WRE423: APPLIED HYDROGEOLOGY

Review Questions _Home Works No 1

Introduction and Hydrological Cycle

1. What are the fields where hydrogeology can be applied
- soil science
- civil engineering
- agriculture
- geology
2. Differentiate between geohydrologist and hydrogeologists
- geohydrologist
Study of water below the surface
- hydrogeologist
Study of water at and below the surface
3. Can you discuss few key areas where knowledge of hydrogeology can be applied in
Civil Engineering practice
-building foundations
-highway and road embankments
-bridges foundations
-Construction materials
4. What is the percentage of fresh water in the total global water budget? Give also the
account of storage by percentages.
- fresh water is only 2.5% (30.1% GW , 1.2% surface water and 68.7% glaciers and ice
caps)
5. Explain why under fresh water component, the readily available water that may be
considered reliable is ground water.
- surface water, glaciers and ice caps vary with a wide range of climatic variables.

6. Explain impacts of excessive runoff and potential implication on groundwater storage
Impacts of excessive runoff

1

construction - 11. -metamorphic rocks Arise from transformation of existing rock types through a processes called metamorphism (subjected to high temperature and great pressure) 9. Why it is important to study groundwater.irrigation . Name five possible uses of groundwater .. Define hydrogeology .soil is saturated 7. Discuss the importance of studying geology in groundwater exploitation. Name three types of rocks and explain how they are formed -igneous rocks Formed through cooling and solidification of magma or lava. 12. -sedimentary rocks Formed though deposition of materials (sediments) on Earth’s surface and within bodies of water. 2 .domestic uses .study of movement and distribution of groundwater in aquifer and aquifer characteristics. 8. Discuss how hydrogeology is related to a) Civil Engineering b) Agriculture c) Ecologists.soil erosion - Implication on groundwater storage . Name examples of the three types of rocks above suited to form good aquifer 10. 13.industrial use .

Orographic .rise of warm air/vapour vertically to form clouds that condense and fall as precipitation. Differentiate between evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration.Evaporation (evaporation pan in mm/day) .two air masses meet and the warm air mass is forced upward then condenses and fall as precipitation. Best of Luck JODM©2014 WRE423: APPLIED HYDROGEOLOGY Review Questions _Home Works No 2 Hydrological processes 1. Discuss three types of rainfall formation process.formed when a moving air mass encounters a rising slope.Potential Evapotranspiration is the amount of water that would be removed from the gridcell by evaporation and transpiration if the amount of water already present in the cell were not a limiting factor. Convection . Explain the methods used to determine evapotranspiration 3 . 5. why do you think ground water contributes to higher percentage of fresh water sources on the earth? 4.Infiltration/deep percolation (infiltrometer in mm/hr or in/hr) . . What is the key driver of hydrological cycle Solar Radiation 3.Transpiration . Stratiform/cylonic . From the processes of hydrological cycle.precipitation (rain gauge in mm) .runoff (rational method in mm) 2. Describe elements of hydrological cycle and explain how they can be quantified . 6.

. reservoir. such as a drainage basin. Discuss factors affecting infiltration process - 14.crop type .drought 16. Assume that the time evolution of the infiltration capacity for a given soil is governed by Horton's equation (Note that this equation assumes an infinite water supply at the surface..vegetation cover .solar radiation . soil zone. explain how amount infiltrated into the soil can the determined from a rainfall event..water budget - 7. or irrigation project... Explain the infiltration process 13. 4 . With the aid of diagram and Horton's equation. -evaporation & transpiration . What is the different between interflow and percolation 11. lake. and storage in. Differentiate between surface run off and subsurface flow 12. What will happen if potential evapotranspiration is greater than actual precipitation in an area. Evapotranspiration has two key components. 15. aquifer. Which component contributes significantly and why. a hydrologic unit. outflow from. What do you understand by the term hydrological budget . Discuss factors affecting evapotranspiration . 9.Humidity . Use Horton's equation to estimate infiltration rate of the question below.. . that is. . 10.Wind 8.an accounting of the inflow to. it assumes saturation conditions at the soil surface).transpiration contributes significantly .

