32 ug/cu nm after APCS﴾2﴿. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44: 1767‐85 (1980) (2) Staples CA et al.72‐27. South Africa﴿ contained benzene ranging from 0‐ 20 ppb﴾1﴿. AZ from April‐May benzene ranged from 0.02. (1) Verschueren K. Italy.87 2001‐2003 Mean 2.05 1. 4th ed.2.23 17. 1.64 ug/cu nm after APCS﴾2﴿.57 ug/cu nm before APCS and 0.

60. Indoor benzene concentrations of 4. 4 ppb. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 (1996) (4) Tsani‐Bazaca E et al. 16. Peak benzene levels were measured in the shower stall at 18‐20 mins ﴾758‐1670 ug/cu m﴿. U.S. offices/Libraries/corridors. St. 61 air samples. benzene had a mean indoor air concentration of 6. 30. Whole air samples were collected from the bathroom. 5. 2. followed by five minutes for drying and dressing. Environ Sci Technol 26: 185‐192 (1992) (4) Lindstrom AB et al. Environ Sci Technol 7: 628‐712 (1973) (3) Singh WB et al. Ann Occup Hyg 42: 129‐134 (1998) (3) Moseley CL. Alaska﴾1﴿.6 ppb mean concentration with 24 ppb max. it was noted that benzene was distinctly lower on Sundays and slightly lower on Saturdays and Wednesdays﴾6﴿. 30 samples.39. (1) Brodzinsky R.7.3. soil/duct/floor interface. Russia. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (6) Austin J.07 ug/cu m ﴾mean﴿ with a max of 42 ug/cu m were reported following air analysis of 100 suburban and rural homes in New Jersey.3 ug/cu m in 22 non‐complaint buildings. 18. in the bedroom at 25.1 and 7.010‐0. Australia.98 ug/cu m in the winter.5‐8 ug/cu m﴾2﴿.9 ppb max. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 53: 889‐896 (2003)  from HSDB URBAN/SUBURBAN: Benzene has been detected in urban air samples in London. Since the 1960's. in the bathroom at 10‐25 mins ﴾366‐498 ug/cu m﴿. Meye MR.K. crawl space beneath floor. The mean benzene concentrations in the personal. 11 air samples.3 ug/cu m compared to 6. (1) Wallace L.7 ug/cu m in 5 complaint buildings. and then opening the bathroom door and allowing the individual to leave and have his blood.8 ppbv. 76 homes were above the method detection limit﴾2﴿. In general. 27 sites. The median concentration of benzene in 39 U. Environ Technol Lett 2: 303‐16 (1981)  from HSDB INDOOR: In a recent benzene exposure study. and outdoor samples were 20. Mean concentration of benzene coming from the shower head for the three days was 292 ug/L﴾4﴿. 2. 37 samples﴾1﴿. and 28. respectively﴾1﴿.nlm. U. Atmos Environ 31: 3999‐4008 (1997) (2) Singh HB.6 ppb﴾2﴿. Zimmerman PB. Environ Sci Technol 42: 8231‐8238 (2008)  from HSDB https://pubchem.nih. 1.K. J Exp Anal Env Epidem 4: 183‐195 (1994)  from HSDB INDOOR: Benzene geometric mean concentrations in new and established buildings in Melbourne. Singh HB. A series of experiments were conducted in a 290 sq m single‐family residence from June 11‐13.. Hungary. that was poorly ventilated. ranged from 0. Norweigh.ncbi. and Tokyo. Atmos Environ 15: 601‐20 (1981) (4) Bozzelli JW. 1. and fall seasons. Benzene was detected in air samples collected from the classrooms. Analysis Of Selected Volatile Organic Substances In Ambient Air. Newark. The overall mean was 4. 1. (1) Trost B et al. In a nationwide Canadian study which measured the 24‐hr indoor air concentrations of benzene in 754 randomly selected homes. and 1. 22 samples. 2.6 ug/cu m﴾3﴿. respectively﴾1﴿. Chicago.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 133/149 . 18 samples. 25. 5. Boston. 1. the ambient atmospheric concentration of benzene has declined﴾2﴿. Oslo. and in the living room at 36‐70 mins ﴾40‐62 ug/cu m﴿﴾4﴿. respectively﴾1﴿. and 11 ug/cu m during the winter.9 ppb max﴾4﴿. It involved an individual taking a 20 min shower with the bathroom door closed. and 6. California. and outdoor/background at 0‐5 ppb. Somerset county. and 0‐3 ppb. Bridgewater Township. Kebbekus BB. 110 samples. Graydon WF. Australia were reported as follows: 3. 3‐4 ppb. Petersburg. Los Angeles. 1991 to ascertain the human exposure to benzene from a contaminated groundwater source﴾4﴿. 2. cities from 1984‐1985 was 12. with Ottawa and Montreal ranging between 5.. Indoor Air 12: 55‐63 (2002) (2) Weisel CP et al. monograph.4 ug/cu m.6.0 ppb mean concentration with 1. Southampton. Japan at 9. 