SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Bioprocess Engineering Principles

Pauline M. Doran

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL
Bioprocess Engineering Principles

Pauline M. Doran
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

ISBN 0 7334 15474

© Pauline M. Doran 1997

.

. Table of Contents Solutions Page Chapter 2 Introduction to Engineering Calculations 1 Chapter 3 Presentation and Analysis ofData 9 Chapter 4 Material Balances 17 ChapterS Energy Balances 41 Chapter 6 Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances 54 Chapter 7 Fluid Flow and Mixing 76 Chapter 8 Heat Transfer 86 Chapter 9 Mass Transfer '98 Chapter 10 Unit Operations 106 Chapter 11 Homogeneous Reactions 122 Chapter 12 Heterogeneous Reactions 139 Chapter 13 Reactor Engineering 151 NOTE All equations. figures. Bioprocess Engineering Principles. etc. mentioned in this manual refer to the textbook. page numbers. tables..

.

1 (e) From Table A. lIb = 0. 2 .3048m llatm 1 it 3 1 3 1 100 em 1 1m 1 11 lOOOcm3 I.192 kcal g-1 2. 956 x 10-4 metric .2i~~Call·14.391 x 10-2 metric horsepower I 1Btu min.ll~~mI = 1. A): 1 mmHg:= 1.5 x 10.S (Appendix A): 1 bp (British)::::: 42.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::::: 1O~3 kg m.17 Btu min.t (b) From Table A.192kcal g-l Answer: 0.= 345 Btulb- 1 . horsepower h 1 Answer: 9.3048 m = From Table A. 1 I h. -60 mm I I= .6 g Therefore: 1 345 Btu Ib.11.3~: g I = O.391 x to.5 x 10-6 cP .4536 kg .I°.S (Appendix.7 (Appendix A): 1 Btu 0.-1 t s-ll.11 kg s-1 em.7 (Appendix A): 11 atm 9.604X 1O-2Btul.I k 1 1 m= lOOcrn Therefore: 1.41 Btu min-I Therefore: Answer: 5.Introduction to Engineering Calculations 2. From Table AJ (Appendix A).1 Unit conversion (a) From Table A.3 (Appendix A): Ilb = 453.1 o.2 metric horsepower Im=lOOcm 11= lOOOcm3 Ih=60min Therefore: 670mmHgft3 = 670 mmHg ft3 .2 Unit conversion Case 1 Convert to units of kg.I (Appendix A): 1 ft = 0.5 x 10-6 cP ::::: 1.1 Answer: 1. s.56 x 10-4 metric horsepower h (d) = From Table A.316X 10- 1 mmHg 3 atml.316 x 10-3 attn From Table A.5 x 10-11 kg s-1 cm. m.2520 kcal From Table A. .19.604 x 10-2 Btu From Table A8 (Appendix A): 1 Btu min-I::::: 2.1 10- 3 g k .

4 x 107 ease 2 Convert to units of kg. (2.5.V.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::: 10-3 kg m.2 Solutions: Chapter 2 From Table A.5 x 104 2. Substituting parameter values into the density equation gives: Pa "" L "" latm "" 4.057 cm3 atm K-I gmol~l. .32): Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature.9962652 g cm-3.::: 2.2 (Appendix A): 1 tt3 =: 2. (2.48 cm. usingEq.4 x 10 7 c . from Eq.l s·l 1 rn= tOOcm= lOOOmm Therefore. As molar density is the same as n.2 g cm~l s-l. together with Db "" 2 mm "" 0. the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.134 x 10-4 kg m-t s·t Ih=3600s Therefore.2. m.5 cm2 s·l. the diffusivity of oxygen in water at 2S"C is 2. s. From Table Al (Appendix A): 1 in.p . The parameter values and conversion factors. (2. using Eq.2 em.1 ::: 4.87 cPo The density of oxygen at 28°C and 1 atm pressure can be calculated using the ideal gas law. and the viscosity of water at 28"C is JlL::: 0. (2.l (Appendix B).gcm- 3 From Table A.l~n(251bfC3I0.3048 m "" 30.05 x lO-5gmolem- 3 ·1 i~~~ll 3 "" l.0.1): n(3cms-l. R "" 82.832 x 10 2 m 3U _ Dup Re::: .15) K = 301.24): T = (28 + 273.1): = 1. !lJ= 2. Converting the result for Pa to mass tenns: Pa "" 4. Also.832 x 10-2 m 3 From Table A.54 x 10-2 m From Table A. from Table A.l (Appendix A): 1 ft "" 0. from Eq.5 x 10.30XlO.9 (Appendix A): 1 Ibm ft-I h.5 x 10-5 cm1 s·t.1 ~ 3 (2mm.1 1m Ift 2.15K) From the atomie weights in Table B.15 K From Table 2.9 (Appendix A): 1 eP "" 10. = l000mmU l00cmU 10 -6 P I lIb 10 -3 kgm 1 s -11 . from the Chemical Engineers' Handbook. therefore.057cm3 almK:""1 gmol 1)(301.4536kgl.3 Dimensionless groups and property data From the Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 1 cP Answer: 2. Assuming this is the same at 28"C.5 x 104 13~sl Answer: 1.05 x 10-5 gmolcm-3 RT (82. the density of water at 28"e is PL ::: 0. can now be used to calculate the dimensionless groups in the equation for the Sherwood number.

ll k) and (D G1p): .998 x 104 Ibm fts. mass is equal to volume multiplied by density.'1'1) Ibh.008x 104 Ibm it s·Z Converting these units to lbj' from Eq. -----''-~I = 6211bf 32.(0. the number of lb mass is equal to the number of lb force.I = 1 k BIUh-1 ft-2('Pft-1tl 1 2 UnilsOf(DG) = (ftllbh..ft.Z Converting to Ibf 4 2 llbf Weight = 1.:::: I (Bmlb. According to Newton's law(p 15).5xl0-5cm2s-I)_I·A 10-3 -I kL ... this force is equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the gravitational acceleration.' Chapter 2 3 -1 s-11 S_J1.I (Appendix A): 1 m= 3.5 x 10 5em2 s I) - Therefore: From the equation for Sh: _Sh:lJ_(ll.174Ibm ft s f Answer: 624lbI When g :::: 32.4 Mass and weight From the definition of density on p 16.I ft.. (b) From Table A.16).21(2.Solutions. Therefore: From p 16.174 ft s·2.-3)(2. gravitational acceleration g = 32.174 Ibm it s·2.76 m s-Z .1741b m ft s-2 Answer: 621lbf 2.87eP.9962652g cn.= 6241b 32. Ibh1ft1 . Using the same procedure as in (a): Weight = 624 Ibm (9. (2.5 Dimensionless numbers First. 1'0-2 gem leP -349 c . 02 -. evaluate the units of the groups cCP J. (a) From pIS.174 it s-2.PrJ) .2~ft~ = 1. 2 .= 1 J1.L_ 0. em Answer: lAO x 10~3 em s·1 2. (e p ") Umtsof .008 x 10 lbmfts. at sea level and 45° latitude...<tUX ems D1J . Therefore: Weight:::: 624 Ibm (32. 1lbf= 32.998 x 10 lbmfts. weight is-the force with wrncha body is attracted to the centre of the earth by gravity.13.174 ft s-2) = 2.281 ft. therefore: 4 2 llbf Weight = 2.

1 ft-2. Unitsofh "'" unitsofCpG "'" (Btulb.0. Equation (ii) is dimensionally homogeneous and therefore likely to be correct Answer: (li) 2.0 lb = 050 lbmol 4O. OF is a unit of temperature which.0g gmol- Answer: 227 gmol (c) From p 16.18): 9072g gram moles NaOH = I = 227 grool 4O. dimensions =Ml3e-1 2. Therefore: As Np is a dimensionless number.6 Dimensional homogeneity and Cc From Table A8 (Appendix A). Therefore: 20.01b 453. (a) FromEq. from Table 2. (2. For the equation to be dimensionally homogeneous. Therefore.1 ft. Btu is a unit of energy with dimensions "'" L2Ml2. dimensions of P = L2MT"3 Dimensions of g = LT-z Dimensions of p =ML·3 Dimensions of Di "'" L From p 11.6gl = 9072 g = 20. ft is a unit of length with dimension"'" L. from p 15.1 Answer: Units = Btu opi h.7 Molar units From the atomic weights in Table Rl (Appendix B). h is a unit of time with dimension"'" T. equation (i) is not dimensionally homogeneous and therefore cannot be correct.1 "p-l)(1bh. From Table A. Therefore: Dimensions of h = L2M'l2 a-I 1'"1 L-2 = MT" 3e. (hICp G) must also be dimensionless.3 (Appendix A): lIb =453. 1 kgmol::::: 1000 gmot. the units of h must therefore cancel the units of Cp G.19): lb moles NaOH = 20. the molecular weight of NaOH is 40. has the dimensional symbol E>. these groups are dimensionless.----- .0lblbmol 1 Answer: 050 lbmol (b) From Table A.1 fr 2) "'" Btu "F-l h.0Ib. the dimensions oirotational speed. 1-lib From Eq.1. from (b): .2 The dimensions of h can be deduced from its units. the dimensions of gc= 1.4 Solutions: Chapter 2 Therefore. (2.6 g.7 (Appendix A). Nj =T-!.