50 4.60 3.0 60 .10 1. For the precipitation hyetograph tabulated below.20 3. Time Precipitation Time Precipitation (min) (cm/h) (min) (cm/h) 0 . including evaluation of cumulative infiltration and rate of production of precipitation excess.5 40 .energy budget This method can be used for hourly or shorter values.0 17. and the initial infiltration capacity is fo = 8 cm/h.0 20 . . s + v. respectively. For this soil.40 5. like this: ETc = (ETo)(Kc) The ETo can be calculated from weather data collected from a well watered reference crop surface.8 30 . The Bowen ratio approach is the most commonly used method.0 10 . The rate of decay of infiltration capacity parameter is k = 3 h-1.25 cm/h.crop coefficient This method estimates ETc by multiplying reference evapotranspiration (ETo) to a crop coefficient (Kc). the asymptotic or final equilibrium infiltration capacity is fc = 1. Discuss methods to estimate evapotranspiration . carry out a complete infiltration analysis. -Mass Transfer 5 . especially during daylight hours. The Bowen ratio is the ratio of energy fluxes from one medium to another by sensible and latent heating.30 8.70 0.0 50 .

effect of climate change in water resources.ground water . With an aid of diagrams discuss the difference between loosing stream and gaining stream reach .Direct determination of ET can be accomplished for a specific field and crop by using eddy diffusion equations and meteorological data measured on site.river discharge .afforestation . 6 . Discuss the effects of surface runoff and how they can be minimized Soil erosion . What are the importance of water budget calculation in hydrology Used to determine: . 20.flood control 19.terracing cultivation flooding . What are the implications of loosing stream on river ecosystem for a catchment that cannot sustain base flow during dry season? - 21.base flow . 18.gaining stream The hydraulic head of the stream is higher than heads in the contiguous ground-water system.variation of lake levels .availability of water resources . .loosing stream The hydraulic head of the stream is higher than heads in the contiguous ground-water system.

During wet month with P=300m. transpiration estimate of 400 mm. What is the optimum water withdrawal amount required in the catchment for irrigation if domestic supply is not considered. ground water seepage from the nearby catchments = 70 mm.seepage analysis 22. annual rainfall of 800mm. evaporation estimate of 300 mm. wetland. if both are considered 25. Calculate the change in water storage {in (i) and (ii) below} in a river reach of 50 km given the river discharge measurements at the upstream and downstream is 52 cumecs and 62 cumecs respectively. Write an equation for water budget for a lake. 24. evaporation estimate of 300 mm. river catchment. ground water seepage to the nearby catchments = 50 mm.. b) If the data above represent long term average annual data say 100 years. transpiration estimate of 400 mm. P-R-E-T-G-=ΔS G. A 100 km river reach has an intermediate catchment area of 900km2. Average daily runoff= 40 m3/s. Commutative water abstracted from the river is 5 m3/s daily.000 km2 has the following measured annual rainfall amount of 800mm. A catchment having a catchment of area of 500.ground water (Net seepage) 23. Commutative water used for irrigation 2300 Mm3 and domestic water supply is 1200 Mm3. During the dry month with ET=315mm ii. a) Calculate the change in ground water storage under influence irrigation and domestic demand. The river bed loosing rate is 1mm/km/year a) Calculate the change in ground water storage under influence of irrigation and domestic demand. upstream and downstream average daily runoff are 40 m3/s. 38 m3/s. ET 153 mm and net seepage rate of 23 mm. The intermediate catchment area is 3000km2 i. 7 . ground water seepage from the nearby catchments = 150 mm. river reach and an pumped aquifer. ground water seepage to the nearby catchments = 70 mm.

The river bed gaining rate is 1mm/km/year. 26. phreatic water and internal water. ground water seepage to the nearby catchments = 50 mm. 60 m3/s. Describe briefly with an aid of diagram zone of aeration(vadose zone) and saturation vadose (zone of aeration) soil water . Differentiate between phreatic water and internal water. transpiration estimate of 400 mm. 3. 4. fringe water. Commutative water abstracted from the river is 5 m3/s daily. upstream and downstream average daily runoff are 54 m3/s. annual rainfall of 800mm.occur as a result of capillary action Saturation zone Ground water (phreatic water) and internal water located in zone of rock flowage (not within the zone of rock fracture) 2. A 100 km river reach has an intermediate catchment area of 900km2. b) Calculate the change in ground water storage Best of Luck JODM©2014 WRE423: APPLIED HYDROGEOLOGY Review Questions _Home Works No 3 Groundwater 1. ground water seepage from the nearby catchments = 70 mm.readily available for plants (0-10m) Intermediate vadose water .not readily available for plant but those with long roots can use Fringe water . Discuss briefly the five forms of water occurrences below the surface of ground. Define soil water. intermediate vadose water. evaporation estimate of 300 mm. Phreatic water Internal water Occurs in a zone of rock fracture Occurs in a zone of rock flowage 8 .