18. NJ: NJ Inst Technol 80 pp. summer.21 ppb﴾4﴿. Adv Environ Sci Technol 24: 177‐235 (1992) (3) Wallace L.5‐30 mins ﴾81‐146 ug/cu m﴿. 70‐80 ppb. Houston. Volatile Organic Chemicals In The Atmosphere: An Assessment Of Available Data 198 pp.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem concentration with 107 ppb max. Budapest. (1979) (5) IARC. 27. Gasoline leaking from an underground storage tank near an elementary school in the Midwest United States ﴾location not specified﴿ created elevated levels of benzene concentrations within the school property﴾3﴿. Piscataway/Middlesex. boiler room. respectively﴾3﴿. Indoor and outdoor 48‐hr average concentrations of benzene were measured at 161 homes throughout much of California in which indoor samples had a mean concentration of 8. Sydney. approx 2600 ppb. concentrations of benzene emitted from tobacco smoke in 5 workplaces located in Finland. 1995 ranged from 1. Benzene's ambient concentration was highest at night‐time and lowest by mid‐day due to deep convective mixing and chemical loss by OH radicals﴾2﴿. In day‐of‐week patterns of benzene from 6 urban sites in the Los Angeles area. Benzene concentrations in a traffic tunnel in London.02 ppm﴾5﴿. SRI Inter 68‐ 02‐3452 (1982) (2) Pilar S.9 outdoor samples. sampled from 1989‐2001. indoor. (1) Brown SK.1 ug/cu m outdoor samples﴾1﴿. and 5 ug/cu m during the summer.4 ppb mean concentration with 7. the average concentration of benzene in the urban atmosphere is estimated at 0. Newark. 1. breath and urine sampled﴾4﴿. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 (1996) (2) Rothberg M et al. 2.72. shower and living room. Benzene concentrations were reported for 586 ambient air samples collected from 10 Canadian cities﴾3﴿.16. spring. day and night 12‐hr average concentrations of benzene were measured for 58 residents of Valdez.6 mean concentration with 33 ppb max.

230. Benzene was detected ﴾concentration not specified﴿ in ambient air samples taken from Witaker's Forest/Sierra Nevada Mountains. the air samples could have been influenced by emissions from California's Central Valley and even from the San Francisco Bay area﴾5﴿. Benzene concentrations in the Pacific Ocean ranged from 0.nlm.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem RURAL/REMOTE: Benzene concentrations in 2001‐2003 exhibited an overall reduction of 60% from previous testing in 1990‐2003 but still above the health risk threshold﴾1﴿.6‐34 ppb.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 134/149 .4 ppb average﴾1﴿. Volatile Organic Chemicals In The Atmosphere: An Assessment of Available Data 198 pp.16‐0.066﴾5﴿.01 ppb in the Southern hemisphere﴾5﴿. OR. in air samples from Whiteface Mountain.65 ppb﴾6﴿.142 ug/cu m﴾1﴿. monograph. Zimmerman PR. the average concentration of benzene was 1. Atmos Environ 39: 7894‐7905 (2005)  from HSDB RURAL/REMOTE: In 100 rural air samples taken within the US from 1977‐1980. Singh HB.6‐1. Air Waste 56: 3‐11 (2006) (2) Verschueren K.0003‐3.1‐17 ppb﴾3﴿. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals.47 Max 3. Narang A.54 Median 0.05 ppb in the Northern hemisphere to 0.226. Arey J. Alaska in 1967 contained benzene at 0.2 ppm. (1) Brodzinsky R. Chemosphere 71: 2030‐2043 (2008)  from HSDB SOURCE DOMINATED: Atmospheric benzene concentrations were studied throughout the USA between 1977‐1980 in which out of 487 samples taken.12 and 0.24 ppb﴾4﴿. Benzene concentrations range from 100‐200 parts per trillion over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans due to seepage and spillage of oil into the oceans﴾3﴿. 0.ncbi.23/45 deg N. average concentrations from the 5 sites ranged from 0. 4th ed.16 ppb over a 24 hr average in 5 of 25 samples﴾2﴿. Benzene was measured at 35 ug/cu m in the plume of a forest fire at a distance of 6 km of the seat of the fire﴾2﴿.61 2001‐2003 Mean 0. 0. and in cigarette smoke 57‐64 ppm﴾2﴿. Pullman. 