2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem

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P‐XYLENE  Cite this Record

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PubChem CID: 7809
P‐XYLENE; 1,4‐Dimethylbenzene; Para‐Xylene; 1,4‐Xylene; P‐Methyltoluene; P‐
Chemical Names:
Dimethylbenzene    More...

Molecular Formula: C6H4﴾CH3﴿2 or C8H10
Molecular Weight: 106.168 g/mol
InChI Key: URLKBWYHVLBVBO‐UHFFFAOYSA‐N

Substance Registry: FDA UNII

Safety Summary: Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary ﴾LCSS﴿

p‐Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon based on benzene with two methyl substituents with the chemical formula C8H10
or C6H4﴾CH3﴿2. The “p” stands for para, identifying the location of the methyl groups as across from one another.
 Metabolite Description from Human Metabolome Database

P‐xylene is a colorless watery liquid with a sweet odor. Less dense than water. Insoluble in water. Irritating vapor.
Freezing point is 56°F. ﴾USCG, 1999﴿
 Physical Description from CAMEO Chemicals

PUBCHEM  COMPOUND  P‐XYLENE Create Date: 2005‐03‐26

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 1/101

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem

 Contents
1 2D Structure

2 3D Conformer

3 Names and Identifiers

4 Chemical and Physical Properties

5 Related Records

6 Chemical Vendors

7 Pharmacology and Biochemistry

8 Use and Manufacturing

9 Identification

10 Safety and Hazards

11 Toxicity

12 Literature

13 Patents

14 Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

15 Biological Test Results

16 Classification

17 Information Sources

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 2/101

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem

1 2D Structure
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 from PubChem

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 3/101

ncbi.  Magnify  Show Hydrogens  Show Atoms  Animate  from PubChem https://pubchem.nlm.nih..gov/compound/p­xylene 4/101 ..2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 2 3D Conformer  Search  Download  Get Image CLICK TO LOAD.

1. European Chemicals Age… 68411‐39‐2  from ChemIDplus 68650‐36‐2  from ChemIDplus. PubChem 3. EPA Chemicals under the TSCA https://pubchem.1 CAS 106‐42‐3  from CAMEO Chemicals.1.4 Canonical SMILES CC1=CC=C﴾C=C1﴿C  from PubChem 3.2 Molecular Formula C6H4﴾CH3﴿2  from ILO‐ICSC C8H10  from ILO‐ICSC.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 3 Names and Identifiers 3.1 Computed Descriptors 3. EPA DSStox.nih.1.4‐xylene  from PubChem 3.nlm.3.3 InChI Key URLKBWYHVLBVBO‐UHFFFAOYSA‐N  from PubChem 3.3 Other Identifiers 3.gov/compound/p­xylene 5/101 .1‐2H3  from PubChem 3.1 IUPAC Name 1. EPA Chemicals under the TSCA.2 InChI InChI=1S/C8H10/c1‐7‐3‐5‐8﴾2﴿6‐4‐7/h3‐6H. ChemIDplus.1. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.ncbi.

3.6 UNII 6WAC1O477V  from FDA/SPL Indexing Data 3.gov/compound/p­xylene 6/101 .ncbi.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 3.3. para‐xylene 5.4 Synonyms 3. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 3.3 ICSC Number 0086  from ILO‐ICSC 3.nih.7 Wikipedia Title p‐xylene Description chemical compound  from Wikipedia 3.nlm.3. p‐xylol 4. ILO‐ICSC.1 MeSH Synonyms 1.2 EC Number 203‐396‐5  from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA 3.3.3.4 RTECS Number ZE2625000  from ILO‐ICSC. paraxylene  from MeSH https://pubchem.3. NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List.5 UN Number 1307  from CAMEO Chemicals.4. p‐xylene 3. 4‐xylene 2. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 3.

1. 1. p‐Xylene‐13C8 39. AC1Q2QRE  from PubChem https://pubchem. CHEMBL31561 33.nih. ACMC‐1BRO 9. 106‐42‐3 18. UNII‐6WAC1O477V 28. p‐dimethyl‐ 26.4‐Dimethylcyclohexane. Aromatic hyd 8. p‐ 24.4 6. CHEBI:27417 35. Benzene. 4‐Xylene 20. 1. Solvent xylen 2. Para‐Xylene 13. 1. EINECS 203‐396‐5 32. AI3‐52255 34.2 Depositor‐Supplied Synonyms 1. Xylene. p‐Xylenes 3.4. Chromar 21.4‐dimethyl‐ 19.nlm. Xylene. p‐isomer 27. 4‐Methyltoluene 22. p‐Dimethylbenzene 16. paraxylene 40.4‐dimethyl 7. MFCD00008556 38. CCRIS 910 30. AC1L1PLL 10. Scintillar 23. P‐XYLENE 11. p‐Methyltoluene 15.4‐Dimethylbenzene 12.4‐Dimethylbenzol 25.gov/compound/p­xylene 7/101 . mixture of cis and trans 37. 1. HSDB 136 31. Xylene.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 3. 1. PXY 4. URLKBWYHVLBVBO‐UHFFFAOYSA‐N 36. 1.4‐Xylene 14. Benzene. Benzene. NSC 72419 29. p‐Xylol 17.ncbi.cokin 5.

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 4 Chemical and Physical Properties 4.2 Experimental Properties 4.1 Physical Description P‐xylene is a colorless watery liquid with a sweet odor. Freezing point is 56°F.2 Compound Is Canonicalized true Formal Charge 0 Heavy Atom Count 8 Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0 Isotope Atom Count 0 Covalently‐Bonded Unit Count 1  from PubChem 4. Irritating vapor. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Liquid  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA COLOURLESS LIQUID WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR. Insoluble in water. Less dense than water.2.nih.nlm.gov/compound/p­xylene 8/101 . https://pubchem.1 Computed Properties Property Name Property Value Molecular Weight 106.4 AAADccBwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAwAA AAAAAAAAABAAAAGAAAAAAADACAGAAyAIAAAACAAi CACTVS Substructure Key Fingerprint BCAAACAAAgAAAIiAAAAIgIICKAERCAIAAggAAIiAcAgA AOQAAAAAAAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Topological Polar Surface Area 0 A^2 Monoisotopic Mass 106.168 g/mol Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 0 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 0 Rotatable Bond Count 0 Complexity 48.078 g/mol XLogP3 3.078 g/mol Exact Mass 106. ﴾USCG.ncbi.

[Note: A solid below 56°F. Park Ridge. 95th Edition. The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals.2 Color Colorless plates or prisms at low temp O'Neil. 1985. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH). Available from.ncbi.nlm. p.nih. as of June 27. M. Available from: http://www. Cambridge.W.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from ILO‐ICSC Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.cdc. and Biologicals..M.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Characteristic odor CDC.2. Department of Health & Human Services. Off Resp Rest.gov/  from HSDB Aromatic odor NIOSH. W. p‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). 1876  from HSDB Colorless liquid [Note: A solid below 56 degrees F] NIOSH. Drugs.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Color: Saybolt units +30 ﴾research. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor. 2016: http://www. Industrial Solvents Handbook.]  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. 3rd ed. Department of Health & Human Services. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. Natl Ocean Atmos Admin. p. 3‐550 https://pubchem. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 2010‐168 (2010). Ed Info Div. 49  from HSDB 4.3 deg C Haynes. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. pure & technical grades﴿ Flick. GA: Centers for Disease Prevention & Control.gov/niosh/ipcs/  from HSDB 4. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Database of Hazardous Materials.J.4 Boiling Point 280. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) 2012.2.. Atlanta. NOAA Ocean Serv. 2013. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. as of June 27. Available from: http://www. CRC Press LLC.2.9° F at 760 mm Hg ﴾NTP.).noaa. Available from. E. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015.). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (ed. (ed.3 Odor Sweet NOAA. 2016: http://cameochemicals. p. NJ: Noyes Publications. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 138.gov/compound/p­xylene 9/101 .cdc. CAMEO Chemicals. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010‐168 (2010).cdc.

com/safety‐center. p. ﴾NTP. MA 2010.nih. 95th Edition.6 Flash Point 81° F ﴾NTP.2.gov/compound/p­xylene 10/101 . 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 13. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 3‐550  from HSDB 13°C  from ILO‐ICSC FRZ: 56°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 56°F  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016).ncbi. Product Number: 95680.2. Available from.nlm.0 deg C ﴾77.sigmaaldrich. p. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015.).M. 14TH Edition. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4.5 Melting Point 55.html  from HSDB 77 deg F ﴾25 deg C﴿ ﴾Closed cup﴿ National Fire Protection Association.2.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 138°C  from ILO‐ICSC 281°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.  from ILO‐ICSC 81°F  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 25.3 deg C Haynes. 325‐117  from HSDB 27°C c. W. CRC Press LLC.0 deg F﴿ ‐ closed cup Sigma‐Aldrich. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals https://pubchem. (ed.9° F ﴾NTP.c. Quincy. 2016: http://www. Version 3. as of July 1.7 Solubility Insoluble. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.

W.8 Density 0.2.). and Biologicals. 95th Edition. 1992﴿ ﴾Relative to Air﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 3. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. P.gov/compound/p­xylene 11/101 . The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals.86  from ILO‐ICSC 0.gov/  from HSDB ﴾air = 1﴿: 3. M.noaa.).861 at 68° F ﴾USCG. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 0. Jain. Drugs. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.ncbi. (ed. FL 2010. ether. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 18: 1111‐230 (1982)  from HSDB In water. 1876  from HSDB ﴾water = 1﴿: 0. p‐Xylene (106‐42‐3).86104 at 20 deg C/4 deg C O'Neil.2. acetone.H. S.. 2016: http://cameochemicals. soluble in chloroform Haynes.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem In water.62X10+2 mg/L at 25 deg C Sanemasa I et al. Boca Raton. CAMEO Chemicals.10 Vapor Pressure https://pubchem. UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. 1. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015.nlm.J.9 Vapor Density 3.66 ﴾Air = 1﴿ NOAA. (ed. Natl Ocean Atmos Admin.2.. NOAA Ocean Serv. CRC Press. CRC Press LLC. He. Available from. Database of Hazardous Materials. p. 3‐550  from HSDB in water: none  from ILO‐ICSC 0.7  from ILO‐ICSC 4. 165 mg/L at 25 deg C ﴾average of 15 literature values ranging from 130‐215 mg/L at 25 deg C﴿ Yalkowsky. 500  from HSDB Miscible in alcohol.86  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.02%  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. p. 2013. Off Resp Rest. Handbook of Aqueous Solubility Data Second Edition. as of June 27. Cambridge.66 ﴾NTP. p.nih. Yan. benzene.M.

and Steric Constants.1° F ﴾NTP. Wiley & Sons.J. p. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 984 deg F ﴾528 deg C﴿ National Fire Protection Association.. Exploring QSAR ‐ Hydrophobic.sigmaaldrich. Leo. 43  from HSDB 3. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 325‐117  from HSDB 528°C  from ILO‐ICSC 4.. Version 3. J Phys Chem Ref Data 12: 1033‐66 (1983)  from HSDB Vapour pressure kPa at 20°C: 0. Electronic. NJ. 1995. 11th Edition.html  from HSDB 4. A.11 LogP log Kow = 3. Sigma‐Aldrich. Product Number: 95680. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 8. Wiley‐Interscience.. p. Lewis.15 Hansch. Hoboken. as of July 1.gov/compound/p­xylene 12/101 .com/safety‐center.12 Stability Stable under recommended storage conditions. Available from. C. R.2. Quincy.2. 2016: http://www. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.2.2..nlm. Inc. D. Sr.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 10 mm Hg at 81.9  from ILO‐ICSC 9 mmHg  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.15  from ILO‐ICSC 4. p. MA 2010.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016).84 mm Hg at 25 deg C Chao J et al. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4.nih. Hoekman. Washington. DC: American Chemical Society. 14TH Edition.14 Decomposition When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.13 Auto‐Ignition 984° F ﴾USCG.. 3703 https://pubchem. 2004.ncbi.

603 mPa. (ed.7 cal/g = ‐408. NOAA Ocean Serv.2.gov/  from HSDB 4.noaa.2. CRC Press LLC.17 Heat of Combustion ‐17.41X10+5 J/kg NOAA.html  from HSDB 4.67 kJ/mol at 138. Off Resp Rest. CAMEO Chemicals.15 Viscosity 0.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). (ed. as of June 27. Sigma‐Aldrich. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Natl Ocean Atmos Admin.ncbi. Database of Hazardous Materials. (ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Database of Hazardous Materials.2.2.23 deg C Haynes.01 dynes/cm at 25 deg C Haynes. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015.). CAMEO Chemicals. Available from. 6‐185  from HSDB 4. Available from.M. as of July 1. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 4. Product Number: 95680.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.s at 25 deg C Haynes.gov/compound/p­xylene 13/101 . as of June 27. Version 3. W. p‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). p.). Available from. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015. 95th Edition. W. 95th Edition. CRC Press LLC.nih. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. p. W.16 Corrosivity No reaction with common materials NOAA.2. NOAA Ocean Serv. 6‐145  from HSDB 4. p. Off Resp Rest. 6‐234  from HSDB 4. 95th Edition.M.44 eV  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB.gov/  from HSDB 4. Natl Ocean Atmos Admin.2.sigmaaldrich. 35.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions ‐ Carbon oxides.19 Surface Tension 28. 2016: http://www.noaa. CRC Press LLC.559 Btu/lb = ‐9754.18 Heat of Vaporization 42. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015. 2016: http://cameochemicals.com/safety‐center.21 Odor Threshold https://pubchem. 2016: http://cameochemicals.nlm.40 kJ/mol at 35 deg C.M.2. p‐Xylene (106‐42‐3).20 Ionization Potential 8.

852. 1123. 864. 876.8. 863. 869.94. 856.gov/compound/p­xylene 14/101 . 856. 1140. 873.5. 861. 859. 856. 864. 873. 883. 1156. 861. 1139.3. 1146. 865. 884. 872. 1134. 871.2. 1137. 852. 855. 1141.2.3. 849. 875. 858. 1138. 888. 866. 894. 1136. 863. U. 1119.6. 1136. 859. 851.2.23 Kovats Retention Index 862. 885. 859. 870. 1981‐1982. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A.5. 848.89. 854. 1153. 1111.1. 1165.5. 863. 1132. 861. 1153. 1148. 866. 1120.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Detection in air at 0. 864. 1140. 1127. 863. 856. 875. 866. 889. 868. 1155. 867.5. 866.41. 1129. 862. 1142. 846. 1151.6. 870. 854.). 851.2. 845.2. New York: John Wiley Sons.7. 863. 865. 869. 859.7. 1129. 1155. 861. 884. 867. 868.46. 866.1. 866. 874. 859. 1117. 852. 870.3.8. 1119.7.3. 866. 1143. 1110. 871. 120. 121. 1156. 879. and F. 871. 853. 859. 859. 870.1. 861. G. 860. 862. 1129.5.C. 864.9.04. 881. 890.1. 856. 861. 855. 1156. 1129.2. 856.1.79.7. 1134. 1164.3.8.77.7. 1129. 1136. 861.4. 866. 1153. 842.3.9.9. 866. 865. 1150. 870. 848. Semi‐standard non‐polar 850. Standard non‐polar 857. 868. 1140. 1138. 907. 866. 1137. 864. 1169.8. 886. 855. 1132. 1129. 869. 860. 1136. 1180.8. 1130. 861. 1156.3.3. 860. 1129.7. 1150.2. 866.3.39 1130. 1130. 1137. 854. 866.7. 860. 1165.9 ﴾ether= 1﴿ Clayton. 1132. 858. 1126. 853. 855. 861. 1182. 1132. 876.2. 1136.6. 868. 855. 899. 853.4. 1131.2. 884. 859. 855. 850. 1137. 857. 854. 850.22 Relative Evaporation Rate Evaporation rate: 9. 868. D. 1133.3.7.7 https://pubchem. 1113. 870.8. 862. 848. 1132. 1143. 884. 865. 874. 868. 1178. 866. 1170. 862. 1114.3.5. 839. 857. 868.S.9.6. 860. 867. 864.24.05 ppm. 1142. 859. Government Printing Office. 1132. 1142. 1130. 856. 880. 854.5. 1128. 854. 853. 1140. 861.22. 878. 863. 852.4. 857. 865. 874.7.5. 865. 855. 866. 1125. 870. 883. 1120. 847.4. 864.1. 856. 864. 861. 872. 867. 1132. 861. 851. 849.6. 1131. 868.1. 1154. 854. 878. 849.78.nlm. 855. 865. 878.3. 858. 869. 1149. 1149.8. 875. 856. 870. 1123. 865. Volume II. 881. 1152. 853. 861. 852. 876. 853. 851. 853. 867. 868. 864. 875. 876. 875. 860. 1123. 3291  from HSDB 4. 1132. 845. 848. Washington. 1168. 858. 860. 849.1. 908. 1141. 865. 872. 853. 1135. 860. 870 870. 862.7. Standard polar 1156. 854. 862.3. 1143. 886. 1127.2. 1154. 877.2. 867.35. 857.5.82. 1150. 888. 854. 1159. 847. 854. 882. 1140.  from HSDB 4. 1173. 857. E. 861. 870. 1140. 850. 1137. 854. 1169. 855. 860.5.8. 853.4. 1123.75. 1140. 866.1. 867. 855.8. 857. 872. 1155. 872. 878. 1140. 864.8. 848. 864. 1126. 867. 864.4. 850. 866.2. 849. 884. 136. 854.96. 1169. 858. 1189. 1139. 863.8. 858. 864.85.nih. 901.2. 851.73. 856.3. 860.4. 854. 864. 858. 867. 866. 851.6.8. 1117. 864.S.41. 870. 876. 853.6. 870. 1152. 844. 1146. 1138. 857. 1130.5. 848. 888.1. 1164. 857. 852.7. 1984‐5. 854. 879. 1145. Department of Transportation. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data. 894. 1119. 864. 854. 1129. 859..8. 1117. 872. 855. 854. 863.3.8.7. 855.1. 865.2. 875.5. 875.9. 853.12. 867. 854. 865. 866. 855. 875.6. 1142. 875. 857.2.3.3. 878. 848. 120.2. 871. 852. 1142. 857. 866. 856.9. 857. 1119.5.7.3.8.ncbi. 865.7. 863. 853.2. 868. 870. 3rd ed. 860.4.4. 1138.28. 1176.4.6. 1137. 863. 862. 847. 872. 863. 875.3.8. 855.: U. 875.8.49. 863. 1142. 876. 865. 1163. 860.2. 855.8. 2C: Toxicology. 861. 849. 866. 872.2. 853. 854. 866. 1115. 855. 884.4. 859. 858. 1134. 1133. D. 1137. 863.1. 859. 856. 861. 860. 872.2. 889.94. 859.3. 864. 1118. 1149. 852.2. 861. 861. 1137. 868. 854. 857. 868.9.4. 877. 1164. 888. Clayton (eds. 859. 1140.4.3. 871. 857. 864. 857. 864. 854. 1119.1.3. 853. 1178. 856. 1145. 870. 859. Coast Guard. 860. 872. 860. 1154. 872. 864. 1123. 2B. p. 890. 832. 855. 1101. 866. 904. 1125. 859. 884. 1152.6. 874.1. 865. 1120.1. 1139. 848. 1145. 873. 868. 874.5. 854. 863.9. 1180. 1137.9.5. 871. 868. 859.8.6.7.7. 864. 866. 853. 857.

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem

 from NIST

4.3 Spectral Properties
Index of refraction: 1.49575 at 20 deg C/D
O'Neil, M.J. (ed.). The Merck Index ‐ An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of
Chemistry, 2013., p. 1876

 from HSDB

IR: 3575 ﴾Coblentz Society Spectral Collection﴿
Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p.
V1: 869

 from HSDB

UV: 609 ﴾Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection﴿
Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p.
V1: 869

 from HSDB

1H NMR: 203 ﴾Varian Associates NMR Spectra Catalogue﴿
Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p.
V1: 869

 from HSDB

Raman: 84 ﴾Dollish et al., Characteristic Raman Frequencies of Organic Compounds, John Wiley and Sons, New York﴿
Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p.
V1: 869

 from HSDB

MASS: 49298 ﴾NIST/EPA/MSDC Mass Spectral Database, 1990 Version﴿; 1330 ﴾Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley
& Sons, New York﴿
Lide, D.R., G.W.A. Milne (eds.). Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Volume I. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton ,FL. 1994., p.
V1: 869

 from HSDB

Negligible absorption above 290 nm
Jori A et al; Ecotox Environ Saf 11:44‐80 (1986)

 from HSDB

4.3.1 GC‐MS

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NIST Number 228010

Library Main library

Total Peaks 56

m/z Top Peak 91

m/z 2nd Highest 106

m/z 3rd Highest 105
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 15/101

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Thumbnail

 from NIST

4.3.2 MS‐MS

1. MS‐MS Spectrum 61749
2. MS‐MS Spectrum 61750
3. MS‐MS Spectrum 61751
4. MS‐MS Spectrum 118341
5. MS‐MS Spectrum 118342
6. MS‐MS Spectrum 118343

 from Human Metabolome Database

4.3.3 EI‐MS

EI‐MS Spectrum 386
 from Human Metabolome Database

4.3.4 1D NMR

1. 1D NMR Spectrum 2088 ‐ JEOL 300 MHz 1H NMR
2. 1D NMR Spectrum 2782 ‐ Varian 25.16 MHz 13C NMR

 from Human Metabolome Database

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 16/101

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5 Related Records

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 from NCBI

5.1 Related Compounds with Annotation

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5.2 Related Compounds

Same Connectivity 25 records

Same Parent, Connectivity 150 records

Same Parent, Exact 123 records

Mixtures, Components, and
619 records
Neutralized Forms

Similar Compounds 7434 records

Similar Conformers 15981 records

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5.3 Substances

5.3.1 Related Substances

All 968 records

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 17/101

.  from PubChem 5.4 Entrez Crosslinks PubMed 797 records Protein Structures 4 records Taxonomy 3 records Gene 10 records  from PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Same 145 records Mixture 823 records  from PubChem 5..nlm.2 Substances by Category CLICK TO LOAD.gov/compound/p­xylene 18/101 .nih.3.

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 6 Chemical Vendors CLICK TO LOAD.nih..gov/compound/p­xylene 19/101 ..nlm.  from PubChem https://pubchem.ncbi.

2005. Distribution and Excretion In rats and mice. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.iarc. indicating that no firmly bound metabolite was present.8 g each of the three isomers.php . Geneva: World Health Organization. International Agency for Research on Cancer.fr/ENG/Classification/index. followed by subcutaneous fat.. IARC. Geneva: World Health Organization. NCI. Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.nlm. Geneva: World Health Organization. liver and lungs.php .gov/compound/p­xylene 20/101 . (Multivolume work).epa. o‐Xylene (CAS No. blood. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 14 or 17 of gestation. V47 137 (1989)  from HSDB Most of the xylene that is absorbed is excreted rapidly into the urine as metabolites.1% in males. Available from. Docket Number OPPTS ‐ 00274D October 6. (Multivolume work).. International Agency for Research on Cancer. All fetal activity was extractable.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Available at: http://monographs. p. The absorption of xylene appeared to vary among individuals due to differences in ventilation rate. The highest concentrations were present in the kidneys ﴾up to about 1000 nmol/g tissue﴿ and https://pubchem.nih. 108‐38‐3). and brain and also in organs highly perfused with blood such as kidney and liver. length of exposure. m‐. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 1 and 4 hours after exposure. 0. p. Mixed Xylenes (CAS No. approximately 0. Available at: http://monographs. Toluene.html  from HSDB Humans exposed to 46 or 92 ppm of o‐. p‐Xylene (CAS No. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1972‐PRESENT.4‐2 (July/1985)  from HSDB In rats exposed to 208 mg/cu m methyl‐﴾14﴿C para‐xylene for 1 hour. p. or para‐xylene were given intraperitoneally to rats. .ncbi. V47 136 (1989)  from HSDB Pregnant mice were exposed by inhalation to ﴾14﴿C para‐xylene ﴾theoretical concentration. Oral administration of m‐xylene to rats led to distribution of 14C‐m‐xylene in adipose tissue.. ischiatic nerve. distribution of radioactivity immediately after termination of the exposure was highest in the kidneys. IARC. 1330‐20‐7) Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tier 1 Pilot Submission p 68. (Multivolume work).php .3% of dose in female and 0. 106‐42‐3). 2000 ppm ﴾8680 mg/cu m﴿﴿ for 10 min on days 11. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 1972‐PRESENT. 95‐47‐6). and distribution of the label was determined 0. V47 136 (1989)  from HSDB When 3 mmol/kg ortho‐. Individuals with an incr ventilation rate retained less xylene. well over 50% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine within 24 hours. V47 136 (1989)  from HSDB The distribution of xylene has been studied in male rats exposed to about 217 mg/cu m ﴾50 ppm﴿ 14C‐labelled p‐ xylene for 8 hr .iarc. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. (Multivolume work). International Agency for Research on Cancer. The label quickly entered the embryo.fr/ENG/Classification/index. as of October 15. urinary excretion of thiocompounds was highest with ortho‐xylene and much lower with meta‐xylene and para‐xylene. m‐ and p‐xylene are distributed primarily to lipid‐rich tissues. Xylenes Category: m‐Xylene (CAS No. When rabbits were given oral doses of up to 1. p. such as fat. No difference in the absorption rate was reported due to level of exposure. meta‐.iarc. 2008: http://www. or the type and/or mixture of the xylene isomers. Activity was 1/5 to 1/30 of these levels 6 hours after the end of exposure..gov/oppt/vccep/pubs/chem12a. IARC.fr/ENG/Classification/index.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 7 Pharmacology and Biochemistry 7. Small amounts of p‐xylene and o‐xylene cross the placenta and distribute to amnionic fluid and fetal tissue.php . separately. Available at: http://monographs. and Xylenes VCCEP Consortium. p‐xylene or a mixture ﴾1:1:1﴿ of the three for 8 hr absorbed approx 64% of the inhaled xylene. 1972‐PRESENT. but uptake was low relative to maternal tissues.iarc. American Chemistry Council Benzene.5. IARC. Available at: http://monographs. blood.1 Absorption. 1972‐PRESENT.

was low. 17.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem subcutaneous fat ﴾up to more than 250 nmol/g tissue﴿.9 ppm for ethylbenzene.htm  from HSDB The quantitative relationship between exposure to xylene vapor and urinary excretion in methylhippuric acid isomers were studied in the second half of a working wk.e.inchem.. Available from. Rabbit livers did not produce detectable amt of p‐tolualdehyde. respectively﴿. 2. 2016: http://www. (2001). The statistical analysis showed that there is a linear relationship between the intensity of exposure to xylenes and the concn of methylhippuric acid in urine.1 and 16. Release of p‐tolualdehyde into circulation did not occur in perfused rabbit livers.ncbi. Environmental Health Criteria 190.. In a previous study . Lower concentrations than in blood were found in the cerebrum.inchem. Available from.8 ppm for xylenes ﴾0.. 2016: http://www. One major pulmonary metab was p‐methylbenzyl alc.6 mg/L/ppm. 0. After exposure on day 17 the xylene was located primarily in the liver .3 mg/L/ppm﴿. It was assumed that the activity represented aromatic acids ﴾methyl hippuric acid and toluic acid﴿ .. At all stages of gestation studied ﴾days 11. 2. B.. 2016: http://www. The intensity of exposure measured by diffusive sampling during an 8‐hr shift was such that the geometric mean vapor concn was 3.5‐ dimethylphenol a derivative not produced in the liver. and that the increment in observed ﴾i. Environmental Health Criteria 190. High concentrations of xylene were recorded in the adult brain and lung with lesser amounts in kidney and liver. New York.8 ppm for o‐xylene. The concentration in fetus.. Available from.. p.9 ppm for p‐xylene﴿..org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. and guinea pig/ p‐xylene was excreted as p‐toluic acid derivative. muscle and spleen.. The same technique has been used to study distribution of radioactivity after exposure of pregnant mice to about 8700 mg/cu m ﴾2000 ppm﴿ 14C‐labelled p‐xylene for 10 min . as of September 28.Y. Patty's Toxicology Volumes 1‐9 5th ed.e.gov/compound/p­xylene 21/101 . however. Environmental Health Criteria 190. Xylene was evenly distributed in the fetus following exposure on day 11..1 ppm for m‐xylene.2 Metabolism/Metabolites /When administered to rabbit.H. Xylenes (1997).htm  from HSDB Autoradiography of male mice following 10 min inhalation of radioactively labelled p‐xylene revealed an accumulation of non‐volatile metabolites in the nasal mucosa and the olfactory bulb of the brain. C. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63 (1): 69‐76 (1991)  from HSDB Pulmonary retention of m‐xylene /in humans/ became relatively constant at about 60% after the first 5‐10 min of exposure to 430 mg/cu m ﴾100 ppm﴿ . rat. with smaller amt of toluic acid & p‐methylbenzyl alcohol.. Elimination half‐times from fat were estimated to be 2‐7 hr. noncorrected﴿ methylhippuric acid concentration as a function of increased xylene concentrationn was 17. The determination was made by measurement of atmospheric and exhaled concentrations. Xylenes (1997). E. perfused rabbit livers and lungs. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. Powell.5‐ dimethylphenol glucuronide was also isolated . Cohrssen. 17﴿ p‐xylene appeared to pass immediately from dam to embryo/fetus.inchem. Urine samples were collected at the end of the shift and analyzed for metabolites by HPLC. cerebellum... Predominance of this metab reflects deficiency of lung tissue in alc dehydrogenase. During p‐xylene metab in perfused lungs.. a pulmonary retention of 62‐64% was reported for each xylene isomer at exposure levels of 196‐391 mg/cu m ﴾45‐90 ppm﴿ for up to 7 hr. and 0. John Wiley & Sons.. Perfused lung also produced 2.8 mg/ppm. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. as of September 28. Abstract: PubMed Kawai T et al.. but a 2.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. Bingham.8 ppm for toluene. The participants in the study were 121 male workers engaged in dip‐ coating of metal parts who were predominantly exposed to three xylene isomers.nih.htm  from HSDB 7. Further exam on the basis on individual xylene isomers showed that the slopes of the regression lines for o‐ and m‐isomers were similar ﴾i. Higher concentrations than in blood were also found in the ischiatic nerve. and 0.5‐dimethylphenol or any glucuronide conjugates. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.nlm. 2% of that in maternal brain. derivatives which https://pubchem. N.. P‐toluric acid ﴾n‐p‐toluylglycine﴿ was major hepatic metabolite. Xylenes (1997).. V4 264  from HSDB Metab of p‐xylene ﴾100 umol﴿ studied in isolated. that the regression line passes very close to the origin. . whereas that for p‐xylene was larger ﴾21. 14. as of September 28.

. Metabolism in animals is qualitatively similar.3‐dimethylphenol and 3.. Available at: http://monographs..nlm. There was no evidence that both methyl groups were oxidized. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. In humans exposed to xylene. Available at: http://monographs.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem became covalently bound to lung proteins were formed which suggests that p‐xylene metab might proceed at least partially through reactive intermediate﴾s﴿ causing destruction of pulmonary cytochrome P450.nih. . but glucuronide conjugates make up a larger proportion of the urinary excretion products. (eds. and para‐xylene/ are oxidized on the methyl group to form the corresponding toluic acid or on the ring to form phenols.. 218  from HSDB In rats. In addition. followed by further oxidation to the corresponding methylbenzoic acids ﴾toluic acids﴿. The Biochemistry of Foreign Compounds. Classes of Pesticides. New York..ncbi. https://pubchem. dimethylphenol. Only a small portion is excreted as dimethylphenol: 2. Volume 2. (Multivolume work). guinea pigs. Aromatic hydroxylation of xylene to xylenol occurs to only a limited extent in humans. p. E. where it is formed. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. V. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Geneva: World Health Organization. Metab was also characterized using reconstituted monooxygenase systems containing purified rabbit pulmonary lung cytochrome P450 ﴾i﴿ & ﴾ii﴿.gov/compound/p­xylene 22/101 . The position of methyl groups attached to the aromatic nucleus affected metabolism. Abstract: PubMed Van Doorn R et al.. Hydroxylation to corresponding xylenols also occurs to a small extent. 1972‐PRESENT. Parke. Less than 2% of an absorbed dose is excreted in the urine as xylenol. all three isomers /ortho‐. & these are conjugated mostly with glycine.5‐dimethylphenol after exposure to para‐xylene. Oxford: Pergamon Press. & glutathione conjugation in formation of mercapturic acids from xylenes was investigated. but its presence has not been confirmed in humans. IARC. 1968. & the high electrophilic reactivity of the o‐methylbenzyl sulfate. 644  from HSDB Xylenes are metabolized primarily by oxidation to the methylbenzyl alcohols.. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Smith BR et al.. and glycine conjugation is considered to be a rate‐limiting step. where it may exert toxic effects.. Hayes. methylhippurate accumulated in nasal mucosa and the olfactory bulb.4‐dimethylphenol after exposure to meta‐xylene and 2.4‐dimethylphenol after exposure to ortho‐xylene. Factors that are involved in high yield of mercapturic acids after admin of o‐xylene as compared to m‐ xylene & p‐xylene incl relatively low apparent affinity of o‐methylbenzyl alcohol for cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Inc. to the olfactory lobe of the brain. unconjugated 3.R.php .iarc. methylbenzaldehyde ﴾the product of the action of alcohol dehydrogenase on methylbenzyl alcohol﴿ has been detected in animals. 1991. p. International Agency for Research on Cancer. sulfation. W. methylhippuric acid. possibly due to axonal flow‐mediated transport of the methylhippurate from the mucosa.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Laws. These can be conjugated with glycine to form methylhippurates. 1972‐PRESENT. IARC. extensively oxidized to toluic acids ﴾about 90% of the dose﴿.iarc. meta‐. or with UDPglucuronate to form acyl glucuronides. Jr. J Appl Toxicol 1 (4): 236‐42 (1981)  from HSDB Meta & para isomers are . p. Xylenes are metabolized in humans primarily to the corresponding methylhippuric acid ﴾toluric acid﴿.. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 223 (3): 736‐42 (1982)  from HSDB The involvement of sequential side‐chain oxidn. (Multivolume work).fr/ENG/Classification/index. 2. and methylbenzene alcohol were identified in urine as metabolites of m‐xylene.5‐dimethylphenol and its glucuronide were isolated from urine. >90% of the absorbed xylene is excreted in the urine as the methylhippuric acid. V71 1192‐3 (1999)  from HSDB After inhalation exposure of mice to ﴾14C﴿‐para‐xylene. D. p. Jr. and rabbits. Geneva: World Health Organization. Other minor metabolites found in urine include methylbenzyl alcohol and glucuronic acid conjugates of the oxidized xylene. NY: Academic Press.php . In rats exposed to atmospheres of m‐xylene and ethylbenzene. V71 1194 (1999)  from HSDB All three isomers of xylene are primarily metabolized by oxidation of a methyl group and conjugation with glycine to yield the methylhippuric acid. the relatively high apparent affinity of o‐methylbenzyl alc for cytosolic sulfotransferase.).J.