stores and transmits ground water. b) Aquiclude . Draw a graph of pressure head with depth from ground surface to saturated zone 9. 9 . Write the formulae used to determine each of them with description of term used 14.water occurrence is held by molecular attraction Capillary one . c) d) Aquitard . Explain the probable occurrence of groundwater table in clay compared to course grained sandy soil.5. What is the difference between aquifuge and aquitard 11. Explain the physical meaning of permeability and hydraulic conductivity as used to represent aquifers 15. Explain how water occurrence is held in Vadose zone and capillary zone. Draw a graph of moisture content with depth fro ground surface to saturated zone 8. With an aid of diagram describe the following a) Acquifer . What are the factors affecting permeability value of an aquifer 16.comprise layers of clay or non-porous rock with low hydraulic conductivity that restricts the flow of ground water from one aquifer to another. specific yield and specific retention. 10. unconfined aquifer and perched aquifer Confined Aquifer. the aquifer lying between two confining layer of either aquitard or Aquiclude 12. Vadose zone . Differentiate between porosity and effective porosity. Give their units and explain the physical meaning as used to describe aquifers. Write the formulae used to determine each of them with description of term used 13.stores water but can not transmit enough to supplt wells/springs. Differentiate between confined. 7.water occurrence is held by capillary action 6. Define storativity. Define permeability and hydraulic conductivity.

-ν- (oC) (Pa s.787 1. State Darcy's law and derive its total discharge equation 20. A soil sample collected from a drilled bore hole was subjected to 23. specific yield and grain size for well sorted and average sorted material 19. 21. Discuss the importance aquifer water recharge 29. specific retention . 30. -µ. Explain geological stratification 25. Explain the relationship between intrinsic permeability and hydraulic conductivity using equations. Differentiate between homogenous and heterogeneous aquifer 31. Explain the impact on excessive pumping from a well with respect to aquifer compressibility 28. N s/m2) x 10-3 (m2/s) x 10-6 0 1.519 10 . Name natural and engineering intervention that may promote groundwater storage recharge. With an aid of diagram and equations explain how hydraulic conductivity can be measured in soil laboratory using both constant head and falling head permeameter tests 24. Darcy's law is a simple mathematical statement which neatly summarizes several familiar properties that groundwater flowing in aquifers exhibits. Discuss with an aid of diagram the relationship between porosity. Explain the meaning of isotrophic and anistrophic aquifers 32. Name four of them 22. Derive an equation of hydraulic conductivity in a four horizontal isotrophic aquifers in both vertial and horizontal flow directions USEFUL TABLES Table 1: Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity of Water in SI Units: Temperature Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity -t.519 1. Explain aquifer compressibility 26. Derive from first principle aquifer compressibility for a porous media 27. Write the formulae used to determine storativity and specific yield with description of term used and units 18.787 5 1.17.

001 N.326 100 0. -µ.0751 +22 997.553 60 0.7281 +4 999.004 30 0.1285 +10 999.9999985 0 999.1555 −20 993.29 1 cP = 0.5869 The values below 0 °C refer to supercooled water Best of Luck JODM©2014 11 .000 milliPa s 1 m2/s = 1 x 104 cm2/s =1 x 104 stokes = 1 x 106 centistokes Table 2: Density of liquid water Temp (°C) Density (kg/m3) +100 958.547 0.467 0.002 1.8003 +20 998.658 50 0.365 90 0.413 80 0.307 1. N s/m2) x 10-3 (m2/s) x 10-6 10 1.315 0.798 0.01 poise = 0.801 40 0.2336 +15 999. Temperature Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity -t.6829 −30 984.0966 +80 971.475 70 0.s/m2 1 N s/m2 = 1 Pa s = 10 poise = 1.6783 +25 997.001 Pascal second 1 cP = 0.355 0.404 0.653 0. -ν- (oC) (Pa s.307 20 1.01 gram per cm second = 0.001 Pascal second = 1 milliPascal second = 0.8675 −10 998.2106 +40 992.282 0.7224 +60 983.2473 +30 995.