3 (il) From the atomic weights in Table 8.52gmolmin.Solutions: Chapter 2 5 kg molesNaOR = 227 gmol.1 Answer: 0.9 Molecular weight From p 17.. respectively.. the density of water at 4°C can be taken as exactly 1 g cm-3. the molar density is 0. is 153. (I) lkg=l000g 1 m: 100cm Therefore: Answer: 1512.~.21 gmot Oz and 0.ll = 28.67cm3 gmor 1 mo ar enslty 0.0240 gmol em 3 Answer: 41.l (ii) From the atomic weights in Table B.: 41.8 .52 grool min.0240 gmot 63. the density at 20°C is 1.l (Appendix B). this means 21 mol% 02 and 79 mol% NZ..-1-:--:::. Using the mass flow rate from (a): Molar flow rate : 80 g min- l . as density is defined as the mass per unit volume.67 cm3 gmol-l (b) (I) From p 16.18)0 LS129g gram moles : 1 : 0.l (Appendix B). in 1 gmol air.79 gmol NZ ·1 .0. Therefore.I 2. For gases at low pressures.0 and 28.8 Density and specific gravity (a) From p 16.8. the molecular weight of carbon tetrachloride.79 gmol NZ From the atomic weights in Table B.227 kgmol 1 kgmol Answer: 0.0ggmor Therefore. CC14. In 1 cm3 RNO" from Eq. there are 0. Therefore.9 kg m. 28.0. for a substance with specific gravity L5129i~.21 gmOlOz·1 .227 kgmol 2.8g Answer. the molecular weight of nitric acid (RN03) is 63.l :5~0~1 = 0.5129 g cm*3. From the definition of specific volume on p 16: 1 Molar specific volume : 1 d . the composition of air is close to 21 % oxygen and 79% nitrogen. 11000 gmol I = 0.-_ _. the mass flow rate is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density: Answer: 80 g min.0240 gmol cm-3 . : . the molecular weights of Oz and NZ are 3Z. (2.~~ll + 0.1 (Appendix B). The molecular weight of air is equal to the number of grams in 1 gmol: 1 gmolair = 0.

7 psi::::: 29.55 Mole fraction ethanol = ~:~ = 0. and no other components. glycerol 92.08:: 3.1.18 ethanol.0.04 Mole fraction acetic acid = ~:~ : : : 0.03 benzaldehyde 2. (2.27\ -40 ::::: 1.06 Mole fraction benzaldehyde ::::: ~:: ::::: 0.13gmol Moles acetic acid = 10g. From Eq.~ll = 1.10 Mole fraction The molecular weights can be obtained from Table B.11 Temperature scales From Eq. 8 g benzaldehyde. (2. there are 30 g water. 12 g glycerol.24) and the result for T ("C).~~ll = 0.:~~ = 0. IIgmaII 92. 0.28): Absolute pressure ::::: 15 psi + 14.15 T(K) = 233 2.12 Pressure scales (a) Assume that the atmospheric pressure is 14.18 Mole fraction methanol = ~:~~ = 0.' Chapter 2 2.15 Mole fraction glycerol = ~:~ = 0.17 + 0.04 glycerol.25). Molesglycerol = 12g.06 gmal.7 psi. methanol 32.1.0.8 T(0C) + 32 Tee) = -40 From Eq. 25 g ethanol.67 gruol Moles ethanol:: 25 g. 0.67 + 0.20): Mole fraction water = . 0.55 water.7 (Appendix B): water 18. 0.03 Answer: 0.47 + 0. (2. benzaldehyde 106.6 Solutions. ethanol 46. 15 g methanol. (2.13 + 0.1 ~~~ll :: 054 gmol Molesmethanol:: 15 g _I .67 T(°R) = 420 From Eq. 10 g acetic acid.1.1 ~~~II = 0.1.15 methanol. 0. acetic acid 60. T(K) = -40+273.17 gmol Moles benzaldehyde: 8 g _I :~o~ I = 0.7 psi . In 100 g solution.47 gmol .06 acetic acid. Therefore: Moles water = 30 g _I ~r:. From Eq.1g = O.08 gmal The total number of moles is 1. T (OR) ::::: -40 + 459.54 + 0. (2.

4 g penicillin per (300.2 4.2 g gmol-1 = 1.79 g I~I phenylacetic acid must remain.9 x 100/6) g glucose.5.21) = 2.2 gmol glucose = available for penicillin synthesis.805 x 10. If the atmospheric pressure is 14.1 g g-l. According to the stoichiometry.3 gmoll-l phenylacetic acid must also be used. according to the stoichiometric equation. Answer: Glucose (il) Of the 44.67 = 8.1 g g~1 (b) The maximum theoretical yield in (a) is obtained when all the glucose consumed is directed into penicillin production according to the stoichiometric equation.5 g glucose are consumed but only 6% is available for penicillin synthesis.I (Appendix B).48 x 10-2 gmol [1 glucose is used in the penicillin reaction.67 x 2.13 Stoichiometry and incomplete reaction (a) = The molecular weights are calculated from TableB. or 1. Answer: 1.5 g I-I glucose consumed.86 x 1O~3 gmol penicillin per litre.5 (Appendix A): 1 psi = 6. (I) The only possible limiting substrates are glucose and phenylacetic acid. 2.48 x 10-2/1.atm 1 Absolutepressure = 29.067 g g-1 (c) From the atomic weights in Table B..67 = 8. or 0.886 = gmol x 334.4 g penicillin per 1. requires 1. in a l00-litre tank. If only 6% of the glucose is used in this way.21 g t I phenylacetic acid. 'This is equivalent to 334.48 K 10. 24% or 10.067 g g~l.886 gmol or 0. The maximum theoretical yield from the stoichiometric equation is 1 gruol of penicillin for every 1.2 gmol glucose is used in the penicillin reaction per litre.48 x 10-2/1.1. As the gmol glucose required is greater than the gmol glucose available after growth and maintenance activities.7psi-3psi = IL7psi Answer: 11. 4 g or 4 g/136. Therefore: 2 .3 gmoll-l x 136.07 kg (iii) From (i). from (i). the mass of glucose used in the = = penicillin reaction is 44.2 g gmol-1 2. 1.02 atm (b) From p 19. 16. Therefore. glucose is the limiting substrate.79 g I-I . 'This is equivalent to 2.86 x 10.7psl.Solutions: Chapter 2 7 From Table A.2 = 300. 1. Using a basis of II medium.9 g glucose. Answer: 0.l (Appendix B): penicillin 334.4.07 kg.86 x 10. As 4 g I-I are provided.67 gruol of glucose. 1 psi = 2. 1.2.02atm Answer: 29.2 g gmol-1 1.48 x 10. This is equivalent to 8. 0. the actual yield of penicillin from glucose is much lower. this produces 1. glucose = 180. if (50 .67 x 180. the molecular weight of phenylacetic acid is 136.4 g gmol-1 296 g penicillin are formed.7 g I-I is used for growth.7 psi.7 psi: Absolutepressure = 14.805 x Hy2 atm.5) = 44.67 g. At the same time. at 334.5 x 6/ 100 2. In a H~)-litre tank.2. the total mass of glucose consumed for growth is therefore 1070 g or 1. Answer: 2.94 x 10.7 psi 2.94 x 10~2 gruol phenylacetic acid is = available which. Answer: 1.67 g/180. (4 .91 x 10-2 gruol glucose for complete reaction. vacuum pressure is the pressure below atmospheric. Answer: 296 g (iv) IT.