53‐75% of the dose was excreted as m‐methyl‐hippuric acid in urine during 24 hr. The differences in xylene metabolism observed between humans and animals may. in part. On the other hand.. be explained by differences in the size of the doses given to humans and animals in experimental studies. Environmental Health Criteria 190. These toluic acids conjugate with glycine to form toluric acids ﴾methylhippuric acids﴿ that are excreted into the urine . . DHHS ATSDR.ncbi.gov/compound/p­xylene 23/101 . as of September 28.129‐33 (August 2007).1 to 2% of the dose absorbed . route of administration. or duration of exposure. Environmental Health Criteria 190. xylene mercapturic acid . m‐ or p‐xylene for 8 hr.... Hydroxylation of the aromatic ring with the formation of dimethylphenols seems to be a minor pathway in humans.6‐1. About 90% of the absorbed dose of m‐xylene was excreted as methylhippuric acid after exposure to 435 mg/cu m ﴾100 ppm﴿ for 4 hr . WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.. Available from. ..htm  from HSDB When volunteers were exposed to about 195 mg/cu m ﴾45 ppm﴿ of o‐....5‐dimethylphenol ﴾with p‐xylene﴿. 2016: http://www.nih. Environmental Health Criteria 190. about 95‐99% of the dose was excreted as methylhippuric acid in urine. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Xylenes (1997).inchem..cdc. as of September 28. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.. Xylenes (1997).3‐ and 3.htm  from HSDB After an intraperitoneal injection of 87‐348 mg/kg body weight m‐xylene to rats.. 2016: http://www. Xylenes (1997). after exposure to 600 mg/cu m ﴾138 ppm﴿ of o‐xylene. This metabolic pathway accounts for almost all of the absorbed dose of xylene. only 46% was excreted in urine as methylhippuric acid and only trace amounts of the o‐methylbenzoyl glucuronide were detected.. o‐toluylglucuronides ﴾o‐toluic acid glucuronide﴿. Available from.cdc. The principal pathway involves side‐chain oxidation to methylbenzoic acid via methylbenzyl alcohol and methylbenzyl aldehyde..inchem.. 2016: http://www.4‐dimethylphenol ﴾with o‐xylene﴿. Dimethylphenol excretion was estimated to be 0. 2016: http://www. regardless of the isomer.. as of July 19.inchem. Available from.. and the urinary elimination of methylbenzyl alcohols. glucuronide formation has been reported to predominate .. Xylenes (1997).atsdr. A separate minor pathway resulting in urinary excretion of thioethers has been studied .org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190..gov/toxprofiles/tp71. as of July 19.. This pathway appears to be more important for o‐xylene than for the other isomers. 2016: http://www. . 2016: http://www.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. Methylbenzoic acid is then conjugated with glycine or glucuronic acid .. Conjugation with glycine to form methylhippuric acid predominates for m‐ and p‐xylene . Environmental Health Criteria 190. .htm  from HSDB Most studies on metabolism of xylenes have been performed on rat. Available from...pdf  from HSDB The biotransformation of xylene in humans proceeds primarily by the oxidation of a side‐chain methyl group by microsomal enzymes ﴾mixed function oxidases﴿ in the liver to yield toluic acids ﴾methylbenzoic acids﴿. Available from. Methylbenzoic acid is conjugated principally with glycine and excreted in urine as methylhippuric acid.. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.. 2..atsdr.pdf  from HSDB Metabolism of xylenes by humans consists primarily of side‐chain oxidation to form methylbenzoic acid . Minor metabolic pathways that account for <10% of the absorbed dose include the elimination of unchanged compound in the exhaled breath and in the urine.htm https://pubchem. Hydroxylation of the aromatic ring with the formation of dimethylphenols has been reported to be another minor metabolic pathway in rats . as of September 28.3% for m‐ and p‐xylene. Available from..nlm. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. The following dimethylphenol isomers have been identified in human urine: 2. administered dose.inchem. though quantitative differences do exist. as of September 28. In the case of o‐xylene... Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. It has been estimated that glycine conjugation would be saturated in humans exposed to about 1174 mg/cu m ﴾270 ppm﴿ xylene while working and to about 3393 mg/cu m ﴾780 ppm﴿ while resting . A small amount of the glucuronide ester of methylbenzoic acid and trace levels of methylbenzyl alcohol have been detected in human urine .4‐ dimethylphenol ﴾with m‐xylene﴿ and 2.123 (August 2007). and xylenols ﴾dimethylphenols﴿. After an intraperitoneal dose of 319 mg/kg body weight the proportion excreted as mercapturic acids was calculated to be 10% for o‐xylene and 0.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem DHHS ATSDR. The metabolism of xylene in animals is qualitatively similar to that of humans.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190..org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190.

4. Mixed Xylenes (CAS No.3 Biological Half‐Life Elimination half‐times from fat were estimated to be 2‐7 hr. and Xylenes VCCEP Consortium. 2005.inchem.epa. as of September 28.nlm. Available from.htm  from HSDB 7.4 Human Metabolite Information 7. Environmental Health Criteria 190. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. o‐Xylene (CAS No.3 Cellular Locations Membrane ﴾predicted from logP﴿  from Human Metabolome Database https://pubchem. Feces 2.4.html  from HSDB 7.2 Biofluid Locations 1. 1330‐20‐7) Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tier 1 Pilot Submission p 68. Available from. Xylenes Category: m‐Xylene (CAS No. 2016: http://www.  from Human Metabolome Database 7. 95‐47‐6).1 Metabolite Description p‐Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon based on benzene with two methyl substituents with the chemical formula C8H10 or C6H4﴾CH3﴿2.nih. p‐Xylene (CAS No. Xylenes (1997).gov/oppt/vccep/pubs/chem12a. 106‐42‐3). Docket Number OPPTS ‐ 00274D October 6. sidechain oxidation and conjugation with glycine and glucuronic acid. as of July 19. 108‐38‐3).2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB The principal pathway in the rat for m‐ and p‐xylene is the same as that in humans.gov/compound/p­xylene 24/101 . For o‐xylene.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. The “p” stands for para. Toluene. identifying the location of the methyl groups as across from one another. American Chemistry Council Benzene.ncbi. 2016: http://www. Hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of xylenes is also a minor pathway in the rat. the glucuronide formation predominates and a small amount of sulfate conjugate also is produced.4. Saliva  from Human Metabolome Database 7.

New York. PX crystals usually form at about ‐4 deg C and the PX‐MX /4‐xylene‐3‐xylene/ eutectic is reached at about ‐68 deg C.. Inc. 3‐xylene is obtained by selective crystallization or solvent extraction of meta‐para mixtures. The adsorbed PX is subsequently removed from the adsorbent by displacement with a desorbent..2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 8 Use and Manufacturing 8.. PX crystallization is carried out at a temperature just above the eutectic point. Processing aids. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2016).. In commercial practice. 2007  from HSDB Selective crystallization or solvent extraction of meta‐.nlm. Xylenes and Ethylbenzene.. Xylenes and Ethylbenzene. a pure solid phase of PX crystallizes first. Typical PX recovery per pass is over 95%. adsorbents such as molecular sieves are used to produce high purity PX /4‐xylene/ by preferentially removing PX from mixed xylene streams.ncbi. NY 2007. Separation is accomplished by exploiting the differences in affinity of the adsorbent for PX. compared to only 60‐65% for crystallization. relative to the other C8 isomers.. PX is still soluble in the remaining C8 aromatics liquid solution. Thus. John Wiley & Sons. Lewis.1 Uses 8.J. para‐mixture. upon cooling. Inc. This limits the efficiency of crystallization processes to a per pass PX recovery of about 60‐65%. p.1. In this process. Eventually. The solid PX crystals are typically separated from the mother liquor by filtration or centrifugation. The aromatic reformate fractions consist mainly of benzene. Sr.gov/compound/p­xylene 25/101 . Online Posting Date: October 19. not otherwise listed  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 8.. Cannella WJ. toluene and mixed xylenes. . The xylene isomers are separated from the reformate by extraction and distillation on the basis of differences in boiling point . Inc. upon further cooling. John Wiley & Sons. 4‐xylene is separated by continuous crystallization or adsorption from the mixed xylenes or isomerized from the 3‐xylene/4‐xylene distillate. Thus recycle rates to the separation and isomerization units are much smaller where adsorption is used. 2007  from HSDB Currently about 60% of the p‐xylene produced worldwide is by adsorption technology. John Wiley & Sons. separation from mixed‐xylene feedstocks by adsorption. . R. 1336  from HSDB Xylene is produced primarily by the catalytic reforming of naphtha streams. This is called the eutectic point.1 Industry Uses 1.2 Consumer Uses Plastic and Rubber Products not covered elsewhere  from EPA Chemicals under the TSCA 8. https://pubchem.. a temperature is reached where solid crystals of another isomer also form. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1999‐2016). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary 15th Edition.1. which are rich in alicyclic hydrocarbons. called mother liquor. At all temperatures above the eutectic point.nih. Intermediates 2.2 Methods of Manufacturing Low temperature fractional crystallization was the first and for many years the only commercial technique for separating PX /4‐xylene/ from mixed xylenes. PX has a much higher freezing point than the other xylene isomers. Online Posting Date: October 19. xylenes representing the largest fraction. Cannella WJ.

fr/ENG/Classification/index. Anonymous. Geneva: World Health Organization. 253 (19): 53 (1998)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. 1972‐PRESENT. 1999: 7. negligible amounts are used in solvents. 100% ﴾except negligible amounts used as solvents.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem IARC. Department of Transportation.250 million pounds. Dimethyl terephthalate and terephthalic acid.652 billion pounds /projected/ Kirschner M.ncbi. 236 (6): 50 (1989)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. US Demand: 1994: 6. 85%.nlm. Chemical Marketing Reporter. 100% ﴾except negligible amounts for use as solvents. 1986: 4. 1998: 7. Coast Guard. Dimethyl terephthalate and terephthalic acid for saturated polyester production. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. (Multivolume work). 1985  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. Chemical Market Reporter.  from HSDB 8. exports. 248 (8): (1995)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. D. Chemical Marketing Reporter. US Demand: 1999: 6. Government Printing Office. coatings or pesticides﴿ ﴾1985﴿ Anonymous. U.gov/compound/p­xylene 26/101 . Volume II. Dimethyl terephthalate and terephthalic acid for saturated polyester production.S. 2000: 6.7 billion pounds.php . V47 127  from HSDB 8.8%. 25 June 2001 (2001)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.23 billion pounds /projected/ Anonymous. 1984‐5.0%.768 billion pounds. Chemical Marketing Reporter. Pure. US Demand: 1985: 4.000 million pounds. Chemical Market Reporter. 99.S.C.500 million pounds /projected/ Anonymous. 15%. coatings and pesticides﴿.iarc.5 billion pounds.480 billion pounds.3 Formulations/Preparations Research. Technical. This includes 75% for domestic consumption and 25% for export. 1990: 5. ﴾Domestically. Chemical Marketing Reporter. Washington. 99. Chemical Marketing Reporter.925 billion pounds. Available at: http://monographs. End‐use pattern for Paraxylene in 2001 End use Percent ﴾%﴿ https://pubchem. 230 (9): 54 (1986)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.nih. 99. coating or pesticides﴿. p.: U. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data. International Agency for Research on Cancer.2 billion pounds /projected/ Anonymous. 230 (9): 54 (1986)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. 2004: 7. Anonymous.668 billion pounds. US Demand: 1997: 7. 1995: 6. 2002: 9.99%.4 Consumption CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.

271 (24): 30 (2007). di‐paraxylene and herbicides 3 Kirschner M.nih. 9 August 2004 (2004)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.nlm.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Terephthalic acid ﴾TPA﴿ 77 Dimethyl terephthalate ﴾DMT﴿ 20 Miscellaneous. 2010: 8.560 million pounds.32x10+12 g USITC. 2003: 7. Chemical Market Reporter. 271 (24): 30 (2007). ICIS Chemical Business Americas. including solvent use.385 billion pounds. End‐use pattern for Paraxylene in 2004 End use Percent ﴾%﴿ Terephthalic acid ﴾TPA﴿ 77 Dimethyl terephthalate ﴾DMT﴿ 20 Miscellaneous. 2006: 7. 18 June 2007  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.035 million pounds. SOC SERIES C/P‐82‐1  from HSDB https://pubchem. including solvent use. Chemical Market Reporter.6 billion pounds.500 million pounds. 25 June 2001 (2001)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. DC 20436. projected Kirschner M.5 U.gov/compound/p­xylene 27/101 . Syn Org Chem‐U. including solvent use. projected Kirschner M.S. End‐use pattern for Paraxylene in 2007 End use Percent ﴾%﴿ Terephthalic acid ﴾TPA﴿ 77 Dimethyl terephthalate ﴾DMT﴿ 20 Miscellaneous.580 billion pounds.44X10+12 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1980﴿ 1. di‐paraxylene and herbicides 3 Kirschner M. di‐paraxylene and herbicides 3 Kirschner M.S. 18 June 2007  from HSDB 8. Chemical Market Reporter. US Demand: 2005: 7. 2007: 7.ncbi. US Demand: 2002: 6. WASH. Prod/Sales 1976  from HSDB ﴾1977﴿ 1. ICIS Chemical Business Americas.9X10+12 G US INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION. Production ﴾1976﴿ 1. 9 August 2004 (2004)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.

1993.06x10+12 g United States International Trade Commission.htm on 1.35 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)  from HSDB ﴾1992﴿ 5. USITC Publication 2810.20 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)  from HSDB ﴾1991﴿ 5.4‐Dimethylbenzene (106‐42‐3) as of October 7.epa. Washington. 1981. Synthetic Organic Chemicals‐‐ United States Production and Sales.45X10+9 kg United States International Trade Commission. The HPV list is based on the 1990 Inventory Update Rule. Available from the Database Query page at: http://www.gov/compound/p­xylene 28/101 .gov/hpv/pubs/general/opptsrch. ﴾IUR﴿ ﴾40 CFR part 710 subpart B.17X10+12 g USITC. 1981.S. 51FR21438﴿. DC: United States International Trade Commission.29  from HSDB ﴾1993﴿ 1.54X10+12 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 2.76 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)  from HSDB 6.S.  from HSDB ﴾1990﴿ 5.  from HSDB ﴾1982﴿ 1.ncbi.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem ﴾1981﴿ 2. SYN ORG CHEM‐U.4‐Dimethylbenzene is listed as a High Production Volume ﴾HPV﴿ chemical ﴾65FR81686﴿.66 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)  from HSDB ﴾1993﴿ 5.C.nih. USITC Publications 1291 Washington. D. EPA/Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Year Production Range ﴾pounds﴿ 1986 >1 billion 1990 >1 billion 1994 >1 billion https://pubchem. Synthetic Organic Chemicals ‐ United States Production and Sales. PROD/SALES 1985 p. Chemicals listed as HPV were produced in or imported into the U. 1994. in >1 million pounds in 1990 and/or 1994. Nov. 2008  from HSDB Production volumes for non‐confidential chemicals reported under the Inventory Update Rule.nlm.34 billion lb Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 17 (4/8/96)  from HSDB 1. High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program.

Chemical Marketing Reporter.epa.925 million pounds/year Anonymous. European Chemical News. European Paraxylene Capacity ﴾2003﴿ Location Capacity Belgium 420 France 135 Germany 320 Italy 290 Netherlands 500 Portugal 125 Spain 100 Turkey 120 UK 345 Bulgaria 15 Croatia 73 Poland 48 Romania 60 Russia 465 Slovakia 50 Anonymous. Non‐confidential Production Volume Information Submitted by Companies for Chemicals Under the 1986‐2002 Inventory Update Rule (IUR).. at 735.ncbi.000 tonne/year in the rest of eastern Europe and 120. Chemical Market Reporter. 248 (8): (1995)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. Available from. Chemical Market Reporter.html  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.000 tonne/year with 432.nlm. 1. US Production Capacity: 2004: 9.080 million pounds/year Anonymous. as of October 7.625 million pounds/year Kirschner M.745 million pounds/year Kirschner M.. Chemical Market Reporter. 253 (19): 53 (1998)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.gov/compound/p­xylene 29/101 . 9 August 2004 (2004)  from HSDB PRODUCT PROFILE: Paraxylene.000 tonne/year in the eastern https://pubchem. 25 June 2001 (2001)  from HSDB PRODUCT PROFILE: Paraxylene. US Production Capacity: 1998: 10. Total production capacity in the /European Union/ is assessed . 2008: http://www.nih. 24 March 2003 (2003)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. US Production Capacity: 2000: 10. US Production Capacity: 1995: 6.gov/oppt/iur/tools/data/2002‐vol.4‐Dimethylbenzene (106‐42‐3).2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 1998 >1 billion 2002 >1 billion US EPA.

000 tonne in 2004 with a plant utilization rate of 77%. Actual production in the /European Union/ countries reached 565.ncbi. European Chemical News. output reached 211. 6 September 2004 (2004)  from HSDB PRODUCT FOCUS: Para‐Xylene. European Chemical News.nlm. Anonymous.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Mediterranean area. Global Production Capacity for para‐Xylene in 2005 Region/country Capacity North America ‐ USA 4. 2 May 2005 (2005)  from HSDB PRODUCT PROFILE: Paraxylene. European Paraxylene Capacity ﴾2004﴿ Location Capacity Belgium 480 France 135 Germany 395 Italy 290 Netherlands 500 Portugal 125 Spain 100 Turkey 120 Belarus 45 Bulgaria 15 Poland 48 Romania 40 Russia 465 Slovakia 50 Anonymous.000 tonne.nih.690 ‐ Mexico 240 ‐ Canada 330 South America ‐ Argentina 38 ‐ Brazil 230 Europe ‐ Belgium 420 ‐ Germany 296 ‐ Israel 175 ‐ Italy 205 ‐ The Netherlands 500 https://pubchem. In eastern Europe.000 tonne. Consumption in the region reached 695.000 tonne last year /2004/ with operating rates put at just 49%. while consumption totalled 119.gov/compound/p­xylene 30/101 .

170 Anonymous.210 ‐ Thailand 1.675 ‐ Indonesia 770 ‐ Japan 3. Chemical Week.nlm.195 Asia/Pacific ‐ China 2.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem ‐ Portugal 115 ‐ Russia 500 ‐ Spain 100 ‐ Turkey 135 Mideast ‐ Iran 730 ‐ Saudi Arabia 1. 270 (8): (2006).580 ‐ Malaysia 750 ‐ Singapore 700 ‐ Taiwan 1. Global Production Capacity for para‐Xylene in 2007 Region/country Capacity https://pubchem. April 20.gov/compound/p­xylene 31/101 . ICIS Chemical Business.615 ‐ Korea 3.806 ‐ India 1.ncbi. European Paraxylene Capacity ﴾2006﴿ Location Capacity Belgium 560 France 120 Germany 350 Italy 280 Netherlands 575 Portugal 140 Spain 100 Turkey 120 UK 365 Belarus 65 Poland 45 Russia 421 Anonymous. 2005 (2005)  from HSDB PRODUCT PROFILE: Paraxylene. 4 September 2006  from HSDB PRODUCT FOCUS:Para‐Xylene.nih.

520 Anonymous. National Production Volume: https://pubchem. 2007 (2007)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.nlm.525 ‐ Korea 3.ncbi. US Production Capacity: 2007: 9.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 32/101 .900 ‐ Thailand 1.756 ‐ India 2.480 ‐ Saudi Arabia 820 Asia/Pacific ‐ China 3. 1. March 21.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem North America ‐ USA 4. 271 (24): 30 (2007). ICIS Chemical Business Americas.690 ‐ Mexico 480 ‐ Canada 330 South America ‐ Argentina 38 ‐ Brazil 230 Europe ‐ Belgium 560 ‐ Germany 445 ‐ Israel 160 ‐ Italy 205 ‐ The Netherlands 500 ‐ Portugal 115 ‐ Russia 500 ‐ Spain 100 ‐ Turkey 135 ‐ UK 350 Mideast ‐ Iran 1. Chemical: Benzene.4‐dimethyl‐.615 million pounds/year Kirschner M. Chemical Week.030 ‐ Indonesia 450 ‐ Japan 2.580 ‐ Malaysia 750 ‐ Singapore 700 ‐ Taiwan 1. 18 June 2007  from HSDB Non‐confidential 2012 Chemical Data Reporting ﴾CDR﴿ information on the production and use of chemicals manufactured or imported into the United States.

US Imports: 1997: 513 million pounds Anonymous.gov/compound/p­xylene 33/101 . 18 June 2007  from HSDB 8.725.4‐dimethyl‐ (106‐42‐3). USEPA/Pollution Prevention and Toxics.266 million pounds. 2012 Chemical Data Reporting Database. Kavaler.099 million pounds Kirschner M.53X10+10 g BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.905. Benzene.nlm. Chemical Marketing Reporter. Chemical Market Reporter. Available from.53X10+9 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1983﴿ 3. 271 (24): 30 (2007).386 billion pounds. 2016: http://java. Exports 19.453 lb/yr.71X10+7 gal BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. US Imports: 2005: 2.epa. US Imports: 1994: 30 million pounds Anonymous.19X10+11 G https://pubchem. US Imports: 1999: 29 million pounds.S.nih.1‐493  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. 2003: 3. Chem Market Reporter 1981  from HSDB ﴾1978﴿ 3.ncbi.7 U. 248 (8): (1995)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. Chemical Market Reporter.7% of total 1980 xylene market.S. U.482 billion pounds Kirschner M. Chemical Market Reporter.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  from HSDB 8. as of June 29.18X10+10 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 6. ICIS Chemical Business Americas. 253 (19): 53 (1998)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.S. 25 June 2001 (2001)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. US IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1986 p. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1985 p. 2006: 2.6 U. 9 August 2004 (2004)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. Imports ﴾1978﴿ 9. US Imports: 2002: 3.1‐547  from HSDB ﴾1986﴿ 3. 1.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 7. 2000: 90 million pounds Kirschner M.

ICIS Chemical Business Americas. Chemical Market Reporter. EXPORTS.59 billion pounds Anonymous.551 million pounds.S. SCHEDULE E.nih. OCTOBER 1987.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem SRI  from HSDB ﴾1983﴿ 3. 2006: 2.S.023 billion pounds Kirschner M. 25 June 2001 (2001)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. Chemical Market Reporter. 1985 p. EXPORTS.gov/compound/p­xylene 34/101 .ncbi. U.03X10+11 g BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.2‐71  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene. 271 (24): 30 (2007). 248 (8): (1995)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.23X10+11 G SRI  from HSDB ﴾1985﴿ 5. US Exports: 2005: 2. US Exports: 1997: 1. 18 June 2007  from HSDB https://pubchem. US Exports: 1994: 640 million pounds Kavaler AR. 2003: 3. p. US Exports: 2002: 2.246 billion pounds Kirschner M. 9 August 2004 (2004)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.454 billion pounds.873 million pounds Kirschner M. Chemical Market Reporter.822 billion pounds. SCHEDULE E. U. 2000: 2. Chemical Marketing Reporter. 253 (19): 53 (1998)  from HSDB CHEMICAL PROFILE: Paraxylene.nlm. US Exports: 1999: 1.2‐69  from HSDB ﴾1987﴿ 9.68X10+7 gal BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.

Procedure: extractive fourier transform infrared ﴾FTIR﴿ spectrometry. p‐xylene concentrations in new cars were determined at the level of 11. wastewater. In order to compare and define the impact of exhaust gases.2. Procedure: gas chromatography with photoionization and electrolytic conductivity detectors. BTX concentration increased with increasing vehicle mileage. o‐xylene and m. 2016: http://www.gov https://pubchem. as of June 29. 2016: http://www. at different mileages ﴾up to 20. as of June 29. Analyte: 4‐xylene. or drinking water in any treatment stage. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3).000 km﴿. 2016: http://www.nemi. 2016: http://www. air samples were also collected from two used cars.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐NERL 502. National Environmental Methods Index.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 9 Identification 9.0 pg/sample. Matrix: air.17 ppm ﴾10 m absorption path length﴿. Detection Limit: 0. ground water. respectively.nemi. National Environmental Methods Index. Analytical.nemi. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.ncbi. Field effect transistor measurements are conducted to identify the sensing mechanism which is attributed to enhanced SWNT transduction of chemical interaction with ZnO surfaces. Samples were collected onto Carbograph 1TD sorbent.1 Analytic Laboratory Methods We demonstrate a hybrid ZnO nanoparticle decorated SWNT network device that can conductometrically differentiate between xylene isomers at room temperature with minimal interference from background VOCs. Average benzene. Analyst 137 (11): 2549‐52 (2012)  from HSDB The aim of this work was to determine the level of benzene. and drinking water in any stage of treatment. U. toluene. as of June 29. All vehicles tested were of the same type.nlm. Available from.01 ug/L.48 ug/L. Detection Limit: 14. Test and Sampling Methods.2 ug/cu m and 89. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). p‐xylene ﴾BTX﴿ in air samples collected from the cabins of new and used vehicles of the same model. Available from. J Environ Sci (China) 25 (11): 2324‐30 (2013)  from HSDB Method: OSHA 1002. as of June 29. Department of Labor/Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Index of Sampling and Analytical Methods. Analyte: 4‐xylene. Analytical. p‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). Matrix: surface water. Issue 2. Procedure: gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Detection Limit: 0.nih.gov/niosh/nmam/  from HSDB Method: ASTM D5790. Abstract: PubMed Hernandez SC et al.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐NERL 524. Available from. Matrix: air.S.cdc. All results obtained were referred to Polish and German requirements for indoor air quality ﴾both in public buildings and in workspace environments﴿. Abstract: PubMed Faber J et al.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc. as of June 29. In the used cars. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). Analyte: 4‐xylene.html  from HSDB Method: NIOSH 3800. Available from. National Environmental Methods Index. 21. Analytical. raw source water.osha. Matrix: finished drinking water. thermally desorbed and examined with the use of gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors. o‐xylene and m.gov/compound/p­xylene 35/101 . NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods.06 ug/L. 2016: http://www.2. Matrix: treated drinking water. 5th ed. Analyte: 4‐xylene.000 km mileage. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Detection Limit: 1. CDC.5 ug/cu m. Available from. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). 82. Detection Limit: 0.7 ug/cu m. Test and Sampling Methods. Analyte: p‐xylene. The most significant increase of BTX concentration was observed above 11. Test and Sampling Methods. and ground water. toluene.8 ug/cu m. Ten new vehicles were examined in order to check interior emission from materials used to equip the passenger compartment.

gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 8021B.02 ug/L. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). fibrous wastes. Simultaneous determination of toluene. mousses. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 8260B. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Procedure: gas chromatography with photoionization detector. Detection Limit: 0. fibrous wastes. Method validation has been performed on standards spiked in blank saliva by using two internal standards ﴾2‐fluorotoluene and deuterated styrene‐d﴾8﴿﴿. This method showed the possibility to detect the target compounds with a linear dynamic range of at https://pubchem. and sediments. Matrix: various. filter cakes. polymeric emulsions. 2016: http://www. polymeric emulsions. caustic liquors. Test and Sampling Methods. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). Available from. National Environmental Methods Index. Test and Sampling Methods.nih. Test and Sampling Methods. 2016: http://www. soils. Available from. spent carbons.nemi.2 Clinical Laboratory Methods The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method to monitor the saliva matrix for ototoxic solvents absorption: the method is based on headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and represents an alternative biological monitoring for investigating low exposure to hazardous ototoxic solvents. Matrix: ground water. 2016: http://www. soils. Test and Sampling Methods. tars. Analytical. Detection Limit: not provided.nemi. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). National Environmental Methods Index.gov/compound/p­xylene 36/101 . Available from. Test and Sampling Methods. spent catalysts. as of June 29.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Method: EPA‐OGWDW/TSC 524. Analyte: 4‐xylene.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 5030C.nemi.nemi. Detection Limit: 0. Analyte: 4‐xylene. Analyte: 4‐xylene. aqueous sludges. as of June 29. Chromatographic conditions have been set in order to obtain a good separation of xylene isomers due to the interest in p‐xylene as ototoxic one. Matrix: surface‐ or ground‐water. ethylbenzene. waste solvents. oily wastes.nlm. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). oily wastes.gov  from HSDB Method: EPA‐RCA 8021B. 2016: http://www. 2016: http://www.3. Test and Sampling Methods.nemi. spent carbons. 2016: http://www.gov  from HSDB 9. Analyte: 4‐xylene.nemi. Test and Sampling Methods.gov  from HSDB Method: USGS‐NWQL O‐4024‐03. Analyte: 4‐xylene. National Environmental Methods Index.041 ug/L. National Environmental Methods Index. xylenes and styrene has been carried out and the method has been optimized for both instrumental parameters and samples treatment. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Procedure: purge and trap. Detection Limit: 0. Matrix: whole‐water. Matrix: water. National Environmental Methods Index. tars. National Environmental Methods Index. Matrix: finished drinking waters. National Environmental Methods Index. Procedure: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.nemi. Analytical.0357 ug/L. Analytical.gov  from HSDB Method: USGS‐NWQL O‐4127‐96. aqueous sludges. caustic liquors. Analytical. Matrix: ground water. Analytical. as of June 29. Analytical. Available from. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). as of June 29. Analyte: 4‐xylene. 2016: http://www. Available from. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). as of June 29. Detection Limit: not provided. Available from.01 ug/L. filter cakes. as of June 29. Procedure: gas chromatography with electrolytic conductivity detector.ncbi. Available from. spent catalysts. Detection Limit: not provided. Detection Limit: 0. Analyte: 4‐xylene. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3). mousses. as of June 29. and sediments. waste solvents. Analytical.

Abstract: PubMed Gherardi M et al.nlm. the headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method is a highly sensitive.ncbi.gov/compound/p­xylene 37/101 . The method achieved good accuracy ﴾from 99 to 105%﴿ and precision for both intra‐ and inter‐assay ﴾relative standard deviation ranging from 1. An evaluation of the main sources of uncertainty of the method is also included: expanded uncertainties ranges between 10 and 16% for all of the target compounds. Saliva samples resulted stable for at least 7 days after collection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878 (26): 2391‐6 (2010)  from HSDB 9.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem least a 2 orders of magnitude characterized by a linear determination coefficient ﴾r﴾2﴿﴿ greater than 0.999.3 NIOSH Analytical Methods ORGANIC AND INORGANIC GASES BY EXTRACTIVE FTIR SPECTROMETRY 3800  from NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods https://pubchem.8 ng/mL ﴾m‐xylene﴿. In summary. if stored in headspace vials.64 ng/mL ﴾styrene﴿ and 1. at the temperature of 4 degrees C. versatile and flexible technique for the biological monitoring of exposure to ototoxic solvents by saliva analysis.7 to 13.nih. The repeatability was improved by adding sodium sulphate to the matrix.8%﴿ for all six compounds concerned.19 ng/mL ﴾styrene﴿ and 0.54 ng/mL ﴾m‐xylene﴿ and the lower limit of quantification ﴾LLOQ﴿ ranged between 0. The limit of detection ﴾LOD﴿ ranged between 0.