1990﴾5﴿. Although the area was very remote. benzene concentrations ranged from not detected to 1. NY taken in July 1994﴾6﴿. Norwegian Arctic.07‐0.2 ug/cu m﴾4﴿. Cape Meares. Measurements were performed in midsummer at high ambient temperatures and under stable meteorological conditions with high solar radiation﴾5﴿. near service stations 0.86 Median 0.0 ppb﴾1﴿.30 (1) Aleksic N et al. In 5 remote tropical sites. Rural sampling for benzene in Canada found concentrations ranging from 0. Cronn DR.nih. Statistic Whiteface Mountain 1990‐2003 Mean 0. Monograph.61 Max 8. The average benzene concentration for nighttime and daytime was 0. SRI Inter 68‐ 02‐3452 (1982) (2) Cavanagh LA et al. (1) McCarthy MC et al. The median concentration of benzene in the Southern Appalachian Mountains was 1.8 ppb. Am Chem Soc Div Environ Chem 192nd Natl Mtg 26: 10‐3 (1986)  from HSDB RURAL/REMOTE: The estimated mean North American concentration of benzene at remote sites during 2003 was 0. Volatile Organic Chemicals In The Atmosphere: An Assessment Of Available Data 198 pp. benzene was found at an average concentration of 3. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (4) Singh HB et al.07/35 deg N. 0. 255 (2001) (3) Singh HB. J Atmos Chem 2: 415‐ 33 (1985) (6) Greenberg JP. Multilatitude background concentrations of benzene ﴾ppb/deg North﴿: Atlantic Ocean 0. SRI Inter 68‐ 02‐3452 (1982) (2) IARC. 0. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg. Adv Environ Sci Technol 24: 177‐235 (1992) (4) Wallace L.1 ppb﴾3﴿. Pacific Ocean. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982)  from HSDB https://pubchem. Environ Sci Technol 3: 251‐7 (1969) (3) IARC. Pacific Ocean 0. (1) Brodzinsky R. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 (1996) (5) Helmig D. WA. Ambient air samples taken from Barrows. respectively.581. Atmos Environ 19: 1911‐9 (1985) (5) Nutmagul W. The concentration of benzene near USA chemical factories where benzene is used ranged from 0. Niwot Ridge ﴾Colorado Rockies﴿ 0.14 ppbv. New York. Zimmerman PB. Singh HB. Sci Tot Env 112: 233‐250 (1992) (6) Khwaja H. California from June 20‐June 22. average benzene concentration in rural areas range from 0.

NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold pg.55 ug/kg in freshly squeezed fruit. retail juice ﴾without benzoate﴿.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 135/149 . 0. and 0.3. Benzene emission factors were 2. fruit drinks ﴾with cranberry. and ice tea ﴾with benzoate﴿.98. Environ Sci Technol 41: 7060‐7066 (2007) (4) Herndon SC et al. cold‐start pre‐test 6. Genus species Common name Plant Carthamus tinctorius Safflower Flower Elsholtzia cristata Vietnamese Balm Shoot https://pubchem. cold‐start garage 444.nih.05﴾4﴿. cranberry drinks ﴾without benzoate﴿. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. eggs.042. fish. Thomas KW et al. 0.0 ug/kg in Canada﴾1﴿. C‐5 USEPA‐440/5‐80‐018 (1980)  from HSDB In 1990. without benzoate﴿. emission factors in 2002 and 1993 were 2. hot‐soak background ﴾ambient﴿ 2. Chemical Compounds in the Atmosphere. respectively﴾1﴿.1. carbonated soft drinks ﴾without benzoate﴿.15 Food Survey Values Benzene was found in both heat treated and canned beef at 2 ug/kg. and it was detected ﴾concns not specified﴿ in fruits. 0.14. fruit drinks ﴾with benzoate﴿. takeoff 0. approach ﴾touchdown﴿ 0. benzene levels in the air have been shown to be higher in homes with attached garages. or where inhabitants smoke inside the house. Benzene has been detected from 2 species of macroalgae at 20 ppb﴾2﴿. dairy products.13 mg/km in the Gubrist highway tunnel in Zurich.95. 0. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 3 (1): 49‐73 (1993) as cited in U. Switzerland over a 2‐week period in 2004. nuts. Contribution of vehicle emissions from an attached garage to residential indoor benzene levels were studied. J Agric Food Chem 37: 734‐736 (1989)  from HSDB 13. respectively﴾3﴿. benzene was detected in fruit flavored mineral waters at concentrations greater than 5. retail juice ﴾with benzoate additive﴿. Environ Sci Technol 40: 4406‐4413 (2006)  from HSDB SOURCE DOMINATED: In private homes. MA﴿ in May 2003 was reported as ﴾g/kg﴿: idle 0. Ambient Water Quality Criteria: Benzene p. Toxicological Profile for Benzene (Update) p.29. (1) Graedel TC.S.94.nlm. NY: Academic Press (1978) (2) Whelan JK et al. carbonated soft drinks ﴾with benzoate﴿. in eggs ranging from 500‐1900 ug/kg.