the concentration ofhexadecane required is 3.3 (ill) = According to the stoichiometric equation. the molecular weight of oxygen is 32."'. (2.65 gmol x 91.32): V = nRT p Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature. is equal to 151 g cells. or 1.5 g gmol-l =: 151 g cells per 226A g hexadecane. Cells: 91.5 g gmoI-l = 27.5.5 Hexadecane: 226. or 0. production of 27.4 g gmol-I = 3736 g = 3.5 gmol x 226.3.14 Stoichiometry.25 kg m.057 cm3 atm K-I gmol-I.0 g groot-I) =: 521 g oxygen.9 gmot The volume of air required can be calculated using the ideal gas law. As air at low pressure contains close to 21 mol% oxygen (p 11).29 g g-1 (d) Production of 2..74 kg in 3 m3. Answer: 0.29 g g-1.65 =16. the maximum yield is 1.65 269.410. as 1 gmol of hexadecane is required to produce 1.1 3 = 31 3 1 atm . from Eq.67 g g-1 (e) From the atomic weights in Table RI (Appendix B).!.15Kj 1-. The minimum amounts of substrates are required when 100% of the hexadecane is converted according to the stoichiometric equation.3/1.28 gmol of oxygen is required to produce 1.5 gmol =16.74 kg hexadecane. (2.057cm atmK. production of 27. 16. or 0. R "" 82.8 Solutions: Chapter 2 2. The maximum yield is therefore 151 g cells per (16. From Eq. 0 and N atoms on both sides of the equation shows that the equation is balanced.0. Answer: 1.28 groal x 32. yield and the ideal gas law (a) Adding up the numbers of C.4 gmol oxygen.65 gmol of cells.3 x 16.15) K = 293. H.67 g g-I.28/1. Answer: 3. Answer: 0.. the total moles of air required is 269.5 kg cells is equivalent to 2500 g =: 2500 g/91.. from (b). Substituting these values into the equation for V gives: v= 3 1 (1282. From the stoichiometry.21 = 1282. (I) From the stoichiometry.3 gmol cells requires 27.gmol-l)(293.4 From the stoichiometry.9gmolj(82.25 kg m.3 gmol cells requires 27.3 gmol cells. l00cm m Answer: 31 m 3 .15K From Table 2.74 kg (il) From the answer in (d)(i). Answer: Yes (b) The molecular weights are calculated from Table B.24): T = (20 +273.65 gmal of cells which.I (Appendix B).

Therefore: kLa =: o. The maximum error in this example is (5.183)±{O.36 (b) Calculate the standard deviation from Eq.8 + 5)% =O. This example illustrates how a combination of small measurement errors can result in a relatively large uncertainty in the final result.15. Le.5.3 s-1 ± 5% For subtraction.50+5.25 mol m.Qll mol m.45+5.50. 3. The standard deviation is 0.35 = 5. (3.5.3 CAL = 0.15.45+5.50+5.30 .OlO+0.8% For division. (c) x = 5.183±O. the difference between the mean and either of the two measured values.OlOmol m. In this case the maximum error. FromEq. Note that standard error.5. X.36)' = 0.45 . absolute errors are added.2 Mean and standard deviation (a) The best estimate is the mean.0073)molm-3 "'" O.36)' + (5.15 4-1 Answer. an indication of the accuracy is ± 0.15+5.Presentation and Analysis of Data 3.067 molm-3 ± 25.OllmOlm-3~-1 ±{25.45 = 5.36)' + (5.25-0.30.45+5.15 (d) x= 5.183 mol m.35+5.36 .5.15 .15 +2 5.50+5.0173molm-3 =: 0.5.1 Combination of errors c~ "" 0.36)' + (5. (3. might be used instead. is a more direct indication of the precision ofa mean.Q67molm Answer~ 31 %.067±O.16± 0.16s-1 ±31% = O.35 .15) 0.1): x = 5.2): (5. = Answer.15+5.15+5.OO73molm-3 OTR = O. 5. relative errors are added.35 = 5.3 ±4%"= 0. TherefOre: C~ -CAL"'" (O.36 Answer: 5.3 ± 4% =: O.05 s-l O.30 Standard deviation is not appropriate for expressing the accuracy of a mean evaluated using only two samples.25 ±O. which can be calculated from the standard deviation.

10 Solutions: Chapter 3

2 (S.lS -S.36f + 2(S.4S-S.36)~ + ~ (S.50-S.36f +2(S.3S -S.36)2 = 0.14

Answer: The best estimate of optimal pH is unchanged at 5.36, but the standard deviation is slightly lower at 0.14.
This example illustrates that although the standard deviation decreases as the number ofmeasurements is increased,
(j is not strongly dependent on n. The best way to improve the reliability of the mean is to ensure that the individual

measurements are as intrinsically accurate as possible, rather thanrepeat the measurement many times.

3.3 Linear and non-linear models
(a)
Xl = 1; Yl =10
X2=8;Y2=0.5
A straight line plot of y versus x on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.6). From
Eqs (3.7) and (3.8),

A = (Yz-Y1) = 0.5-10 =-136
(x2 Xl) 8-1 .

B = YI-Axi = 10-(-1.36)1 = 11.4

Answer: y = -1.36 x + 11.4

(h)
=
Xl = 3.2; Yl 14.5
);2 = 8.9; Y2 = 38.5
A straight line plot of y versus x Ih on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:

Y=Axlh+B

with A and B given by the equations:

A = YrY1 = 38.5-14.S = 201
112_ Xl112
x2
89Ih_32'k
. ,
.

B = YI-Axi h = 14.5-20.1(3.2 112) = -21.5

Answer:y=20.1x'k -21.5

(0)
Xl=5;Yl=6
X2= l;Y2=3
A straight line plot of Ity versus xl on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:

lly = Ax2 +B

with A and B given by the equations:

lin - Ity} 1/3 -lI6 -3
A = 2 2 = 2 2 =-6.9xlO
x2-xl 1 -5

B = 1/y1 -Ax; = 1/6-(-Mx 1O-3)<S2) = 0.34
Answer: l/y = -6.9 x 10-3 xl + 0.34

(d)
Xl=0.5;Yl=25
= =
x2 550; Y2 2600
A straight line plot of y versus x on log-log coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq, (3.10).
From Eqs (3.13) and (3.14),

Solutions: Chapter 3 11

A = (lnY2- ln Yl) = ln2600-ln25 = 0.663
(lnx2-lnxI) ln550-1nO.5

lnB = InYI-Alnxl = ln25-(0.663}ln0.5 = 3.678
B = e3.678 = 39.6

Answer: Y= 39.6 x O.663

(eJ
Xl = 1.5; YI = 2.5
X2 = 10; Y2 = 0.036
A straight line' plot of y,versus X on semi·log coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.15).
From Eqs (3.17) and (3.18):

A = (lnY2- ln YI) = lnO.036-ln2.5 = -0.50
(x2 - xl) 10 - 1.5

In B = In Y1 - A Xl = In 2.5 - (-o.50J 1.5 = 1.666

B = el.666 = 5.29

Answer: Y= 5.29 e-o.sOx

3.4 Linear curve fitting
(aJ
The results determined using Eqs (3.1) and (3.2) are listed below.

Sucrose concentration (g l~l) Mean peak area Standard deviation

6.0 56.84 1.21
12.0 112.82 2.06
18.0 170.63 2.54
24.0 232.74 1.80
30.0 302.04 2.21

(bJ

35

30
--.
.9 25
••
0

~•
20

g 15
8
~g 10

"' 5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Peak area

12 Solutions: Chapter 3

(e)
The linear least squares fit of the data is:

y ::: 0,098 x + 0,83

Answer: y "'" 0.098 x + 0.83, where y is sucrose concentration in g 1-1 and x is peak area.
(d)
For x::: 209,86, the equation in (c) gives a sucrose concentration oi2IA g I-I.

Answer: 21.4 g I-I

3.5 Non-linear model: calcnlation of parameters
(a)
The proposed model equation has the general form of Eq. (3.15); therefore, if the model is suitable, a plot of a versus
lIT on semi-logarithmic coordinates will give a straight line. As T in the equation is absolute temperature, "'c must
first be converted to degrees Kelvin using Eq. (2.24). The data are listed and plotted below.

Temperature (0C) Temperature (K) IIT(K-l) Relative mutation frequency. a

15 288.15 3.47 x 10-3 4.4 x 10- 15
20 293.15 3.41 x lO w3 2.0x 10- 14
25 298.15 3.35 x leT3 8.6x 10.. 14
30 303.15 3.30 x lfr·3 3.5 x Jer I3
35 308.15 3.25 x 10-3 lAx }0"'12

10- 11 r---~--.,...--~----r--~---.

[" 10- 12
•"
fc
.Q 10- 13
lii
"E
~
= 10. 14
-lllJ:

10-'5 L._~~_--'__~__....l._ _~_ _....J
3,2 x 10-3 3.3x 10-3 3.4x 10-3 3.5 x 10-3
1ITemperature (K-1)

As the data give a straight line on semi~logarithmiccoordinates, the model can be considered to fit the data well.