P303+P361+P353. P405. If taken into lungs.1 Hazards Identification 10.2 Health Hazard Vapors cause headache and dizziness.1. P304+P312. Only Hazard Codes with percentage values above 10% are shown. P304+P340. vomiting. Kidney and liver damage can occur.1%﴿: May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways [Danger Aspiration hazard ‐ Category 1] H312 ﴾100%﴿: Harmful in contact with skin [Warning Acute toxicity. P312. P280. P261. causes severe coughing. If ingested.31%﴿: May cause respiratory irritation [Warning Specific target organ toxicity. P302+P352. H226 ﴾100%﴿: Flammable liquid and vapor [Warning Flammable liquids ‐ Category 3] H304 ﴾12. headache.gov/compound/p­xylene 38/101 . P271. P301+P310. P370+P378. P331. causes nausea. P305+P351+P338. Respiratory tract irritation ‐ Category 3] H412 ﴾17. long‐term hazard ‐ Category 3] Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities.nlm. P337+P313. P240. P362. P403+P233.12%﴿: Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye irritation ‐ Category 2A] H332 ﴾100%﴿: Harmful if inhaled [Warning Acute toxicity. and coma. additives. P264. P233. Precautionary Statement Codes P210. P273. P363. and rapidly developing pulmonary edema. distress.nih.1. Liquid irritates eyes and skin. P243. single exposure. P241. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Flammable ‐ 3rd degree  from NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List 10. and other factors. Can be fatal. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies.1 GHS Classification Signal: Danger GHS Hazard Statements Aggregated GHS information from 21 notifications provided by 967 companies to the ECHA C&L Inventory. P332+P313. dermal ‐ Category 4] H315 ﴾100%﴿: Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation ‐ Category 2] H319 ﴾49.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 10 Safety and Hazards 10. P242.99%﴿: Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment. cramps.ncbi. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from all companies. P322. and P501 ﴾The corresponding statement to each P‐code can be found here.﴿  from European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA View all ﴾3﴿ GHS Classification entries 10. ﴾USCG.3 Fire Hazard https://pubchem. P321. inhalation ‐ Category 4] H335 ﴾12.1. P403+P235.

and inhalation﴿. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Flammable. 4‐Xylene may be sent to a solvent disposal company. isolate the area.6 Skin. For massive fires in enclosed areas.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.nih. to assure protection. vapor may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.pdf  from HSDB 10. This effect is probably the result of direct contact of the xylene vapor with the eye. as well as liquid injection. and any activity that could cause physical damage to containers. The heat of a fire may cause containers to explode and/or cause thermal degradation of 4‐xylene.. pulmonary edema. Runoff from fire control water may cause pollution and. . and remove contaminated clothing. dike far ahead of the spill. and as a chemical intermediate. a self‐contained breathing apparatus and full protective clothing are recommended. dermal.2 Safety and Hazard Properties 10. kidney and liver damage. however. In emergency situations.1 LEL https://pubchem. ingestion. If a 4‐xylene tank car or truck is involved in a fire. Also. ﴾USCG. or foam. and death. skin and eye irritation.1. oxidizing agents. 4‐xylene can cause effects including headache. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. plastic gloves.71 (August 2007) Available from. 2008: http://www.. producing irritating and poisonous gases.gov/compound/p­xylene 39/101 . upon entering a sewer. The ACGIH recommends a workplace exposure limit ﴾TLV﴿ of 100 ppm an 8‐hr time‐weighted average ﴾TWA﴿. and boots.2. as of August 29. For small spills of 4‐xylene.atsdr. and collect the material for disposal. closed cup﴿. Individuals with diseases of the central nervous system. 4‐Xylene is easily ignitable by heat. and may do so explosively in an enclosed area. kidneys. rotary kiln. consult regulatory agencies for guidance.4 Explosion Hazard Above 27°C explosive vapour/air mixtures may be formed.5 Hazards Summary The major hazards encountered in the use and handling of 4‐xylene stem from its toxicologic properties and flammability. dizziness. If contact does occur. and Respiratory Irritations Human data indicate that acute inhalation exposures to 460 ppm mixed xylene and 100 ppm p‐xylene vapors produce mild and transient eye irritation . wear an approved canister or air‐supplied mask. or flame ﴾flash point: 25 deg C. coma. CO2. in cool.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. Eye. sparks.  from HSDB 10.nlm. well ventilated areas ﴾outdoor or detached areas are preferable﴿. Toxic by all routes of exposure ﴾ie. take up with sand or other non‐combustible absorbent and place in containers for later disposal.1. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Fires involving 4‐ xylene may be extinguished with dry chemical. below 13 deg C﴿ may occur from its use as a solvent. and fluidized bed incineration. immediately flush exposed eyes with running water. DHHS ATSDR. liver. water spray.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.ncbi. 4‐Xylene should be stored in closed containers. For large spills. or absorb on paper and evaporate in an appropriate exhaust hood. may create an explosion hazard. face shield. wash exposed skin with soap and water. isolate 1/2 mile in all directions. away from sources of ignition. 4‐Xylene is a good candidate for the Belliot process of oxidative destruction.cdc. Exposure to this colorless sweet‐smelling liquid ﴾solid. fog. and blood should be protected from exposure.1. but prior to implementing any land disposal of waste residue ﴾including waste sludge﴿. as a component of gasoline.

at or above 73°F and below 100°F. National Fire Protection Association. p. 95th Edition.1. CRC Press LLC. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. but areas may be entered freely if personnel are provided with full‐face mask self‐contained breathing apparatus that provides complete eye protection.4 Critical Temperature Critical temperature: 616. W. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.17 K. p. 14TH Edition. (ed.M.2. Quincy.2 UEL 7 % ﴾USCG.). 325‐117  from HSDB Flammability: 3. 14TH Edition. MA 2010. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 7. including those requiring the use of respiratory protective equipment that has an independent air supply. W.). 2= Materials that.2.gov/compound/p­xylene 40/101 . 95th Edition. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.55 MPa Haynes.nih. Critical pressure 3.3 Flammability % by vol: lower 1.nlm. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10.0 National Fire Protection Association. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.2. MA 2010.0%  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB. 6‐74  from HSDB 10.  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10.M. p. https://pubchem.17 K.1%  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. (ed. CRC Press LLC. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 1. 6‐74  from HSDB 10. Critical pressure 3.6 NFPA Hazard Classification Health: 2.P.2.1 % ﴾USCG. Quincy. on intense or continued ﴾but not chronic﴿ exposure. These materials are hazardous to health.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 1. 3= This degree includes Class IB and IC flammable liquids and materials that can be easily ignited under almost all normal temperature conditions. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015.5 Critical Pressure Critical temperature: 616.2. Boca Raton: FL 2014‐2015. could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.55 MPa Haynes. 325‐117  from HSDB Class IC Flammable Liquid: Fl. upper 7.ncbi. p. Water may be ineffective in controlling or extinguishing fires in such materials.

R. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.nih. 2004.11 Explosive Limits and Potential Explosive in form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. 14TH Edition. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 325‐117  from HSDB Instability: 0.2. National Fire Protection Association. NJ.8 NFPA Health Rating 2  from CAMEO Chemicals.2. p. Wiley‐Interscience. 2010‐168 (2010).  from ILO‐ICSC 10.1‐7.2. 325‐117  from HSDB 10.2. 3703  from HSDB vol% in air: 1. p‐isomers﴿/ https://pubchem. Sr. /Xylenes ﴾o‐. Inc. agitation.nlm.10 Chemical Dangers 900 ppm NIOSH. Wiley & Sons.12 OSHA Standards Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z‐1 8‐hr Time Weighted Avg: 100 ppm ﴾435 mg/cu m﴿. etc. p. MA 2010.9 Physical Dangers As a result of flow. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. and that do not react with water.2. Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used. p.J.cdc. 0= This degree includes materials that are normally stable. Quincy.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Reacts with strong acids and strong oxidants. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10.ncbi. 14TH Edition. m‐.0  from ILO‐ICSC 10. Available from: http://www. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10. Quincy.2.gov/compound/p­xylene 41/101 .. MA 2010.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem National Fire Protection Association.. electrostatic charges can be generated. even under fire exposure conditions. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Department of Health & Human Services. Hoboken. 11th Edition.7 NFPA Fire Rating 3  from CAMEO Chemicals. Lewis.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.

IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.ecfr. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing. 374  from HSDB 10. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop. ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the head lower than the body. U. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave https://pubchem. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area.1000 (USDOL). Available from: http://www. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. 2010‐168 (2010). DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. ﴾NTP.C. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. if not available.nih.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 29 CFR 1910. coughing. or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician. NIOSH. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. U.ncbi. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop. Self‐Contained Breathing Apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿ should be used. as of June 27. or chest﴿ develop. p‐isomers﴿/ NIOSH. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop. STEL 150 ppm ﴾655 mg/cu m﴿ is still enforced in some states. take deep breaths of fresh air.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB 10. give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Government Printing Office. shortness of breath.cdc. Available from: http://www. Do not put any ointments. m‐. or medication in the victim's eyes without specific instructions from a physician.13 NIOSH Recommendations Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hr Time‐Weighted Avg: 100 ppm ﴾435 mg/cu m﴿. Washington.2. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms ﴾such as redness or irritation﴿ develop.1 First Aid EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. oils.S. D. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. or burning in the mouth. oils. Available from. Department of Health & Human Services. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating all contaminated clothing. Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water.gov  from HSDB Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL TWA 100 ppm ﴾435 mg/cu m﴿. 2016: http://www. p. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. do not give anything by mouth.3 First Aid Measures 10. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Department of Health & Human Services. If symptoms ﴾such as wheezing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital. INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. 97‐140. Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere. /Xylene ﴾o‐. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.cdc.gov/compound/p­xylene 42/101 . DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing. 2010‐168 (2010). DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present.S. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center.nlm. NIOSH. 1997. throat. Whenever possible. Do not put any ointments..gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Min Short‐Term Exposure Limit: 150 ppm ﴾655 mg/cu m﴿. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center.3. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.

Self‐Contained Breathing Apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿ should be used.html https://pubchem. If the victim is conscious and not convulsing.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. 2016: http://www. Do NOT induce vomiting.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem the contaminated area.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital. If the victim is convulsing or unconscious.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Sigma‐Aldrich. dry chemical. as of July 1. ﴾NTP. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap.com/safety‐center.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.3 Skin First Aid Remove contaminated clothes. Product Number: 95680. Version 3.2 Inhalation First Aid Fresh air. 1992﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB ﴾See procedures﴿ Eye:Irrigate immediately Skin:Soap wash promptly Breathing:Respiratory support Swallow:Medical attention immediately  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10.3. Available from. alcohol‐resistant foam. if not available.3. shortness of Breathing. Version 3. Sigma‐Aldrich. use a level of protection greater than or equal to that advised under Protective Clothing.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). then refer for medical attention.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center. Product Number: 95680. throat.html  from HSDB Advice for firefighters: Wear self‐contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.4 Fire Fighting Measures Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray. or burning in the mouth. ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with the Headache lower than the body. coughing. 2016: http://www.gov/compound/p­xylene 43/101 . call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital.3. as of July 1. give 1 or 2 glasses of water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control center. Whenever possible. rest. INGESTION: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If symptoms ﴾such as wheezing. Available from. do not give anything by mouth. or carbon dioxide.3. Refer for medical attention.4 Eye First Aid First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes ﴾remove contact lenses if easily possible﴿.nlm. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. take deep breaths of fresh air.nih.5 Ingestion First Aid Rinse mouth.sigmaaldrich. Refer for medical attention . Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown atmosphere.ncbi. or chest﴿ develop. Be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital if advised by a physician.

Ventilation. Department of Transportation. D. dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. etc. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 10.1 Fire Fighting Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to Be Used: Water may be ineffective. also. U. carbon dioxide. Version 3.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB Use water spray to cool unopened containers. Available from. ﴾ERG.1 Isolation and Evacuation Excerpt from ERG Guide 130 [Flammable Liquids ﴾Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿]: As an immediate precautionary measure.4.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions. cool by spraying with water. rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire. Sigma‐Aldrich. FIRE: If tank. 1999﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10.4.ncbi.S.  from ILO‐ICSC Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to Be Used: Water may be ineffective.5.html  from HSDB Foam.5 Accidental Release Measures 10. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment.  from HSDB 10. Water may be ineffective.. Volume II. or carbon dioxide ﴾USCG.  from ILO‐ICSC https://pubchem. as of July 1.sigmaaldrich.5. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.S. or carbon dioxide ﴾USCG. 2016: http://www. dry chemical. 1999﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Use water spray. LARGE SPILL: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. 1984‐5.2 Spillage Disposal Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Washington. dry chemical. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Government Printing Office. Cool exposed containers with water.C. Fire Extinguishing Agents: Foam.2 Explosion Fire Fighting In case of fire: keep drums. foam.com/safety‐center. consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions.: U.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 44/101 . Coast Guard. Remove all ignition sources. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations.nlm. Product Number: 95680. powder. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data.Fire Extinguishing Agents: Foam.

300‐306.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). must conform with USEPA regulations in storage. Product Number: 95680.5 Other Preventative Measures SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses by industrial workers is inconsistent. Beware of vapors accumulating to form explosive concentrations. U.5. USEPA. or contaminated sites should be contained and evaluated for subject chemical or decomposition product concentrations.nlm.ecfr. transportation. but also on factors including the form of the substance.S. as of July 1. Product Number: 95680. USEPA. specifically Subpart B. transfer and disposal. Vapors can accumulate in low areas. 2016: http://www. Contaminated packaging: Dispose of as unused product. Remove all sources of ignition. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.2‐10 (1981) EPA 68‐03‐3025  from HSDB Xylene is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. pretreatment and/or discharge to a permitted wastewater treatment facility is acceptable only after review by the governing authority and assurance that "pass through" violations will not occur. treatment and disposal of waste. Available from. Environmental precautions: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so.gov/compound/p­xylene 45/101 . the uses of other eye protection equipment. Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p. and the hygiene of the lenses.html  from HSDB p‐Xylene is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration.  from HSDB Generators of waste ﴾equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo﴿ containing this contaminant. Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up: Contain spillage.4 Disposal Methods SRP: Wastewater from contaminant suppression. Available from. as of July 1. state and federal requirements for disposal. Contact a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. in order to determine the appropriate local.sigmaaldrich. there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are https://pubchem. The benefits or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance. Ensure adequate ventilation. Sigma‐Aldrich.nih.html  from HSDB 10.com/safety‐center. 2016: http://www. Alternatively. cleaning of protective clothing/equipment.ncbi. Offer surplus and non‐recyclable solutions to a licensed disposal company. Version 3. characteristics and duration of the exposure.3 Cleanup Methods ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES: Personal precautions. Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p. EPA hazardous waste number U239 and F003. dermal and ingestion﴿ as well as fate during treatment. it must be evaluated in accordance with EPA 40 CFR Part 261. and then collect with an electrically protected vacuum cleaner or by wet‐brushing and place in container for disposal according to local regulations.com/safety‐center. Available from. Do not let product enter drains. Version 3. 2‐10 (1981) EPA 68‐03‐3025  from HSDB 10. protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment.gov  from HSDB Product: Burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber but exert extra care in igniting as this material is highly flammable. 702‐799 (USEPA). Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.5. Due consideration shall be given to remediation worker exposure ﴾inhalation.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 10. Concentrations shall be lower than applicable environmental discharge or disposal criteria. as of April 2. Avoid breathing vapors. 2015: http://www. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. If it is not practicable to manage the chemical in this fashion. However.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Sigma‐Aldrich. mist or gas.5.sigmaaldrich. 40 CFR 240‐280.

NIOSH. Product Number: 95680.nlm. Sigma‐Aldrich. as of July 1.html  from HSDB Precautions for safe handling: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. as of July 1. Use proper glove removal technique ﴾without touching glove's outer surface﴿ to avoid skin contact with this product. Sigma‐Aldrich. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Avoid inhalation of vapor or mist. protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. In those specific cases. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.com/safety‐center. Keep away from sources of ignition ‐ No smoking. Department of Health & Human Services.nih.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016).  from HSDB ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES: Personal precautions. The completeness of the cleaning procedures should be considered before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Available from: http://www. 2016: http://www.cdc. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.6 Handling and Storage 10. 2010‐168 (2010). DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Take measures to prevent the build up of electrostatic charge.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard ﴾i. Sigma‐Aldrich. NIOSH. In any event. Version 3. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. 2010‐168 (2010).6.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016).e. Version 3. Beware of vapors accumulating to form explosive concentrations. or clean the clothing..sigmaaldrich. as of July 1.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning. as of July 1.cdc. Available from: http://www. 2016: http://www.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Product Number: 95680.html  from HSDB The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.html  from HSDB Appropriate engineering controls: Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place. Avoid breathing vapors.1 Nonfire Spill Response https://pubchem. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.  from HSDB SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in a manner such that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle. Ensure adequate ventilation. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Do not let product enter drains. Wash and dry hands. 2016: http://www.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB 10. for liquids with a flash point of <100 deg F﴿.com/safety‐center. Discharge into the environment must be avoided. Department of Health & Human Services. Product Number: 95680. dispose. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at the end of shift. Available from. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. mist or gas. Available from. Product Number: 95680. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Environmental precautions: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Remove all sources of ignition.html  from HSDB Gloves must be inspected prior to use.com/safety‐center.ncbi. Sigma‐Aldrich. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Version 3. Version 3. Available from.com/safety‐center.gov/compound/p­xylene 46/101 . 2016: http://www.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Available from. contact lenses should not be worn.sigmaaldrich. Vapors can accumulate in low areas.sigmaaldrich.sigmaaldrich.

U.nlm.2 PEL TWA 100 ppm ﴾435 mg/m3﴿ See Appendix G  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. Government Printing Office. Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with acetone followed by washing with a strong soap and water solution.S. 1992﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer ﴾or other responsible person﴿ has verified that the area has been properly cleaned.3 PEL‐TWA 100 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB https://pubchem. use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material.C. Separated from strong oxidants and strong acids. D. as of July 1. Product Number: 95680.gov/compound/p­xylene 47/101 .1 REL TWA 100 ppm ﴾435 mg/m3﴿ ST 150 ppm ﴾655 mg/m3﴿  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. Do not reenter the contaminated area until the Safety Officer ﴾or other responsible person﴿ has verified that the area has been properly cleaned. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data.html  from HSDB Ambient storage temp and open ﴾flame arrester﴿. Sigma‐Aldrich. ﴾NTP.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: If you should spill this chemical. 1984‐5. Washington.  from HSDB 10.3 Storage Conditions Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well‐ventilated place.S. STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should store this material in a refrigerator.2 Safe Storage Fireproof.: U. use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material. or pressure‐vacuum. Volume II.7.sigmaaldrich. Department of Transportation.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. 1992﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals SMALL SPILLS AND LEAKAGE: If you should spill this chemical. Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage.ncbi. Coast Guard.nih. Your contaminated clothing and absorbent paper should be sealed in a vapor‐tight plastic bag for eventual disposal.7. Your contaminated clothing and absorbent paper should be sealed in a vapor‐tight plastic bag for eventual disposal.STORAGE PRECAUTIONS: You should store this material in a refrigerator.7. 2016: http://www. Available from. ﴾NTP.com/safety‐center.7 Exposure Control and Personal Protection 10.6. Version 3.6. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with acetone followed by washing with a strong soap and water solution.

OH 2016.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 435 mg/m3  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10.5 REL‐STEL 150 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 655 mg/m3  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10. 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit ﴾STEL﴿: 150 ppm. m‐. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices.6 IDLH 900 ppm ﴾NIOSH. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals 900 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 900 ppm See: 95476  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. p. Cincinnati. p. 62  from HSDB Biological Exposure Index ﴾BEI﴿: Determinant: methylhippuric acids in urine. Cincinnati. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices.4 REL‐TWA 100 ppm  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 435 mg/m3  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10. OH 2016. technical or commercial grade/ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. /Xylenes.nlm.7. /Xylene ﴾o‐.7. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. & p‐ isomers﴿/ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs.7. 119 https://pubchem. & p‐ isomers﴿/ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs.m‐.gov/compound/p­xylene 48/101 .ncbi. OH 2016. Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. BEI: 1. Sampling Time: end of shift.nih. 62  from HSDB A4. /Xylene ﴾o‐.7. Cincinnati.7 Threshold Limit Values 8 hr Time Weighted Avg ﴾TWA﴿: 100 ppm. p.5 g/g creatinine.

11 Effects of Short Term Exposure The substance is irritating to the eyes and skin.7. PAC‐1: The maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour without experiencing other than mild transient adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly defined objectionable odor.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 10.nlm.13 Personal Protection ﴾See protection codes﴿ Skin:Prevent skin contact Eyes:Prevent eye contact Wash skin:When contaminated Remove:When wet ﴾flammable﴿ Change:No recommendation https://pubchem.nih.9 Occupational Exposure Limits TLV: 100 ppm as TWA. ﴾ACGIH 2001﴿. PAC‐2: 200 ppm. The substance may have effects on the central nervous system. If this liquid is swallowed.gov/compound/p­xylene 49/101 . A4 ﴾not classifiable as a human carcinogen﴿. aspiration into the lungs may result in chemical pneumonitis. PAC‐3: The maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour without experiencing or developing life‐threatening health effects﴿.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.ncbi.12 Effects of Long Term Exposure The substance defats the skin. PAC‐3: 900 ppm ﴾TEEL‐0: The threshold concentration below which most people will experience no adverse health effects.gov/emi/scapa/teels.7.7. 150 ppm as STEL.8 Other Occupational Permissible Levels DOE Protective Action Criteria ﴾PAC﴿: Temporary Emergency Exposure Limits ﴾TEELs﴿ for 4‐Xylene: TEEL‐0: 100 ppm. Exposure to the substance may increase noise‐induced hearing loss.htm). PAC‐2: The maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms that could impair their abilities to take protective action. & TEELs (http://orise. DOE (2008) Protective Action Criteria (PAC) for Chemicals ‐ Including AEGLs. PAC Database Revision 24  from HSDB 10. BEI issued.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.7. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxicity to human reproduction or development. ERPGs.10 Inhalation Risk A harmful contamination of the air will be reached rather slowly on evaporation of this substance at 20°C.7.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. PAC‐1: 150 ppm.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. which may cause dryness or cracking.7.orau. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system.

self‐contained breathing apparatus Important additional information about respirator selection  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. ventilation and explosion‐proof electrical equipment.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. by grounding﴿..14 Respirator Recommendations NIOSH/OSHA Up to 900 ppm: ﴾APF = 10﴿ Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge﴾s﴿* ﴾APF = 25﴿ Any powered.7.15 Fire Prevention NO open flames.ncbi.19 Skin Prevention https://pubchem.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.nlm. local exhaust or breathing protection. front‐ or back‐mounted organic vapor canister Any appropriate escape‐type.000﴿ Any supplied‐air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or other positive‐pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self‐contained positive‐pressure breathing apparatus Escape: ﴾APF = 50﴿ Any air‐purifying.gov/compound/p­xylene 50/101 .17 Exposure Prevention STRICT HYGIENE! AVOID EXPOSURE OF ﴾PREGNANT﴿ WOMEN!  from ILO‐ICSC 10.  from ILO‐ICSC 10.000﴿ Any self‐contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or other positive‐pressure mode ﴾APF = 10. full‐facepiece respirator ﴾gas mask﴿ with a chin‐style. NO sparks and NO smoking.7.g.7. Prevent build‐up of electrostatic charges ﴾e.18 Inhalation Prevention Use ventilation.7.7.16 Explosion Prevention Above 27°C use a closed system. air‐purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge﴾s﴿* ﴾APF = 10﴿ Any supplied‐air respirator* ﴾APF = 50﴿ Any self‐contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: ﴾APF = 10.7.nih.

gov/compound/p­xylene 51/101 . 2016: http://www. Department of Health & Human Services. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Sigma‐Aldrich.sigmaaldrich.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. for liquids with flash point < 100°F﴿ Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. 2016: http://www.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.html  from HSDB Body Protection: Complete suit protecting against chemicals. If the respirator is the sole means of protection. Product Number: 95680. Product Number: 95680.nlm. Version 3. as of July 1.com/safety‐center. drink. Sigma‐Aldrich.com/safety‐center. use a full‐face supplied air respirator. or smoke during work. Version 3. as of July 1.html  from HSDB Skin protection: Handle with gloves. Available from.7.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Available from. Version 3.7.ncbi. 2010‐168 (2010).22 Protective Equipment and Clothing Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH ﴾US﴿ or CEN ﴾EU﴿.html  from HSDB Respiratory protection: Where risk assessment shows air‐purifying respirators are appropriate use a full‐face respirator with multipurpose combination ﴾US﴿ or type ABEK ﴾EN 14387﴿ respirator cartridges as a backup to engineering controls.e. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.sigmaaldrich. as of July 1.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Version 3.sigmaaldrich.sigmaaldrich.com/safety‐center.html  from HSDB Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Product Number: 95680. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. 2016﴿  from CAMEO Chemicals Eye/face protection: Face shield and safety glasses. Available from.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Available from: https://pubchem. ﴾NIOSH. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.7.com/safety‐center.21 Ingestion Prevention Do not eat. Product Number: 95680. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Flame retardant antistatic protective clothing. Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet should be immediately removed due to its flammability hazard﴾i. Available from. Sigma‐Aldrich. NIOSH. as of July 1. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH ﴾US﴿ or EN 166﴾EU﴿.nih. 2016: http://www.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). 2016: http://www. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Sigma‐Aldrich.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Protective gloves.20 Eye Prevention Wear safety spectacles.

air‐purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge﴾s﴿.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Respirator Recommendations: Escape conditions: Assigned Protection Respirator Recommendation Factor ﴾APF﴿ Any air‐purifying.nlm. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2010‐168 (2010). DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Substance reported to APF = 10 cause eye irritation or damage. Any supplied‐air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐demand or APF = 10. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.cdc.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB https://pubchem.cdc. self‐contained breathing apparatus. Department of Health & Human Services. Department of Health & Human Services. front‐ or back‐mounted APF = 50 organic vapor canister/Any appropriate escape‐type. Available from: http://www. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 52/101 . DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. may require eye protection. NIOSH.cdc. full‐facepiece respirator ﴾gas mask﴿ with a chin‐style.ncbi. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Available from: http://www. 2010‐168 (2010). may APF = 10 require eye protection. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.000 other positive‐pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self‐contained positive‐pressure breathing apparatus. Any supplied‐air respirator. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Available from: http://www.000 demand or other positive‐pressure mode.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Respirator Recommendations: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Assigned Protection Respirator Recommendation Factor ﴾APF﴿ Any self‐contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure‐ APF = 10. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2010‐168 (2010). Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB Respirator Recommendations: Up to 900 ppm Assigned Protection Factor Respirator Recommendation ﴾APF﴿ Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge﴾s﴿. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. NIOSH.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem http://www. Any powered. APF = 50 Any self‐contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health.cdc. 2010‐168 (2010). Substance reported to cause eye irritation or damage. Available from: http://www. may require eye protection. NIOSH.cdc. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Department of Health & Human Services. Substance reported to APF = 25 cause eye irritation or damage. Department of Health & Human Services. NIOSH.

5 Reactivities and Incompatibilities Incompatible materials: Strong oxidizing agents. ﴾NTP. Inc. Available from.8. Safety Data Sheet for p‐Xylene. 1990. R.html  from HSDB In liquid phase aerobic oxidation of p‐xylene in acetic acid to terephthalic acid. Hoboken. Product Number: 95680.﴿.sigmaaldrich.3 Reactivity Alerts Highly Flammable  from CAMEO Chemicals 10.2 Reactive Group Hydrocarbons. Aromatic  from CAMEO Chemicals 10. Version 3. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. Boston.  from CAMEO Chemicals 10. 1990. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.3‐dichloro‐5. 11th Edition. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. p.8.nih.8 Stability and Reactivity 10.J. L.gov/compound/p­xylene 53/101 . p..4 Reactivity Profile P‐XYLENE may react with oxidizing materials.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 10. it is important to eliminate the inherent hazards of this fuel‐air mixture.. p. The haloimide undergoes immediate self accelerating decomp in the presence of solvents.1 Air and Water Reactions Highly flammable. https://pubchem. Boston. Bretherick. 4th ed.9 (Revision Date 05/23/2016). 3703  from HSDB An attempt to chlorinate xylene with 1. Acetic acid forms explosive mixtures with p‐xylene and air ﴾Shraer. Lewis. 4th ed. Bretherick.nlm.ncbi.4‐imidazolidindione ﴾dichlorohydrantoin﴿ caused a violent explosion. Effects of temp. Sigma‐Aldrich.I. 1165‐66  from HSDB Can react with oxidizing materials.5‐dimethyl‐2. Wiley & Sons. 1970. pressure and presence of steam on explosive limits of the mixture have been investigated. 2016: http://www.. 1992﴿. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. as of July 1. 713  from HSDB Oxidation of p‐xylene with nitric acid under pressure in manufacture of terephthalic acid is an explosion hazard in autoclaves and condensing systems. B. NJ. Khim. 2004. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd.8. Prom.8. L.  from CAMEO Chemicals 10.8. Sr.com/safety‐center. 46﴾10﴿:747‐750. Insoluble in water. Wiley‐Interscience.

2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Evacuation: Large Spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. Keep out of low areas. D. Available from: http://www.. Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. corrosive and/or toxic gases. refer to appropriate telephone number listed on the inside back cover. Containers may explode when heated.gov/niosh/npg  from HSDB STABILITY: Stable under normal laboratory conditions. /Xylenes/ https://pubchem. Washington. Department of Transportation. Fire: If tank. tanks﴿. /Xylenes/ U. Keep unauthorized personnel away.S. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.9. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. L. 524  from HSDB Strong oxidizers.nih. Many liquids are lighter than water. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. /Xylenes/ U. MA: Butterworth‐Heinemann Ltd. isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions.cdc.nlm.C. ﴾NTP. /Xylenes/ U. also.C. Washington. D. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first. D. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. 1992﴿  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB Strong oxidizers. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook.gov/compound/p­xylene 54/101 . strong acids  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Washington. p.1 DOT Emergency Guidelines /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat. 2010‐168 (2010). D. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards.S. Department of Transportation. outdoors or in sewers. basements. Department of Health & Human Services. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas ﴾sewers. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin. Vapor explosion hazard indoors. Department of Transportation. As an immediate precautionary measure. Department of Transportation. Most vapors are heavier than air.9 Transport Information 10. sparks or flames. Stay upwind. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer.ncbi. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.REACTIVITY: May react with oxidizing materials.S. 4th ed. strong acids. 1990. /Xylenes/ U.C.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem /Xylenes/ Bretherick. Fire will produce irritating.S.C. Washington. Boston. Those substances designated with a ﴾P﴿ may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self‐contained breathing apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿. NIOSH. rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook.

Small Fire: Dry chemical. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material﴾s﴿ involved and take precautions to protect themselves. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article. All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Effects of exposure ﴾inhalation. Do not use straight streams./ 49 CFR 171. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Quebec Canada..gov  from HSDB The International Air Transport Association ﴾IATA﴿ Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.ecfr. described. labeled. as of June 28.2 Shipment Methods and Regulations No person may /transport. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. withdraw from area and let fire burn. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. D. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Absorb or cover with dry earth. fog or regular foam. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes.S.9.S.C. but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Water spray may reduce vapor. Washington. Montreal. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. water spray or regular foam. Washington. 57th Edition. /Xylenes/ https://pubchem.gov/compound/p­xylene 55/101 . packaged. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources ﴾no smoking. Xylenes is included on the dangerous goods list. Department of Transportation. Department of Transportation. 335  from HSDB The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Prevent entry into waterways. flares. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. In case of contact with substance. D. /Xylenes/ U. Dangerous Goods Regulations. /Xylenes/ U. ingestion or skin contact﴿ to substance may be delayed. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Washington. Washington. Keep victim warm and quiet.S.2 (USDOT). 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. sand or other non‐combustible material and transfer to containers. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes.C.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem U. 2016: http://www. /Xylenes/ U. marked./ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance . In case of burns. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. /the hazardous materials regulations ﴾49 CFR 171‐177﴿. sewers. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. Department of Transportation. Available from.S. Large Fire: Water spray. Use clean non‐sparking tools to collect absorbed material. and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by . Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. if this is impossible. p. 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook. 2012  from HSDB /GUIDE 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar/Water‐Immiscible/Noxious﴿/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. 2016. basements or confined areas. immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Large Spill: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal.nlm. 2012  from HSDB 10. sparks or flames in immediate area﴿.S.. /Xylenes/ International Air Transport Association.nih. CO2. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Wash skin with soap and water. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Fire involving Tanks or Car/Trailer Loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Xylenes is included on the dangerous goods list. Department of Transportation.. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire.. D.ncbi.. D. U. and the hazardous material is properly classed.C.C.