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem SOURCE DOMINATED: Benzene was emitted by pre‐catalyst cars at 114‐153 mg/mile while with catalyst cars. vegetables. hot‐soak garage 121﴾2﴿.056. Flath RA.79.12. emissions dropped to 5‐32 mg/mile﴾1﴿. (1) Verschueren K. cold‐start house 25. The average benzene concentration in various samples were as follows ﴾ng/L﴿: cold‐start background ﴾ambient﴿ 2. New York. Median benzene emission from in‐use commercial aircraft during a Logan Airport operation ﴾Boston. 0.22.2. hot‐soak pre‐test 3. Nature 299: 50‐ 2 (1982)  from HSDB Benzene occurrences in plants﴾1﴿.ncbi. without benzoate﴿. 0. New York. 4th ed.180 (1997)  from HSDB 13.9.1.062. (1) Page BD et al.39.10 ug/g﴾2﴿. and beverages﴾1﴿. benzene was found at an average concentration of 0.7 and 13. in Jamaican rum at 120 ug/kg.69 mg/km.2. hot‐soak house 13.16 Plant Concentrations Benzene has been detected as a plant volatile﴾1﴿. meat. These data suggest the natural occurrence of benzene in fruits and fruit juices. 0. fruit drinks ﴾excluding cranberry.77. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 54: 563‐584 (2004) (3) Legreid G et al. Benzene is a volatile organic compound emitted by both common and pineapple guava at a concentration of 0. J AOAC Int 75: 334‐340 (1992) (2) Binder RG. 255 (2001) (2) Graham LA et al. 0. (1) USEPA.67. poultry. especially from cranberries﴾1﴿. taxiway acceleration 0. When an investigation of benzene concentrations in beverages was performed.

4th ed. Spain. (1) Rodgman A.18 Milk Concentrations Benzene was detected in all 8 samples of mothers milk from women in 4 US urban areas﴾1﴿.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 136/149 . Environ Sci Technol 36: 846‐53 (2002)  from HSDB 13.9 were measured in samples from nonsmoking premises and outdoors.4 minimum. https://pubchem.gov/duke/  from HSDB 13. FL: CRC Press p.. Composite clam samples from Chef Menteur Pass in Lake Pontchartain. Agric Res Service. Environ Sci Technol 44: 8289‐8294 (2010) (3) Polzin GM et al. The delivery of benzene in mainstream cigarette smoke ranges from 3. Perfetti TA.2. the number of persons reasonably likely to be exposed in the industrial manufacturing. LA contained benzene at 260 ppb wet weight. (1) Pellizzari ED et al. Environ Sci Technol 16: 781‐5 (1982)  from HSDB 13.ars‐grin. 3. 2014: http://www. Benzene.2. NY: John Wiley & Sons.2. and use of benzene is 1000 or greater.nlm. Boca Raton. 1302 (1994)  from HSDB Benzene exposure‐relevant emission factors ﴾ug/cigarette﴿ at three furnishing levels and three ventilation rates in a 50 m sq room﴾1﴿. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.9 maximum. Plants with a chosen chemical.3/hr wallboard only 517 438 387 wallboard/carpet 457 432 400 fully furnished 429 435 429 (1) Singer BC et al.7 to 56. the data may be greatly underestimated﴾1﴿. 11. Furnishing 2/hr 0. 47 (2009) (2) Alonso M et al. Dr.8 mg/cigarette﴾3﴿. Environ Sci Technol 41: 1297‐1302 (2007) (4) Talhout R et al.6/hr 0. Clayton FE.3 ug/cu m ﴾0. A range of 47‐64 ppm in tobacco smoke has also been reported﴾5﴿. respectively.7 ug/cu m mean﴿ were measured in 41 air samples from smoking premises consisting of 37 cafes and 19 restaurants in Girona. LA at 220 ppb wet weight﴾1﴿. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34: 246‐55 (1985)  from HSDB 13. New York. Vol IIB p. Patty's Industrial Hygiene And Toxicology. however clam samples from The Rigolets did not contain benzene﴾1﴿. DC: US Dept Agric. Washington.2.7 and 0. Mean concentrations of 0. Abstract: PubMed (1) Ferrario JB et al.19 Other Environmental Concentrations Benzene has been detected in cigarette smoke﴾1‐4﴿. as of Feb 18.20 Probable Routes of Human Exposure According to the 2006 TSCA Inventory Update Reporting data.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Levisticum officinale Lovage Root Psidium guajava Guava Fruit (1) USDA.nih. from the same region﴾2﴿. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8: 613‐628 (2011) (5) Clayton GD. processing. Median benzene concentrations of 2. Available from.ncbi.17 Fish/Seafood Concentrations Benzene was detected in 5 oyster samples from the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal in Lake Pontchartrain. The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke.