(b)
The equation for the straight line in (a) is:

y =: 9.66 x 1024 e-26,12lx

where y is relative mutation frequency and x is reciprocal temperature in units of K~l. For dimensional homogeneity
the exponent must be dimensionless (p 12), so that -26,121 has units of K, and EIR in the model equation is equal to
26,121 K From Table 2.5, R =: 8.3144 J gmol-l K·1; therefore:

E =: (26,121 K) (8.3144 J gmol~l K*l) =: 217,180.4 J gmol-1 =: 217.2 kJ gmot 1

99 4.20 1.24 0.6 Linear regression: distribution of residuals (aJ 16 --. Answer: 9.42 -0. ao is equal to 9.28 1.10x where yis increase in biomass concentration in g r 1 and xis decrease in medium conductivity in mS cm~l.19 2.66 x 10Z4. !'!l 14 •• c ••i'! 12 C •g 0 10 • 0 8 ~ • •• • •• • 6 ~ ••m 4 •~ 2 • .48 5.41 0.44 -!l. Decrease in medium conductivity (mS Residual o -1.21 1.74 -!l.36 lAO 1.11 0. (b) The residuals are calculated as the difference between the measured values for increase in biomass concentration and the values for y obtained from the equation in (a).58 0.91 -1.46 2.53 -1.73 2.12 0.57 0.82 1.Solutions: Chapter 3 13 Answer: 217.55 1.91 0041 2.50 2.02 5.37 .i1 0 0 12345 6 Decrease in medium conductivity (mS cm-1) The linear least squares fit of the data is: y =: 1.00 5.31 -!l.36 0.58 + 2.2 kJ gmol-l (c) From the equation in (b) for the straight line.39 -1.23 0.69 3.03 1.66 X 1024 3.

_ . uG (m s-1) The data are reasonably well fitted using a linear model..06 0. . the straight line fit of the data cannot be considered a very good one.10 '" .~ • • ~ 0. os' 0.09 .1) The residuals are not randomly distributed: they are mainly positive at low values of decrease in medium conductivity. The linear least squares equation for the straight line fit is: y = 0. 3...054 + 0..02 0..' o 1 2 3 4 5 6 Decrease in medium conductivity (mS em.1l._ _.00 0. The sum of the squares of the residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values for y obtained from the above equation is 8..§.4 x 10-5.08 ._ ...07 • .14 Solutions: Chapter 3 These results are plotted below.06 • • ~ ~ 0.10 Gas superficial velocity.' -_ _-'-_---'_ _.7 Discriminating between rival models (aJ The results are plotted using linear coordinates below. 0..04 0.. Therefore. 2 1 ·2 ·3 ' . then positive again.466 x where y is liquid superficial velocity in m s-l andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l._ _' .-_-.08 0.04 0._ _.11 ~ 0.-_-..-_-. 3. then negative. 0._ _.05 ::J 0."" 'E 0.

if the model is suitable.15). ..Solutions: Chapter 3 15 (b) The proposed power law equation has the same form as Eq.2 x 10-5. if the power law model is suitable. 103 101 100 '--_. . the data should give a straight line when plotted on semi-logarithmic coordinates. . Therefore. the data should give a straight line when plotted on log-log coordinates... . (3... «) The non·linear model is better because the sum of squares of the residuals is smaller. . .. ... . The sum of the squares of the residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values obtained from the above equation is 4.309 where y is liquid superficial velocity in m s·l andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l..01 om 0. . Therefore. .1-_-'-_-'-_-'-_-L_----'-_---' o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time (min) . 3. . .. 10' . .-.199 x O. .. .1 Gas superficial velocity.10)..modeL The equation for the straight line in the plot is: y = 0... uG (m s·1) The data are reasonably well fitted using a power law. (b) The proposed model equation has the same form as Eq... . 0. (3. . .. .8 Non-linear model: calculation of parameters (a).

353 min-I.13 x 104 e-O. No =. No is dimensionless and equal to 2. 2. As the exponent must be dimensionless to preserve dimensional homogeneity (p 12). 2.13 x 104.16 Solutions: Chapter 3 (c). are T"l. the dimensions of kd are T-t. No is dimensionless .e. The dimensions of No are the same as N. 0353 min-I. therefore k(! =. (d) The equation for the straight line in the figure is: y =.353x where y is the number of viable cells and x is time in min.13 x 104. the dimensions of ka. Answer: kd =. i. 0.

1 1% bacteria 99% water (li) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet. Calculate (i) Calculation table The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. the total mass of buffer out is denoted B. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.1 I Hollow-fibre membranes I I I Cell concentrate Fennentation broth 6% bacteria I I 350 kg min.only water passes across the membrane (ii) Extra data No extra data are required. The total mass of cell concentrate is denoted c.steady state -no leaks .3): mass in = mass out 3. 2. (4. (v) Mass-balance equation As there is no reaction. (ill) Basis 1 min. or 350 kg fennentation broth (iv) Compounds involved in reaction No compounds are involved in reaction.Material Balances 4.1 Cell concentration using membranes L Assemble (i) Flow sheet I I I I Buffer solution in Buffer solution out 80 kg min. . (iii) Reaction equation No reaction occurs. The columns for water refer to water originating in the fermentation broth. Analyse (i) Assumptions .

5 kg These calculations allow completion of the mass~balance table with all quantities in kg.5 3.5 3.5 0 350 broth Buffer solution in 0 0 80 80 Cell concentrate 54.50 80 430 (iii) Check the results All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly. 4.5 80 430 ? 0.5 3.5 3. Answer: 372 kg min.3 kg min· I .5 kg water in = water out Water out = 346.18 Solutions: Chapter 4 In Out Stream Water Bacteria Buffer Total Water Bacteria Buffer Total Fermentation 346. Stream In Out Water Bacteria 814fer Total Water Bacteria Buffer Total Fennentation 346.7 0 80 371.3 Buffer solution 291.06 C kg bacteria out C = 58.7 out Total 346.8 3.5 3.7 kg Water balance 346. Answer.5 80 430 346.5 0 350 broth Buffer solution in 0 0 80 80 Cell concentrate ? O.5 kg bacteria in "'" 0. the total flow rate of buffer solution out of the annulus is 372 kg min-I.06C 0 C Buffer solution ? 0 80 B out Total 346.50 0 58. 58. Finalise (a) After rounding to three significant figures.t (b) The total flow rate of cell concentrate from the membrane tubes is 58.3 kg Total mass balance 430 kg total mass in = (C + B) kg total mass out Using the result for C: B "'" 371.06C 80 C+B (li) Mass-balance calculations Bacteria balance 3.3 kg min-I.

mass out 3.1 I I (li) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet. solvent and total mass.0 (iii) Basis 1 h. or 40 kg feed solution (iv) Compounds involved in reaction Glucose. Appendix B): glucose = 180. .5% ethanol I Membrane system I I I Solvent Product 40 kg h.1 I I Aqueous residue 10% glucose 0. (iii) Reaction equation 2. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.2 Membrane reactor t.1 CO.steady state -no leaks . . (4. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.t..2 ethanol =. The total mass of aqueous residue is denoted R. ethanol and carbon dioxide are involved in the reaction.3): mass in =.Solutions: Chapter 4 19 4.1 40 kg h. 46.all C02 produced leaves in the off~gas .2): mass in + mass generated =. the total mass of carbon dioxide out is denoted G.-. mass out + mass consumed For water. Assemble (i) Flow sheet system boundary~ Feed . (4. Calculate (i) Calculation table The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. (v) Mass~balanceequations For glucose. =44.no side reactions (li) Extra data Molecular weights (Table B.no evaporation . the total mass of product out is denoted p.2% glucose I I 90% water 0. Analyse (i) Assumptions .yeast cells do not grow or dislodge from the membrane . ethanol and carbon dioxide.-.

Glucose Ethanol CO.010kg 0.0436 kgmol COZ. Therefore: .010 kg Ethanol leaves the system only in the product and aqueous residue streams.181 kg.O Total Glucose Ethotwl CO.002 R + 0.254 kg Therefore.010 kg ethanol generated = ethanol out + 0 kg ethanol consumed Ethanol out = 2.0436 kgmol ethanol and 2 x 0.073 kg. Solvent H.927 kg Converting the glucose consumed to molar terms: 1 kgmOll ::::: O.005 R::::: 0.005 R + 36 kg ::::: R R = 36. Solvent H2 O Total Feed 4 0 0 0 36 40 Solvent 0 0 0 40 0 40 Aqueous 0_002R 0.927 kg glucose ::::: 3. Glucose balance 4 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0.0218 = 0.0218 = 0.::::: 0. Converting these molar quantities to mass: 0. 180.0436kgmo1CO z = OJM36kgmOLI ~:~ll = 1.002 R ? ? ? ? R+P (ii) Mass-balance calculations Solvent balance Solvent is a tie component. the ethanol in the aqueous residue stream::::: 0. 36 kg water in ::::: water out Water out::::: 36 kg As water appears on the Out side of the table only in the aqueous residue stream: 0.002 R ::::: 0. conversion of this amount of glucose generates 2 X 0.927kg.005 R 0 0 ? R residue Product 0 ? 0 ? 0 P Off-gas 0 0 ? 0 0 G Total 4 0 0 40 36 80 0. the residual glucose in the aqueous residue stream.92kg C02 balance okg COZ in + 1.0436kgmOI·1 iZ:~~11 = 2. 40 kg solvent in ::::: solvent out Solvent out ::::: 40 kg Water balance Water is a tie component.2kg 1 From the reaction stoichiometry. 20 Solutions: Chapter 4 Stream In Out ------.92 kg = G Ethanol balance o kg ethanol in + 2.0436kgmolethanol = 0.92 kg C02 generated = C02 out + 0 kg C02 consumed C02 out = 1.073 kg glucose out + glucose consumed Glucose consumed ::::: 3.0218kgmol 3.