9. sparks or flames. * Stay upwind. UN Pack Group: III  from ILO‐ICSC 10.5 EC Classification Symbol: Xn.ncbi. * Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. F3. * Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back.6 UN Classification UN Hazard Class: 3.10. * Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. * Fire will produce irritating.1 DOT Emergency Response Guide 130 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ﴾Non‐Polar / Water‐Immiscible / Noxious﴿ POTENTIAL HAZARDS FIRE OR EXPLOSION * HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat. NFPA Code: H2. * Vapor explosion hazard indoors. * Keep unauthorized personnel away. outdoors or in sewers.9. basements. p. Note: C  from ILO‐ICSC 10. * Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Fire * If tank. * Ventilate closed spaces before entering.9.10 Regulatory Information 10. * Keep out of low areas.3 DOT ID and Guide 1307 130  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 10.gov/compound/p­xylene 56/101 . * Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. * Containers may explode when heated. rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire. If Shipping Paper not available or no answer. * Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. PUBLIC SAFETY * CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number on Shipping Paper first.  from ILO‐ICSC 10. 57  from HSDB 10. isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters ﴾150 feet﴿ in all directions. * Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. S: ﴾2﴿‐25.9.7 Emergency Response Transport Emergency Card: TEC ﴾R﴿‐30S1307‐III. ISOLATE for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ https://pubchem. * Most vapors are heavier than air.9. EVACUATION Large Spill * Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters ﴾1000 feet﴿. tanks﴿. * As an immediate precautionary measure. corrosive and/or toxic gases. * Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire.4 DOT Label Flammable Liquid  from CAMEO Chemicals 10. R: 10‐20/21‐38. R0.nlm.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem International Maritime Organization. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code Volume 2 2014. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING * Wear positive pressure self‐contained breathing apparatus ﴾SCBA﴿. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas ﴾sewers. * Many liquids are lighter than water.nih. IMDG Code. refer to appropriate telephone number listed on the inside back cover. HEALTH * May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin.

withdraw from area and let fire burn. Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB 10.S. * Absorb or cover with dry earth. basements or confined areas. * Water spray may reduce vapor. These regulations apply to discharges of this substance.10. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. if this is impossible. * Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. * Do not use straight streams. ingestion or skin contact﴿ to substance may be delayed.gov/compound/p­xylene 57/101 . Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93) To Present  from HSDB 10. * Prevent entry into waterways. Fire involving Tanks or Car/Trailer Loads * Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles.  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB 10.nih. in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable https://pubchem. U. when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance. flares. This designation includes any isomers and hydrates.400 ug/L /Xylenes/ USEPA/Office of Water. but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.gov  from HSDB 10. Large Fire * Water spray. * Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes.10. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. also. Large Spill * Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. * Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material﴾s﴿ involved and take precautions to protect themselves.3 State Drinking Water Guidelines ﴾ME﴿ MAINE 1.ncbi. Available from.ecfr. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FIRE CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes.4 Clean Water Act Requirements p‐Xylene is designated as a hazardous substance under section 311﴾b﴿﴾2﴿﴾A﴿ of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978. fog or regular foam. FIRST AID * Move victim to fresh air. * A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. * In case of contact with substance. 2016: http://www. water spray or regular foam. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC).2 State Drinking Water Standards ﴾CA﴿ CALIFORNIA 1750 ug/L USEPA/Office of Water. * Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. as of June 27. * Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. * Effects of exposure ﴾inhalation. sewers. * For massive fire.nlm.5 CERCLA Reportable Quantities Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center ﴾NRC﴿ immediately. consider initial evacuation for 800 meters ﴾1/2 mile﴿ in all directions. * Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem in all directions.4 (USEPA). * In case of burns. * All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded.10. SPILL OR LEAK * ELIMINATE all ignition sources ﴾no smoking. immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. * ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. * Do not touch or walk through spilled material. sparks or flames in immediate area﴿. sand or other non‐combustible material and transfer to containers. as well as any solutions and mixtures containing this substance.10. * Use clean non‐sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Federal‐State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). * Keep victim warm and quiet. * Wash skin with soap and water. * Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. * Call 911 or emergency medical service. CO2. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. * Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Small Fire * Dry chemical. 40 CFR 116.

10.S.31 (USEPA). U. as of June 27. as stated in 40 CFR 261. Available from. Sunset date: 10/4/92. 2016: http://www. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302. contaminated soil.nlm. becomes a waste. and must be managed according to State and/or Federal hazardous waste regulations. The section 8﴾d﴿ model rule requires manufacturers.ecfr. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.ecfr. and use to EPA as cited in the preamble in 51 FR 41329.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem quantity of 100 lb or 45. 40 CFR 261.nih. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.S. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations ﴾40 CFR 261.4 kg. or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill. Available from. 2016: http://www. U. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.ecfr. 40 CFR 302.5﴿. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue.3. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.gov  from HSDB Section 8﴾a﴿ of TSCA requires manufacturers of this chemical substance to report preliminary assessment information concerned with production. 2016: http://www. as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off‐specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate. as of June 27. Effective date 10/4/82. /Xylenes/.31. 2016: http://www. EPA promulgated a model Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule. importers. Available from.ncbi.ecfr. when xylene. D.30 (USEPA).6 TSCA Requirements Pursuant to section 8﴾d﴿ of TSCA.S.S.120 (USEPA).gov  from HSDB 10. water. When xylene is a spent solvent.4 (USEPA). U. U. /Xylenes/ 40 CFR 261.S.33. p‐Xylene is included on this list. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Effective date 1/26/94. it is classified as a hazardous waste from a nonspecific source ﴾F003﴿.ecfr. as of June 27. as of June 27. Available from.gov/compound/p­xylene 58/101 .33 (USEPA). it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations. 40 CFR 716. and processors of listed chemical substances and mixtures to submit to EPA copies and lists of unpublished health and safety studies.7 RCRA Requirements F003. Available from.gov  from HSDB U239. As stipulated in 40 CFR 261. as of June 27. exposure. U. into water or on dry land. The toll free number of the NRC is ﴾800﴿ 424‐8802.b﴿. 2016: http://www. of this waste.gov  from HSDB 10. 40 CFR 712.gov  from HSDB https://pubchem.4 ﴾section IV. Reporting date: 3/28/94.10.

62  from HSDB IARC‐3.2 Carcinogen Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of xylenes.gov/compound/p­xylene 59/101 . Available from. (Multivolume work). EPA. Summary on Xylenes (1330‐20‐7).S. Evaluations of the genotoxic effects of xylenes have consistently given negative results.S. and the available animal data are inconclusive as to the ability of xylenes to cause a carcinogenic response.gov/iris/  from HSDB Under the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment ﴾U. TLV‐A4.nlm.ncbi. as of July 19. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). & p‐ isomers﴿/ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs.epa. /Xylene ﴾o‐. p. 2016: http://www. Available at: http://monographs. Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. Overall classification: Xylenes are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans ﴾Group 3﴿./Xylenes. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from.fr/ENG/Classification/index.S. Summary on Xylenes (1330‐20‐7). ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. as of July 19. data are inadequate for an assessment of the carcinogenic potential of xylenes. Cincinnati. EPA‐I  from OSHA Occupational Chemical DB https://pubchem.gov/iris/  from HSDB A4. /Xylenes/ U.1 NIOSH Toxicity Data  Download 1 to 3 of 20 View More Measurement Count Reproductive Effects Data 7 Acute Toxicity Data 8 Other Multiple Dose Data 5  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 11. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: None. 1972‐PRESENT.1 Toxicological Information 11. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans.1. m‐. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of xylenes.php . Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. o. 71 1204 (1999)  from HSDB CLASSIFICATION: D. p.iarc. 1999﴿. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.p isomers/ IARC.nih.epa. OH 2016.1. 2016: http://www.m. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Orally administered technical xylene mixtures did not result in significant increases in incidences in tumor responses in rats or mice of both sexes. Adequate human data on the carcinogenicity of xylenes are not available. /based on former classification system/ U.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 11 Toxicity 11.

respiratory system.4 Symptoms irritation eyes. Nausea.1. vomiting. With the aid of microcomputers subjects performed tests of simple reaction time. staggering gait.gov/compound/p­xylene 60/101 .1. Further see Inhalation.nih.1.1. excitement.8 Ingestion Symptoms Burning sensation. through the skin and by ingestion. Headache. throat. nose.1.  from ILO‐ICSC 11. Abdominal pain. after two.1.20 + 0. The results indicate https://pubchem. skin absorption. dizziness.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 11. liver.1.3 Exposure Routes The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation. Pain.ncbi. skin. nausea.84 mmol/cu m﴿ a mixture of toluene and p‐xylene ﴾2.25 mmol/cu m﴿. gastrointestinal tract. and choice reaction time immediately after entering the chamber.  from ILO‐ICSC 11. p‐xylene ﴾2. abdominal pain. ingestion.  from ILO‐ICSC 11. Drowsiness.5 Inhalation Symptoms Dizziness.  from ILO‐ICSC 11.  from ILO‐ICSC inhalation. dermatitis  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 11.94 mmol/cu m﴿ and a control condition. drowsiness.9 Target Organs Eyes. kidneys  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 11.6 Skin Symptoms Dry skin. short term memory. incoordination.1. anorexia. corneal vacuolization. skin and/or eye contact  from The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH 11. skin. Redness. central nervous system. and after four hours of exposure.10 Interactions Sixteen men were studied in an exposure chamber to assess the effect of four hr exposure to toluene ﴾3. blood.7 Eye Symptoms Redness.nlm.

the blood solvent concentration were lower at the end of the exposure compared with the maximal concentration during each exposure condition. which inhibits pulmonary but induces hepatic cytochrome P450. p‐xylene.5 mL/kg. and ethoxy‐resorufin O‐dealkylase activities but decr pulmonary microsomal benzyloxy‐ and pentoxy‐resorufin O‐ dealkylase activities. Finally. Ethanol appears to modify the inhibitory effect of p‐xylene. Br J Ind Med 42 ﴾2﴿: 111‐6 ﴾1985﴿] Full text: PMC1007432 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB It is unclear whether the pneumotoxicity observed with bromobenzene in phenobarbital‐induced rats is related to bromobenzene bioactivation in lung. Olson BA et al. and killed after 12 hr. liver or both. ip﴿ or corn oil. 30 min. solvent concentrations were measured in blood and in expired air.nlm. 3‐OH formation﴿ in rat lung is selectively inhibited by p‐xylene but not ethanol. in lung microsomes prepared 24 hr after a single injection of p‐xylene ﴾1 g/kg﴿. p‐Xylene ﴾1 g/kg﴿ inhibited the formation of 3‐OH benzo﴾a﴿pyrene 40% at 15 min. the risk of an acute effect on central nervous functions after exposure for four hours at these concn was considered to be minimal. In addition.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem that the performance on the tests was unaffected by exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol 19 (1): 50‐56 (1992)  from HSDB The effects of p‐xylene and ethanol on the lung metabolism of benzo﴾a﴿pyrene were studied. treated 12 hr later with bromobenzene ﴾0. Abstract: PubMed Roberts AE et al.0 mg/kg p‐xylene ﴾1 hr﴿. p‐Xylene potentiated bromobenzene‐ induced hepatotoxicity..0 g/kg ﴾1:1 in soybean oil﴿. respectively. pentoxy‐. J Toxicol Environ Health 18 (2): 257‐66 (1986)  from HSDB https://pubchem.[Wallen M et al. bromobenzene was admin alone and in combination with p‐xylene. The combination of p‐xylene and bromobenzene had an additive effect on pulmonary P450IA1 reduction.. 43% at 1 hr. Additional time points of 15 min. A combined dose of ethanol and p‐xylene moderately inhibited 3‐OH benzo﴾a﴿pyrene formation. In the kinetics of toluene and p‐xylene.2 mmol/cu m﴿. p‐Xylene was admin by ip injection at doses ranging from 0.5‐diol benzo﴾a﴿pyrene were inhibited 32% and 50%. p‐Xylene incr hepatic microsomal benzyloxy‐.gov/compound/p­xylene 61/101 . Ethanol was admin po at 5 g/kg ﴾40% w/v﴿. During and after the exposure. and the apparent clearance was also decreased after exposure to the higher concentration of solvent. Decreases in the blood/end exhaled air concentration ratio were found for both toluene and p‐xylene when given in combination compared with separate exposure. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was inhibited 27% and 46% at 0. When rats were exposed to p‐xylene ﴾2800 ppm﴿ or room air for 4 hr.5 mg/kg and 1. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and histopathology revealed no pneumotoxicity with any treatment. 27% at 30 min. Exposure to p‐xylene alone ﴾3400 ppm for 4 hr﴿ produced no changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid measurements . p‐Xylene also incr hepatic P450IA apoprotein ﴾3 to 4‐ fold﴿ with a complimentary incr in ethoxy‐resorufin O‐dealkylase activity. The exposures were performed for 4 hr at exposure levels equivalent to or lower than the Swedish threshold limit value for toluene. and 24 hr after p‐xylene ﴾1 g/kg﴿ were examined. The total solvent uptake relative to the exposure level was decreased after exposure to the higher solvent concentration. To help differentiate pulmonary from hepatic bioactivation. seems to be of major importance. or p‐xylene and ethanol were sacrificed 1 hr after treatment.1 mg/kg﴿ did not change activity. Analysis of the major metabolites of benzo﴾a﴿pyrene by HPLC demonstrated that the formation of 3‐OH and 4.1 to 1.e. respectively. 4 hr. Brit J Ind Med 42: 117‐22 (1985)  from HSDB Eight male subjects were experimentally exposed to toluene. Abstract: PubMed Day BJ et al. and a combination of toluene and p‐xylene to study the influence of coexposure and exposure to different levels of each solvent on their uptake and elimination. and 39% at 4 hr after treatment. 300 mg/cu m ﴾3.ncbi.nih. In pulmonary microsomes p‐xylene and bromobenzene each produced similar decr in both ethoxy‐ and benzyloxy‐resorufin O‐dealkylase activities. The change in blood/end exhaled air concentration ratio may indicate an effect of coexposure. the total amount of toluene or p‐xylene. Immunoblot analysis revealed an induction of hepatic but not pulmonary microsomal P450IIB apoprotein. p‐xylene incr hepatic P450IIB ﴾27‐fold﴿ concomitant with a similar incr in benzyloxy‐resorufin O‐dealkylase activity. or both. ethanol. In the light of this result. Rats given p‐xylene. Ethanol had no effect on 3‐OH benzo﴾a﴿pyrene formation during a 1‐hr treatment. while the lowest dose ﴾0. None of the other metabolites analyzed were changed by p‐xylene. the pulmonary ventilation rate was measured during the exposure. or serum sorbitol dehydrogenase.. These findings indicate that benzo﴾a﴿pyrene detoxication ﴾i. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was still present 24 hr after dosing ﴾41%﴿. p‐Xylene potentiation of bromobenzene‐induced hepatotoxicity without pneumotoxicity suggests that the liver does not produced metabolites of bromobenzene which are directly involved in pulmonary damage. 3‐Hydroxy‐benzo﴾a﴿pyrene ﴾3‐OH﴿ formation was measured fluorometrically as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in lung microsomes.

the respective 48‐hour LC50 values are 19.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem In rats ﴾Sprague‐Dawley﴿ p‐xylene ﴾2800 ppm for 4 hr﴿ has been shown to potentiate hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. For m‐xylene and p‐xylene. p‐Xylene was nonmutagenic using the Ames assay. or cognitive performance. TA1537. Toxic effects were decr weight of fetuses.nih. 24 hr/day from days 7‐14 of gestation.1. Xylenes (1997). pharmaceutical synthesis. p‐Xylene is possibly ototoxic at concentrations that are relevant to the occupational setting. suggesting that the m‐xylene and p‐xylene isomers are slightly toxic to estuarine/marine invertebrates on an acute basis. Levels of blood xylenes reflect recent exposure. TA98. 2016: http://www. In other experiment. increased incidence of malformations mostly cleft palates. The CNS depressant threshold was 1940 ppm. Histological damage to the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti provided evidence of ototoxicity in rats exposed by oral gavage to p‐xylene. glucose 6‐ phosphatase and changed characteristic features of functional maturity of the nephron.inchem. ECOTOXICITY STUDIES: The xylene isomers have a similar degree of toxicity as mixed xylenes to estuarine/marine invertebrates. In a study of levels of noradrenaline and dopamine in the forebrain and hypothalamus. but not m‐ or o‐xylene.htm  from HSDB p‐Xylene has been shown to decrease axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins in rats ﴾Long‐Evans﴿ exposed by inhalation to 1600 ppm for 6 hr/day. It is used for synthesis of terephthalic acid for polyester resins and fibers. but frequently reported headache and dizziness as a result of exposure. indicating differences in xylene metabolism between the liver and the lung. 0.nlm. as of September 28. for 5 days. Ethanol per se did not decrease the axonal transport.12‐0. 1500. TA1538. cytochrome p450 content was decreased. 24 hours apart over a range of concentrations from 0. increased incidence of skeletal retardation. and decrease in activity of enzymes. The animals were killed 16‐18 hr after the last exposure. Environmental Health Criteria 190. In lung microsomes.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. ANIMAL STUDIES: Increased hepatic cytochrome p450 concentrations and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cytochrome C reductase activity occurred in rats exposed 3 days to 2000 ppm of p‐xylene. showed no effects on electroencephalograms. It did not revert Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535. Available from.1. Each xylene isomer was administered to male rats intraperitoneally in 2 similar doses. 2016: http://www. Mice were exposed to p‐xylene at 150. evoked potentials. Slight impairment of vestibular and visual function and reaction time was noted at exposure levels from 200 to 300 ppm. Xylenes (1997).  from HSDB 11.11 Toxicity Summary IDENTIFICATION AND USE: 4‐Xylene ﴾p‐xylene﴿ is a colorless liquid ﴾Note: A solid below 56 degrees F﴿. In contrast. 5 days/week. as of September 28. No increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed for any xylene isomer. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. retardation of fetus was dose related. Environmental Health Criteria 190. The losses of hair cells occurred in the area of the cochlea responsive to medium frequencies ﴾10‐25 kHz﴿.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. succinic dehydrogenase.5 mg/L in brine shrimp.75 mL/kg ﴾105‐650 mg/kg﴿ and evaluated femoral bone marrow 30 hours after the first injection. acid phosphatase. In exposed animals there was a significant increase in catecholamine levels and turnover in various parts of the hypothalamus. Malformations ﴾ie cleft palate﴿ associated with mixed or individual isomers were primarily reported at maternally toxic doses. the treatment prevented the decreased axonal transport.12 Antidote and Emergency Treatment https://pubchem. Marked activation and tremor were observed at concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm p‐xylene in rats. for 8 days. were observed only with m‐ or p‐xylene.ncbi. at a dose of 900 mg/kg/day. or 3000 mg/cu m. Human data indicate that acute inhalation exposures to 460 ppm mixed xylene and 100 ppm p‐xylene vapors produce mild and transient eye irritation. The m‐and p‐xylene isomers usually are measured together and reported as m/p‐xylene. When ethanol ﴾10% in drinking‐water﴿ was given during 6 days prior to inhalation of p‐xylene. There was no effect on dopamine levels or turnover in the forebrain. & TA100 either with or without metabolic activation.5 hours/day.inchem.htm  from HSDB 11. while the effect of bromobenzene on pneumotoxicity was unaffected by p‐xylene. p‐Xylene is also frequently used for paints or in the printing trade. Available from. rats ﴾six males/group﴿ were exposed to 0 or 2000 ppm p‐xylene 6 hr/day for 3 days. alkaline.gov/compound/p­xylene 62/101 .3 and 24. four men exposed at concentrations of up to 150 ppm p‐xylene under the same exposure conditions reported no increase in headaches or dizziness. HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Three women exposed to p‐ xylene at 100 ppm for 1 to 7. There was adaption to the impairment over five successive daily exposures. insecticides. 5 days/week for 2 weeks.

L.. administer fluid cautiously. Sixth Edition.. Administer activated charcoal orally if conditions are appropriate.. K. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema . Skin and eyes.. Treat seizures with diazepam ﴾Valium﴿ or lorazepam ﴾Ativan﴿ . rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 L of water for dilution if the patient can swallow. Louis.. Sixth Edition. 391  from HSDB Decontamination: Patients exposed only to solvent vapor who have no skin or eye irritation do not need decontamination.. A. If patient is not breathing. 3rd revised edition.. St. . 3rd revised edition.9% saline ﴾NS﴿ during transport . Louis.... Elsevier Mosby.nlm.R.. MO 2007. Maintain an open airway and assist ventilation if necessary.. A. as trained. Consider administering a beta agonist such as albuterol for severe bronchospasm ..L. victims whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off‐gassing vapor. /Aromatics hydrocarbons and related compounds/ Currance. P.. New York.13 Medical Surveillance https://pubchem.C. Use 0. However. B. NY 2012. For hypotension with signs of hypovolemia. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure. P.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Immediate First Aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. and does not drool. McGraw‐Hill. Bronstein. Caution: Epinephrine and other sympathomimetic amines may provoke or aggravate cardiac arrhythmias. Treat coma. p. Clements. Administer activated charcoal .. Watch for signs of fluid overload . chemical pneumonia is unlikely. Bronstein. If the patient remains asymptomatic after a 6‐hour observation. Positive‐pressure ventilation techniques with a bag‐valve‐mask device may be beneficial. Ingestion. Perform CPR if necessary. 210  from HSDB Emergency and supportive measures: Inhalation exposure. Flush exposed or irritated eyes with plain water or saline. . . or pocket mask. 3rd revised edition. lean patient forward or place on left side ﴾head‐down position. (Ed). Treat for hydrocarbon pneumonia. Elsevier Mosby. bag‐valve‐mask device. Do not induce vomiting. (Ed). (Eds). . Poisoning and Drug Overdose. Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary. or esmolol. Louis.. /Aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds/ Currance. .L. St. /Toluene and xylene/ OLSON. start artificial respiration. . . Poisoning and Drug Overdose. arrhythmias and bronchospasm if they occur... Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation .R. . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary . McGraw‐Hill.. (Eds). p. if needed﴿. If the patient is coughing or dyspneic. For eye contamination. Tachyarrhythmias may be treated with propranolol .ncbi. Monitor for pulmonary edema and treat if necessary . Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. 391  from HSDB 11. Clements..1. p. NY 2012. p. Do not use emetics. MO 2007. .9% saline ﴾NS﴿ or lactated Ringer's ﴾LR﴿ if signs of hypovolemia are present. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure. if possible﴿ to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration..C. Emergency Care For Hazardous Materials Exposure. 209‐10  from HSDB Advanced treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient who is unconscious. Bronstein. If vomiting occurs. MO 2007. Obtain medical attention. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min..gov/compound/p­xylene 63/101 . B. consider aspiration pneumonia.nih. preferably with a demand‐valve resuscitator.. Consider gastric lavage for large ingestions ﴾>1‐2 oz﴿ if it can be performed within 30 minutes of ingestion. /Toluene and xylene/ OLSON. Inhalation.C. (Eds). Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. p. Administer supplemental oxygen and monitor oxygenation. .... /Aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds/ Currance.. Clements. New York. . Suction if necessary. has severe pulmonary edema. or is in severe respiratory distress. Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed skin with soap and water.. P. B. 209  from HSDB Basic treatment: Establish a patent airway ﴾oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway. Elsevier Mosby. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias if necessary . flush eyes immediately with water.. and further observation or chest radiography is not needed. A. St. has a strong gag reflex. Irrigate each eye continuously with 0. Start IV administration of D5W TKO /SRP: "To keep open".. Remove the victim from exposure and give supplemental oxygen if available. K. For ingestion. minimal flow rate/.

Sixteen male subjects /were exposed/ at 70 ppm p‐xylene for 4 hours. 1982. showed no effects on electroencephalograms.64 (August 2007). and choice reaction time remained unchanged after inhaling xylene... Environmental Health Criteria 190..htm  from HSDB /HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ When volunteers were exposed to about 195 mg/cu m ﴾45 ppm﴿ of o‐. Available from. as of July 19. short term memory.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. intermittent or continuous inhalation exposure to p‐xylene for 4 hours or up to 7 hours for 5 days at concentrations ranging from 69 to 150 ppm .org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. tests of motor activity and cognitive performance﴿ in humans are not affected by acute or intermediate. p. but p‐xylene and mixed xylenes have also been studied. Japan: The International Technical Information Institute. p.5 hours/day.. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. after exposure to 600 mg/cu m ﴾138 ppm﴿ of o‐xylene..1. only 46% was excreted in urine as methylhippuric acid and only trace amounts of the o‐methylbenzoyl glucuronide were detected. Also. for 5 days. DHHS ATSDR.. four men exposed at concentrations of up to 150 ppm p‐xylene under the same exposure conditions reported no increase in headaches or dizziness. About 90% of the absorbed dose of m‐xylene was excreted as methylhippuric acid after exposure to 435 mg/cu m ﴾100 ppm﴿ for 4 hr . Differences in such factors as the xylene isomer. m‐ or p‐xylene for 8 hr.inchem. Xylenes (1997). OH 45240‐1634 2013.14 Human Toxicity Excerpts /HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Objective measures of neurological function ﴾electroencephalography. 2016: http://www.67 hours/day for 4 days showed no adverse effects on the lungs . 2016: http://www. some sex difference in subjective reports of central nervous system effects was observed . Tokyo. or cognitive performance.htm https://pubchem. Documentation of the TLVs and BEIs with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. Xylenes (1997). Dimethylphenol excretion was estimated to be 0. as of September 28. rapid development of tolerance. In contrast.73‐4 (August 2007).gov/toxprofiles/tp71. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual.1 to 2% of the dose absorbed . CD‐ROM Cincinnati.. evoked potentials. the neurological parameter. Available from. reaction times.nih. and include complete blood count and studies of liver and kidney function.atsdr.. 2016: http://www. Available from. Environmental Health Criteria 190. 2016: http://www.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. ITII. . with special attention to eyes and central nervous system.. 557  from HSDB 11. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.. However. and total xylene uptake may account for the variability in results.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Physical examinations of exposed personnel annually. exposure conditions and concentrations. . coordination or peripheral senses were observed during a 4‐hr exposure to a constant concentration of up to 160 ppm. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. . 6  from HSDB /HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Chest x‐rays obtained from volunteers exposed to a time‐weighted average ﴾TWA﴿ concentration of 200 ppm m‐xylene for 3.nlm.. DHHS ATSDR.inchem... In these studies no significant effects on vestibular or visual function. but frequently reported headache and dizziness as a result of exposure . as of September 28. Performance in tests of simple reaction time. On the other hand. 7th Ed.pdf  from HSDB /HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ .atsdr.ncbi.cdc. Three women exposed to p‐xylene at 100 ppm for 1 to 7.gov/compound/p­xylene 64/101 . Slight impairment of vestibular and visual function and reaction time was noted at exposure levels from 200 to 300 ppm. . Available from. There was adaption to the impairment over five successive daily exposures....pdf  from HSDB /HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES/ Effects on the sensory motor and information process functions of the central nervous system ﴾CNS﴿ have been investigated. Usually m‐xylene has been used. no effects on pulmonary ventilation volume were observed in volunteers exposed to 150 ppm p‐xylene for 5 days/week in a 4‐week trial.cdc. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. about 95‐99% of the dose was excreted as methylhippuric acid in urine. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. as of July 19.

separately for exposures in pregnancy and the first year of life. . . . 1.03 to 1. 95% CI: 1. The Consortium on Safe Labor ﴾2002‐2008﴿. DHHS ATSDR. In humans. 95% CI: 1. nausea. Children ﴾103 cases and 30. Cardiovascular events ﴾cardiac failure/arrest.06. Tokyo. . Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.09﴿. incoordination. ethyl benzene.. vertigo ﴾dizziness﴿. 2016: http://www. nose and throat irritation has been reported following exposure to mixed xylene at 200 ppm for 3 to 5 minutes . 1982. .50. 95% CI: 1. 2.3‐butadiene. para‐dichlorobenzene ﴾OR=1.5 hours/day for 5 days . 1. Controls were randomly selected from state birth records for the same time period. 1. Japan: The International Technical Information Institute.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. stroke. Retinoblastoma risk was also increased with pregnancy exposure to chloroform ﴾OR=1. DHHS ATSDR. With a per interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure.08 to 2. Abstract: PubMed Mannisto T et al. fatigue. dyspnea.35.pdf  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ We examined ambient exposure to specific air toxics in the perinatal period in relation to retinoblastoma development.3%﴿.71 (August 2007)..30. 2. p..64﴿ and other toxics which primarily arise from gasoline and diesel combustion: toluene.. However. Air pollution in the days prior to delivery. chromium ﴾OR=1. Available from. especially nitrogen oxides and some toxic air pollution species. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. 559  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Self reported symptoms of respiratory irritation and impaired performance in tests of pulmonary function have been observed in studies of volunteers exposed to xylene for short periods of time under controlled conditions.. 95% CI: 1. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25 ﴾2﴿: 182‐6 ﴾2015﴿] Full text: PMC4059784 Abstract: PubMed  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ To study the relationship between acute air pollution exposure and cardiovascular events during labor/delivery.atsdr.[Heck JE et al. as of July 19. gangrene. Increased odds of cardiovascular events were observed for each IQR increase in exposure to nitric oxides at 5 and 6 days prior to delivery ﴾OR=1.11 to 2.04.03 to 1.07. 2.13﴿.99﴿ and toluene ﴾OR=1.42. Heart 101 (18): 1491‐8 (2015) https://pubchem.atsdr. 99% CI 1.gov/compound/p­xylene 65/101 . Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations estimated the relationship between cardiovascular events and daily air pollutant levels for delivery day and the 7 days preceding delivery.17.97﴿ at 5 days prior to delivery were also associated with cardiovascular events. 1. and to p‐xylene at 100 ppm for 1 to 7. o‐xylene ﴾OR=1. 1. to m‐xylene at 50 ppm for 2 hours . 2016: http://www.60﴿. irritation. This effect is probably the result of direct contact of the xylene vapor with the eye.54. and meta/para‐xylene.67. was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during the labour/delivery admission.. irritation to respiratory tract.01﴿. Sources of these agents are discussed. vomiting. p‐xylene ﴾OR=1.08. 1. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual.cdc. 1.06.09﴿.15. 1. or established human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. no increase in reports of nose and throat irritation and no change in respiratory rate were seen in a study of subjects exposed to mixed xylene at a concentration of 396 ppm for 30 minutes .pdf  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Human data indicate that acute inhalation exposures to 460 ppm mixed xylene and 100 ppm p‐xylene vapors produce mild and transient eye irritation . and in the first year of life.02 to 1. 1..601 controls﴿ included in the study lived within 5 miles of an air pollution monitor.28.48﴿.70﴿.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS/ Conjunctivitis.. Cases were ascertained from California Cancer Registry records of children diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 and matched to California birth certificates. dermatitis.502 singleton deliveries provided electronic medical records.04 to 1. We chose 27 air toxics for the present study that had been listed as possible. Decreased odds of events were observed with exposure to ozone. 1. anorexia. Using logistic regression analyses. anemia.24. respectively﴿. these six toxics were highly correlated. as of July 19.cdc. 95% CI: 1.43.nlm. 95% CI: 1. myocardial infarcts and other events﴿ were recorded in the hospital discharge records for 687 pregnancies ﴾0. m‐xylene ﴾OR=1.48.. High exposure to toxic air pollution species such as ethylbenzene ﴾OR=1. headache.29. nickel ﴾OR=1. retinoblastoma risk was found to be increased with pregnancy exposure to benzene ﴾OR=1.62. an observational US cohort with 223. 64 (August 2007). ITII. acetaldehyde ﴾OR=1. Available from.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.30 and OR=1. ortho‐xylene. we modeled the risk of retinoblastoma due to air toxic exposure.04.49﴿..ncbi.09 to 2. probable..nih. Air pollution exposure was estimated by modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models.51.