ingestion of food and drinking water. including Manufacturing.nih. (1) NIOSH.cdc.016 0. DC: U.niehs. as of Feb 18.013 99th percentile ﴾ppm﴿ 0.pdf  from HSDB Analysis and modeling of 20.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/Benzene.275 workers ﴾143.nlm. Results indicate that measurements were primarily due to ship engine exhaust. 2014: http://www. 2014: http://cfpub. 2014: http://ntp.5‐7.8 pot petroleum gas Chinese dim Steaming in fixed food court in Natural gas 8. Inventory Update Reporting (IUR). Washington.2 3.025 95th percentile ﴾ppm﴿ 0.7‐4. as of February 21. Non‐confidential 2006 IUR Records by Chemical. Before cap After cap Number samples 3089 1856 % Detection 98 99 Mean ﴾ppm﴿ 0.014 0.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 137/149 . Occupational exposure to benzene may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where benzene is produced or used.ncbi.7 sum dining area Western Natural gas Prepared in kitchen 3.3‐3.031 0. DHHS/National Toxicology Program. and dermal contact with consumer products containing benzene﴾SRC﴿.6 petroleum gas area Chinese hot Liquified Boiling in soup in dining area 7. Environ Sci Technol 45(17): 7372‐7379 (2011)  from HSDB Benzene concentrations at four Hong Kong restaurants employing different cooking styles﴾1﴿.0056 0.cfm  from HSDB NIOSH ﴾NOES Survey 1981‐1983﴿ has statistically estimated that 272.8 9. workers potentially were exposed to benzene ﴾NIOSH 1976﴿. National Occupational Exposure Survey conducted from 1981‐1983.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem (1) US EPA.9‐19.gov/iursearch/index.gov/noes/  from HSDB The National Occupational Health Survey ﴾conducted from 1972 to 1974﴿ estimated that 147. Processing and Use Information.066 of these were female﴿ were potentially exposed to benzene in the US﴾1﴿.S.012 average detection limit ﴾ppm﴿ 0. Estimated numbers of employees potentially exposed to specific agents by 2‐digit standard industrial classification (SIC).3 6.000 airborne breathing zone air samples of Deepwater Horizon oil spill offshore cleanup workers were taken during the six months following the incident.epa. Available from. as of Feb 18.2 cafeteria (1) Lee SC et al.3‐12. NOES.S. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to benzene via inhalation of ambient air.014 (1) Avens HJ et al. 21% fraction BTEX dissolved in water.3‐8. Environmental Protection Agency. Available from. Available from. Estimated contributions to airborne benzene concentration were 34% oil thickness.4‐12.600 U. and 22% BTEX content in oil﴾1﴿. Twelfth Report on Carcinogens: Benzene (71‐43‐2) (2011). 23% wind speed. Indoor benzene Outdoor benzene Types Stove fuel Way of cooking concn concn Liquified Frying in oil on hot pan in dining Korean BBQ 16. Sci Total Environ 279: 181‐93 (2001)  from HSDB https://pubchem.nih.7‐10 8.