Assemble (i) Flow sheet System boUnda'l'\. . 0. Bottoms .4%.073 2.829 kg ethanol are contained in 41. Answer: 1.O Total Glucose Ethanol CO2 Solvent H.1.010 1. Answer: 4.181 0 0 36 36..000 kg h.92 Total 4 0 0 40 36 80 0. -+. Finalise (0) 1.4% (h) The mass flow rate ofCOz is 1. Stream In Out Glucose Ethanol CO. Solvent H.010 .181) kg = 1.92 0 0 1.829 x 100%:::: 4.829 0 40 0 41.829 kg These calculations allow completion of the mass~balance table with all quantities in kg.000 kg h-l 10%ethanal I I 90%watar I I I I I I . 4. The ethanol concentration is therefore 1.829· Off-gas 0 0 1.254 residue Product 0 1. r -t---.3 Ethanol distillation 1. Distillate 5.0.92 kg h~l 4.92 40 36 80.O Total Feed 4 0 0 0 36 40 Solvent 0 0 0 40 0 40 Aqueous .829 kg of product stream.Solutions: Chapter 4 21 Ethanol out in the product stream = (2.829 kg As the product stream consists of ethanol and solvent only: P = (1.00 (iii) Check the results All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.829/41.1 45% ethanol I I 55% water I I I I I Distillation I Feed I column I 50.829 + 40) kg = 41.92 kg b. .073 0.

(4. Stream In Out Ethanol Water Total Ethanol Water Total Feed 5..000 . (v) Mass¥balance equation As there is no reaction.000 50.000 45.750) kg == 42.250 kg These calculations allow completion of the mass~balance table with all quantities in kg.3): mass in ::::: mass out 3. .000 kg ethanol in ::::: ethanol out Ethanol out ::::: 5. (ill) Basis 1 h.750 5..000 kg Ethanol balance 5.250) kg := 2.000 kg Therefore.000 kg total mass in ::::: total mass out Total mass out ::::: 50. Calculate (i) Calculation table The calculation table shows all given quantities in kg.000) kg ::::: 45.000. from the total column on the Out side of the table: Bottoms out::::: (50.000 ? ? ? (li) Mass-balance calculations Total mass balance 50.. 2.000 45..000 kg feed (Iv) Compounds involved in reaction No compounds are involved in reaction.000 kg water in := water out Water out := 45.000 Bottoms ? ? ? Total 5.750 kg Water balance 45..2.000 50.22 SolutilJns: Chapter 4 (li) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.5.steady state -no leaks (ll) Extra data No extra data are required.000 Distillate 2.000 kg From the water column of the Out side of the table: Water out in the bottoms == (45. 2.250 2. Analyse (i) Assumptions . or 50.000 kg From the ethanol column of the Out side of the table: Ethanol out in the bottoms := (5.000 . (ill) Reaction equation No reaction occurs. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.

000 45.L 1 .250 kg water in a total of 45.000 50.I 4. Finalise (a) The bottoms contains 2.750/45.")l and 42. I Inlet air 18 kg h-1 02 (n) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet (ill) Reaction equation 2.000 5.000 kg.gases are at low pressure so vol% = mol% .000 50.750 kg ctha. 4.000 Total 5.250 2.750 kg h.. and 42.750 kg h.000 Bottoms 2.000 Distillate 2.o-l Enzyme reactor I--.000 45.steady state -no leaks .9% water.2% glucose 2% glucose 20% water I 1 78% egg solids I --t.000 x 100% = 93.H202 remains in the liquid phase .1% ethanol.000 x 100% = 6.9% water (b) Directly from the table. the composition is 2.I . the rate of alcohol loss in the bottoms is 2.air and off-gas are dry . I 1 I I 1 Egg slurry-----L.000 50.Product 3000 kg h·1 I I 0. 93.250 45. Therefore...1 % ethanol.750 5. Answer: 2.750 42.4 Removal of glucose from dried egg 1.000 (ill) Check the results All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.000 45. Assemble (i) Flow sheet Off-gas System boundary r\.Solutions: Chapter4 23 Stream In Out Ethanol Water Total Ethanol Water Total Feed 5. Analyse (i) Assumptions ._ .250/45. -------. Answer: 6.

118 kgmol NZ enter in the air stream.0kg kgmOll = 0. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.30kg N2 2.I. 79/21 x 0563 kgmol = 2. Converting this to mass units: 2S.0kg I = 59.2 02=32. (4.the appropriate mass~balance equation is Eq.2 HZOz::::: 34. (4.0 gluconic acid::::: 196. 02. 02.0 NZ::::: 28. water. gluconic acid and HzOz are involved in the reaction.24 Solutions: Chapter 4 (ti) Extra data Molecular weights (Table B. . The total mass of off-gas is denoted G. the total mass of product is denoted P.2): mass in + mass generated ::::: mass out + mass consumed For egg solids. Calculate (i) Calculation table The mass of NZ accompanying 18 kg 02 in air can be calculated from the known composition of air.0 H20 = IS. Nz and total mass. Converting 18 kg 02 to molar units: ISkg02 = ISkg02 · 1 132. or 3000 kg egg slurry (iv) Compounds involved in reaction Glucose.ppendix B): glucose::::: 180.118kgmo1N2 = 2.118kgmoIN2· lkgmol 1 The calculation tables below show all known quantities in kg. (v) Mass-balance equations For glucose.563kgmo102 Therefore. 79% Nz by volume (ill) Basis 1 h. water.0 Composition of air (p 17): 21% 02. The In side of the mass-balance table is complete. A. gluconic acid and HZOz.3): mass in = mass out 3.

3 kg total mass in ::::: (G + P) kg total mass out Substituting the expression for G into the total mass balance: 3077. (10.6) kg G = 67.1 :~:~il::::: 5.30 kg NZ in ::::: NZ out NZ out::::: 59.552 x 10-4 P) kg Adding this mass of Oz to the mass of NZ in the off~gas: G ::::: 59.344 + 3.3.552 x 10.552 x 10-4 P) kg Oz consumed 02 out = (18 .552 x 104 P) kg Total mass balance 3077. The moles of glucose consumed is: Glucose consumed::::: (0.300 kgmol Therefore.002 P) kg.30 + (7.552 x 10-4 x 3009.11 x 10- 5 p) kgmo102 = (0.333-1.656 .552x 10-4 p) kg 02 02 balam. from stoichiometry and the molecular weights: Water consumed ::::: 0.002 P) kg Converting the glucose consumed to molar tenus: 1 kgmOll (60 -0.~~~11 = (10.02 kg.11 x 10-5 p) kgmol From the reaction stoichiometry.3.333 -1. conversion of this amount of glucose· requires the same number of kgmol OZ.6) kgmol ::::: 0.0.11 x 10-5 p) kgm01. Converting this molar quantity to mass of Oz: (0.30 kg Glucose balance 60 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0. from the oxygen balance: G ::::: (66.6) kg Oz out::::: 8.1.2 kg::::: 180.552 x 10"" P») kg 02.:e 18 kg Oz in +·0 kg Ozgenerated :::::{)Z out + (10.7kg = I.4 x 3009.6::::: 6.344 + 3.002 x 3009.40kg .002 P kg glucose out + glucose consumed Glucose consumed ::::: (60 .3.0.0004Pkg P = 3009.64 + 3.656 .6kg Therefore.Solutions: Chapter 4 25 59.64 + 3.2 kgmol 1 Glucoseconsumed ::::: (0. 180.1 .3 kg ::::: (66.333 .300kgm01.11 x 10-5 x 3009.656. out::::: (7.71 kg and: Oz out::::: (7.55Z x 10-4 P) kg G = (66.41 kg The mass of glucose out is 0.64 + 3552 x 10-4 P + P) kg 301O.344 + 3.002 P) Glucoseconsumed ::::: (60 .333-1.