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals.e. p.S. The statistical analysis showed that there is a linear relationship between the intensity of exposure to xylenes and the concn of methylhippuric acid in urine. Abstract: PubMed Vyskocil A et al. children were two to three times lower than adult levels. Cancer risk was calculated for carcinogenic compounds and hazard quotient was calculated for noncarcinogenic compounds using US https://pubchem.19 ug/L.ncbi.pdf  from HSDB /BIOMONITORING/ The quantitative relationship between exposure to xylene vapor and urinary excretion in methylhippuric acid isomers were studied in the second half of a working wk. especially surgeons. The participants in the study were 121 male workers engaged in dip‐coating of metal parts who were predominantly exposed to three xylene isomers. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ﴾NHANES﴿ 2001‐2002 and 2003‐2004 subsamples. the median blood levels of o‐xylene and m/p‐xylene were 0. 17. The intensity of exposure measured by diffusive sampling during an 8‐hr shift was such that the geometric mean vapor concn was 3. healthcare workers. whereas the median blood m/p‐xylene levels were similar to the earlier NHANES III results.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport. noncorrected﴿ methylhippuric acid concentration as a function of increased xylene concentrationn was 17.8 ppm for o‐xylene. a total of 20 patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Urine samples were collected at the end of the shift and analyzed for metabolites by HPLC.S.8 mg/ppm. Abstract: PubMed Kawai T et al. that the regression line passes very close to the origin. The m‐and p‐xylene isomers usually are measured together and reported as m/p‐xylene. n‐hexane and p‐xylene are possibly ototoxic at concentrations that are relevant to the occupational setting.6 mg/L/ppm. 224 studies ﴾in 150 articles of which 44 evaluated the combined exposure to noise and a chemical﴿ covering 29 substances were evaluated using a weight of evidence approach. and to levels in adults in other countries.11 ug/L and 0.cdc. blood o‐xylene was nondetectable in a majority of the participants.nlm. as of June 30. Toxicol Ind Health 28 (9): 796‐819 (2012)  from HSDB /BIOMONITORING/ Levels of blood xylenes reflect recent exposure. styrene. Smokers can have blood o‐ and m/p‐xylene levels that are each about twice as high as those for nonsmokers. For the majority of cases where potential ototoxicity was previously proposed.1 and 16. there is a paucity of toxicological data in the primary literature. A 5‐L gas sample was collected 30 min after the electrocautery device was first used and was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These results were roughly similar to geometric mean levels of nonsmokers reported in a subsample of NHANES 1999‐2000 and in other studies of the U. This project was undertaken to develop a toxicological database allowing the identification of possible ototoxic substances present in the work environment alone or in combination with noise exposure. There are no regulations that require hearing monitoring of workers who are employed at locations in which occupational exposure to potentially ototoxic chemicals occurs in the absence of noise exposure. 500 (2009). In total. From February 2013 to March 2013. Human and animal studies indicate that lead. simultaneous and successive exposure to certain chemicals along with noise can increase the susceptibility to noise‐induced hearing loss. Further exam on the basis on individual xylene isomers showed that the slopes of the regression lines for o‐ and m‐isomers were similar ﴾i.e.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES/ There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that exposure to some solvents. Furthermore. CDC. In a nonrepresentative subsample of adults in NHANES III ﴾1988‐1994﴿. and 0. respectively﴿. Although many workplaces have adopted smoke‐free environments..3 mg/L/ppm﴿. whereas that for p‐xylene was larger ﴾21. and 0.. continue to be exposed to surgical smoke. the o‐xylene isomer is measured and reported separately. 2016: http://www.gov/compound/p­xylene 66/101 .8 ppm for toluene. Critical toxicological data were compiled for chemical substances included in the Quebec occupational health regulation.9 ppm for p‐xylene﴿. 0. and that the increment in observed ﴾i. Toluene interacts with noise to induce more severe hearing losses than the noise alone. Available from. general population. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63 (1): 69‐76 (1991)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Surgical smoke production is inevitable during surgical procedures. Carbon monoxide appears to exacerbate noise‐induced hearing dysfunction.8 ppm for xylenes ﴾0. Blood o‐xylene levels in U. 2. The data were evaluated only for noise exposure levels that can be encountered in the workplace and for realistic exposure concentrations up to the short‐term exposure limit or ceiling value ﴾CV﴿ or 5 times the 8‐hr time‐weighted average occupational exposure limit ﴾TWA OEL﴿ for human data and up to 100 times the 8‐h TWA OEL or CV for animal studies. Workers who are exposed to vehicle exhaust can have o‐and m/p‐xylene blood levels that are each about two to three times higher than levels in the general population.9 ppm for ethylbenzene.1 ppm for m‐xylene. metals. respectively.nih. asphyxiants and other substances in humans is associated with an increased risk of acquiring hearing loss. toluene and trichloroethylene are ototoxic and ethyl benzene.

E. (eds. Hayes.81 x 10﴾‐1﴿ +/‐ 6.ncbi. New York.33 x 10﴾‐2﴿. The lowest significantly effective concentration for each isomer on any variable was 1400 ppm. (eds.). W.gov/compound/p­xylene 67/101 .09 x 10﴾‐3﴿ +/‐ 4.48 x 10﴾‐1﴿ +/‐ 8. 1. Jr.16 x 10﴾‐6﴿.. Nilsen OG. The p isomer was less potent in inducing this effect than the other isomers or the mixture.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. In other groups of mice. even at high concentrations. or air. lactate dehydrogenase ﴾LDH﴿.45 x 10﴾‐2﴿. Abstract: PubMed Moser VC et al.61 x 10﴾‐2﴿ +/‐ 7. 1991. o‐.. The temporal distribution of responses was only moderately disrupted. and glutamic‐oxaloacetic transaminase were elevated by even the lowest exposure. In lung microsomes. the cancer risk was greater than negligible. The 15 min operant sessions immediately followed 30 min exposures to solvent vapors ﴾500‐7000 ppm﴿. 4. Twenty patients with a median age of 57.10 x 10﴾‐5﴿ +/‐ 6. New York. in static inhalation chambers.nih. benzene. and styrene. 644  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Rats exposed 6 hr/day for 3 days to 2000 ppm of a xylene mixture of the o.23 x 10﴾‐3﴿...15 x 10﴾‐3﴿ +/‐ 2. benzene.R. Eighteen volatile organic compounds were detected by Japanese indoor air standards mix analysis. Inc. NY: Academic Press. For 1. hexane. p. 1991. Analysis of noncarcinogenic compounds showed that risk reduction measures are needed for benzene. dosage‐ dependent increases were measured in serum concentrations of glutamic‐pyruvic transaminase ﴾GPT﴿. Abstract: PubMed Choi SH et al. Hayes. m. Half‐maximal effective concentrations /ranged from/ 2676 ppm ﴾p‐xylene﴿ to 3790 ppm ﴾m‐ xylene﴿. Toxicol 23: 197‐212 (1982)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Xylene. o‐xylene. 1. p‐ and Mixed xylenes produced similar biphasic effects on response rates. isocitrate dehydrogenase ﴾ICD﴿. and styrene. Glutamic‐pyruvic transaminase. Toftgard R.1.42 x 10﴾‐4﴿. Surg Endosc 28 (8): 2374‐80 (2014)  from HSDB 11.R. and motor performance of mice on an inverted screen test were studied. Even though surgical smoke is not an immediate health hazard. m‐.. 4. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. m‐ and p‐ isomers. 1500. glutathione reductase. E. 2. 5.63 x 10﴾‐3﴿. Volume 2. the risk was classified as unacceptable.5 years were enrolled in the study. and 2000 ppm p‐xylene in 4 hr.nlm. 644  from HSDB https://pubchem. cytochrome p450 content was decreased. 2. Volume 2. although there was no increase after 24 hr. 2. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology.2‐dichloroethane and benzene. Classes of Pesticides. 5. and concentration dependent decreases in reinforcement rates.).75 x 10﴾‐3﴿ +/‐ 7. glucose‐6‐phosphate ﴾dehydrogenase ﴾G‐6‐PDH﴿. p‐xylene. The effects of each individual isomer.. and 5'‐nucleotidase..03 x 10﴾‐3﴿. Classes of Pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 80 (2): 293‐8 (1985)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ In rats exposed to 1000.J.87 x 10﴾‐5﴿ +/‐ 1. Surprisingly. and p isomers showed an increase in hepatic cytochrome P450 and NADPH‐cytochrome c reductase.33 x 10﴾‐4﴿.70 x 10﴾‐2﴿. NY: Academic Press. 1. serum cholinesterase was increased by all exposure concentrations at the termination of the exposure.40 x 10﴾‐2﴿ +/‐ 3. Jr. Half‐maximal response rate decreases /ranged from/ 5179 ppm ﴾o‐xylene﴿ to 6176 ppm ﴾m‐xylene﴿. 2. Jr. Laws. p. where increases in response rates occurred.. The hazard quotients were acetone. W. ethylbenzene. motor coordination was also disrupted by the xylenes in a concentration dependent manner.J.66 +/‐ 1. glutamic‐ oxaloacetic transaminase ﴾GOT﴿..35 x 10﴾‐5﴿.94 x 10﴾‐6﴿ +/‐ 1. a widely used industrial solvent.85. Inc. The cancer risks were ethanol. operating room personnel should be aware of the potential long‐term health risks associated with exposure. Jr. toluene. is a mixture of the o‐. and a commercial‐grade mixture of xylenes on 2 behavioral measures: operant performance of 15 mice trained to lever‐press under a DRL ﴾different reinforcement of low rates﴿ 10 sec schedule..15 Non‐Human Toxicity Excerpts /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Increased hepatic cytochrome p450 concentrations and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cytochrome C reductase activity occurred in rats exposed 3 days to 2000 ppm of p‐xylene. Microsomes from lung and kidney also showed increases in cytochrome P450 for the xylene mixture and isomers except the p isomer failed to induce cytochrome P450 in microsomes from kidney. Laws.2‐dichloroethane. For five carcinogenic compounds detected. 1. 1.32 x 10﴾‐5﴿.88 x 10﴾‐2﴿ +/‐ 7.

.. 5011 mg/kg body weight for m‐xylene and 4029 mg body weight for p‐xylene. as of July 19.. Available from.nih.. hemorrhage. effects have been observed including increased relative liver weight . In another study.. Following acute exposures to mixed xylene .64‐5 (August 2007).. and edema of the lungs were observed .361 ppm m‐xylene for 6 minutes .. and decreased hexobarbital sleep time . ... the selective inactivation of enzymes may also result in anoxia.. .68‐9 (August 2007). Available from. . The corresponding 6‐hr value was 4591 ppm ﴾4353‐5049 ppm﴿ and for mice ﴾OF‐1﴿ was 3907 ppm ﴾3747‐4015 ppm﴿. dilation of the cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. a methylbenzaldehyde .pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ A 4‐hr LC50 value in rats ﴾female Sprague‐Dawley﴿ of 4740 ppm p‐xylene has been reported.000 ppm mixed xylene... or 2000 ppm for 4 hours. Available from.. .cdc. Xylenes (1997)..inchem. to 1. 2016: http://www. .gov/compound/p­xylene 68/101 . o‐xylene . pulmonary edema... WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. . 7th Ed. . and guinea pigs following acute and intermediate inhalation exposure to xylene are similar to those observed in humans.. exposure to p‐xylene gave a biphasic CNS response. marked activation and tremor were observed at concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm p‐xylene in rats.. .pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Adverse respiratory effects noted in rats. .. ... The signs of toxicity were similar to those reported for the other two isomers.. Like the other two isomers.nlm. Environmental Health Criteria 190.atsdr... as of July 19. labored breathing. proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum ...000 ppm o‐xylene.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.. serum enzyme activities increased. The decrease in pulmonary microsomal activity by selective inactivation of enzymes can result from damage to lung tissue caused by the toxic metabolite of xylene. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety...000 ppm m‐xylene. pulmonary hemorrhage. minor histopathological changes suggesting mild hepatic toxicity included decreased glycogen content. The LOAEL of 75 ppm for m‐xylene was based on decreased P‐450 and 7‐ethoxycoumarin O‐deethylase activities noted in the lungs of rats exposed for 24 hours . seen by histological examination. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.. .400 ppm p‐xylene .inchem... Environmental Health Criteria 190.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. CD‐ROM Cincinnati. . 2  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Animal studies using rats indicate that mixed xylene.000 or 3. For various mixtures of xylenes oral LD50 values in rat have been reported to be between 3523 and 8700 mg/kg body weight. or p‐xylene . Available from. 1500. In mice the corresponding values were reported to be 5627 mg/kg body weight for male and 5251 mg/kg body weight for females. m‐xylene .. Similar changes were observed in rabbits and mice . irritation of the respiratory tract. with o‐xylene having the most prolonged effect .467 ppm o‐xylene for 5 minutes . .. separation of ribosomes from the membranes. variously shaped mitochondria. Comparison of the individual xylene isomers showed that the irritant effects of m‐ and o‐xylene as quantified by measurements of respiratory rate in mice are more pronounced than those of p‐xylene. o‐xylene. m‐xylene. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. or 1. . increased serum transaminases were observed following a 4‐hour exposure of rats to 1.440 ppm mixed xylene for 6 minutes . 2016: http://www.. these changes were indicative of acute hepatocellular damage. mice. kidney and spleen. . ..htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ The oral LD50 values in rat have been reported to be 3608 mg/kg body weight for o‐xylene..htm https://pubchem.. DHHS ATSDR. OH 45240‐1634 2013. In rats that died as a result of exposure to 9.000 ppm p‐xylene.. or to 1. microsomal enzyme activity .. as well as increased hepatic cytochrome P‐450 content in rats . 2016: http://www. or p‐xylene generally induce a wide variety of hepatic enzymes. microsomal protein . and decreased pulmonary microsomal enzyme activities at 2.ncbi.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. 2. Although histopathological examination of livers in most studies showed no adverse effects .. . DHHS ATSDR... 75 to 2..atsdr. . 2016: http://www. cytochrome P‐450 content . and increased autophagous bodies .. .. Exposure to concentrations of 2. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. Also. Documentation of the TLVs and BEIs with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. Biochemical changes detected in the lungs after acute‐ duration intermittent exposure include transiently decreased lung surfactant levels at 300 ppm p‐xylene .2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ When rats inhaled p‐xylene at 1000.. as of September 28. . The /CNS depressant/ threshold was 1940 ppm. and pulmonary inflammation . p. . They include decreased respiration. ... produced a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in mice. Signs of toxicity at lethal doses were CNS depression and congestion of cells in liver.900 ppm mixed xylene for 4 hours.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. as of September 28.. Xylenes (1997). atelectasis.cdc. ..

In exposed animals there was a significant decrease in microsomal cytochrome P‐450 concentration and in NADPH‐ cytochrome c reductase activity.atsdr. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. as of September 28. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. rats were given p‐ methylbenzyl alcohol ﴾PMBA﴿ or 2. .inchem. or 13 weeks to 810 ppm mixed /xylenes/ or 6 weeks to 780 ppm o‐xylene. To study the lung microsomal activity. but not m‐ or o‐xylene.pdf  from HSDB https://pubchem.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ In order to study further the effects of p‐xylene.107 (August 2007). However.. or for 5 days to 300 ppm p‐xylene on an intermittent basis . Environmental Health Criteria 190. Available from.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. In exposed animals there was a significant increase in catecholamine levels and turnover in various parts of the hypothalamus..2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ In a study of levels of noradrenaline and dopamine in the forebrain and hypothalamus. Inhibition of CYP2B1 has been observed in the lungs of rats dosed with p‐xylene.inchem. as of September 28. It was concluded that of the two metabolites. Available from. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.inchem. 2016: http://www. DHHS ATSDR.65 (August 2007). WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. respectively﴿ intraperitoneally once a day for 3 days. in hepatic cytochrome P‐450 content. Sprague‐Dawley rats ﴾six males/group﴿ were exposed to 0 or 2000 ppm p‐xylene 6 hr/day for 3 days.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ In order to study the effect on cytochrome P‐450 and enzyme activities in the liver.ncbi. Environmental Health Criteria 190.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. dogs. DHHS ATSDR. 5 days/week for 2 weeks .nlm. Available from. . as of July 19. No histopathological changes in the lungs were evident in rats. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ No effect on absolute or relative lung weights was observed in male rats intermittently exposed to m‐xylene at concentrations as high as 100 ppm for 13 weeks . There was also a decrease in pulmonary cytochrome P‐450 content.. Available from. 2016: http://www. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. PMBA may have a significant role in the inhibition of pulmonary cytochrome P‐450 caused by p‐xylene.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. at a dose of 900 mg/kg/day.cdc. Xylenes (1997). kidney and lung. The animals were killed 16‐18 hr after the last exposure. rabbits ﴾New Zealand White.. In exposed animals there were significant increases in relative liver weight. Environmental Health Criteria 190. 2016: http://www.pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Histological damage to the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti provided evidence of ototoxicity in rats exposed by oral gavage to p‐xylene. 2016: http://www.. the concentration of hepatic cytochrome P‐450 had returned to control levels within 2 to 3 days after exposure. Sprague‐Dawley rats ﴾four males/group﴿ were exposed to 0 or 2000 ppm 6 hr/day for 3 days. Xylenes (1997). as of July 19.atsdr. Environmental Health Criteria 190. or monkeys following intermediate exposure for 90 to 127 days to concentrations of 78 ppm o‐xylene on a continuous basis . for 1 or 3 days did not produce overt hepatotoxicity but resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic cytochrome P‐450. 5 weeks to 300 ppm m‐xylene.inchem. Xylenes (1997). in NADPH‐cytochrome c reductase activity in the liver and kidney. 2016: http://www.5‐dimethylphenol ﴾DMP﴿ ﴾300 mg/kg body weight and 150 mg/kg body weight. as of September 28.gov/compound/p­xylene 69/101 . as of September 28. 6 hr/day.cdc. Xylenes (1997). There was no effect on dopamine levels or turnover in the forebrain.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Acute Exposure/ Male Fischer‐344 rats exposed to 0 or 1600 ppm p‐xylene by inhalation. Available from..nih.. 2016: http://www.. and in 7‐ethoxyresorufin O‐deethylase activity in the kidney. . four males/group﴿ were exposed to 0 or 1000 ppm p‐xylene 4 hr/day for 2 days. The losses of hair cells occurred in the area of the cochlea responsive to medium frequencies ﴾10‐25 kHz﴿. guinea pigs. Available from.

00 mg/kg body weight/dose . Survival incidences were 20/20. and a statistically significant trend was present in the male groups.000 mg/kg in mice and 1. however. 18/20. were observed only with m‐ or p‐xylene. DHHS ATSDR. . respectively﴿ did not alter the blood flow of gravid uteri in anesthetized animals. US EPA. o‐. for males and 20/20. Available from. Mortality in high‐dose males attained statistical significance. The effects of p‐xylene on uterine and ovarian blood flow and on the peripheral blood levels of progesterone and 17‐beta‐estradiol in pregnant CFY rats /were studied/.30. Mottled lungs and/or a failure of the lungs to collapse was observed in nearly all treated animals that died early but was not evident in any of the animals that survived to study termination. respectively. 2016: http://www. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.. No treatment‐related effects were observed in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. as of July 19. 0. Toxicological Review of Xylenes (CAS No. Ungvary G et al. Toxicol 18: 61‐74 (1980)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Xylene was administered to CD‐1 mice by gavage as the m‐. Nawrot RS. 1330‐20‐7) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) p. incidence of malformations . Toxic effects were decr wt of fetuses. 19/20. These effects were associated with significant reductions in fetal body weight. incr incidence of skeletal retardation. 24 hr/day from days 7‐14 of gestation.000 mg/cu m for 24 or 48 hr ﴾gestational day 10 or gestational days 9 and 10. as indicated by the presence of intra‐alveolar foreign material in the lungs that was generally associated with pulmonary congestion.. alkaline & acid phosphatase & glucose 6‐ phosphatase & changed characteristic features of functional maturity of the nephron. as of July 19.75.105 (August 2007). and high‐ dose females had significantly increased food consumption for weeks 10 to 13 ﴾110%﴿. or 800 mg/kg‐day for 90 consecutive days.pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ CFY mice were exposed to p‐xylene at 150. or 3000 mg/cu m. ophthalmologic examination. Toxicol 19: 263‐8 (1981)  from HSDB https://pubchem..ncbi.. succinic dehydrogenase.25 (January 2003). Soc of Toxicol 19th Annual Meeting. Abstracts of Papers p. or organ weights.. Available from.gov/compound/p­xylene 70/101 .. respectively.A22 (1980)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ . Histopathology revealed no abnormal findings in any tissue or organ.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. mostly cleft palates. It was determined that most of the unscheduled deaths were the result of test material aspiration. Body weight gains at 13 weeks were slightly reduced in high‐dose males and females ﴾89% of control levels.nih. maternal body weights or body weight changes were not reported.epa.. these adverse effects and an increased incidence of cleft palate . increased . not statistically significant﴿.. however. 18/20. 1500. The NOAEL and LOAEL are identified as 200 and 800 mg/kg‐day. The skin of rats administered doses as high as 800 mg/kg/day of m‐ or p‐xylene for 13 weeks appeared normal upon histopathological examination.atsdr.. 2016: https://www.cdc. Staples RE. .nlm. overt maternal toxicity and a significantly increased incidence of resorptions among the offspring were noted only at the high dose level of m‐xylene. Ungvary G et al.gov/iris  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Limited information was located regarding dermal effects in animals.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Subchronic or Prechronic Exposure/ Groups of 20 male and 20 female Sprague‐Dawley rats were administered p‐xylene ﴾99% purity﴿ by gavage in corn oil at doses of 0. & decr in activity of enzymes. and 1.. or p‐isomer from days 6‐15 of gestation at 0. After exposure from days 12‐15 of gestation to any isomer of xylene maternal toxicity was significantly increased. 48 hr exposures were associated with slight ﴾nonsignificant﴿ decreases in ovarian venous flow and significant reductions in blood levels of progesterone and 17‐beta‐estradiol.00 mg/kg body weight/dose....000 mg/kg for rats for an intermediate ﴾13 weeks﴿ period of time or as high as 1. Inhalation esposures to 3. for females. and 16/20.000 mg/kg for mice and 500 mg/kg for rats for a chronic ﴾103 weeks﴿ period of time . 100.. No adverse effects were noted during microscopic examination of the skin of rats and mice administered mixed xylene 5 days/week at doses as high as 2. 17/20. respectively. and 17/20. were noted at both the middle and high dose levels of o‐ and p‐xylene. based on early mortality in male rats that showed signs of test material aspiration into the lungs. and from days 12‐15 of gestation at 1. retardation of fetus was dose related. Treatment‐related clinical signs were limited to increased salivation occurring just prior to dosing that was resolved by 1‐hour post dosing in both high‐dose males and females. 200.

ncbi.atsdr. However. On postnatal day 21 animals were weaned and littermates housed by sex. At these concentrations lower fetal body weight was observed. Fetotoxic effects were reported following maternal inhalation exposure to mixed xylenes. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. and 63 as well as figure‐8 maze activity on days 22 and 65.000 ppm to o‐xylene or mixed xylenes showed similar effects. Statistically significant maternal effects ﴾reduced "corrected weight gain" ‐ body weight gain exclusive of gravid uterus weight﴿ and fetal toxicity ﴾reduced fetal weight﴿ occurred at exposures of >/=1. Dermal application resulted in apparent changes in fetal enzyme activities. 99%﴿ for 6 hours per day on days 7‐16 of gestation. both o‐xylene and mixed xylene caused significantly reduced fetal body weights at 500 ppm. 21. although the reduced corrected weight gain for mixed xylenes was only significant for gestational days 6‐13. p.fr/ENG/Classification/index. Available from. Drug Chem Toxicol 8 (4): 281‐97 (1985)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Groups of 25 Sprague Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 0. 34.000 ppm induced significant increases in delayed ossification. Litters were normalized to 8 pups ﴾4/sex﴿ on postnatal day 4. with the exception of cleft palate.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.. primarily cleft palate. Some ultrastructural changes in the liver and decreased weight gain during the exposure period were observed in the dams exposed to 345 or 690 ppm.nih. Both m‐ and p‐xylene at 2. There was no evidence of malformations. weighed. V47 140 (1989)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Pregnant Sprague‐Dawley rats were exposed to either 3500 or 7000 mg/cu m p‐xylene /for 6 hr/day/ from days 7‐16 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 21. a skeletal variation related to retarded growth. Geneva: World Health Organization. The high dose level reduced maternal weight gain during the exposure period. Malformations ﴾ie cleft palate﴿ associated with mixed or individual isomers were primarily reported at maternally toxic doses. 3500. viability and neurobehavioral development. viability. Similar results were obtained when the animals were exposed to m‐xylene. (Multivolume work).000 ppm. Maternal inhalation of individual isomers was associated with all the above mentioned effects.php .pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Groups of female rats ﴾CFY﴿ were exposed to 0. The o‐ and p‐ isomers appeared more hazardous to the offspring than did the m‐isomer. Toxicol Lett 34 (2‐3): 223‐9 (1986)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Results of a well‐documented comparative standard developmental toxicity assay in rats exposed for 6 hours/day on gestational days 6 to 20. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. DHHS ATSDR. although the affected bones were different for the two isomers. but not 500 ppm for these two isomers. Body weights were recorded weekly until weaning and once every 2 wk thereafter. and litters were counted. suggest that developmental toxicities of m‐ and p‐xylene are secondary to maternal toxicity .000 ppm and in the percent of fetuses with any variation at 1. altered enzyme activities were also found in rat pups.gov/compound/p­xylene 71/101 . or 7000 mg/cu m para‐xylene ﴾purity. Dams were allowed to give birth. and observed for external malformations on postnatal days 1 and 3. 2016: http://www. With p‐xylene there were signs of delayed skeletal ossification at https://pubchem. Abstract: PubMed Hood RD.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Data obtained from rodents indicates that maternal exposure to mixed xylenes or individual xylene isomers can have adverse effects on the conceptus. growth inhibition. CNS development was evaluated by acoustic startle response on postnatal days 13. Exposure to mixed xylenes did not elicit any developmental structural anomalies at concentrations as high as 2. the maternal NOAEL.000 ppm. No effects were seen on litter size or weight at birth or on postnatal day 3. Abstract: PubMed Rosen MB et al. International Agency for Research on Cancer.81 (August 2007). . and the offspring were evaluated for growth. and at the highest dose level delayed skeletal ossification was noted.000 ppm. IARC. but growth. Thus. Dams exposed at >/=1.nlm. while oral treatment was followed by prenatal mortality. and malformations. There were no effects of p‐xylene exposure on growth rate. whereas o‐xylene elicited increases in the percent of fetuses per litter with skeletal variations ﴾incomplete ossification﴿ at 2.iarc. Available at: http://monographs.cdc. locomotor activity and the acoustic startle response of the offspring were not affected. as of July 19. 1972‐PRESENT. Ottley MS. 17. Maternal weight gain during the treatment period was significantly less in the high‐dose group. 345 or 690 ppm o‐xylene 24 hr/day from day 7 to day 14 of gestation. There were no treatment‐related effects on acoustic startle response or figure‐8 maze activity. p‐xylene as administered in this study does not appear to be a selective developmental toxicant in the rat..

the number of apoptotic cells in the optic tectum was dramatically increased with exposure to PX https://pubchem. increased postimplantation loss of fetuses and more retarded fetuses were observed.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Sprague‐Dawley rats were exposed to 0. Xylenes (1997). in the absence of overt maternal toxicity. Assuming a density of 860 mg/mL.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem exposure levels showing no maternal toxicity ﴾at 34 and 345 ppm﴿.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. Available from. o‐.inchem.0% in vehicle controls﴿ but statistically significant increase in cleft palate in only the high‐dose group. 0. 1330‐20‐7) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) p. There was evidence of delayed weight gain and skeletal ossification in the fetuses of exposed animals.75. three aborted and in four there was total resorption or fetal death in utero﴿. as of July 19. Xylenes (1997). Toxicological Review of Xylenes (CAS No.epa. At 690 ppm. 3 times per day on day 6 to day 15 of gestation. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 190. Available from.gov/iris  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ Xylene and its derivatives are raw materials widely used in industry and known to be toxic to animals.nih. We found that the abnormality rate was significantly increased with exposure to increasing concentrations of PX. 774. 2016: https://www. Subsequent studies on the developmental effects of m‐xylene were conducted: mice were administered m‐xylene at doses of 1935 or 2580 mg/kg‐day during GDs 12 to 15 or 6 to 15.33 (January 2003). Similar results were obtained with m‐xylene and p‐xylene. Available from. or 1.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ When rabbits ﴾New Zealand White﴿ were exposed to 0 or 115 ppm o‐xylene 24 hr/day from day 7 to day 20 of gestation.nlm. and the dams were killed on day 18.00 mL/kg three times daily on GDs 6 to 15 or 1. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. 800 or 1600 ppm p‐xylene. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Exposure to 115 ppm p‐xylene gave the same results as with o‐ xylene. In particular. Available from. or p‐﴿ were administered by gavage to pregnant CD‐1 mice at apparent doses of 0. 2016: http://www. Available from. 2016: http://www. Environmental Health Criteria 190.inchem. 0.0 mL/kg three times daily on GDs 12‐15.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Xylene isomers ﴾m‐. we exposed Xenopus laevis tadpoles to sub‐lethal concentrations of PX during the critical period of brain development to determine the effects of PX on Xenopus development and visual behavior. However. The mid‐ and high‐dose o‐ or p‐ xylene‐exposed groups ﴾GDs 6 to 15﴿ additionally had an increased incidence of cleft palate ﴾the actual incidence was not cited﴿. the mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity of para‐xylene ﴾PX﴿ to the central nervous system ﴾CNS﴿ in vivo is less clear. The dams were allowed to deliver their young.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. these doses correspond to 0. as of September 28. exposure during GDs 6 to 15 did result in a low ﴾4.3. In the highest dose group the maternal weight gain was significantly reduced. Exposure to 2580 mg/kg‐day of any isomer during GDs 12 to 15 resulted in a significant increase in maternal lethality. Exposure to the mid and high dose of o‐ or p‐xylene and the high dose of m‐xylene during GDs 6 to 15 resulted in overt maternal toxicity ﴾not otherwise specified﴿ and a significantly increased incidence of resorptions.gov/compound/p­xylene 72/101 . but an increased incidence of post‐implantation loss was observed. Similar results were observed with m‐xylene.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. and 2580 mg/kg‐day. as of September 28. 2016: http://www.inchem.4% vs.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. US EPA. Xylenes (1997). Here. Exposure to p‐xylene had no effects on postnatal viability. offspring growth or function of the nervous system ﴾activity level and acoustic startle response﴿ at any of the doses tested. 1935. 2016: http://www. with exposure to p‐ or m‐xylene additionally resulting in a significant increase in the incidence of malformations. no maternal toxicity or incidence of delayed development was observed in the exposed group. 6 hr per day from day 7 to day 16 of gestation. as of September 28. Xylenes (1997).ncbi. Data concerning maternal toxicity were not reported. consisting mostly of cleft palate. 0. Environmental Health Criteria 190. as of September 28. The abstract mentioned a control group but did not specify the number of dams in the groups. but exposure to 230 ppm p‐xylene 24 hr/day resulted in no live fetuses ﴾one dam died. Environmental Health Criteria 190.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Mice ﴾CFLP﴿ were exposed to 0 or 115 ppm o‐ xylene for 4 hr. Although exposure to m‐xylene during GDs 12 to 15 did not result in overt toxicity at the low dose and did not significantly increase the incidence of malformations. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety.

altered visual evoked potentials. Abstract: PubMed Bushnell PJ. . In an effort to characterize the neurotoxic effects of PX on brain development and behavior. sleep. Long‐term PX exposure also resulted in significant deficits in visually guided avoidance behavior. dogs.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem at 2mM. and these effects were suppressed by GA treatment. A comparative study determined that the minimal alveolar concentrations needed to induce anesthesia in rats were similar for all three isomers ﴾0. p‐xylene‐exposed rats acquired the response no faster than controls.106‐7 (August 2007). as of July 19.. elevated auditory thresholds. Abstract: PubMed Gao J et al. 4 hr per day for 1 to 5 days.00151 atm. Available from.20 N. Environmental Health Criteria 190. behavioral changes. . and decreased acetylcholine in midbrain and norepinephrine in hypothalamus ﴾suggestive of effect on motor control.atsdr.10 N﴿. tremors. the retraction of single response lever on a variable‐time 35‐sec schedule was followed by delivery of a food pellet.inchem. unsteadiness. we found that the acetylation of H3K9 ﴾H3K9ac﴿ and the dimethylation of H4K12 ﴾H4K12me2﴿ in the optic tectum were significantly increased in PX‐treated animals. Strikingly.htm  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ Clinical signs consistent with central nervous system toxicity have been observed in rats and mice following oral exposure to mixed xylene. Clinical signs observed in mice in the hour after gavage dosing with mixed xylenes included weakness.cdc. Autoshaping was carried out across 5 successive days with p‐xylene exposure in the morning followed by testing in the afternoon.00118.000 mg/kg and increases in latency of several peaks in flash‐evoked potentials at doses of 250 mg/kg and higher were observed following single doses of p‐xylene. Mild sedation at 2. prostration. the increase in apoptotic cells in PX‐treated brains was also inhibited by GA treatment. Signs of toxicity ﴾unsteadiness and fine tremor﴿ disappeared 30 min post‐exposure. When the force was increased to 0. respectively. 2016: http://www. DHHS ATSDR. male Long‐Evans hooded rats inhaled p‐xylene at concentration of 0 or 1600 ppm. and/or slowed breathing in mice . lethargy.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.. When the force required to depress the lever was low ﴾0. In contrast. In particular. .. for o‐. no effect was seen at 125 mg/kg/day. Studied of motor activity showed that while vertically‐directed activity was unaffected by p‐xylene. tremors. Furthermore. A single oral dose of 4. and partial paralysis of hindlimbs at 2. prostration. Xylenes (1997). and p‐xylene﴿. salivation. 2016: http://www. but only p‐ xylene also induced excitation ﴾strong tremors﴿..pdf  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ Results of experimental studies with animals also provide evidence that mixed xylene and its isomers are neurotoxic following inhalation exposure. horizontally‐directed activity was incr by about 30% for the first 15 min of each daily 25‐min test. For this test. Neurotoxicol Teratol 10 (6): 569‐77 (1988)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ In a study of the effect on learning tasks and motor activity. Signs of neurotoxicity observed in rats. neurotoxic signs included hyperactivity.. inhaled p‐xylene at 1600 ppm suppressed response rates in an automaintained reversal learning paradigm without affecting reversal rate. hyperreactivity to stimuli.nlm. as of September 28. decreased hindleg movement.gov/compound/p­xylene 73/101 ... incoordination. hearing loss. In 13‐week gavage assays in rats. mice.. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. and hunched posture in rats and tremors. convulsions. and were evaluated after exposure on two learning tasks and a test of motor activity. Available from.000 mg/kg in a 13‐week assay and hyperactivity at 1. 0.. response acquisition was faster in animals having inhaled 1600 ppm p‐xylene than in air‐exposed controls. and epistaxis following exposure to 800 mg/kg/day m‐ or p‐xylene . m‐. The results indicate an effect on motor control rather than on cognitive capacity. and 0.000 mg/kg caused incoordination. These effects indicate that epigenetic regulation plays a key role in PX‐induced apoptosis and animal behavior.500 mg/kg/day mixed xylenes .ncbi.000 mg/kg beginning week 4 in 13‐week and 2‐ year assays .00139. rats ﴾Long Evans﴿ were exposed to 0 or 1600 ppm p‐xylene for 4 hr.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. and gerbils following acute and intermediate inhalation exposure to the various xylene isomers include /CNS depression/. https://pubchem.. labored breathing. Neuroscience pii: S 0306‐4522 (16): 30257‐3 (2016)  from HSDB /LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ To evaluate the possibility that p‐xylene affects cognitive behavior. cats. muscular spasms. however. prostration.nih. these results suggest that the neurotoxicity of PX requires further evaluation regarding the safety of commercial and industrial uses. and memory maintenance﴿. Exposure levels associated with neurological effects in animals are well defined. and increased aggression following exposure to 1. co‐incubation with PX and d‐glucuronolactone ﴾GA﴿ decreased the number of apoptotic cells and rescued the avoidance behavior.