2. followed by five minutes for drying and dressing. 6. (1) Winder C et al. Mean benzene exposures of 2.4 ug/kg per day from airborne exposures ﴾3. Monograph. Chem Compounds in the Atmos. shower and living room.2﴿. 1991 to ascertain the human exposure to benzene from a contaminated groundwater source.94 surface paint over 1‐2 hour sampling periods﴾2﴿. Some Industrial Chem and Dyestuffs 29: 99‐106 (1982) (2) Graedel TE.100 at 0. (1) IARC. revealed that mean in‐auto concentrations of benzene were 30. In addition. 62 at 9. In a study of more than 50 foods. However. 3. 1999 ﴾1.2 ug/cu m along urban routes and 11.3 km. Thus.45 km. The individual taking the shower had an average inhalation dose of 113 ug and an average dermal dose of 168 ug ﴾exposure = 40% inhalation. There may be a large number of cases where well water is contaminated by benzene at low concentrations. 1. Menlo Park. New York.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 138/149 .70 in home out door. most contained benzene below 2 ng/g ppbw. Another source of exposure is from inhalation of tobacco smoke﴾1﴿.77 ppm for primer and 0. Assesment of Human Exposures to Atmospheric Benzene. A number of studies have reported finding benzene at levels on the order of 5 ng/L in surface and well waters. 740 at 1.800 at 0. and 20 at 20. an average concentration of benzene at 40 ug/cu m during rush hour was detected﴾4﴿.55. This amount is only 0. home indoor and personal air samples in summer.02 ug/kg benzene per day compared to a total intake of 2. it is concluded that the effect of contaminated water on total benzene intake is negligible﴾1﴿.09 in home out door.3 ug/kg/day if exposed to cigarette smoke﴿. The inhalation exposure to benzene of an individual in the living room averaged 72 ug for the three days.[﴾1﴿ Wallace L.0 km distance from the manufacturing plant﴾1﴿. 370 at 2. In a 200‐trip study of in‐vehicle air of Los Angeles commuters.75 km. 34 at 14. 1999﴿ were assessed for 46 high school students in the West Central Harlem section of NYC﴾5﴿. home indoor and personal air samples in winter. Ann Occup Hyg 36: 385‐94 (1992) (2) Uang S et al. 2. 60% dermal﴿.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem Human populations are primarily exposed to benzene through inhalation of contaminated ambient air particularly in areas with heavy traffic and around filling stations. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 ﴾1996﴿] Full text: PMC1469757 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB https://pubchem.6 ug/cu m along urban routes and 18.nih. Shonh SL. It involved an individual taking a 20 min shower with the bathroom door closed.15‐0.6 km.nlm. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 (1996) (5) Kinney PL et al. 120 at 6. assuming 2 liters of water drunk daily. 1994.0 km.15 km.6 km.800 at 0. 2. air close to manufacturing plants which produce or use benzene may contain high concentrations of benzene﴾1. USEPA‐450/3‐78‐031.97 and 4.ncbi. Environ Health Perspect 110: 539‐546 (2002)  from HSDB 13.0 km.3 ug/cu m along suburban routes while mean in‐bus concentrations were 20. NTIS PB 284 203 (1978)  from HSDB Benzene was detected in 3 out of 70 samples taken from 46 spray painting workshops in Sydney. most benzene exposure ultimately was derived from auto exhaust or gasoline vapor emissions. Roughly half the total benzene exposure in the United States was borne by smokers. Sci Total Environ 356: 38‐44 (2006) (3) Jo WK et al. In a 1980's study of non‐occupational benzene exposure. these levels correspond to a daily intake of <10 ng benzene. breath and urine sampled. For non‐ smokers.31.0 km. A series of experiments were conducted in a 290 sq m single‐family residence from June 11‐13. Worker exposure in aircraft paint stripping and spraying industries ranged on average from 0. Australia at a concentration of 1 mg/cu m in 1989﴾1﴿.75 and 3. A Canadian review of benzene exposures concluded that food and drinking water each contributed only about 0. it was found that more than 99% of the total personal exposure was through air and that a global average personal exposure for benzene was about 15 ug/cu m. CA: SRI.7 ug/cu m along suburban routes﴾3﴿. 5. In a study of in‐auto and in‐bus exposures to volatile organic compounds for commutes on an urban‐suburban route in Korea from November 21 to December 22. and then opening the bathroom door and allowing the individual to leave and have his blood.21 Average Daily Intake Two studies of benzene levels in foods have confirmed the conclusion that ingesting food and beverages are an unimportant pathway for benzene exposure.5% of the average daily intake for nonsmokers of 200 ng from air. (1) Mara SJ.14 ‐ 0. NY Academic Press (1978)  from HSDB Rough estimates of average ambient ground‐level benzene concentrations over an 8 hour period were calculated based on an emission rate of 100 g/sec from a manufacturing plant. 220 at 4.0 km. Air Waste Manage Assoc 46: 749‐754 (1996) (4) Wallace L.000 at 0.100 at 0. Benzene concentrations ﴾in pg/cu m﴿ are estimated to be 11.5 km. Whole air samples were collected from the bathroom.

1 and 131 ng/L.nih. The mean benzene concentration found in the breath and blood of 1.8 ppb﴿﴾3﴿. Breath samples from persons without specific exposure to benzene ranged from 8 to 20 ppb﴾2﴿. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 36: 364‐71 (1986) (4) Stanley JS. Monograph. Environ Sci Technol 16: 781‐5 (1982) (2) IARC.2.22 Body Burdens Benzene was detected in all 8 samples of mothers' milk from women living in 4 USA urban areas﴾1﴿. I Executive Summary p. (1) Pellizzari ED et al. 129 females﴿ ranged from not detected to 5. Environ Health Perspect 104: 1129‐1136 ﴾1996﴿] Full text: PMC1469757 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB https://pubchem.683 individuals was 13. Broad Scan Analysis of the FY82 National Human Adipose Tissue Survey Specimens Vol.9 ppb.[﴾1﴿ Wallace L. 29: 99‐ 106 (1982) (3) Antoine SR et al. ﴾mean 0.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 13. In FY82. 96% tested positive to benzene ﴾concentrations were >4 ppb for wet tissue﴿ with a max concentration of 97 ppb max﴾4﴿. 5 USEPA‐560/5‐86‐035 (1986)  from HSDB In a 1980's study of non‐occupational benzene exposure. the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey specimens found that of 46 composite samples. Whole blood samples from 250 subjects ﴾121 males.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 139/149 .nlm. respectively﴾1﴿. it was found that smokers had an average benzene body burden about 6 to 10 times that of nonsmokers.ncbi. and received about 90% of their benzene exposure from smoking﴾1﴿. Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs.