30 58. 18.26 Solutions: Chapter 4 Gluconic acid generated = 0.41 59.20 kg These calculations allow completion of the Out side of the_mass~balancetab1e.(0.30 0 0 67.86 10.3kgmol 1 1kgmOIl Moles 02 = 18 kg.71 Product 6.300 kgmOI. 4.563 kgmol 1 As the substrates are required in the molar stoichiometric ratio of 1: 1: 1 and glucose is available in the smallest molar quantity. _ Stream Out Glucose Water Egg solids 02 N2 Gluconic acid H2O.2 kg = 0.20 3077.41 59.333 kgmol I 1kgmOIl Moleswater = 600 kg . As only 0.333 kgmol of each will be used if the reaction proceeds to completion..333) kgmol 100m _ 69% 0.3 (iii) Check the results All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly to within round-off error.333 kgmol x 100% = 9900% % excess 0 2 -.20kg Water balance 600 kg water in + 0 kg water generated = water out + 5. 32. Answer: Glucose (b) Water and 02 are available in excess.86 kg HZOz generated = 0. (33. 180.6 Total 6.6 2340 0 0 58.6 kg Gluconic add balance o kg gluconic add in + 58.quantities-mJcg.6 2340 8.ll ~oll = 10.0kg = 33. from Eq.3 . Total Egg slurry - All- Off-gas 0 0 0 8. From the mass-balance table for streams in: 1 kg mOll Moles glucose = 60 kg.20 3009.333) kgmol % excess water = 0. 69% excess 02 .333 kgmol x "10 - Answer: 9900% excess water.02 594.40 kg water consumed Water out =594.86 10.0 kg = 0.563 .300 kgmOl.withall. Finalise (a) To determine which is the limiting substrate.0.86kgglllcomc acid generated ::: gluconic acid out +0 kg gluconic acid consumed Gluconic acid out ::: 58.20 kg HZOZ generated = HzOZ out + 0 kg HZOZ consumed HZOZ out = 10.34). (2.86 kg o kg HZOZ in + 10.0. the number ofmoles available of each substrate involved in the reaction must be determined.! i9:~~ I = 58. the extent of the reaction must be limited by glucose.02 594.

and 2.30 kg N2.778 egg solids 0020 gIUCONC 58. 0.6 = 0. Therefore.118. 594.0kg = 0.263/2. the composition is: 6. Assemble (0 Flow sheet .6 = 0.41 kg 02 kgmOll = 8. 0. 2340 kg egg solids. Therefore.003 H20 .Solutions: Chapter 4 27 (c) From the completed mass~balance table.89 Nz (d) From the completed mass-balance table. 0.11 02.263kgmo102 1 As the number of kgmol N2 was determined in the preliminary calculations to be 2.6 kg and contains 6. act·d 10.89 N. 0..263 + 2.11 Oz.. g ucose 594.6 3009.002 glucose.20 kg H202.6 = 0. the reactor off-gas contains 8.02 kg glucose.. 0.198 water 2340 . the total number of moles of = = off-gas is (0.198 water.1% benzene 18.86 kg gluconic acid and 10. ..4"1" H20 1 1 Feed -----r-~ 1 95% ethanol I 5% water I Distillation 1 1 tower 1 Benzene feed ------'-1-ol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 --1--.. 3009. these mass values must be converted to moles: 8.-----------------.118/2.381 0.. the composition of the off-gas is 0.381 kgmoJ.6 .778 egg solids. the product stream has a total mass of 3009. Product 100% ethanol (ii) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet . 0.6 kg water. "r.41 kg Oz and 59. As gas compositions are normally expressed in molar or volumetric terms (p 17). Answer. 58.118) 2.020 gluconic acid.5% ethanol 1 1 7. 3009. System boundary --j.381 = 0.02 0002 1 3009. Answer: 0.003 H202 4.20 3009..4lkg02 · 132. Overhead 74.86 =.5 Azeotropic distillation 1.6 =.

741 V Total mass balance (F + B) kg total mass in =.064 V V=.25 Overhead 0.05F o F Benzene feed o o B B Product 196.33 =. 2.25 + V) kg total mass out Substituting for F and B from the ethanol and benzene balances: (206. the total mass of overhead out is denoted v. (196.25kg The calculation table shows all given quantities in kg.28 Solutions: Chapter 4 (iii) Reaction equation No reaction occurs. Calculate (i) Calculation table As all quantities in mass-balance calculations must be masses (rather-than vo!umes). 0. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.58 + 0.95 F kg ethanol in =.ll~gl "'" 196. 0.ll~~m31.58 + 0. mass is equal to volume multiplied by density: 2501absoluteethanol ::::: 2501 x 0.25 + 0. The total mass of feed in is denoted F.05F B F+B 196.1 kg .741 V V Total 0.185 V V (ii) Mass-balance calculations Ethanol balance 0.185 V 0. 161. (v) Mass~balanceequation As there is no reaction. 250 l-absolute ethanol must first be converted to mass.185 V) kg ethanol out F = (206. (4.3): mass in "'" mass out 3.741 V) kg = (196.195 V) kg Benzene balance B kg benzene in =.25 + 0.785 gcm- 3 . 0.steady state -no leaks (li) Extra data lOOOcm3 =11 l000g=lkg (iii) Basis 2501 ethanol product (iv) Compounds involved in reaction No compounds are involved in reaction.25 + 0.074 V 0. the total mass of benzene feed in is denoted B.25 0 0 196. From the deflnition of density on p 16.4kg Using this result in the ethanol and benzene balances gives: F = 238.741 V 196.741 Vkg benzene out B =. Analyse (i) Assumptions . Stream In Out Ethanol Water Benzene Total Ethanol Water Benzene Total Feed 0.25 + V) kg 10.95F 0.074 V 0.195 V + 0.95 F 0. (196.

6kg These calculations allow completion of the mass-balance table with all quantities in kg.9 119.6 Culture of plant roots 1.6 Product 196.7 226. .6 161.25 0 0 196. ----l Medium -----'-1_-I 1 1425 9 1 1 3% glucose 1. 11 3 1 "'" 1371 O.7% ammonia Air 22 cm 3 milr 1 10r 10 d 25°C.7 (ill) Check the results All columns audrows of the completed table add up correctly to within round-off error.9 119.4 Total 226.6 119.25 Overhead 29. the mass of benzene required is 119.063% glucose J 1.9 119.9 0 238. 4.6 kg.. volume is equal to mass divided by density: 1000g Volumeofbenzene"'" 119.6 357. Using the definition of density on p 16. Stream In Out Ethanol Water Benzene Total Ethanol Water Benzene Total F.Solutions: Chapter 4 29 B = 119.ed 226.2 11.2 11.9 11.1 Benzene feed 0 0 119. Finalise Prom the completed mass-balance table.25% water I Air-driven 1 reactor 1 I 1 1 I 1 Drained liquid 1 1 1110g L _ 0.2 11.872gcm g l000cm Answer: 137 titres 4. 1 atm (n) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.75% ammonia I I 95.6 357.6 kg-3' 1l k li. Assemble (i) Flow sheet Off-gas 47 1m-as 02 15 litres CO2 System boundary ).

(2. with the temperature converted from °c to degrees Kelvin using Eq. (v) Mass-balance equations For glucose.30 Solutions: Chapter 4 (iii) Reaction equation From Table B. 79% NZ by volume Ideal gas constant (Table 2.04g MassofNZin = 1O.2 (Appendix B).95 = 2.95 = 10.24): . biomass. Analyse (i) Assumptions .95gmol RT 3 1 1 82. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.72gmOI. Eq. or 1425 g nutrient medium (iv) Compounds involved in reaction Glucose.04 + 286.12:dhl = 3. The gas volumes in the off-gas must also be converted to masses. Calculate (i) Calculation table Over 10 d. Converting these values to masses: MassofOZin = 2.057 cm3 atm K~l gmol~ I (iii) Basis 10 d. convert the volumes of 02 and COZ to moles using the ideal gas law.1. Appendix B): glucose = 180.all the COz produced leaves in the off~gas . (2.32).21 X 12.I~~. biomass.gmor (25 +273. with the temperature converted from <>C to degrees Kelvin using Eq.3): mass in = mass out 3.44 g.057cm atmK.32).(3. Eq. Eq.16~~nl.I {~. (2.0 NZ = 28.15) K From the known composition of air.24): 5 3 Moles of air in = n = p V = 1 atm.0 NH3 = 17. C02 and HzO.23 gmo!. COZ and HZO are involved in the reaction. First. The reaction equation is based on the general stoichiometric equation for aerobic growth. the molecular formula for glucose is C6H1206. the volume of air sparged into the fennenter is: Volumeofairin = 22cm3min-Ix10d.5): R = 82. 02. OZ' NH3. and the moles of NZ is 0.0 Composition of air (p 17): 21% OZ. NH3.11 = 286. (4.79 x 12. (4.23gmOI.ll = 87.gases are at low pressure so vol% = mol% (li) Extra data 11= lOOOcm3 Molecular weights (Table B.168 x 10 cm ) = 12.0 = cOz 44.0 HzO= 18.air and off~gas are dry .4g The total mass of air in is therefore (87.steady state -no leaks .168x105 cm3 Converting tbis gas volume to moles using the ideal gas law.2): mass in + mass generated = mass out + mass consumed For NZ and total mass. (4.4) g = 373.72 gmol. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq. the moles ofOZ in the incoming air is 0.2 02 = 32. (2.4): C6H1206+aOZ+bNH3 ~ cCHaOpNo+dCOz+eHzO 2.