and the calculation of the rate of settlement of clayey soil deposits. It is then immersed in kerosine and displaces 300. Permeability (or hydraulic conductivity) refers to the ease with which water can flow through a soil. 3. There are two general types of permeability test methods that are routinely performed in the laboratory: (1) the constant head test method. The aquifer has a permeability of 12m3day-1 and the porosity of 14%. 1. 7.). Differentiate between big Q and small q as used in groundwater flow equations 5. After saturation with kerosine its weight is 731. The stations are 335 m apart. At station A the water table elevation is 196m above sea level and at B the elevation is 192m. Transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers. the calculation of the seepage rate in aquifers and waste storage facilities (landfills. Explain the occurrences of artesian wells and free flowing wells 6. What is the actual/effective velocity of flow in the aquefer. What is the difference between a water table and a potentiometric surface? 4.2014 Tested By: Ngowi Project Name Kimbiji Borehole drilling Sample number BH1. etc. This property is necessary for the calculationof seepage through earth dams or under sheet pile walls. Explain with aid of equations the term transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers 2. what is the porosity of the sample. Experimental set up of constant head permeameter test: The purpose of this test is to determine the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of a sandy soil by the constant head test method.66g. ST10.51g. Groundwater potential and hydraulic head. and (2) the falling head test method. WRE423: APPLIED HYDROGEOLOGY Review Questions _Home Works No 4 Porosity. 8. Darcy’s law and hydraulic conductivity. Depth: 8-10 m 12 . The constant head test method is used for permeable soils (k>10-4cm/s) and the falling head test is mainly used for less permeable soils (k<10-4cm/s). Explain the difference between groundwater potential and hydraulic head. What An undisturbed rock sample has an oven dry weight of 652. The following data sheet was found in the soil material laboratory lab Date tested : December 10.47 g. ponds.

What is its permeability in m/day. h) instrisnic permeability i) discharge flux j) instrisnic permeability at 20oC k) velocity of flow through permeameter l) effective/actual/seepage velocity of flow through permeameter 9. Q Number h (cm) t (sec) (cm3) 1 30 84 750 2 50 55 750 3 60 48 750 4 70 38 750 If sieve analysis revealed that d10= 0. 13 . L = 17cm Diameter of the Soil Specimen (Permeameter). Elasped time. dry Initial Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M1) = 1675. show why kinetic term of the Bernoullli equation may be neglected in ground water systems. d90=2. Using reasonable values for pressure and ground water velocity(look in ground water text book). subrounded.4g If the initial dry mass of soil sample was used in four trial constant heat permeameter test and the results tabulated below. D = 6. 10. What is its instrict permeability?. Water temprature was measured to be 22oC.5 mm and d60=0.4cm Final Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M2) = 865. Use Hazen factor of 100. Visual classification: Brown medium to fine sand. poorly graded.8 mm Calculaate the following parameters a) Bulk density b) Dry density c) Porosity d) calculate voids ratio e) Hydraulic conductivity f) Hydraulic conductivity at 20oC g) Compute hydraulic conductivity from the sieve analysis data using Hazen's emprical equation. What would its permeability be at 10oC. Trial Constant head.3 mm. Outflow volume. A soil sample has a coefficient of permeability of 10m3day-1m-2.6g Dry Mass of Soil Specimen (M) = 809.0g Length of Soil Specimen.

Consider Question 10 above to be horizontl stratified geological formation with a confined aquifer having piezometers installed at pointA and B with the GWT as the piezometric head and an aquifer thickness of 40m. Transmissivity.5 km from A Use the three point problem above as applied to groundwater flow. Fill in the blanks spaces in the table below. seepage velocity. Given the following observation of piezometric heads in three observation wells Well A B C x-cordinate(m) 0 300 0 y-cordinate(m) 0 0 200 Piezometric head (m) 10 11. 11. Other soil parameters you can use the results of Question 8(a-f) a) to determine a water table gradient between the points? b) Use the following data to identify GW flow direction and gradients between the points. storativity of the aquifer. seepage velocity. Three wells was drilled in an area to determine ground water flow and aquifer characteristics. storativity between the points 13.B. transmissivity.5 8. Calculate the pressure heads and elevation heads at the base of the piezometers Piezometer A B C Ground surface (masl) (m) 450 435 430 Depth of piezometer (m) 70 Depth of water (m) 27 50 Pressure head(m) 53 Elevation head (m) 335 Total head (m) 400 Hydraulic gradient 12. c) Calculate the ground water flux. 14. From the drilled weels it was observed that the phreatic water is 200m deep in both wells.2 km from B B West of C 1452 4 km from C C Southeast of A 1320 2. It was obserbed that the aquifer is unconfined with an aquitard at the basement (clayey). Calculate the ground water flux.and C) are arre located 1000 m apart(in aline) in an unconfined aquifer. Three piezometers (A. Point Relative location GW Elevation Distance (km) (masl) A North of B 1120 3.4 14 .