4 Metabolite References  Download 1 to 5 of 20 View More PMID Reference Wiwanitkit V. Wang X: [Studies on relationship between exposure to low concentration of mixed 11372393 benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss].  from PubChem 14.2 NLM Curated PubMed Citations CLICK TO LOAD. Chen H.ncbi..2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 14 Literature 14..3 Synthesis References Copisarow. Transactions ﴾1921﴿. Leuk Lymphoma.nlm. Suwansaksri J: Urine phenol and myeloperoxidase index: an observation in 15370219 benzene exposed subjects.45﴾8﴿:1643‐5. 2000 Sep. The Friedel‐Crafts' reaction.  from Human Metabolome Database 14.nih. Wang S. 119 442‐7. Long. Migration of halogen atoms in the benzene nucleus.. 2004 Aug. Maurice. II. https://pubchem..1 Depositor Provided PubMed Citations CLICK TO LOAD.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 140/149 . Cyril N H.34﴾5﴿:271‐3.  from PubChem 14. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. Journal of the Chemical Society. Soogarun S.

ncbi. Wang Y. Smith MT: Benzene metabolites induce the loss and long arm deletion of 9593466 chromosomes 5 and 7 in human lymphocytes.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 141/149 .﴾113﴿:1‐26.nih. Fabiani R. discussion 27‐35. 1998 Feb. De Bartolomeo A. 2003 Feb. Mani C: Benzene metabolism in rodents at doses relevant to human exposure from 12675491 urban air. Res Rep Health Eff Inst.46﴾3﴿:156‐63.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem PMID Reference Zhang L. Morozzi G: Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum‐mediated 15920754 increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity.nlm. Shang N. Environ Mol Mutagen. Leuk Res.22﴾2﴿:105‐13.  from Human Metabolome Database https://pubchem. 2005 Oct. Turteltaub KW.

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.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 16 Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways 16.nlm..nih.  from PubChem 16.1 Protein Bound 3‐D Structures CLICK TO LOAD.2 Biosystems and Pathways CLICK TO LOAD.ncbi..  from PubChem https://pubchem..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 143/149 .

.nlm.  from PubChem https://pubchem.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 17 Biological Test Results 17..nih.ncbi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 144/149 .1 BioAssay Results CLICK TO LOAD.

2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem 18 Classification 18.1 MeSH Tree CLICK TO LOAD.  from ChEBI 18.1.1 Ontologies 18.1.2 ChEBI Ontology CLICK TO LOAD..  from MeSH 18..nih.nlm..3 KEGG: Carcinogen CLICK TO LOAD.1.ncbi..gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 145/149 ..  from KEGG https://pubchem..