)I 1atm 15litres.0667 of the total biomass.057cm3 atmK.15)K Calculate the corresponding masses: MassofOz out = 1.Solutions: Chapter 4 31 V . Because this problem requires an integral mass balance.97 = 374.1 gmor 1 (25+273. the biomass remaining in the fermenter after 10 d culture must also be included in the table even though it is not contained in any of the streams flowing into or out of the vesseL Using this result and adding up the row for the off*gas in the out table: G = 61.057em'. dry biomass comprises l!IS ::: 0.! ~:~ll = 61.44gtotalmassin::: (1110+G+B)gtotalmassout Using the result for G: .11 = 26.613gmol RT 82.l~~.44 + 286. 11000em31 11 Mo1esofO z out::: n::: L::: ::: 1. The total mass of off~gas out is denoted G.92gmol RT 82.613gmOl.tmK Igmoll(25+273. 1000 11em' I = O.4 + 26. The In side of the mass~balance table is complete. the total biomassbarvested is denoted R As the ratio of biomass fresh weight to dry weight is 14:1.92 gmOl.81 g Total mass balance 1798.44g MassofCOzout::: 0.97g The calculation tables below show all known quantities in g. 1 atm(47litres).15) K Moles ofCOZ out =n =L = V ( .

9333 X 313.92 g.75 g glucose in + 0 g glucose generated = 0.63 = 292.87 g NH3 out + NH3 consumed NH3 consumed = 6. the dry biomass produced is 0.9333 B) g H20 out + 0 g H20 consumed Substituting the value for B from the total mass balance: H20 generated = 25. Finalise (a) Rounding to three significant figures from the completed mass~balance table.699 g glucose out + glucose consumed Glucose consumed = 42. the mass of dry roots produced is 20.97 g C02 out + 0 g C02 consumed C02 generated = 26.32 Solutions: Chapter 4 B =: 313. the calculated masses of components consumed or generated in the reaction must be converted to molar quantities: . the mass of water in the biomass is 0. Answer: 20. 4.04 g 02 in + 0 g 02 generated = 61.97 g H20 balance 1357.07 g C02 balance og C02 in + C02 generated = 26.31 g H20 in + H20 generated = (1090.83 g (iii) Check the results All columns and row~ of the completed mass-balance table add up correctly. consumed = 25. Further mass-balance calculations allow evaluation of the masses of components consumed 'or generated in the reaction.44 g 02 out + 02 consumed 02.0667 x 313.63 g Therefore.63 =20.60 g NH3 balance 24.71 g.05 g 02 balance 87.9 g (b) To determine the stoichiometry. Glucose balance 42. These calculations allow completion of the Out side of the mass·balance table with all quantities in g.43 + 0.9 g.94 g NH3 in + 0 g NH3 generated = 18.

63 Therefore: 89:79 = 3.97g.6l3gmol MolesofHzO generated = 25. Hbalance: 12 + 3 x 1.430.Ill~~ll = 1. 89.613 CO.43N0.93g.Solutions: Chapter 4 33 Moles of glucose consumed = 42. The above molar quantities can be used as coefficients in the reaction equation: 20.43 = 3. + 0.37 MWblomass This result can be used in the remaining elemental balances for completion of the stoichiometric equation.I~~I! = 0. 0z and NH3 available for reaction on the In side of the mass- balance table: Moles of glucose in = 42.16 --) a = 1.1 .37/3+2x2.357 NH3 -+ MW b' CH"OoN + 0.53NH3 -+ MWb'lOmass CH"OoNS+2.1 . (cj Converting to moles the mass quantities of glucose.357gmol MolesofCOzgenerated= 26. Answer: Glucose .37 gmol NH3' As the molar quantities of Oz and NH3 available for reaction are in excess of these values.63+6.O lomass P'" S Dividing each coefficient by 0.111'~~-~11 = 1.24gmol Moles of 0z in = 87·04g. reaction of 0.4S.37 a+ 2 x 6.37 8 --) 8 0.24 x 3.+1.16H.233 Coli1206 + 0.07 g .~~11 = 0.05 g.233 to obtain the stoichiometry per gmol glucose: 89.435 H.O fJ The values of a.60 g .27 Obalance:6+2x3.53 = 0.53 = 3.1 ~~~ll = 0. glucose must be the limiting substrate.47gmol From the stoichiometric equation.800 gmol MolesofNH3consumed = 6.233 gmol Moles of oz consumed = 25.24 x 1.800 0.79 CoH1206+3.45 A11SWer: 1he complete stoichiometric equation is: The chemical formula for the dry roots is CHI .+6.82 gmol 0z and 0. + 1.24 gmol glucose requires 0.43 N balance: 1.83 g .Z700.92 0.435 gmol Moles ofbiomass generated = ~0:2 g 10mass The moles of biomass generated is not yet known explicitly because the molecular formula for the dry biomass is unknown.1:8~o~1 = O.72gmol MoiesofNH3in = 24.53 = = 3. /3 and 8 and the molecular formula for the biomass can obtained using elemental balances.75g.1 :8:0~1 = 0.63CO.79 Cbalance:6 = MWb'lomass +2.~~11 = 2.l6 --) /3 = 0.43 = 0.

34 Solutions: Chapter 4

(d)
The mass of glucose consumed is 42.05 g; the mass of dry biomass produced is 20.92 g. Therefore, the biomass yield
from glucose is 20.92/42.05 = 0.50 g g-1 dry weight.

Answer: 0.50 g g-1 dry weight

4.7 Oxygen requirement for growth on glycerol
From TableB.2 (Appendix B), the molecular formula for glycerol is C3Hg03. From Table 4.3, the chemical formula
for Klebsiella aerogenes can be taken as CH 1. 7S00.43NO.22. Substituting these formulae into the general
stoichiometric equation for growth. Eq. (4.4), gives:
C 3Hg03 +a02 +b NH3 --t cCHI.7.s00:4JNO.22+dCOZ +eHZO

From Table B:8 (Appendix B), the molecular weight of glycerol is"92.1. The biomass formula weight calculated from
the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B) is 23.74. Taking into account the 8% ash:

Biomassmolecularweight = zg;: = 25.8

The value of the stoichiometric coefficient c can be detennined from:the yield Yxs =0.4 g g-1 and Eq. (4.12):
l
c = Yxs(MWsubstrate) = 0.40 g g-l (92.lggmOr ) = 1.43gmolgmol-1
MW cells 25.8 g grool 1

From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the degree of reduction of glycerol relative to NH3 is rs = 4.67. The degree of
reduction of the biomass relative to NH3 is:

1B = 1x4+1.75xl-0.43x2-0.22x3 = 4.23

which is also listed in Table 4.3. The theoretical oxygen demand can be determined from Eq. (4.16) with/= 0; from
Eq. (4.13). w = 3 for glycerol:

a = 1/4 (w ~ - c 1B) = 1/4 (3 x 4.67 - 1.43 x 4.23) = 1.99

Therefore. 1.99 gmo! oxygen are required per grool glycerol. From the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B),
the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.0. Converting a to mass terms:

a = 1.99gmolgmol-1 = L99gmOlgmOI-I.I::~II.I~~~11 = 0.69gg-
1

Answer: 0.69 g oxygen is required per g glycerol conswned

4.8 Product yield In anaerobic digestion
From Eq. (4.13), the stoichiometric equation for anaerobic growth and product fonnation by methane bacteria can be
written as:
0I3COOH+ b NH3 --j. c CH1.400.4ONo.20+ deo2 + e H20 + /0I4
From Table B.8 (Appendix B), the molecular weight of acetic acid is 60.1. From Table B.l (Appendix B), the
molecular weight of CO2 is 44.0. The value of the stoichiometric coefficient d can be determined based on Eq. (4.14)
with carbon dioxide as the product and the yield YpS = 0.67 kg kg- 1 = 0.67 g g-l:

d = Yps(MWsubstral~ = I 1
0.67gg- (60.1ggmor j = 0.915 gmol gmol-l
MWC02 44.0ggmol I

The other coefficients can be determined using this result and elemental balances.
Cbalance:2 = c+d+/= c+0.915+f--j.f= L085-c
Hbalance:4+3b = 1.4c+2e+4f
° balance: 2 = 0.40c+2d+e = OAOc+2xO.915+e = OAOc+L83+e --j. e = O.17-0.40c
N balance: b = 0.20 c

Solutions: Chapter 4 35

Substituting the expressions fort, e and b from the C, 0 and N balances, respectively, into the H balance:

4+3x0.20c = l.4c+2x(0.17-0.40c)+4x(l.085-c)
4 c = 0.680

C : 0.170

Substituting this value for c into the expressions for the other coefficients gives b = 0,034, e = 0.102 and/: 0.915.
The yield of methane is therefore 0.915 gmol per gmol acetic acid

=
The maximum possible methane yield can be calculated using Eq. (4.20). From Eq. (4.13), w 2 for acetic acid and)
= =
1 for methane. From TableB.2 (Appendix B); the degree of reduction of acetic acid relative to NH3 is it 4.00,
and the degree of reduction of methane relative to NH3 is lP = 8.00. Substituting these values into Eq. (4.20) gives:

. WYs :i «1.00) -1
fmax = )IP = 1(8.00) = 1.0gmolgmol

The actual methane yield of 0.915 gmol gmol-l therefore represents 91:S%of the theoretical maximum.