Available from. 2016: http://www. /one/ study employed a suspension assay as well in order to optimize interaction between bacteria and mixed xylenes... including Salmonella typhimurium. Available from.gov/toxprofiles/tp71. in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 . 95‐47‐6). Abstract: PubMed Mohtashamipur E et al.nih. p‐Xylene (CAS No. 2016: https://java.75 (August 2007). Results of standard mutagenicity assays indicate that mixed xylene and xylene isomers are not mutagenic in bacteria. A few studies indicate that DNA fragmentation may occur if cells are exposed to levels that cause cytotoxicity.12‐0. Mixed xylene. and Xylenes VCCEP Consortium.. or TA1537 either in the presence or absence of induced rat or hamster hepatic ﴾S9﴿ activation. Arch Toxicol 58 (2): 106‐9 (1985)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Mixed xylenes or the individual isomers were not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97. . Each xylene isomer /was administered/ to male NMRI rats intraperitoneally in 2 similar doses.ncbi. OH 45240‐1634 2013. ... 7th Ed.. Of the chem tested.epa. ethylbenzene. Mixed Xylenes (CAS No. part of the SOS response to DNA damage. TA1538. 108‐38‐3).2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem DHHS ATSDR. and Bacillus subtilis. In summary.. Increased formation of micronuclei within polychromatic erythrocytes of femoral bone marrow 30 hr after the first injection was conducted was apparently due to the clastogenic effect of the test cmpd.. only toluene gave a dose‐ dependent increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. TA98. for mutation or DNA damage with and without metabolic activation were negative. and the individual xylene isomers. as of July 19. 24 hours apart over a range of concentrations from 0. American Chemistry Council Benzene. toluene.. .gov/compound/p­xylene 74/101 . Mixed xylene did not induce chromosomal anomalies ﴾chromosomal aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges﴿ in cultured mammalian cells . Mutation Research 88: 273‐9 (1981)  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Genotoxic effects of 5 widely used aromatic industrial solvents. 108‐38‐3). indicates that xylenes are not mutagenic and do not induce chromosomal anomalies.cdc. m‐ xylene and p‐xylene. 1330‐20‐7) Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tier 1 Pilot Submission p 46. o‐xylene. Toluene. Mixed Xylenes (CAS No. 106‐42‐3). on bone marrow cells of male NMRI mice were studied using the micronucleus test. No increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed for any xylene isomer ﴾or for ethylbenzene which was also tested﴿ at any dose level. 95‐47‐6).. have been tested for genotoxicity in a variety of short term in vitro assays. p. . In vitro studies of mixed xylenes and xylene isomers in bacterial cells. Docket Number OPPTS ‐ 00274D October 6. TA98. and Xylenes VCCEP Consortium. 0. as of July 19. p‐Xylene (CAS No.nlm. 2005. It did not revert Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535. Bos RP et al. TA100. as was a mitotic gene conversion study in yeast.. Xylenes Category: m‐Xylene (CAS No.. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. TA1537. yeast. 106‐42‐3). Mixed xylenes did not induce umu gene expression. no increase in gene mutation was observed by either method. Each compound was given to animals by ip administration of 2 similar doses 24 hr apart. or mammalian cells .75 mL/kg ﴾105‐650 mg/kg﴿ and evaluated femoral bone marrow 30 hours after the first injection.gov/chemview  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ .. & TA100 either with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix derived from livers of treated or untreated rats. 4  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ The preponderance of data from testing in vivo . genotoxicity studies on https://pubchem. . Escherichia coli. o‐Xylene (CAS No.. Mixed xylenes did not enhance the adenovirus transformation of hamster embryo cells . Toluene.atsdr. Available from. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. as of July 19. D4. o‐Xylene (CAS No. CD‐ROM Cincinnati. Docket Number OPPTS ‐ 00274D October 6. 2016: https://java.. TA1535.. and in vitro . 1330‐20‐7) Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tier 1 Pilot Submission p 46. presumably related to the activity of nucleases within dying cells.. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.pdf  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ Mixed xylenes and the xylene isomers have been tested in both in vitro and in vivo assays and are substantially non‐genotoxic. Xylenes Category: m‐Xylene (CAS No. Documentation of the TLVs and BEIs with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. Although most Salmonella studies were performed using plate incorporation. American Chemistry Council Benzene.epa.gov/chemview  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ p‐Xylene was nonmutagenic using the Ames assay. 2005.

inchem. did not exhibit adverse effects on splenic natural killer ﴾NK﴿ cell activity by exposure to concentrations as high as 1200 ppm. 2016: http://www. and LDH activities indicative of liver damage. there is sufficient evidence to conclude that mixed xylene. 2016: https://java. ﴾2﴿ increased p‐xylene toxicity due to viral suppression of cytochrome P‐450. It was postulated that adverse health effects could occur as a results of ﴾1﴿ enhanced infection due to xylene‐induced immune suppression. or 1200 ppm.nih.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.htm  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ None of the isomers induced micronuclei in the bone marrow of male NMRI mice after two ip administrations of 105‐650 mg/kg body weight at a 24‐hr interval.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. 2016: http://www. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. and o‐methylbenzyl alcohol . Available from. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. 2016: http://www. as of September 28. as of September 28. Significant increases in SGTP and LDH due to virus alone and in cholinesterase due to p‐xylene were still apparent seven days post‐infection. TA98. as of July 19. 600. 2005. 6 hours/day for 4 days. Xylenes (1997). mice. No synergistic effect was seen in serum enzymes following exposure to 600 ppm p‐xylene. TA1535. WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. 108‐38‐3).cdc. enhance the induction of micronuclei by toluene.. TA100. Increased mortality appeared to be due to synergistic effects of virus and p‐xylene in the liver. Available from. and/or ﴾3﴿ additive or synergistic effects on liver function due to tissue injury by both p‐xylene and murine cytomegalovirus. m‐xylenol .pdf  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ No mutagenic activity was demonstrated for any of the various metabolites of xylene in bacterial test systems. as of September 28.pdf  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ For Escherichia coli WP2 uvr A.. o‐xylene. 95‐47‐6). Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p.atsdr. m‐xylene. UTH 8413 or UTH8414 in the presence or absence of a metabolic system from uninduced or Arochlor‐induced rat and hamster livers. Significant synergistic effects between cytomegalovirus administered concurrently and 1200 ppm p‐xylene were seen at four but not at seven days postinfection. a mouse model for a common human virus. SGOT. however. p‐xylene‐exposed mice or infected.htm  from HSDB /IMMUNOTOXICITY/ Mice exposed to p‐xylene at concentrations of 0. Para‐xylene significantly enhanced and virus significantly suppressed P‐450 levels measured four days post‐ infection.. TA1537. yeast.ncbi.cdc. . o‐Xylene (CAS No. Available from. /Xylene metabolites/. including serum SGPT. .122 (August 2007). TA100. Environmental Health Criteria 190. 34% and 0% mortality occurred respectively in infected mice exposed to 1200 and 600 ppm p‐xylene. air‐exposed mice. as of July 19. Virus titers in the liver and splenic natural killer https://pubchem. American Chemistry Council Benzene.gov/chemview  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ This study assessed effects of exposure to p‐xylene . Environmental Health Criteria 190. DHHS ATSDR. 2016: http://www. Toluene.epa..inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. No deaths occurred among uninfected. Docket Number OPPTS ‐ 00274D October 6. 121‐2 (August 2007). cultured mammalian cells.gov/compound/p­xylene 75/101 . Environmental Health Criteria 190. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98. Available from. p‐Xylene (CAS No. Available from. Xylenes Category: m‐Xylene (CAS No. DHHS ATSDR.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. and not to immunosuppression. 2016: http://www. and Xylenes VCCEP Consortium. 106‐42‐3). with and without S9 metabolic activation..atsdr.gov/toxprofiles/tp71..nlm. TA1537. Xylenes (1997). Xylenes (1997). rats... 600 or 1200 ppm p‐xylene 6 hr/day for 4 day and infected with a sublethal dose of murine cytomegalovirus after the first exposure. insects..htm  from HSDB /GENOTOXICITY/ None of the isomers nor unspecified xylene was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes (Update) (PB2008‐100008) p. Thus. Available from. on mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus. as of July 19. Mixed Xylenes (CAS No.. and humans﴿. but they did. Mice were exposed to filtered air. and p‐xylene are nonmutagenic. and TA1538.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem mixed xylene and the individual isomers of xylene have provided consistently negative results in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays and test systems ﴾bacteria. /including p‐xylenol .inchem. p‐xylene was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of an exogenous metabolic system from PCB‐induced rat liver.117. 1330‐20‐7) Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tier 1 Pilot Submission p 57.

. 3702  from HSDB LC50 Rat inhal 4550 ppm/4 hr Lewis. FEP peak N3 is presumed to be related to arousal. The data indicated a significant depression in amplitude of FEP peak N3 at 250 mg/kg and higher dosages of toluene and p‐xylene. 2004.. Small but significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase. Available from.. 2004. NJ. p. 250.htm  from HSDB LD50 Mice ip 2110 mg/kg Lewis. and to inhalation of p‐xylene for 4 hr at 0. Wiley & Sons. 1991. were observed at 4 days postinfection. J Toxicol Environ Health 40 (1): 129‐44 (1993)  from HSDB /OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Long‐Evans hooded rats were exposed to single doses of toluene ﴾PO﴿ at 0. Sr. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices.J. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Hoboken. 1000 and 2000 mg/kg.2 and 2. Hoboken. Inc. such that increases in arousal from a relaxed state should decrease amplitude. 2004. A similar depression in peak N3 amplitude was observed following inhalation exposure to 1600 ppm p‐xylene. II. 11th Edition. to p‐xylene ﴾PO﴿ at 0. 2B1/B2. Wiley‐Interscience. while the effect of inhaled p‐xylene dissipated within 75 min of removal from the exposure. Abstract: PubMed Selgrade MK et al. Wiley & Sons. 1. p.1. . p. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. as of September 28. 800 or 1600 ppm.. III. but 1200 ppm potentiated this effect in infected mice.J. Neurotoxicol Teratol 10 (2): 147‐153 (1988)  from HSDB 11. Rats administered amphetamine in dosages of 0. 3702  from HSDB LC50 Mouse inhalation 3900 ppm for 6 hr exposure. Abstract: PubMed Dyer RS et al. R. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Murine cytomegalovirus significantly suppressed and p‐xylene significantly increased total P‐450 levels in the liver. Hoboken. 2016: http://www. Wiley‐Interscience. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.. R. 6th ed. NJ. NJ. Sr. p‐Xylene exposure had no effect on these serum enzyme activities in uninfected mice. 3702  from HSDB LD50 Rat ip 3810 mg/kg Lewis. and lactate dehydrogenase activities .J.gov/compound/p­xylene 76/101 . Inc. 500 and 1000 mg/kg. 125.. NJ..5 mg/kg ﴾known to increase arousal﴿ also had reduced N3 amplitude.nlm. Sr. Enhanced mortality was not due to immune suppression. the magnitude of serum enzyme activities indicates that this damage was not a likely cause of death.. Cincinnati. Inc. Environmental Health Criteria 190.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem cell activity were unaffected by exposure to 1200 ppm p‐xylene. suggesting that the virus does not target specific isozymes.6. Isozymes 1A1. 3702  from HSDB LD50 Rat oral 5 g/kg Lewis. R. 250.ncbi. 500. and 2E1 were decreased to a similar degree.nih. Volumes I. 2004. Sr. 1732 https://pubchem.inchem. 11th Edition. Wiley & Sons. Inc.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc190. Wiley & Sons. The functional integrity of the visual system was evaluated using flash‐evoked potentials ﴾FEPs﴿.16 Non‐Human Toxicity Values LD50 Rat oral 4029 mg/kg bw WHO/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Wiley‐Interscience. Xylenes (1997). R. alanine aminotransferase. 11th Edition. Wiley‐Interscience. but there was no significant interaction between the two.J. OH: ACGIH. While p‐xylene‐potentiated liver damage was caused by the virus. Hoboken. 11th Edition. (ed) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Inc.. The effects produced by oral administration of 500 mg/kg p‐xylene or toluene lasted at least 8 hr. p. p.

Species: Daphnia magna ﴾Water flea﴿. pH 6. 12 deg C.gov/ecotox/quick_query. New York. Available from.77 mmole/L for 24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. as of July 18.epa. Conditions: freshwater. Species: Tetrahymena pyriformis ﴾Ciliate﴿. Species: Poecilia reticulata ﴾Guppy﴿.gov/compound/p­xylene 77/101 . Available from. 2016: http://cfpub.. 2016: http://cfpub. Species: Chlamydomonas angulosa ﴾Green algae﴿ age 72‐96 hr exponential growth phase. 2016: http://cfpub.gov/ecotox/quick_query. as of July 18. Species: Chlorella vulgaris ﴾Green algae﴿ age 3‐4 days exponential growth phase.0 ppm for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Effect: physiology. Species: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ﴾Green algae﴿.htm  from HSDB EC50. 2nd ed. 19 deg C. Concentration: 2600 ug/L for 96 hr Galassi S et al.htm  from HSDB EC50. 1983. Available from. Concentration: 3200 ug/L for 72 hr. 20X10+4 cells/mL.5. Conditions: freshwater.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 11.epa.epa. Concentration: 3.nih.. as of July 18.gov/ecotox/quick_query. renewal.. p. 2016: http://cfpub. K. renewal. photosynthesis /formulated product/ Hutchinson TC et al. Available from. as of July 18.epa. Concentration: 990 mmol/cu m for 3 hr. 1983. dissolved oxygen >or =80%. Concentration: 3600 ug/L for 24 hr. Effect: intoxication. Concentration: 2. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals.nlm. 19 deg C. general Galassi S et al. Available from.. 1194  from HSDB LC50. Conditions: freshwater. Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss ﴾Rainbow trout﴿. pH 6.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐69 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Available from. as of July 18.htm  from HSDB LC50. 21 deg C. Conditions: static. Effect: physiology.gov/ecotox/quick_query. K.5. New York. photosynthesis /formulated product/ Hutchinson TC et al. Environ Sci Res 16: 577‐86 (1980) as cited in the ECOTOX database.ncbi.epa. 1194  from HSDB EC50.htm  from HSDB EC50. Effect: growth.epa. 5X10+4 cells/mL.1. as of July 18. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐69 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Species: Crangon franciscorum ﴾Shrimp﴿. dissolved oxygen >or =80%.17 Ecotoxicity Values LC100. static. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐69 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. p. immobilization Galassi S et al. 2nd ed. static. Concentration: 8800 ug/L for 96 hr Galassi S et al. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐69 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 2016: http://cfpub.htm  from HSDB https://pubchem. 2016: http://cfpub. Environ Sci Res 16: 577‐86 (1980) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Conditions: static. Concentration: 430 mmol/cu m for 3 hr.htm  from HSDB LC50. Conditions: freshwater.

0 g.epa. 20 deg C. Species: Lepomis macrochirus ﴾Bluegill﴿. as of July 20. Concentration: 3200 ug/L for 72 hr..  from HSDB LC50. the individual isomers ﴾o‐xylene.0 mg/L. general Galassi S et al. 2016: http://cfpub.4%. alkalinity 50. 1983. as of July 20. static. and p‐xylene﴿. 1983. New York. Concentration: 22 ppm for 96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ U. 1978. Effect: growth. Species: Morone saxatilis ﴾Striped bass﴿ juvenile. Available from..htm  from HSDB LC50. static.5 Report No TR 327 (1986) NIH Pub No 87‐2583  from HSDB https://pubchem. 2016: http://cfpub.7 deg C. Species: Poecilia reticulata ﴾Guppy﴿ 35 ppm for 7 day /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Species: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ﴾Green Algae﴿. Oct.htm  from HSDB EC50. Coast Guard. static. New York. Calif Fish Game 63 (4): 204‐9 (1977) as cited in the ECOTOX database.. Washington. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. hardness 51.epa.gov/compound/p­xylene 78/101 . K. Available from. 21.epa.. Manual Two.8. DC: U. 16 deg C. Species: Carassius auratus ﴾Goldfish﴿ length 6.ncbi. Government Printing Office. m‐xylene. Species: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata ﴾Green algae.htm  from HSDB TLm. p. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Korn S. as of July 20. Available from. weight 6.epa. Concentration: 8400 ug/L for 96 hr ﴾95% confidence interval: 7200‐9900 ug/L﴿ /99% purity/ Brooke L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 16 (2): 158‐69 (1988) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Concentration: 18000 ug/L for 24 hr /formulation/ Bridie AL et al. Conditions: saltwater.. 0. as of July 20.epa. Univ of Wisconsin‐Superior: 24 (1987) as cited in the ECOTOX database. pH 7. Concentration: 2 uL/L for 24 or 96 hr />99% purity/ Benville PE Jr. static. TA97.nih. salinity 25 ppt. Available from..2 mg/L CaCO3. dissolved oxygen 73. 1194  from HSDB 11. 2016: http://cfpub.. 2016: http://cfpub.22.18 National Toxicology Program Reports .2 cm. Xylenes.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead minnow﴿. 2nd ed.1. exponential growth phase﴿.gov/ecotox/quick_query. Water Res 13 (7): 623‐6 (1979) as cited in the ECOTOX database. 2nd ed.093 g wet weight.gov/ecotox/quick_query.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem LC50. K. were not mutagenic when tested with or without metabolic activation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100.gov/ecotox/quick_query. dissolved oxygen > or =4. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. Aquat Toxicol 18 (2): 87‐100 (1990) as cited in the ECOTOX database. Department of Transportation. Concentration: 4400 ug/L for 8 days. general Herman DC et al.htm  from HSDB TLm. 1194  from HSDB EC50. TA135. Available from.nlm. as of July 20. p..S. Conditions: freshwater. or TA98 with the preincubation protocol.htm  from HSDB LC50. Effect: growth. Conditions: freshwater. CHRIS ‐ Hazardous Chemical Data. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Conditions: freshwater.1 mg/L CaCO3. pH 7. Conditions: freshwater. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes (Mixed) p. Center for Lake Superior Environ Stud. static. Concentration: 27‐29 mg/L for 24‐96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ Verschueren. Species: Pimephales promelas ﴾Fathead minnow﴿ age 30 days.S. 2016: http://cfpub. NTP.

The exposure atmospheres were produced by passing a stream of clean. 87‐800120. male and female Charles River rats ﴾3 males and 2 females/control group. OTS0200202  from HSDB In an acute toxicity study. No gross tissue pathology except for the local skin changes was observed at autopsy which could be attributed to the test material. male and female Charles River mice ﴾3 males and 2 females/control group.160 mg/kg. No gross tissue pathology was observed at autopsy which could be attributed to the test material.ncbi. 0. and tremors. mild edema.556. At 4. (1975). strain not reported﴿ were given single dermal exposures on abraded skin to p‐xylene at dose levels of 200 and 3. None of the animals died during the study and 14‐day body weight gains were comparable for the treated and control animals. Inc. Acute Vapor Inhalation Toxicity Study in Albino Rats. Fiche No. OTS0200202  from HSDB In an acute toxicity study. male and female Charles River guinea pigs ﴾3 males and 2 females/control group. dry air through undiluted test material at ambient temperature. the animals also exhibited ruffed fur. Acute Oral Toxicity Study in Albino Rats. Acute Vapor Inhalation Toxicity Study in Albino Rats.7 mg/liter for 6 hours. Fiche No. The animals were observed for up to 14 days following exposure. Industrial BIO‐TEST Laboratories. EPA Document No. EPA Document No.nlm. OTS0200202  from HSDB In an acute toxicity study. and second degree burns.19 TSCA Test Submissions In an acute toxicity study. The LD50 is 5. Industrial BIO‐TEST Laboratories. (1975). Mice and Guinea Pigs.7 mg/liter for 6 hours. The 14‐day body weight gains were comparable for the treated and control animals.038 g/kg and above. EPA Document No. No gross tissue pathology was observed at autopsy which could be attributed to the test material. dry air through undiluted test material at ambient temperature. 87‐800120. (1975). salivation. None of the animals died during the study and 14‐day body weight gains were comparable for the treated and control animals. Mice and Guinea Pigs. 4.025. 5/sex/treated group﴿ were given single inhalation exposures to p‐xylene at a nominal concentration of 34. dry air through undiluted test material at ambient temperature. Most of the deaths occurred within 2 days.nih. EPA Document No. The test material was severely irritating to the skin with the skin changes at 24 hours being characterized by red. 87‐800120. At 3.1. Acute Dermal Toxicity Study in Albino Rats. The animals were observed for 14 days following exposure.834 g/kg resulted in the following mortality results ﴾number of deaths﴿: 0. Mice and Guinea Pigs. (1975).gov/compound/p­xylene 79/101 . 87‐800120. The animals were observed for 14 days following exposure. 5/sex/treated group﴿ were given single inhalation exposures to p‐xylene at a nominal concentration of 34. 2. well‐defined erythema. The animals were observed for 14 days following exposure. One of the treated female animals died during the study and advanced autolysis was found in this mouse during gross pathological examination. OTS0200202  from HSDB In an acute toxicity study. Exposure levels of 2.556 g/kg and above.038. and 4. Industrial BIO‐TEST Laboratories. 5/sex/treated group﴿ were given single inhalation exposures to p‐xylene at a nominal concentration of 34. The treated animals exhibited tremors during the study. Reactions observed at all dose levels included hypoactivity and rhinitis. Inc. Industrial BIO‐TEST Laboratories.7 mg/liter for 6 hours.145 g/kg. EPA Document No. OTS0200202 https://pubchem. Inc. The exposure atmospheres were produced by passing a stream of clean. Fiche No. Fiche No. Escharosis was noted at 7 and 14 days. the animals also exhibited prostration and hemorrhagic lacrimation. 3. No gross tissue pathology was observed in the surviving animals at autopsy which could be attributed to the test material. The animals were observed for 14 days following exposure.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 11. Inc. Fiche No. None of the animals died during the study. muscular weakness. Mice and Guinea Pigs. Industrial BIO‐TEST Laboratories. discolored kidneys whereas examination of the survivors did not reveal any pathologic alterations. male and female albino rabbits ﴾2/sex/group. Gross pathological examination of the animals which died during the study revealed gastroenteritis and pale. The treated animals exhibited tremors during the study. The exposure atmospheres were produced by passing a stream of clean. Mice and Guinea Pigs. The treated animals exhibited tremors and exophthalmos during the study. male Charles River rats ﴾5/group﴿ were given single gavage exposures to p‐xylene. 87‐800120. (1975). Acute Vapor Inhalation Toxicity Study in Albino Rats. and 6. respectively. Inc.

until death ensued ﴾25‐months﴿.1 ICSC Environmental Data The substance is toxic to aquatic organisms. therefore. The brush delivered between 0. It was concluded that tumorigenicity was negative with only 1 tumor ﴾papilloma﴿ detected. During the 7 hour exposure. The compound is a component of coal tar and gasoline. 3 times a week. the half‐lives for these reaction in air is estimated to be 26 hours and 65 days respectively. If released to soil. 4‐Xylene biodegrades in soil and water under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. One brushful of test material undiluted was applied at each painting. 4‐Xylene has been detected in rainwater and snow and. Cheyne‐Stokes breathing. The vapor was generated in a glass flask containing the test substance maintained at 20 +/‐ 1 degrees celsius. For the 1 hour exposed animals. Vapor‐phase 4‐xylene will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals and nitrate radicals. pharmaceuticals. through the use of gasoline and diesel engines. it may be removed from the air by wet deposition.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB An acute inhalation toxicity study was conducted with groups of male and female albino Wistar rats ﴾3/sex/group﴿ receiving whole body exposure to the vapors of p‐xylene in a dynamic air flow chamber. However. 4‐Xylene is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. (1982). One hour group survivors appeared to recover by day 1‐3 and 30 minute animals recovered rapidly after exposure. salivation. all the animals died during the exposure.nih.nlm. Init Sub: Evaluation of Skin Cancer Potential of Alkylbenzene. facial and eye twitching. comatose.84 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates 4‐ xylene will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Maximum exposure was for 7 hours. No deaths were reported for the 30 minute group rats. and insecticides may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. 90% of the theoretical biodegradation was reached in 4 weeks indicating 4‐xylene can be readily biodegradable. a vapor pressure of 8. 878212113. involuntary muscle spasms and hind leg paddling action. It is emitted to air from burning wood and in motor vehicle exhaust. Light and Heavy Residues.2 Ecological Information 11. 4‐Xylene may be released into the environment through emissions from petroleum refining. therefore. and through leaks and evaporation losses during the transport and storage of gasoline and other fuels. EPA Document No. During all exposures animals were observed with body tremors.gov/compound/p­xylene 80/101 .5 hour exposure. Shell Toxicology Laboratory (Tunstall). 9100 and 9000ppm for the 7. 1 and 0.2.2 Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary 4‐Xylene's production and use in the synthesis of terephthalic acid for polyester resins and fibers and in the manufacture of vitamins. Biodegradation is an important process in subsurface soils and groundwater where volatilization is hindered. UNION CARBIDE CORP. A Mother Liquor from Pyrolysis of P‐xylene. Fiche No. and UCON 50‐HB‐260 in Mice W‐Letter 07/28/92. No. The test substance was painted on the hairless skin of the backs of C3H/HeJ male mice ﴾40/group﴿. 2 males died on the day 1 and 1 female died on day 6 of the observation period.01 and 0. and two additional test were preformed at exposure times of 1 hour and 30 minutes. is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight. a https://pubchem.02 grams per mouse per application. lachrymation. agitation. Therefore the test was repeated.2.  from ILO‐ICSC 11. OTS0537557  from HSDB 11. 4‐Xylene does not absorb at wavelengths >290 nm and. semi‐comatose. 4‐Xylene occurs naturally in petroleum and is released during forest fires and occurs in various plants.ncbi. but if deaths occurred during either the exposure period or observation period. OTS0205969  from HSDB p‐Xylene ﴾CAS# 106‐42‐3﴿ was evaluated for carcinogenicity. 88‐920004576.90X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole. under anaerobic conditions. If released to air. Test Standardization: Inhalation Toxicity testing of 8 Chemical According to the OECD Inhalation Hazard Test. Fiche No. Utilizing a standard test ﴾manometric respirometry﴿. EPA Doc. 4‐xylene is expected to have moderate mobility based upon Koc values ranging from 246‐540. exposures were repeated at shorter intervals. 11/29/67. The theoretical saturated concentration of p‐xylene at 20 degrees celsius was calculated to be 8560ppm and the concentrations by weight loss estimation was calculated to be 8800. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon a Henry's Law constant of 6. respectively.

in reciprocating gasoline engine at 1. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. indicate that 4‐ xylene is expected to have moderate to low mobility in soil﴾SRC﴿. 4‐Xylene is a component of coal tar﴾2﴿. Volumes 1‐2. (1) Larranaga MD et al.gov/toxprofiles/index. Geneva: World Health Organization.atsdr. varnish. 1972‐Present. Available from.2﴿. 1992‐2016. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chemical Compounds in the Atmosphere. Xylenes. including gasoline..cdc. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.asp (3) Schauer JJ et al. 16th ed. Available from. 4‐Xylene may be released into the environment through emissions from petroleum refining. 4‐Xylene occurs in various plants﴾3﴿ and is emitted in volatile emissions from corn.1 hours and 4. Koc values ranging from of 204‐540﴾2‐4﴿. 4‐xylene is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the Koc values. Environ Sci Technol 36: 1169‐80 (2002) (6) Yao Z et al. and in rotary gasoline engine at 5. inhalation of wood smoke.asp (2) Graedel TE. and through leaks and evaporation losses during the transport and storage of gasoline and other fuels﴾2﴿. US Public Health Service (2007). US Public Health Service (2007). Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Dr.6% of emitted hydrocarbons. alfalfa and cereal silage﴾4﴿. 2016: https://phytochem. Hoboken. ﴾SRC﴿  from HSDB 11. Environ Sci Technol 35: 1716‐28 (2001) (4) Tang TT et al. 47: 129 (1989)  from HSDB 11.3% of emitted hydrocarbons. rust preventives and cigarette smoke. pharmaceuticals.. present in exhaust of gasoline engines at 1.2.2. ingestion of food and drinking water. in exhaust of diesel engines at 1.NY Academic Press p.gov/compound/p­xylene 81/101 . NY. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's Henry's Law constant.atsdr. as of June 21.usda. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes. Atmos Environ 103: 87‐93 (2015)  from HSDB In a survey of 62 cars. Atlanta. US Dept Agric. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5037‐43 (2007) (5) Schauer JJ et al. K. as of Sept 28.4 Artificial Sources 4‐Xylene's production and use in the synthesis of terephthalic acid for polyester resins and fibers and in the manufacture of vitamins. BCF values of 15 and 19 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. (1) ATSDR. paint.gov/phytochem/search (4) Malkina IL et al. Inc.9% emitted hydrocarbons. Estimated volatilization half‐lives for a model river and model lake are 3. as of June 21. 2001.3 Natural Occurring Sources 4‐Xylene ﴾in combination with the other xylene isomers﴿ occurs naturally in petroleum﴾1﴿ and is released during forest fires﴾1.1435 (2016) (2) ATSDR. If released into water.1 days.108 (1978) (3) US Dept Agric.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem long lag period may be required before degradation commences.gov/toxprofiles/index. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to 4‐xylene via inhalation of ambient air. /m‐ and p‐xylene/ Verschueren. through the use of gasoline and diesel engines.nal.9 vol% of emitted hydrocarbons. New York. 2192  from HSDB 11. John Wiley & Sons. shellac. Photooxidation may have some importance in surface waters exposed to sunlight. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals.nih. J Environ Qual 49: 28‐36 (2011) (5) IARC.2. p‐Xylene. 2016: http://www. p. 2016: http://www. p. Mixed xylenes are present in petroleum stocks and natural gas in small quantities﴾5﴿. 4th ed.ncbi. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Agric Res Service. NY. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.cdc.5 Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on a classification scheme﴾1﴿. Occupational exposure to 4‐xylene may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where 4‐xylene is produced or used. and dermal contact with consumer products containing 4‐xylene. 4‐Xylene is emitted to air from burning wood﴾3﴿ and in motor vehicle exhaust﴾4‐6﴿. and insecticides﴾1﴿ may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams﴾SRC﴿. Available from. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes. Volatilization of 4‐xylene from moist soil surfaces is https://pubchem. Atlanta.nlm. respectively. Contact with xylene occurs from a variety of consumer products.