transmissivity and storativity 15. =·20 m/day. l-D groundwater flow is perpendicular to layers of varying hydraulic conductivity. a) Find the hydraulic gradient (magnitude and direction) b) Find the total discharge in the aquifer per unit width c) Assume the same aquifer is anisotrophic with conductivity values in the matrix below. Find the change in head across each layer.isotrophic. Calculate the total flow per unit width for this system system? b) Using Darcy's law find the hydraulic gradient of this system 15 . In the heterogeneous system shown to the right. Using Darcy's Law. Find the change in head across each layer. for heterogeneous system with i= 1.2. . b2 = 20 m. Assume the wells measure homogenous. c) Following the same procedures you used in parts (a) and (b) write a general expression for K. The specific discharge across the system (q) is 1 m/day a) The flow across the system (q) is 1 m/day. the angle between specific discharge and hydraulic gradient. K3= 10 m/day b1= 10 m. K2= 5 m/day. Approximate the piezometric surface between the wells as a plane.. confined aquifer with constant thickness b=20m. In the heterogeneous system shown to the right. that is.. a system with the same total gradient (from part a) and flow rate as the heterogeneous system. Using Darcy's Law.2 and hydraulic conductivity K= 15m/day. a) The flow across the system (q) is 1 m/day. m layers of thickness bi and with hydraulic conductivity Ki 16. b3 = 30 m b) Find the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) for an equivalent homogeneous system. What is the total change in head across the entire system? K1. effective porosity of n=0. l-D groundwater flow is parallel to layers of varying hydraulic conductivity. Determine the specific discharge.

25. the average depth is 100 ft. Two observation wells have been constructed in the confined aquifer shown below. The formation in the valley has a hydraulic conductivity of 400 ft/day and a porosity of 0. determine K2. Assume that each individual formation is isotropic and homogeneous. (NB :You may change the units to SI units. b) How long will it take the groundwater to travel from the head of the valley to the stream bank? Note: Make sure you use seepage velocity to get the correct answer. a system with the same total gradient (from part a) and flow rate as the heterogeneous system. If the flow rate (Q) is 0. Compute both the overall horizontal and vertical.1 m/day. assuming all three formations are saturated? What would be the flow per unit width through the aquifer if the gradient magnitude were 0.01? 16 . 19. An aquifer has three different formations. Flow in a valley takes place as shown in the figure below. c) Find the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) for an equivalent homogeneous system. a) What is the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) for this system? b) Calculate transmissivity and storativity. The difference in water levels in the two wells shown is 1 ft between the observation wells. What is the aquifer transmissivity. 18. Formation B has a thickness of 20 m and a conductivity of 26m/day.01 m3/hr/unit width. Formation A has a thickness of 30 m and a hydraulic conductivity of 2. ft to m and mile to km) a) Determine the groundwater flux per mile width of the aquifer. 17. that is. Formation C has a thickness of 12m and a conductivity of 5m/day.

787 1.307 20 1. USEFUL TABLES Table 1: Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity of Water in SI Units: Temperature Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity -t.801 40 0.29 1 cP = 0.413 80 0.658 50 0.307 1.519 1.553 60 0.002 1.01 gram per cm second = 0.653 0.787 5 1.519 10 1.404 0.001 N.s/m2 1 N s/m2 = 1 Pa s = 10 poise = 1.282 0.475 70 0.001 Pascal second = 1 milliPascal second = 0. N s/m2) x 10-3 (m2/s) x 10-6 0 1.001 Pascal second 1 cP = 0.355 0.798 0.315 0. -µ.000 milliPa s 1 m2/s = 1 x 104 cm2/s =1 x 104 stokes = 1 x 106 centistokes Best of Luck JODM©2014 17 .547 0. -ν- (oC) (Pa s.467 0.326 100 0.004 30 0.365 90 0.01 poise = 0.

Release of water from confined aquifers VII. Management of groundwater 18 . Groundwater potential and hydraulic head III. Transient flow to a well XVIII. Groundwater and geology XII. Aquifers. Land subsidence XIII. Groundwater flow patterns XI. Sea water intrusion XVI. Steady-state flow to a well XVII. Flood control XV. Transmissivity and specific yield of unconfined aquifers VIII. Analytical solutions of one-dimensional groundwater flow X. Porosity II. aquitards. Darcy’s law and hydraulic conductivity IV. Equations of groundwater flow IX. Groundwater and geotechnical engineering XIV. and aquicludes V. I. Transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers VI.

Regional groundwater flow XXIII. Aquifers and energy of a fluid XXI. Groundwater flow to wells XXIV. Unsaturated zone characteristics XX. Aquifer parameter estimates and inference from well data XXV. Well interference and image wells 19 . Equations of groundwater flow and flow nets XXII. XIX.