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html http://www.cdc.html 17.nlm.gov. EU REGULATION ﴾EC﴿ No 1272/2008 /source/EU REGULATION ﴾EC﴿ No 1272/2008 benzene http://ec.dot.gov/cgi‐ bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+71‐43‐2 16.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&ns=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C302 https://ncit.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_220100.asp?Chemical=B0090 https://www.asp?Chemical=B0090 19.ncbi.gov/data/acute/qrychemdesc.gov/hazmat/outreach‐training/erg http://phmsa.html 21.nlm. CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal /source/CDC‐ATSDR Toxic Substances Portal https://www.jp/english/ghs/14‐mhlw‐2197e.osha.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem benzene http://phmsa.usgs.gov/substances/toxsubstance.nci.html 14.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_255700.safe. HSDB /source/HSDB BENZENE http://toxnet.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 148/149 .gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_255700.pdf 12.dot.gov.gov/ncitbrowser/ConceptReport.cerc.eu/growth/sectors/chemicals/classification‐labelling/index_en.nite.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0197.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0197. FDA/SPL Indexing Data /source/FDA/SPL Indexing Data J64922108F https://pubchem.gov/cgi‐bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+71‐43‐2 http://toxnet.osha.cerc. NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List /source/NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List benzene http://nj. USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center /source/USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center BENZENE https://www.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&ns=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C302 15.gov/hazmat/outreach‐training/erg 11. NITE‐CMC /source/NITE‐CMC Benzene http://www.html https://www.who.nih.epa.asp? toxid=14 13.gov/ncitbrowser/ConceptReport.nih.nite.int/food‐additives‐contaminants‐jecfa‐database/chemical.usgs.cdc.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/benzene.html https://www.safe.htm http://ec.eu/growth/sectors/chemicals/classification‐labelling/index_en.nci.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_220100.who.asp?toxid=14 https://www.nlm.htm 20.html http://www3.pdf http://nj.safeworkaustralia. FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations ‐ JECFA /source/FAO/WHO Food Additive Evaluations ‐ JECFA BENZENE http://apps.safeworkaustralia.osha.au/ http://hcis.nih.au/ 22.atsdr.go.osha.europa.aspx?chemID=170 18. OSHA Chemical Sampling Information /source/OSHA Chemical Sampling Information Naphtha (Coal Tar) https://www.atsdr.int/food‐additives‐ contaminants‐jecfa‐database/chemical.nih.html Benzene https://www.epa.gov/substances/toxsubstance.go.europa.jp/english/ghs/14‐mhlw‐2197e.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/benzene. Safe Work Australia ‐ HCIS /source/Safe Work Australia ‐ HCIS 71‐43‐2 http://hcis.aspx?chemID=170 http://apps.gov/data/acute/qrychemdesc. NCIt /source/NCIt Benzene https://ncit.nih. EPA Air Toxics /source/EPA Air Toxics Benzene http://www3.

uk/chebi/userManualForward. PubChem Data deposited in or computed by PubChem https://pubchem. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods /source/NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods 71‐43‐2 http://www.nih.cfm http://www.cdc.jp/dbget‐bin/www_bget?brite:br08008 http://www. NCBI LinkOut is a service that allows one to link directly from NCBI databases to a wide range of information and services beyond NCBI systems.nist.nih. WIPO /source/WIPO International Patent Classification http://www.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3700.wipo.aspx http://www.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/2549.cdc.pdf http://www.ccdc.do#ChEBI%20Ontology 30.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3800.2017­6­10 benzene | C6H6 ­ PubChem https://www.org/wiki/Q26841227 27.ncbi.gov/compound/benzene#section=Top 149/149 .gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/1501.genome. Wikipedia /source/Wikipedia benzene https://en.ncbi.cdc.uk/pages/Home.do#ChEBI%20Ontology http://www.cam.jp/dbget‐bin/www_bget?brite:br08008 31.ncbi.gov 28.nist.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3800.gov/mesh/meshhome.nlm.gov/ForIndustry/DataStandards/SubstanceRegistrationSystem‐UniqueIngredientIdentifierUNII/ https://www.html http://www.ebi.cdc.wikipedia. http://www.pdf 71‐43‐2 http://www.ncbi.pdf 71‐43‐2 http://www.cdc.gov/srd/nist1a.nlm.fda.cam.ac.ac.genome. MeSH /source/MeSH Benzene https://www.uk/chebi/userManualForward.wikidata.pdf http://www. KEGG /source/KEGG Carcinogen http://www.ccdc.nlm.nih.cdc.nlm.ac.gov/projects/linkout https://pubchem.org/wiki/Q26841227 https://www.html 29.cdc.int/classifications/ipc/ 32.gov/ForIndustry/DataStandards/SubstanceRegistrationSystem‐UniqueIngredientIdentifierUNII/ 23.nlm.pdf 8030‐30‐6 http://www.pdf http://www.nlm.gov/projects/linkout https://www.cfm 25.nih.pdf 71‐43‐2 http://www.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/1501.ac.gov/srd/nist1a.nih.ncbi.wipo.wikidata.org/wiki/Benzene https://en.ncbi.nlm.pdf 24.uk/pages/Home.gov/mesh/meshhome.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/2549.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/1550.wikipedia.ncbi.pdf http://www.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/1550.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3700.fda.gov/mesh/68001554 MeSH Tree http://www.nih.pdf http://www.nih.cdc. NIST /source/NIST Benzene http://www.nih.nlm.cdc.gov/mesh/68001554 https://www.gov https://pubchem.cdc.int/classifications/ipc/ http://www.aspx 26.ebi. https://www. ChEBI /source/ChEBI ChEBI Ontology http://www.nih. The Cambridge Structural Database /source/The Cambridge Structural Database The Cambridge Structural Database provides access to 3D structures of molecules determined experimentally using diffraction techniques.nlm.org/wiki/Benzene cyclohexatriene https://www.