Fresen Environ Bull 3: 318‐323 (1994) (7) Franke C et al. Environ Sci Technol 40: 7005‐7011 (Supporting information) (2006) (5) Lyman WJ et al. Arey J. 4‐ Xylene has been observed to biodegrade in standard biodegradability tests using various inocula﴾11﴿. Sci Total Environ 391: 269‐277 (2008) (7) Thomas O. a long lag period may be required before xylene degradation commences﴾12﴿. 69. Search for Chemicals. respectively﴾SRC﴿. as of June 21. and therefore. DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. Atlanta. Oxford. Wat Res 27: 685‐91 (1993) (11) Kuhn EP et al. as of June 24.43X10‐11 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾3﴿.90X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾6﴿. 4‐Xylene is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces﴾SRC﴿ based upon a vapor pressure of 8. However. 67 (2007) https://pubchem. as of June 27. J Environ Qual 21: 552‐558 (1992) (3) Abdul AS et al. Hazard Waste & Hazard Mater 4: 211‐22 (1987) (4) Schuurmann G et al. Washington. soil and natural water inoculum. Res Rev 85: 17‐28 (1983) (2) Walton BT et al. Chemosphere 26: 1905‐16 (1993) (9) Sacan MT et al.eu/ (12) Kuhn EP et al. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected﴾5﴿ based upon a Henry's Law constant of 6. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes.. UK: Elsevier Sciences. Washington.84 mm Hg at 25 deg C﴾2﴿.cdc. 2016: http://www. 2016: http://webbook. Sept 2013 Release. J Phys Chem Ref Data 12: 1033‐63 (1983) (7) Aronson D et al. calculated from its rate constant of 1.atsdr. European Chemical Agency. 4‐Xylene does not absorb at wavelengths >290 nm﴾7﴿ and. Environ Sci Technol 40: 7005‐7011 (Supporting information) (2006) (5) Foster P et al. For example. GA: US EPA.gov/compound/p­xylene 82/101 .nist. a BCF values of 15﴾8﴿and 19﴾9﴿.cdc. European Chemical Agency.europa. suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low﴾SRC﴿. Chemosphere 29: 1501‐14 (1994) (8) Park JH. 4‐xylene reached 90% of its O2 consumption in 28 days which classified 4‐xylene as readily biodegradable﴾9﴿. US Public Health Service (2007). NIST Chemistry WebBook. 2016: http://echa. Atlanta. 4‐ Xylene has been detected in rainwater and snow﴾5. soil and natural water inoculum. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 26 hours﴾SRC﴿. Under anaerobic conditions. using OECD Guideline 301F ﴾Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test﴿ with a mixture of sewage. Fresen Environ Bull 3: 318‐323 (1994) (6) Chao J et al. is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight﴾SRC﴿. a long lag period may be required before xylene degradation commences﴾11﴿. 4‐Xylene (106‐42‐3).gov/toxprofiles/index. p‐Xylene (CAS 106‐42‐3) Registered Substances Dossier. Available from. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes.53X10‐16 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾4﴿. Biodegradation is an important process in groundwater where volatilization is hindered﴾10﴿.nih. Res Rev 85: 17‐28 (1983) (2) Walton BT et al. using OECD Guideline 301F ﴾Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test﴿ with a mixture of sewage.europa. Atmos Environ 19: 1609‐17 (1985) (6) Fries E et al.asp (9) ECHA. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions﴾5﴿. the half‐life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 65 days﴾SRC﴿. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. UV‐visible Spectrophotometry of Water and Wastewater. is expected to exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere.6﴿. Atlanta. Available from.atsdr. 74‐. therefore.ncbi. Biodegradation proceeds more slowly under anaerobic conditions as is evidenced by about 50% removal of 4‐xylene after several months using nitrate‐amended soil column﴾10﴿. 66‐70 (1999) (8) ATSDR. which has a vapor pressure of 8. US Public Health Service (2007).gov (5) Ligocki MP et al. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. pp. Koc values ranging from 204‐540﴾2‐4﴿. as of June 27. Aerobic biodegradation of organic chemicals in environmental media.1 hours and 4.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem expected to be an important fate process﴾SRC﴿ given an estimated Henry's Law constant of 6. NIST Gas Phase Kinetics Database No. Lee HJ. DC: US Sec Commerce. 2016: http://www. For example. p‐Xylene (CAS 106‐42‐3) Registered Substances Dossier. Available from. Environ Sci Tech 19: 961‐8 (1985)  from HSDB AQUATIC FATE: Based on a classification scheme﴾1﴿. 4‐xylene.1 days. Environ Sci Tech 19: 961‐8 (1985) (13) Beyerle‐Pfnur R et al.gov/toxprofiles/index. 1st ed.nlm. volatilization half‐lives for a model river and model lake are 3. 4‐Xylene is expected to biodegrade in soil under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions﴾8﴿ and has been observed to biodegrade in standard biodegradability tests using various inocula﴾9﴿. (1) Swann RL et al. SRC‐TR‐99‐002. Irradiation studies using humic substances﴾13﴿ suggest photooxidation of xylene may have some environmental importance in natural surface waters exposed to sunlight﴾SRC﴿. calculated from its rate constant of 4. it may be removed from the air by wet deposition﴾SRC﴿. Toxicol Environ Chem 20‐21: 129‐34 (1989)  from HSDB ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere﴾1﴿. Available from. p. Vapor‐phase 4‐xylene is degraded slowly in the atmosphere by reaction with night‐time nitrate radicals﴾SRC﴿. Search for Chemicals. indicate that 4‐xylene may adsorb to suspended solids and sediment﴾SRC﴿. According to a classification scheme﴾7﴿.84 mm Hg at 25 deg C﴾6﴿. (1) Swann RL et al. Available from. Vapor‐phase 4‐xylene is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals﴾SRC﴿. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Hazard Waste Hazard Mater 4: 211‐22 (1987) (4) Schuurmann G et al. 4‐xylene reached 90% of its O2 consumption in 28 days which classified 4‐xylene as readily biodegradable﴾11﴿. Chem Rev 103: 4605‐4638 (2003) (4) NIST. as of June 21.90X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾5﴿. (1) Bidleman TF. J Phys Chem Ref Data 12: 1033‐63 (1983) (3) Atkinson R. Burgress C. Biodegradation is an important fate process under acclimated conditions﴾7﴿ and in subsurface soils and groundwater where volatilization is hindered﴾8﴿. Environ Sci Technol 22: 361‐367 (1988) (2) Chao J et al. J Chem Inf Comput Sci 44: 985‐992 (2004) (10) ATSDR. J Environ Qual 21: 552‐558 (1992) (3) Abdul AS et al.asp (11) ECHA.7‐5.eu/ (10) Anid PJ et al. under anaerobic conditions. 2016: http://echa. 15‐1 to 15‐29 (1990) (6) Foster P et al. Using this Henry's Law constant and an estimation method﴾5﴿.

in an activated sand aquifer was observed within 110 days﴾7﴿.jp/english/db.1% of the combined 3‐/4‐xylene present initially was biodegraded in an activated sludge treatment plant﴾4﴿.15 mM sample of 4‐xylene was completely degraded in a diesel fuel acclimated aquifer during an 11 day incubation period﴾6﴿. Atlanta. reached 85% of its theoretical BOD in 14 days during a 28‐day BOD test﴾11﴿. reached 100% of its theoretical BOD in 4 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test which classified xylene as readily biodegradable﴾9﴿. respectively﴾3﴿. Search for Chemicals.53 ug/L sample of 3‐/4‐xylene﴾1﴿.0 ug/L was biodegraded by an activated sludge plant treating municipal wastewater﴾3﴿ over a 5 day operation period. A 0. Environ Technol Lett 10: 185‐94 (1989) (4) Melcer H et al. 4‐xylene ﴾41 mg/L﴿ reached 68% of its theoretical BOD in 10 days and 87. In an anaerobic microcosm inoculated with sediment and groundwater from a polluted iron‐reducing aquifer. Aerobic biodegradation of organic chemicals in environmental media: A summary of field and laboratory studies. Xylene ﴾mixed isomers﴿.safe. it has been found that 4‐xylene is biodegraded in soil and groundwater samples under aerobic conditions﴾1﴿. Over 88% of an initial influent concentration of 24. MS was 0.1 ug/L‐hr﴾5﴿.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem  from HSDB 11. Water Environ Res 65: 58‐65 (1993) (4) Hutchins SR.0107/days﴾8﴿. however. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene concentrations were not significantly reduced within 42 days following the addition of nitrate to this column. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 3185‐88 (1995) (7) API. however. Environ Toxicol Chem 10: 1437‐48 (1991) (5) Morgan P et al. Pulgarin C. https://pubchem. Aerobic flow‐through aquifer column studies resulted in 80% removal of combined 3‐/4‐xylene﴾2﴿. 98. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene concentration was not significantly reduced within 42 days following the addition of nitrate to a soil column. Available from. anaerobic conditions in the nitrate‐amended column resulted in about 50% removal of 3‐ and 4‐xylene after several months﴾2﴿. there was less complete removal of 3‐/4‐xylene. 2016: http://echa.2. Following the loss of toluene. A jet fuel acclimated aquifer mineralized 70‐80% of a 4‐xylene sample under denitrifying conditions over a 55 day incubation period﴾4﴿.nite.gov/compound/p­xylene 83/101 . 66‐70 (1999) (2) Bridie AL et al. Methyl‐ Tertiary‐Butyl‐Ether and Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Sand Aquifer. 4‐xylene was degraded by the intrinsic bacteria under iron‐ reducing conditions﴾6﴿. API Publication No 4601 (1994) (8) MacIntyre WG et al. The degradation rate constant for 4‐ xylene in an activated sand aquifer was measured as 0. 4‐xylene reached 90% of its O2 consumption in 28 days which classified it as readily biodegradable﴾10﴿. Chemosphere 65: 682‐690 (2006)  from HSDB AEROBIC: An activated sludge inoculum obtained from a Wisconsin wastewater treatment facility biodegraded a 5. p‐Xylene (CAS 106‐42‐3) Registered Substances Dossier. as of June 21.8% in 28 days which classified 4‐xylene as readily biodegradable﴾10﴿.300 ug/L﴿ was treated with both upflow aerated columns and rotating biological contactors with 98% removal in 37 days and 96% removal in 146 days. Environ Pollut 82: 181‐190 (1993) (6) Haner A et al. 2016: http://www.038/day﴾7﴿. Water Resources Res 29: 4045‐51 (1993) (9) NITE. (1) Clapp WL et al. Biodegradation and Bioconcentration. however. The degradation rate constant of 4‐xylene measured in the Columbus Air Force Base aquifer. Biodegradation of 4‐xylene was observed under anaerobic denitrifying conditions﴾2﴿.nih.europa. Columbus. the maximum removal rate was increased to 5. Japan: Natl Inst Tech Eval. Wat Sci Tech 25: 383‐89 (1992)  from HSDB ANAEROBIC: In general. a 44% of theoretical BOD was observed over a 5 day incubation period﴾2﴿.eu/ (11) Lapertot ME. anaerobic conditions in the nitrate‐amended column resulted in about 50% removal of 3‐/4‐xylene after several months﴾3﴿. soil and natural water inoculum. Available from. Using OECD Guideline 301F ﴾Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test﴿ with non‐adapted activated sludge inoculum. In a different OECD Guideline 301F study using a mixture of sewage.nlm. Water Res 13: 627‐30 (1979) (3) Parker WJ et al. Anaerobic microcosms were constructed using aquifer sediment and groundwater from the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station in CA which had been contaminated with gasoline﴾5﴿. 85 ug/L. it has been found that 4‐xylene may be degraded under anaerobic denitrifying conditions﴾1﴿. Transport and Fate of Dissolved Methanol. American Petroleum Institute. GA: US EPA. present at 100 mg/L.ncbi. Health Environ Sci Dept. Chemical Risk Information Platform (CHRIP). Tokyo. present at 50 mg/L. 3‐/4‐xylenes was biodegraded completely by day 39 with a maximum rate of 4. Leachate containing 3‐/4‐xylene at 100 ug/L was significantly biodegraded under denitrifying conditions but not under either iron‐reducing or methanogenic conditions﴾4﴿. Complete biodegradation of a groundwater sample of 4‐xylene.4 ug/L‐hr﴾5﴿. Following the addition of nitrate. European Chemical Agency. as of June 27. Groundwater contaminated with combined 3‐/4‐xylene ﴾at 1. Using a standard BOD dilution technique and a sewage inoculum.html (10) ECHA. A coarse sand aquifer removed 52‐100% of 4‐xylene from contaminated groundwater under natural aerobic conditions over a 13 day incubation period﴾5﴿.go. Water Environ Res 66: 153‐160 (1994) (2) Anid PJ et al. Wat Res 27: 685‐91 (1993) (3) Van der Hoek JP et al. 3‐/4‐Xylene.6 Biodegredation AEROBIC: In general. (1) Aronson D et al. pp.

is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight﴾SRC﴿. as of June 27.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem (1) Aronson D. According to a classification scheme﴾4﴿.7 Abiotic Degredation The rate constant for the vapor‐phase reaction of 4‐xylene with photochemically‐produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated as 1. Estimation Program Interface (EPI) Suite.2﴿ and 19﴾3﴿ have been reported for fish for 4‐xylene. Ohio (1982)  from HSDB 11. 7‐5 (1990) (7) Thomas O. and 21 days. Atmos Environ 34: 2063‐2101 (2000) (5) Chlodini G et al. Environ Sci Technol 25(10): 2630‐2638 (2006)  from HSDB 11. Nov. Environ Sci Technol 27: 1659‐64 (1993) (6) Lyman WJ et al.38 to 1. (1) Park JH. (1) Smith JH.epa. these BCF values suggest the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low﴾SRC﴿. 7‐4.gov/compound/p­xylene 84/101 .nlm. 14. Wat Res 27: 685‐91 (1993) (4) Albrechtsen HJ et al. in pond water﴾1﴿. Arey J.9﴾4﴿.5X10+8 nitrate radicals per cu cm﴾4﴿. and 5 Nov 1981. Reinhard M. 67 (2007) (8) Jori A et al. Environ Toxicol Chem 15: 114‐22 (1986) (6) Botton S. does not absorb at wavelengths >290 nm﴾7﴿ and. 4‐Xylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions﴾6﴿. Chemosphere 29: 1501‐ 14 (1994)  from HSDB 11. 2016: http://www2. 4‐Xylene (106‐ 42‐3). A median experimental Koc value of 295 has also been reported﴾3﴿. A soil leaching column study estimated a 4‐xylene Koc of 331 using a https://pubchem.eu/ (5) Franke C et al.34 to 1. European Chemical Agency. Environ Pollut 82: 181‐190 (1993) (3) Anid PJ et al.4. 69. Available from.nist. respectively.2. Rainbow trout ﴾Oncorhynchus mykiss﴿ exposed to xylene ﴾emulsified in aquatic weed control﴿ for 56 days in a flow‐through system had a maximum BCF of 25. eds. Washington. A Koc value of 204 was measured for 4‐xylene using sandy aquifer materials﴾2﴿. DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 371‐78 in Appl Biotechnol Site Rem.2. DC: US Sec Commerce.1. therefore. Burgress C.gov (4) Atkinson R. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods.2. Lee HJ. 1st ed. at 30 mg/L in water. J Chem Inf Comput Sci 44: 985‐992 (2004) (4) ECHA. Washington.. Hinchee REL et al. Chemosphere 26: 1905‐16 (1993) (2) Sabljic A. as of June 27. Howard PH. The rate constant for the vapor‐phase reaction of 4‐xylene with ozone is 1. 2016: http://echa. 4‐Xylene. p‐Xylene (CAS 106‐42‐3) Registered Substances Dossier. The rate constant for the vapor‐ phase reaction of 4‐xylene with night‐time nitrate radicals is 4. Environ Sci Technol 21: 358‐66 (1987) (3) Sacan MT et al.9 Soil Adsorption/Mobility Koc values of 246 and 540 have been measured for 4‐xylene in silt and sandy loam soils respectively﴾1﴿. Harper JC.20 mg/L in 0.europa.36X1‐21 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾3﴿. Washington.ncbi. Oxford UK: Elsevier Sciences. Products from the gas‐phase reaction of nitrate with 4‐xylene were 4‐ methylbenzaldehyde and 4‐methylbenzyl nitrate﴾5﴿. these Koc values suggest that 4‐xylene is expected to have moderate to low mobility in soil.53X10‐16 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾3﴿. 2012. Negligible absorption above 290 nm has also been reported for 4‐xylene﴾8﴿. Available from. This corresponds to an atmospheric half‐life of about 26 hours at an atmospheric concentration of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm﴾2﴿. Pap Inter Symp. According to a classification scheme﴾5﴿. Lewis: Boca Raton. as of June 27. NIST Chemistry WebBook. Ver. Chem Rev 103: 4605‐4638 (2003) (2) US EPA. 102‐6 (1997) (2) Morgan P et al. Anaerobic biodegradation of organic chemicals in groundwater.46 to 1. NIST Gas Phase Kinetics Database No. Airforce Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. 2nd 1993.8 Bioconcentration Experimental BCF values of 15﴾1.gov/tsca‐screening‐tools/ (3) NIST. 4. FL (1994) (5) Ball HA. from 1.nih. DC: Amer Petrol Inst pp.43X10‐11 cu cm/molecule‐sec at 25 deg C﴾1﴿. This corresponds to an atmospheric half‐life of about 65 days at an atmospheric concentration of 2. p. UV‐visible Spectrophotometry of Water and Wastewater. 7. Ecotox Environ Saf 11: 44‐80 (1986)  from HSDB The photolysis of jet fuel JP‐4 in water resulted in the degradation of 3‐/4‐xylene combined. Search for Chemicals. Parsons JR. (1) Atkinson R. Sept 2013 Release. This corresponds to an atmospheric half‐life of about 23 years at an atmospheric concentration of 7X10+11 ozone molecules per cu cm﴾2﴿. 2016: http://webbook. pp 336‐53 in Proc 12th Conf on Environ Toxicol 3. pp. In Situ On‐Site Bioreclam. Available from.

2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem

chromatographic methodology﴾5﴿. Another soil column leaching study estimated a Koc range of 118‐298 based on
HPLC measurement﴾6﴿.
(1) Walton BT et al; J Environ Qual 21: 552‐558 (1992) (2) Abdul AS et al; Hazard Waste & Hazard Mater 4: 211‐22 (1987) (3)
Schuurmann G et al; Environ Sci Technol 40: 7005‐7011 (Supporting information) (2006) (4) Swann RL et al; Res Rev 85: 17‐28
(1983) (5) Xu F et al; J Environ Qual 30: 1618‐1623 (2001) (6) ECHA; Search for Chemicals. p‐Xylene (CAS 106‐42‐3) Registered
Substances Dossier. European Chemical Agency; Available from, as of June 27, 2016: http://echa.europa.eu/

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11.2.10 Volatilization from Water/Soil

The Henry's Law constant for 4‐xylene is measured as 6.90X10‐3 atm‐cu m/mole﴾1﴿. This Henry's Law constant
indicates that 4‐xylene is expected to volatilize rapidly from water surfaces﴾2﴿. Based on this Henry's Law constant, the
volatilization half‐life from a model river ﴾1 m deep, flowing 1 m/sec, wind velocity of 3 m/sec﴿﴾2﴿ is estimated as 3.1
hours﴾SRC﴿. The volatilization half‐life from a model lake ﴾1 m deep, flowing 0.05 m/sec, wind velocity of 0.5 m/sec﴿﴾2﴿
is estimated as 4.1 days﴾SRC﴿. 4‐Xylene's Henry's Law constant indicates that volatilization from moist soil surfaces
may occur﴾SRC﴿. 4‐Xylene is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces﴾SRC﴿ based upon a vapor pressure of 8.84
mm Hg﴾3﴿.
(1) Foster P et al; Fresen Environ Bull 3: 318‐323 (1994) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods.
Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15‐1 to 15‐29 (1990) (3) Chao J et al; J Phys Chem Ref Data 12: 1033‐63 (1983)

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11.2.11 Water Concentrations

GROUNDWATER: 4‐Xylene was detected in groundwater under a landfill in Norman, OK ﴾0.9 ppb﴿﴾1﴿, under a rapid
infiltration site in Phoenix, AZ ﴾0.10‐49 ppb﴿﴾2﴿, under a coal gasification site in Wyoming 15 months after gasification
completed ﴾240‐830 ppb﴿﴾3﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected in a recovery well from a landfill 7 years after closing ﴾2.9 ppb﴿﴾4﴿.
The concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in groundwater samples collected near a gas station, a paint factory, a
river, and a university in Taichung, Taiwan ranged from below quantitation to 4.0 ug/L﴾5﴿. The median and maximum
concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in contaminated groundwater samples in Dusseldorf, Germany were 0.03 and
1.59 ug/L, respectively﴾6﴿. Groundwater monitoring conducted in the US between 1996‐2002 by the USGS at 518
monitoring wells detected xylene ﴾combined isomers﴿ in 2.2% of the wells﴾7﴿.
(1) Dunlap WJ et al; pp 96‐110 in Organic Pollutants Contributed to Groundwater by a Landfill. USEPA‐600/9‐76‐004 (1976) (2)
Tomson MB et al; Water Res 15: 1109‐16 (1981) (3) Stuermer DH et al; Environ Sci Technol 16: 582‐7 (1982) (4) DeWalle FB, Chian
ESK; J Amer Water Works Assoc 73: 206‐11 (1981) (5) Lee M‐R et al; Chemosphere 69: 1381‐7 (2007) (6) Rosell M et al; Environ
Toxicol Chem 24: 2785‐95 (2005) (7) Squillace PJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 38: 5327‐5338 (2004)

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DRINKING WATER: In a survey of 30 Canadian water treatment facilities, the average value of 4‐xylene combined with
ethyl benzene was 1 ppb with a maximum value of 10 ppb﴾1﴿. 4‐Xylene has been qualitatively detected in the
municipal drinking water supplies of Cleveland, OH﴾2﴿, Philadelphia, PA﴾3﴿, Washington, DC﴾4﴿, Tuscaloosa, AL and
Houston, TX﴾5﴿. In a survey of organics in drinking water derived from groundwater sources, 4‐/2‐xylene combined
was found in 2.1% of 280 sample sites supplying <10,000 persons and 1.1% of 186 sites supplying >10,000 persons.
The maximum combined concentrations were 0.59 and 0.91 ppb, respectively﴾6﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected
at a concentration of 0.1 ppb in bank filtered Rhine river drinking water in the Netherlands﴾7﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected
in 6 drinking water wells near a landfill, at concns in the range of 0.3‐2.1 ppb﴾8﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected in 14 drinking
water studies in Great Britain, 10 from surface water sources and 4 from ground supplies﴾9﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene
was detected in the drinking water produced by offshore installations in Norway at concns between 130‐15,000
ng/L﴾10﴿. Drinking water collected from 1206 domestic wells between 1985‐2002 had positive 3‐/4‐xylene detections
in 28 samples﴾11﴿.
(1) Otson R et al; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 65: 1370‐4 (1982) (2) Sanjivamurthy VA; Water Res 12: 31‐3 (1978) (3) Suffet IH et al; p
375‐97 in Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Keith H ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Press (1976) (4)
Saunders RA et al; Water Res 9: 1143‐5 (1975) (5) Bertsch W et al; J Chromatogr 112: 701‐8 (1975) (6) Westrick JJ; J Amer Water
Works Assoc 76: 52‐9 (1984) (7) Piet GR, Morra CF; pp 31‐42 in Artificial Groundwater Recharge. Huisman L, Olsthorn TN eds.
Pitman Publ (1983) (8) DeWalle FB, Chian ESK; J Amer Water Works Assoc 73: 206‐11 (1981) (9) Fielding M et al; Organic
Micropollutants in Drinking Water. TR‐ 159. Medmenham, UK Water Res Ctr (1981) (10) Kristiansen NK et al; Chemosphere 25:
1631‐42 (1992) (11) Rowe BL et al; Environ Health Perspect 115(11): 1539‐1546 (2007)

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SURFACE WATER: 4‐Xylene was detected in the raw water supplies for 30 Canadian treatment facilities, 23% contained
a combination of p‐xylene and ethyl benzene which averaged <1 ppb and whose maximum value was <1 ppb in
summer and 2 ppb in winter﴾1﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected, not quantified in the Black Warrior River in Tuscaloosa, AL﴾2﴿
and the Glatt River in Switzerland﴾3﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected in the Adige River, Italy ﴾0.1‐0.6 ug/L﴿﴾4﴿. 4‐Xylene was
detected in the Morava River, Slovakia ﴾0.16‐0.97 ug/L﴿﴾5﴿.
(1) Otson R et al; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 65: 1370‐4 (1982) (2) Bertsch W et al; J Chromatogr 112: 701‐8 (1975) (3) Zuercher F, Giger
W; Vom Wasser 47: 37‐55 (1976) (4) Benfenati E et al; Chemosphere 25: 1665‐74 (1992) (5) Al‐Rekabi H et al; Bull Environ Contam
Toxicol 56: 90‐97 (1996)

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SEAWATER: Samples obtained from Vineland Sound, MA, contained 3‐/4‐xylene at a range of 4.5‐66.0 parts per
trillion﴾1﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in coastal sections of the Gulf of Mexico, at 2.7‐24.4 parts per
trillion﴾2﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in the northern Gulf of Mexico, at 1‐30 ng/L﴾3﴿.
(1) Gschwend PM et al; Environ Sci Technol 16: 31‐8 (1982) (2) Sauer TC Jr et al; Mar Chem 7: 1‐16 (1978) (3) Sauer TC Jr et al;
Environ Sci Technol 15: 917‐23 (1981)

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RAIN/SNOW: 4‐Xylene was detected in the rainfall in West Los Angeles, CA, at a concentration of 9 parts per
trillion﴾1﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in antarctic snow at concentrations of 12 to 198 ng/L﴾2﴿. Combined
3‐/4‐xylene was quantified during seven rain events in Portland, OR in 1984, at concentrations ranging from 34 to 260
ng/L﴾3﴿. Snow and ice samples collected directly in cloud in 2005 and 2006 at Jungfraujoch, Germany contained mean
3‐/4‐xylene levels ranging from 24‐121 ng/L﴾4﴿.
(1) Kawamura K, Kaplan IR; Environ Sci Technol 17: 497‐501 (1983) (2) Desideri PG et al; J Environ Anal Chem 55: 33‐46 (1994) (3)
Ligocki MP et al; Atmos Environ 19: 1609‐17 (1985) (4) Fries E et al; Sci Total Environ 391: 269‐277 (2008)

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11.2.12 Effluents Concentrations

4‐Xylene was detected ﴾33.2 ug/g﴿ in the leachate from a petroleum refinery plant﴾1﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected ﴾1.97
mg/L﴿ in the leachate near a landfill in Virginia﴾2﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected, not quantified in the leachate of a Florida
landfill﴾3﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected ﴾0.46‐2.97 ppm﴿ in the tail pipe emissions from automobiles in the UK﴾4﴿. 4‐Xylene
was detected ﴾61.5‐427.4 mg/km﴿ in the emissions of automobiles under various driving conditions in the UK﴾5﴿.
Emissions of 3‐ and 4‐xylene from an outboard boat motor ﴾71 mg for 10 minutes of operation﴿, into a freshwater lake
in Germany were measured﴾6﴿. Unspecified concentrations of 4‐xylene were detected in the effluent of coal power
plants in the US﴾7﴿.
(1) Dupont RR, Reineman JJ; Evaluation of Volatilization of Hazardous Constituents at Hazardous Waste Land Treatment Sites. NTIS
PB 86‐233 939/AS. Washington, DC: USEPA (1986) (2) Cozzarelli IM et al; Environ Sci Technol 29: 458‐69 (1995) (3) Chen CS, Zoltek
JJR; Chemosphere 31: 3455‐64 (1995) (4) Bailey JC et al; Atmos Environ 24: 43‐52 (1990) (5) Bailey JC et al; Sci Tot Environ 93: 199‐
206 (1990) (6) Juettner F; Chemosphere 29: 191‐200 (1994) (7) Junk GA et al; ACS Symp Ser 319: 109‐23 (1986)

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Tailpipe emissions of 3‐/4‐xylene for 9 vehicles at 75, 90, and 105 deg F were measured as 3.28‐3.80, 2.52‐3.73, and
3.20‐3.27 wt %, respectively﴾2﴿. Hot soak evaporative emissions of 3‐ and 4‐xylene for 9 vehicles at 75, 90, and 105
deg F were measured as 5.20‐5.34, 5.23‐6.01, and 5.11‐7.49 wt %, respectively﴾1﴿. Evaporative emissions of 3‐/4‐xylene
for 9 vehicles at 60‐84, 72‐96, and 84‐108 deg F were measured as 2.57‐3.22, 2.83‐2.94, and 0.25‐1.29 wt %,
respectively﴾1﴿. The mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene in exhaust from 6 cars was 12,322 ppb volume﴾2﴿. Air samples
taken along an urban road ﴾in 1982﴿ in London, England, contained 3‐/4‐xylene combined, at a mean concentration of
2.76 parts per thousand million ﴾n = 256﴿﴾3﴿. Air samples collected along a motorway in Toddington, England ﴾in the
countryside﴿, contained 3‐/4‐xylene combined, at a mean concentration of 0.85 parts per thousand million ﴾n = 198﴿
﴾4﴿. Exhaust air from the Elbtunnel, Germany, contained 3‐/4‐xylene, combined, at concentrations from 150.9 to 169.8
ug/cu m﴾4﴿.
(1) Stump FD et al; J Air Waste Manage Assoc 42: 1328‐35 (1992) (2) Blake NJ et al; J Geophys Res 98: 2851‐64 (1993) (3) Clark AI;
Environ Pollut 7: 141‐58 (1984) (4) Dannecker W et al; Sci Total Environ 93: 293‐300 (1990)

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https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 86/101

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3‐/4‐Xylene was detected in the headspace emissions of 15 out of 26 gel type air fresheners purchased in South
Korea﴾1﴿. 3‐/4‐Xylene emission rates determined for six of these products ranged from 18‐570 ug/hr﴾1﴿. In‐vehicle
analysis suggested that the strength of xylene emissions from air fresheners was not strong enough to elevate in‐
vehicle levels﴾1﴿. Mean concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene were 17.3‐18.1 and 9.6‐10.5 ug/cu m in the in‐vehicle air of 10
gasoline and 10 diesel passenger cars in South Korea, respectively﴾1﴿. Emission rates of 3‐/4‐xylene measured for 10
diesel fuels ranged from 0.76‐5.02 mg/bhp‐hr ﴾brake horsepower‐hour﴿ for engines without an after‐treatment device
and from below detection to 1.09 mg/bhp‐hr for engines with an after‐treatment device﴾2﴿. The concentration of
3‐/4‐xylene measured in the gas phase emissions from burning pine wood was 60.0 mg/kg wood burned﴾3﴿. Emission
rates of 3‐/4‐xylene ranged from <1.5‐9.1 ug/sq m‐hr in 4 new manufactured houses and from <4.1‐24.2 ug/sq m‐hr
in 7 new site‐built houses﴾4﴿. 3‐/4‐Xylene concentrations ranged from 0.5‐2.7 ppb in the manufactured houses and
1.4‐11.5 ppb in the site‐built houses﴾4﴿. Concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene combined were 14,300 and 1,720,000 ug/km in
catalyst‐equipped and noncatalyst‐equipped gasoline‐powered motor vehicle tailpipe emissions, respectively﴾5﴿. 3‐/4‐
Xylene were detected in 170 out of 249 samples of North Carolina state‐wide stormwater runoff with a median and
maximum concentrations of 0.09 and 1.62 ug/L, respectively﴾6﴿. The mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in
24 unleaded gasoline samples was 5.6% by weight﴾6﴿. 3‐/4‐Xylene was detected in the volatiles emitted from corn,
alfalfa and cereal silage at concentrations of 0.54‐1.48 ng/L﴾7﴿. On road monitoring of exhaust from light, medium and
heavy duty diesel vehicles between 2012‐2013 detected 3‐/4‐xylene as 0.79‐2.20% of the top 20 volatile organic
compounds emitted﴾8﴿.
(1) Jo W‐K et al; Chemosphere 70: 1827‐34 (2008) (2) Tang et al; Environ Sci Technol 41: 5037‐43 (2007) (3) Schauer JJ et al;
Environ Sci Technol 35: 1716‐28 (2001) (4) Hodgson AT et al; Indoor Air 10: 178‐92 (2000) (5) Schauer JJ et al; Environ Sci Technol
36: 1169‐80 (2002) (6) Borden RC et al; Environ Pollut 118: 141‐52 (2002) (7) Malkina IL et al; J Environ Qual 49(1): 28‐36 (2011) (8)
Yao Z et al; Atmos Environ 103: 87‐93 (2015)

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11.2.13 Sediment/Soil Concentrations

SEDIMENT: Sediment collected from the River Morava, Slovakia, contained 3‐ and 4‐xylene, combined, at
concentrations from 0.21 to 1.53 ug/kg wet weight﴾1﴿. Sediment samples from the River Tees estuary, England,
contained 3‐ and 4‐xylene, combined, at concentrations from 3.4 to 250 ppb﴾2﴿.
(1) Al‐Rekabi H et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56: 90‐97 (1996) (2) Harland BJ et al; Intern J Environ Anal Chem 20: 295‐311
(1985)

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SOIL: 4‐Xylene was detected in the soil near a pulp mill at a concentration of 0.9 g/ton﴾1﴿.
(1) Kookana RS, Rogers SL; Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 142: 13‐64 (1995)

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11.2.14 Atmospheric Concentrations

URBAN/SUBURBAN: 4‐Xylene was detected at concentrations of about 0.10‐0.15 ppbC at a roadside in the Atlanta,
GA metropolitan area﴾1﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected at a mean concentration of 14.8 ug/cu m in 102 areas sampled in the
US﴾2﴿. Average concentration in the range of 0.6‐10.0 ppb were measured for 3‐/4‐xylene in 12 US cities﴾3﴿. Combined
3‐/4‐xylene was detected at an average concentration of 18.1 ppb in 39 US cities﴾4﴿. 4‐Xylene was detected in the
Lincoln Tunnel, NY at a concentration of 49 ppb﴾5﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in the passenger areas of
vehicles in Boston, MA ﴾20.9 ug/cu m﴿, Raleigh, NC ﴾30.5 ug/cu m﴿ and Los Angeles, CA ﴾153.9 ug/cu m﴿﴾6﴿. Levels in
ambient air of 4‐xylene were reported for several locations in the US and Europe﴾7﴿.
(1) Bernardo‐Bricker A; J Air Waste Manage Assoc 45: 591‐603 (1995) (2) Kelly TJ et al; Ambient Concn Summaries For Clean Air
Act. Title III. Hazardous Air Pollutants. US EPA Contract No 68‐D80082, USEPA/600/R‐94/090, Final Report. Research Triangle Park
(1993) (3) Singh HB et al; Atmos Environ 19: 1911‐9 (1985) (4) Seila RL et al; Determination of C2 to C12 Ambient Air Hydrocarbons
in 39 US Cities From 1984 Through 1986. USEPA/600/S3‐89/058 Atmos Res Expos Assess Lab, Research Triangle Park NC (1989) (5)
Lonneman WA et al; Environ Sci Technol 20: 790‐796 (1986) (6) Chan CC et al; J Air Waste Manage Assoc 41: 1594‐1600 (1994) (7)
Grosjean D et al; Sci Tot Environ 100: 367‐414 (1991)

 from HSDB

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 87/101

respectively﴾2﴿.6﴿. 22. 8 labs ﴾0.9﴿.6﴿.5 and 16.1﴿. Indoor air samples from 31 residences in the Kanawha Valley. in the indoor air of 59 rural German appartments﴾2﴿. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 40: 62‐67 (1990) (5) DeBortoli M et al.73 ug/cu m ﴾median = 7. respectively. and 8. UK ﴾mean concentrations in ug/cu m﴿ : 64 homes ﴾1. in the air of several stores and 6. The indoor air of 37 small and medium‐sized commercial buildings in California had a geometric mean 3‐/4‐xylene level of 1.9 ﴾outdoor = 13 ug/cu m﴿.5﴿.1 ppb﴾10﴿.8‐7. Brazil were 10. Chemosphere 63: 421‐9 (2006)  from HSDB INDOOR: 4 of 9 indoor air samples taken from the living rooms of houses situated above screen printing plants in Amsterdam.6﴿. and 3. Amer Ind Hyg Assoc J 51: 261‐68 (1990) (3) Cohen MA et al. 3‐/4‐ Xylene concentrations as high as 352. respectively﴾6﴿. 3. 12 coach stations ﴾3. 6 libraries ﴾3.1 ug/cu m at a park located away from the city center﴾5﴿.8﴿.4 ug/cu m in the winter﴾1﴿. https://pubchem.36 ug/cu m in the summer and 58. Korea ranged from 5. Environ Internat 12: 343‐50 (1986) (6) Hartwell TD et al. 4‐ Xylene was detected in the following microenvironments of Birmingham. 12 trafficked roads ﴾11.4 and 4.1‐9. in 12 homes in Canada ranged from 7‐104 ug/cu m ﴾average = 31. WV ﴾the center of a heavily industrialized area﴿ contained 3‐/4‐xylene.27 ug/cu m﴿﴾3﴿.96‐3. Nov/Dec collection﴿﴾4﴿. (1) Verhoeff AP et al. inside 18 trains ﴾4.5﴿. inside 35 cars ﴾52. J Air & Waste Manage Assoc 39: 1086‐93 (1989) (4) Chan CC et al.6 ug/cu m.1‐13 ug/cu m﴿ ug/cu m.83 ug/cu m. 6 pubs ﴾6. a school. 6 restaurants ﴾5.4 ug/cu m were measured in the indoor air of a house during redecoration work﴾6﴿.7 and 1765 ug/cu m. respectively.5﴿.11 and 2. Environ Res 92: 166‐71 (2003) (5) Yassaa N et al. 8 department stores ﴾3. and two elderly homes contained 3‐/4‐xylene.890 samples collected across Minnesota were 0. at median concentrations of <0.1 ug/cu m﴾4﴿. MN﴾8﴿. Reported concentrations of 4‐xylene measured in Rome.05 mg/cu m ﴾detection limit = <0. Chemosphere 72: 496‐503 (2008) (8) Iovino P et al. during the summer﴾7﴿. Reported concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the indoor air of apartments in Daegu.7‐21. 15. in the air of several dining establishments in the Boston. (1) Kinney PL et al. J Environ Qual 39: 896‐906 (2010) (10) Hinwood AL et al.5﴿.55 ug/cu m. combined. The median and maximum concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in 2. 7. Reported concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the indoor air of 5 houses within the Niigata Prefecture of Japan range from 5‐38 ug/cu m﴾5﴿.8 to 2. The mean and range of 3.3 ug/cu m during working days and 8. and 2. indoor air samples from building 2. combined.73 ug/cu m in the winter﴾1﴿. At a building facility with a history of occupant complaints characteristic of sick building syndrome. combined.01 mg/cu m﴿﴾1﴿.0 ppbv﴾3﴿. Atmos Environ 34: 1845‐52 (2000) (4) Jo W‐K et al. combined. Geometric mean concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the atmosphere of S. building 3. 12 train stations ﴾6. 6 cinemas ﴾5. Median concentrations of 1. Indoor air from an office building. inside 18 buses ﴾7. 3 perfume shops ﴾2. Indoor air concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene. MA area﴾7﴿.97 ug/cu m.70‐41.88 ug/cu m. 85‐30B. respectively. respectively. Chemosphere 67: 2096‐103 (2007) (7) Pateraki S et al. Korea ranged from 13.3 (1985) (7) Wallace LA et al.4 ug/cu m﴾4﴿. Environ Health Perspect 110: 539‐46 (2002) (2) Pratt GC et al. Italy were 79 ug/cu m in a traffic tunnel. 33 ug/uc m above a heavy‐traffic road.23 and 28.1﴿. and outdoor air contained 3‐/4‐xylene.9﴿.04 to <0. Geometric mean and maximum concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene were 10. at 12.gov/compound/p­xylene 88/101 . Reported concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the outdoor air of apartments in Daegu. during the winter and 4.15 and 1. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth 60: 201‐09 (1988) (2) Weschler CJ et al.nlm. The Netherlands. 3‐/4‐Xylene concentrations ranged from about 4 to 14 ug/cu m during 2007 air monitoring in Gdansk Poland﴾9﴿.7﴿. Greece were 9. respectively.6﴿﴾3﴿.73 and 1. Proc APCA Annu Meet 78th Vol. at median concentrations of 8. combined. The concentrations of xylene measured in the air of different outdoor locations in Perth.ncbi.44 ug/cu m in the summer and 10.34‐70. Environ Health Perspect 108: 815‐25 (2000) (3) Tran NK et al. at a mean concentration of 17.2‐150 ﴾outdoor = 0. Atmos Environ 21: 385‐93 (1987)  from HSDB INDOOR: The reported mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the air of 36 homes in New York City during the TEACH study was 6. Concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in ambient air samples collected at the University of Nevada Las Vegas ranged from 0‐2. 12 offices ﴾1. in the indoor air of 56 urban German apartments and 7. Mario Capua Vetere in Southern Italy were reported to be 9. Chemosphere 73: 614‐8 (2008) (9) Zabiegala B et al.3 ug/cu m. 4‐Xylene was detected in the emissions of freshly glued wallpaper and freshly glued carpet at concentrations of 26 ug/cu m and 150 ug/cu m respectively﴾7﴿.1 ug/cu m.2﴿.63 ug/cu m﴾9﴿.9 ug/cu m. The mean and range of 3‐/4‐xylene concentrations measured in the atmosphere of the Tijuca district of Rio de Janeiro. contained 3‐/4‐xylene. Western Australia ranged from 0.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem URBAN/SUBURBAN: The reported mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the outdoor air at 36 homes in New York City during the TEACH study was 1.2 to 3. Mean concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the air at an urban and suburban site around Athens.07 and 3.nih.4‐ xylene concentrations were 7.1‐20.42 ug/cu m. respectively﴾2﴿.4 ug/cu m on weekends﴾8﴿. respectively﴾6﴿.5 ﴾outdoor = 8. Chemosphere 63: 502‐8 (2006) (6) Martins EM et al. respectively.3 ug/cu m﴿. Indoor air samples collected from 5 apartments and 9 houses in Italy during 1983‐1984 contained 3‐/4‐xylene at a mean concentration of 89 ug/cu m ﴾mean outdoor concentration of 24 ug/cu m﴿﴾5﴿. building 3 exhaust.6 ug/cu m 3‐/4‐xylene were detected during the winter and spring of 2000 in indoor air samples in inner‐city schools in Minneapolis.

nlm. Monitoring of air inside of public buses in northern Spain in 2007 detected median and mean 3‐/4‐ xylene levels of 1. J Agric Food Chem 43: 2869‐75 (1995) (2) Wu CM. (1) Heikes DL et al. J Food Sci 56: 387‐90 (1991) (5) Shahidi F et al. August 1985. Air samples from Silwood Park.7 ug/cu m in air inside a new vehicle ﴾1 month old﴿ and 46. Unspecified concentrations of 4‐xylene were detected in the volatiles of meat products in the US﴾5﴿. Air samples collected from Whitaker's Forest. the Amazon forest ﴾Manaus. n=8﴿ were below the detection limit ﴾0. 0. respectively﴾8﴿. Atmos Environ 35: 1253‐64 (2001) (7) Loh MM et al. Pacific Ocean air. Environ Pollut 7: 141‐58 (1984) (6) Helmig D. J Agric Food Chem 36: 553‐60 (1988) (4) Matiella JE. Sci Total Environ 407(6): 2004‐2011 (2009) (4) Parra MA et al.7 ﴾Rich Mountain﴿. 0. USEPA‐600/D‐84‐092. 4‐Xylene was detected at concentrations between 26‐1187 ng/cu m in German forests﴾4﴿. (1) Bozzelli JW et al. Environ Health Perspect 110: 539‐46 (2002) (2) Ilgen E et al. Environ Sci Technol 45(20): 9075‐9083 (2011)  from HSDB INDOOR: The concentration ranges of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the cabins of automobiles using gasoline engines and diesel engines were 3.9‐66.71 and 2. Reported concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene were 1341.02 ppbv. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene concentrations measured in Brazil ﴾July and August. throughout the Amazon forest and savannah. and at concentrations between 3 and 5 ppb downwind from an automobile painting plant in Janesville. Unspecified concentrations of 4‐xylene were detected in eggs from the US﴾4﴿. 0. Hsieh TCY. CA. the Amazon forest ﴾Manaus. (1) Bozzelli JW et al. combined. Atmospheric Volatile Hydrocarbon Composition at Five Remote Sites in Northwestern North Caroline. Brazil in 2004 was 123.01 ppbv﴿.04 ppb﴾2﴿ and Indian Ocean air. n=13﴿. respectively﴾1﴿. Analysis of selected toxic and carcinogenic substances in ambient air in New Jersey. 4‐Xylene was detected in the volatiles of roasted duck at concentrations of 0.3 ug/cu m in the air inside a used vehicle ﴾3 yrs old﴿. and 0.0 ﴾Grandfather Mountain﴿.6 ﴾Roan Mountain﴿. Median air concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene. 0. J Agric Food Chem 40: 838‐41 (1992) (3) Takeoka GR et al. 0.3 and 3. July and August 1983.30 ug/cu m respectively﴾4﴿. Atmos Environ 35: 1235‐52 (2001) (3) Kim YM et al. n=71﴿.2 and 99. Zimmerman PR. at several rural locations in northwestern North Caroline were 0. Indoor Air 13(suppl 6): 42‐9 (2003) (6) Ilgen E Et al. Environ Sci Technol 14: 329‐32 (1980) (3) de Oliveira KMPG et al. Arey J. 0.04. 1979 and 1980. Unspecified concentrations of 4‐xylene were detected in California nectarines﴾3﴿.003‐0. Chemosphere 17: 309‐17 (1988) (5) Clark AI et al. 26: 10‐13 (1986)  from HSDB SOURCE DOMINATED: Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected at concentrations between 0. Analysis of selected toxic and carcinogenic substances in ambient air in New Jersey. Westberg H.49 ppm﴾5﴿.2 ug/cu m﴾3﴿.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 89/101 . Sierra Navada Mountains. New Jersey Dept Environ Prot (1980) (2) Sexton K. Sci Total Environ 404: 18‐25 (2008)  from HSDB RURAL/REMOTE: 4‐Xylene was detected in Atlantic Ocean air. The average concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene combined at a gasoline/ethanol service station in Rio de Janeiro. In: ACS Div Environ Chem 192nd Natl Mtg.2‐15.7 ﴾Linville Gorge﴿. Atmos Environ 19: 1911‐9 (1985) (4) Juttner F.01‐0. Environ Sci Technol 40: 6903‐11 (2006) (8) Adgate JL et al. NC: USEPA (1984) (8) Greenberg JP.02 ppb﴾1﴿. 35: 997‐1004 (2001) (4) Jo W‐K et al. July 1985.07. Environ Sci Technol 14: 329‐32 (1980) (3) Singh HB et al. (NTIS PB84‐177930). vehicles were of identical brand and assembly﴾2﴿.02‐0. n=10﴿. and 3.005 ppb﴾3﴿. WI﴾2﴿. Sci Total Environ 112: 233‐50 (1992) (7) Seila RL et al. Research Triangel Park. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79: 237‐241 (2007)  from HSDB 11. Environ Health Perspect 112: 1386‐1392 (2004) (9) Wu X et al.2 ug/cu m. contained 3‐/4‐xylene at a mean concentration of 0.2 ppb﴾2﴿. at unreported concentrations﴾6﴿. Liou SE. June 1985.04.7‐21. (1) Ilgen E et al. Atmos Environ 35: 1265‐79 (2001) (2) Buters JTM et al. China during 2007‐2008 detected mean 3‐/4‐xylene concentrations of 11. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nature 24: 141‐243 (1986)  from HSDB https://pubchem.0 ppb near two landfills in New Jersey﴾1﴿. contained 3‐/4‐xylene. England.2 ug/cu m respectively﴾3﴿.1 and 1570.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem (1) Kinney PL et al. 0.2.3 and 48.ncbi.8 and 3. 0.3 ﴾Boone center﴿. Westberg H. New Jersey Dept Environ Prot (1980) (2) Sexton K. Kenya ﴾rural.15 Food Survey Values Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in the volatiles of several table ready foods at concentrations of 10‐114 ppb﴾1﴿. and Nigeria ﴾rural. Environ Res 92: 166‐71 (2003) (5) Sakaguchi J. 1. 15. Monitoring of air inside of buses and bus stations in Hangzhou. Akabayashi S. combined.3 ﴾Boone outskirts﴿ ppb﴾7﴿. Environ Sci Technol 41: 2622‐9 (2007) (3) Li S et al. n=11﴿.

nlm. monitoring of 70 foods between 1996 and 2000 detected 3‐/4‐xylene in the following food items﴾1﴿: Commodity Concn ﴾ppm﴿ American cheese 4‐112 cheddar cheese 5‐43 mixed nuts 8‐107 ground beef 2‐7 pork bacon 3‐25 beef frankfurters 13‐32 chocolate cake with icing 7‐41 tuna canned in oil 2‐7 fruit‐flavored cereal 4‐7 scrambled eggs 2‐4 peanut butter 3‐28 raw avocado 5 popcorn 3‐24 blueberry muffin 3‐66 raw orange 11‐68 sweet roll/danish 4‐29 potato chips 2‐65 fruit‐flavored sherbert 3‐65 cooked hamburger 2‐7 margarine 8‐44 butter 21‐59 chocolate cookies 3‐14 apple pie 6‐77 chicken nuggets 5‐40 apple pie 6‐77 graham crackers 3‐50 french fries 5‐22 cheeseburger 2‐22 cheese pizza 4‐27 bologna 5‐9 pepperoni pizza 6‐42 olive/safflower oil 2‐110 sugar cookies 2‐21 cake doughnuts with icing 6‐44 https://pubchem.nih.gov/compound/p­xylene 90/101 .ncbi.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem As part of the US FDA Total Diet Program.

respectively﴾1﴿. Cayenne.gov/compound/p­xylene 91/101 . Abstract: PubMed (1) Hiatt MH.17 Fish/Seafood Concentrations Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in rainbow trout from the Colorado River and carp obtained from Las Vegas Wash.ncbi. and 86. Spur Pepper. Anal Chem 55: 506‐516 (1983)  from HSDB 11.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem (1) Fleming‐Jones ME. 1992‐2016.4 ug/cigarette. Vapor phase delivery of 3‐/4‐ Xylene measured for 26 brands of cigarettes on the UK market ranged from 0.01 to 0. Available from. full flavor low tar and full flavor cigarettes purchased in China were 85. Paprika.5 tinctorius Resin.nlm. https://pubchem. 96. not Pinus walliciana Pinaceae Butan Pine Sap reported Petroselinum not Apiaceae Parsley Leaf crispum reported Capsicum Red Chili. Dr. Sweet Pepper. US Dept Agric.24‐0. Pia JH. as of Sept 28. Mainstream cigarette smoke was found to contain an average 3‐/4‐xylene level of 9.usda.9 ug/cigarette﴾3﴿. Concn Genus species Family Common name﴾s﴿ Part ﴾ppm﴿ Carthamus Asteraceae Safflower Flower 0. Chili. 2%.gov/phytochem/search  from HSDB 11.2. NV at concentrations of 50 and 120 ppb respectively﴾1﴿. Exudate.75 ng/mL﴾1﴿.2. (1) Malkina IL et al.2. p‐Xylene.nal.3. alfalfa and cereal silage﴾1﴿. J Environ Qual 49(1): 28‐36 (2011)  from HSDB 4‐Xylene occurrence in some plants﴾1﴿. Hot Pepper. and whole milk samples purchased from grocery stores in Las Vegas.3 mg/cigarette tar delivery﴿ to 17.16 Plant Concentrations 3/4‐Xylene occurs in the volatiles emitted from corn. Abstract: PubMed (1) Hiatt MH. J Agric Food Chem 51: 8120‐8127 (2003)  from HSDB 11.9 ug/cigarette ﴾0. not Solanaceae Fruit frutescens Tabasco reported Capsicum Bell Pepper. 2016: https://phytochem. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46: 189‐96 (2004)  from HSDB 11.2. Cherry Pepper.nih.4 ug/cigarette ﴾13. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Nevada ranged from less than 0.19 Other Environmental Concentrations The concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in tobacco smoke from ultra low tar.2.5 mg/cigarette tar delivery﴿﴾2﴿. Agric Res Service. not Solanaceae Fruit annuum Green Pepper reported (1) US Dept Agric.18 Milk Concentrations ENVIRONMENTAL: The concentrations of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in 1%. Smith RE.

6‐1700 mg/cu m﴾4﴿. Occupational exposure to 4‐xylene may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where 4‐xylene is produced or used. 2016: http://www. Ann Occup Hyg 32: 509‐513 (1988) (4) IARC.html (2) ATSDR. as of June 20. Chemosphere 61: 512‐22 (2005) (2) Darrall et al. (1) CDC.336 of these were female﴿ were potentially exposed to 4‐xylene in the US﴾1﴿.atsdr.gov/oppt_chemical_search/  from HSDB NIOSH ﴾NOES Survey 1981‐1983﴿ has statistically estimated that 20. m‐ and p‐xylene combined were 6.20 Probable Routes of Human Exposure According to the 2012 TSCA Inventory Update Reporting data. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH). 1972‐Present. Available from.4‐dimethyl‐﴿ in the United States may be as low as <10 workers and as high as 1000‐9999 workers per plant. Espigares M.nih. (1) Edgerton SA et al. and dermal contact with consumer products containing 4‐xylene﴾SRC﴿. US Public Health Service (2007). The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to combined 3‐/4‐xylene in a US hospital laboratory was measured as 2.cdc. at concentrations between 0‐120 ug/cu m﴾2﴿. Atlanta. Environ Sci Technol 41: 1297‐1302 (2007)  from HSDB Woodsmoke samples collected from residential chimneys contained 3‐/4‐xylene. Available from. GA: Centers for Disease Prevention & Control. 2016: http://www. The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to combined 3‐/4‐xylene in a German histology laboratory and a US histology laboratory was measured as 243‐295 mg/cu m and 11‐315 mg/cu m respectively﴾5﴿.asp  from HSDB 4‐Xylene was detected at an average concentration of 1. combined.cdc. Chemical Data Reporting (CDR). 13 reporting facilities estimate the number of persons reasonably likely to be exposed during the manufacturing.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem (1) Bi X et al. inhalation of wood smoke. The Alkyl Benzenes page I‐1 to I‐99 (1980)  from HSDB 11.ncbi. Available from. Ed Info Div. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes. processing.009 for a softwood.2. cool burn﴾1﴿. including gasoline.366 workers ﴾6. shellac. as of June 21. rust preventives and cigarette smoke﴾2﴿. hot burn to 0.7 ppm in the urine of 121 metal coatings workers in the US﴾1﴿. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 78: 308‐313 (2007)  from HSDB In composite gasoline samples from Los Angeles. An average concentration of 0. International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) 2012. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to 4‐xylene via inhalation of ambient air.43 ug/cu m﴾2﴿.235 for a softwood. Workers using a thinner containing 32. Clin Chem 40: 1401‐1404 (1994)  from HSDB https://pubchem. Xylenes.epa. Smoke from burning incense contained average 3‐/4‐xylene levels of 115. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 44: 521‐527 (1983) (3) Medinilla J.gov/niosh/ipcs/default. varnish. 47: 132 (1989) (5) Ashley DL et al.61‐332.8% 3‐ and 4‐xylene in spray painting operations at a shipbuilding yard had measured concentrations of methyl hippuric acid in their urine﴾4﴿. 1. Contact with xylene occurs from a variety of consumer products. Non‐confidential 2012 Chemical Data Reporting information on chemical production and use in the United States. paint.gov/compound/p­xylene 92/101 .gov/toxprofiles/index. 2016: http://java. 4‐Xylene was detected in air samples obtained from the vulcanization areas of rubber manufacturing plants in Italy. (1) Kawai T et al. (1) NAS. ingestion of food and drinking water. Atlanta. Analyst 123: 1095‐1101 (1998) (3) Polzin GM et al. as of June 20. (1) US EPA. the data may be greatly underestimated due to confidential business information ﴾CBI﴿ or unknown values﴾1﴿. reported as the ratio 3‐/4‐xylene/CO2 from 0. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected at concentrations between 1‐ 158 mg/cu m in the breathing zones of automobile paint shops sampled in the US﴾3﴿. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63: 69‐75 (1991) (2) Cocheo V et al. Geneva: World Health Organization.37 ppb of combined 3‐/4‐xylene was measured in blood samples collected from 60 persons in the US that are not occupationally exposed to 3‐/4‐xylene﴾5﴿.nlm.73 wt%﴾1﴿. or use of 4‐xylene ﴾benzene. Environ Sci Technol 20: 803‐07 (1986) (2) Yang TT et al.

including schools and offices.7‐10 ug/cu m﴾3﴿.4‐ 2.3‐8.2. Atlanta. 4‐Xylene was detected in expired breath samples in Los Angeles. Toxicol Environ Chem 12: 215‐36 (1986) (4) Wallace LA et al. and living in suburban or urban locations in the greater Boston. it was determined that 95% of the population of Bayonne and Elizabeth. as of June 21.9 ug/cu m in the summer and 6. (1) Sexton K et al. and Pittsburgh.46 ug/cu m﴿﴾2﴿. MA area﴾2﴿. (1) Kinney PL et al.21 Average Daily Intake The average daily intake of total xylene ﴾sum of o‐.gov/compound/p­xylene 93/101 . Environ Sci Technol 41: 8498‐505 (2007)  from HSDB https://pubchem. The mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene was 0.gov/toxprofiles/index. the maximal daily consumption of xylenes from drinking water would be 0.3 ug/cu m﴿. Combined 3‐/4‐xylene was detected in expired breath samples in Bayonne.32 ng/mL in the blood of 43 children living in an inner city neighborhood of Minneapolis. CA ﴾1.21 ng/mL in the blood of 134 school‐age children that participated in the School Health Initiative: Environment. 2016: http://www. Disease ﴾SHIELD﴿ study in Minneapolis.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 11.cdc.4 ug/cu m was determined for participants of the BEAM study which included 55 individuals employed in non‐manufacturing workplaces. A median measured personal 3‐/4‐xylene concentration of 4. Environ Health Perspect 114: 453‐9 (2006)  from HSDB The reported mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene measured in the personal air of 36 high school students in New York City participating in the TEACH study was 10. Based on a maximal concentration of 1. CA ﴾2.43‐3.2 ug/cu m﴿.atsdr. (1) ATSDR.nih. (1) Hartwell TD et al. MN﴾1﴿. Environ Health Perspect 113: 342‐9 (2005) (2) Sexton K et al.5 mg/L in drinking water. NJ had detectable levels of combined 3‐/4‐xylene in expired breath﴾4﴿.71 ug/cu m in the winter﴾1﴿. PA ﴾1.0‐3. m‐. Learning. GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.ncbi. NJ at average concentrations of 4.asp  from HSDB 11.1 ug/cu m﴿﴾1﴿. and p‐xylene intakes﴿ for the general population is estimated as 0.6 ug/kg/day from inhalation exposure and 0. Atmos Environ 19: 1651‐61 (1985)  from HSDB The mean concentration of 3‐/4‐xylene was 0. US Public Health Service (2007). NJ ﴾3. Los Angeles. Atmos Environ 21: 2413‐24 (1987) (2) Hartwell TD et al. MN﴾2﴿. Available from. Toxicological Profile for Xylenes. Based on a sample of 355 persons. Environ Health Perspect 110: 539‐46 (2002) (2) Dodson RE et al.04 mg/kg/day﴾1﴿.06 ug/kg/day from ingestion of drinking water assuming typical low background levels﴾1﴿.2.nlm. Atmos Environ 26A: 1519‐27 (1992) (3) Wallace LA et al.22 Body Burdens 4‐Xylene was detected in expired breath samples of residents in Bayonne.

 from PubChem 12. Portmann J. doi: 10. 22934909 2012 Sep 26.  from PubChem 12. https://pubchem.. Guironnet D. 2002 Jan. 21643603 tri‐ and tetranuclear. Batten SR.nih. New Microbiol. Cashion JD.40﴾26﴿:6939‐51.. mixed‐ligand tris﴾pyrazolyl﴿methane iron﴾II﴿ complexes. Epub 2012 Oct 22. Turner DR. Ait MH.18﴾49﴿:15632‐49. doi: 10. Leita BA.134﴾38﴿:15708‐11.1039/c0dt01725f.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 12 Literature 12. Epub 2011 Jun 6. Latrache H. 2012 Dec 3. Whalley AC. Chemistry. Moubaraki B. Brookhart M: Synthesis of p‐xylene from ethylene.1002/chem.3 Metabolite References  Download 1 to 5 of 7 View More PMID Reference Schneider CJ.25﴾1﴿:75‐82. Grunder S. El BA.gov/compound/p­xylene 94/101 . J Am Chem Soc. Epub 2012 Sep 13. Lyons TW. Murray KS: Spin crossover in di‐. Findlater M.2 NLM Curated PubMed Citations CLICK TO LOAD. 2011 Jul 14..nlm. Hakkou A. Dalton Trans. Sampath S.201201985. Stoddart JF: Molecular gauge 23090871 blocks for building on the nanoscale. Botros YY. Bourlioux P: Relations between hydrophobicity 11837394 tested by three methods and surface chemical composition of Escherichia coli. Valente C..ncbi.1 Depositor Provided PubMed Citations CLICK TO LOAD. Karroua M. El GA.

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2 Biosystems and Pathways CLICK TO LOAD..nih..  from PubChem 14.ncbi.  from PubChem https://pubchem.gov/compound/p­xylene 97/101 ..nlm.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 14 Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways 14..1 Protein Bound 3‐D Structures CLICK TO LOAD.

nih.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 15 Biological Test Results 15.nlm.gov/compound/p­xylene 98/101 ..  from PubChem https://pubchem.1 BioAssay Results CLICK TO LOAD..ncbi.

.nlm.gov/compound/p­xylene 99/101 .  from MeSH 16.  from ChEBI 16.1.1.2 ChEBI Ontology CLICK TO LOAD..ncbi..3 WIPO IPC CLICK TO LOAD.1 Ontologies 16.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 16 Classification 16.1 MeSH Tree CLICK TO LOAD.nih..1.  from WIPO https://pubchem...

gov/niosh‐rtecs/ZE280DE8.nih. o‐xylene‐lean https://chem.nlm. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH /source/The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ‐ NIOSH p‐Xylene https://www.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.hmdb.nih.gov/chemidplus/sid/0068650362 3.nj.eu/information‐on‐chemicals/cl‐inventory‐database/‐/discli/details/135927 6.ca/metabolites/HMDB59924 11.gov/health/workplacehealthandsafety/documents/right‐to‐know/hsl_alpha.epa.gov/chemicaldata/chemResult.gov/chemical/9181 https://cameochemicals.nlm.nih.epa.nih. EPA Chemicals under the TSCA /source/EPA Chemicals under the TSCA Aromatic hydrocarbons.html https://www.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 17 Information Sources 1.ca/metabolites/HMDB59924 http://www.html 9.display?p_card_id=0086 http://www.gov/chemidplus/sid/0000106423 Benzene.nlm.html p‐Xylene https://www. European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA /source/European Chemicals Agency ‐ ECHA p‐xylene https://echa.cdc.nlm.osha.pdf http://www.europa. EPA DSStox /source/EPA DSStox para‐Xylene https://comptox.cdc.gov/cgi‐ bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+106‐42‐3 https://pubchem.nih.nih. HSDB /source/HSDB 4‐XYLENE http://toxnet.display?p_card_id=0086 7.gov/niosh‐rtecs/ZE280DE8.nj.html https://www.nlm.pdf 10.cdc.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.ilo.gov/chemical‐data‐reporting http://www.ilo.gov/chemidplus/sid/0068411392 https://chem.gov/chemidplus/sid/0068650362 https://chem.nlm. ChemIDplus /source/ChemIDplus 4‐Xylene https://chem. NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List /source/NJDOH RTK Hazardous Substance List p‐xylene see fact sheet # 2014 on xylene http://www.europa. C8.nlm.nlm.europa.nih.eu/ p‐xylene https://echa.nih.nih.html?RecNo=38 http://www. C8.gov/dashboard/dsstoxdb/results?search=DTXSID2021868 https://comptox.gov/chemidplus/sid/0068411392 Aromatic hydrocarbons. CAMEO Chemicals /source/CAMEO Chemicals P‐xylene https://cameochemicals.eu/information‐on‐chemicals/cl‐inventory‐database/‐/discli/details/135927 https://echa.4‐dimethyl‐.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0670.gov/compound/p­xylene 100/101 .noaa.html?RecNo=38 8. Human Metabolome Database /source/Human Metabolome Database p‐Xylene http://www.gov/dashboard/dsstoxdb/results?search=DTXSID2021868 5.gov/cgi‐bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+106‐42‐3 http://toxnet.epa.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0670.gov/chemidplus/sid/0000106423 https://chem.nlm.europa. o‐xylene‐lean http://www.gov/chemicaldata/chemResult. OSHA Occupational Chemical DB /source/OSHA Occupational Chemical DB P‐XYLENE http://www.ncbi.noaa.epa.gov/chemical/9181 2.eu/ https://echa. oxidized https://chem.hmdb. ILO‐ICSC /source/ILO‐ICSC p‐XYLENE http://www.cdc.gov/chemical‐data‐reporting 4.osha. 1.gov/health/workplacehealthandsafety/documents/right‐to‐know/hsl_alpha.

https://www.gov/srd/nist1a.nlm.gov/ForIndustry/DataStandards/SubstanceRegistrationSystem‐UniqueIngredientIdentifierUNII/ https://www.org/wiki/P‐Xylene 18.gov.gov https://pubchem.au/ 14.gov/mesh/67031286 MeSH Tree http://www.int/classifications/ipc/ 22.int/classifications/ipc/ http://www. WIPO /source/WIPO International Patent Classification http://www.wikipedia.nist.wikipedia.ncbi.gov/mesh/meshhome.fda.safeworkaustralia.ncbi.wipo.ncbi.nlm. MeSH /source/MeSH 4‐xylene https://www.ncbi.nih.nih.ebi.do#ChEBI%20Ontology 21. Wikipedia /source/Wikipedia p‐xylene https://en.nlm.html 20.nih.nite.nih. Safe Work Australia ‐ HCIS /source/Safe Work Australia ‐ HCIS 106‐42‐3 http://hcis. FDA/SPL Indexing Data /source/FDA/SPL Indexing Data 6WAC1O477V https://www.jp/english/ghs/15‐mhlw‐0084e.gov/mesh/meshhome.gov/srd/nist1a.safe.nih.gov/projects/linkout https://pubchem.2017­6­10 P­XYLENE | C6H4(CH3)2 ­ PubChem 12.ncbi.gov/compound/p­xylene 101/101 .go.pdf http://www.gov/mesh/67031286 https://www. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods /source/NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods 106‐42‐3 http://www.ebi.cdc.ncbi. NIST /source/NIST p‐Xylene http://www.do#ChEBI%20Ontology http://www.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3800. NCBI LinkOut is a service that allows one to link directly from NCBI databases to a wide range of information and services beyond NCBI systems.ac.nlm.nih.go.nlm.gov/niosh/docs/2003‐154/pdfs/3800.gov 19.html 13.cdc.nist.nlm.gov/projects/linkout https://www. PubChem Data deposited in or computed by PubChem https://pubchem.html http://www.nlm.nite.uk/chebi/userManualForward.ac.au/ http://hcis.wipo.pdf 16.nih.safeworkaustralia.gov/ForIndustry/DataStandards/SubstanceRegistrationSystem‐UniqueIngredientIdentifierUNII/ 15.uk/chebi/userManualForward.cfm http://www.nlm.fda.safe. ChEBI /source/ChEBI ChEBI Ontology http://www.nih.nlm.ncbi. NITE‐CMC /source/NITE‐CMC p‐Xylene http://www.cfm 17.gov.jp/english/ghs/15‐mhlw‐0084e.org/wiki/P‐Xylene https://en.html http://www.nih.