Answer: 91.5% of the theoretical maximum

4.9 Stoichiometry of single-cell protein synthesis
(aJ
From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the .molecular formula for glucose isC6H1206. If all carbon in the substrate is
converted into biomass, production of carbon dioxide is zero. Therefore, from Eq. (4.4), the stoichiometric equation
for anaerobic growth of Cellulomonas is:

C~1206 + b NH 3 -+ c CH1.5iPO.~O.16 + e H20

The stoichiometric coefficients can be determined using elemental balances.
C balance: 6 = c
Hbalance:12+3b: 1.56c+2e
=
o balance: 6 0.54 c + e
N balance: b : 0.16 c
°
Substituting the value for c from the C balance ,into the and N balances gives e = 2.76 and b = 0.96. respectively.
The yield of biomass from substrate in molar terms is therefore 6 gmol gmol-l.

Using the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of glucose is 180.2. The biomass formula
weight calculated from Table B.l (Appendix B) is 24.46. Taking into account the 5% ash:

Biomass molecularweight = 2;9~6 = 25.75

Therefore, in mass terms, the molar biomass yield of 6 gmol gmol-l= (6 x 25.75) g biomass per 180.2 g substrate:
0.86 g g-l.

The maximum possible biomass yield is calculated using Eq. (4.19). From Eq. (4.13), W = 6 for glucose. From Table
B.2 (Appendix B). the degree ofreduclion of glucose relative to NH3 isrs = 4.00. The degree of reduction of the
biomass relative to NH3 is:
I x4+ 1.56 x 1-0.54x2-0.16x3 00
JB = = 4.

Substituting these values into Eq. (4.19):

wYs 6(4.00) -1
croax = 1i3 = 4.00 = 6.0 gmol gmol

The theoretical maximum biomass yield is therefore the same as the actual biomass yield.

36 Solutions: Chapter 4

Answer: The biomass yield from substrate of 0.86 g g-t is 100% of the theoretical maximum. When there is no
product formo.tion and no oxygen for electron transfer, all the available electrons from the substrate must go to the
biomass.

(b)
(I)
From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the molecular formula for methanol is CH40 and the degree of reduction relative to
NH3 is 1S =6.00. The degree ofreduction of Methylophilus methylotrophus biomass relative to NH3 is:
_ lx4+1.68xl-0.36x2-0.22x3 -430
JB- 1 -.

From Eq. (4.13), W "" 1 for methanol. Substituting'values into Eq. (4.19);

W JS 1 (6.00) 140 1 1-1
emu"" Jh" "" 4.30 "" . gIno gmo

From Table B.g (Appendix B). the molecular weight of methanol is 32.0. The biomass formula weight calculated
from the atomic weights in Table B.I (Appendix B) is 22.55. With 6% ash:

Biomassmolecularweight = ~:: = 23.99
In mass terms, the maximum possible molar biomass yield of lAO gmol gmol·l is equal to (1.40 x 23.99) g biomass
per 32,0 g substrate = 1.05 g g-l,

Answer: 1he maximum possible biomass yield from methanol is 1.05 g g-}, In terms of Catoms,.the biomass yield is
1.40 grool grool-l as both biomass and substrate have 1 C atom each. In comparison, the C*atQm biomass yield from
glucose in (a) is 1 grool grool·}. The main reason for the increased yield in (b) is the high degree of reduction of
methanol compared with glucose.

(il)
The actual yield of biomass from methanol is c = OA2 x lAO gmol gmol·} = 0.59. The ox.ygen demand can be
determined from Eq. (4.16) if biomass remains the only major product so thatf= O. Using the parameter values
determined in (b) (i):

Therefore, 0.87 gruol ox.ygen is required r:.r gmol methanol. As the molecular weights of methanol and oxygen are
the same, the oxygen demand is 0.87 g g. methanol.

Answer. 0.87 g oxygen is required per g methanol consumed

4.10 Ethanol production by yeast and bacteria
(a)
From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the molecular formula for glucose is C6H1206 and the molecular formula for ethanol
is C2H60. From Eq> (4.13), the stoichiometric equation for anaerobic growth and product formation is:

CJI}P6+bNH3 -+ cCHl.sO05NO.2+dC02+eH20+fC2H60

From Table B.8 (Appendix B), the molecular weight of ethanol is 46.1. Using the atomic weights in Table B.l
(Appendix B), the molecular weight of glucose is 180.2 and the biomass molecular weight is 24.6. The values of the
stoichiometric coefficients c can be determined from Eq. (4.12) and the yields Yxs -= O.ll g g.1 for yeast and Yxs =
0.05 g g.1 for bacteria.

F t. - Yxs(MWsubstrare) _ O.ll gg-' (180.2 g gmOr') - 081 1 1-'
oryeas c - MW II - 1 - . gmo gmo
ce s 24.6 g gmol
1
.
For bactena, c =
Yxs(MWsubstrate)
MW II
ce s
= 0.05 g g-' , = 037
(I80.2ggmor )
24.6 g gmol-
. gmo1gmo1-'
The other coefficients can be determined using elemental balances.

Solutions: Chapter 4 37

Yeast
Cbalance:6 = c+d+2j= 0.81+d+2j~ d = 5.19-2j
Hbalance: l2+3b = 1.8c+2e+6j= 1.8xO.81+2e+6j~ 1O.54+3b = 2e+6j
o balance: 6 = 0.sc+2d+e+f= 0.5xO.81+2d+e+f~5.595 = 2d+e+j
Nbalance:b = 0.2e = O.2xO.81 = 0.16
Substituting the expression for b from the N balance into the H balances gives:

10.54+3xO.16 = 2e+6f

e=5.51-3f

Substituting this and the expression
\....•..
for d" from the C balance into the 0 balance gives:

5.595 =2x(5.19-2j)+(5.51-3j)+f

6f = 10.295
f= 1.72

Therefore, for yeast, the yield of ethanol from glucose is 1.72 grool grool,l.

Bacteria
C balance: 6 = c+d+2f= 0.37+d+2f~ d = 5.63-2f
Hbalance:12+3b = 1.8c+2e+6f= 1.8x037+2e+6f~ 11.33+3b = 2e+6f
o balance: 6 = 0.5c+2d+e+f= O.sxO.37+2d+e+f~5.815 = 2d+e+!
N balance: b = 0.2 c = 0.2 x 0.37 = 0.074
Using the same solution procedure as for yeast, substituting the expression for b from the N balance into the H
balances gives:

11.33 +3xO.074 = 2e+6j
e=5.78-3f

Substituting this and the expression for d from the C balance into the 0 balance gives:

5.815 = 2x(5.63-2j)+(5.78-3j)+f

6f= 11.225

f = 1.87
Therefore, for bacteria. the yield of ethanol from glucose is 1.87 grool grool'}.

Answer~ 1.72 grool grool"} for yeast; 1.87 grool grool,l for bacteria

(b)
= =
The maximum possible ethanol yield can be calculated using Eq. (4.20). From Eq. (4.13), w 6 for glucose andj 2
=
for ethanol. From Table B.2(Appendix B), the degree of reduction of glucose relative toNH3 is rs 4.00, and the
degree of reduction of ethanol relative to NH3 is »=
6.00. Using these values in Eq. (4.20) gives:

W JS 6 (4.00) 1
f max = 1P = 2(6.00) = 2.0gmolgmor

There:ore, the actu~ ethanol yield of 1.72 ~Ol gmol'} for yeast represe.nts 86%. of the theoretical maximum; for
bactena, the actual yield of 1.87 grool grool' represents 94% of the theoretical maxunum.

Answer: 86% of the theoretical maximum for yeast; 94% of the theoretical maximum for bacteria

4.11 Detecting unknown prodncts
From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the molecular formula for glucose is C6H 1206. Assuming that no products other than
biomass are formed, from Eq. (4.4), the stoichiometric equation for growth is~

38 Solutions: Chapter 4

C~1206+a02+bNH3 ~ cCHl.7~0.56NO.l7+dC02+eH:f)

Using the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of glucose is 180.2. the molecular weight
of oxygen is 32.0, and the biomass molecular weight is 25.16. The value of the stoichiometric coefficient c can be
determined from the yield Yxs =0.37 g g-l andEq. (4.12):
Yxs(MWsubstrat~ 0.37gg- 1(180.2ggmor j -1
c = MW II
ce s
=
25.16ggmor
1 ' = 2.65gmolgmol

Therefore, 2.65 groat cells are produced per gmol glucose consumed. Converting the oxygen demand to a molar
basis:

O.88g02125.16gcellslllgmOlOZI
0.88 g 02 per g cells =~. 1 g ce!J.s . 19mol cells . 32.0 g 02 = 0.69 gmol 02 groot-1 cells
Combining this with the result for c, the observed oxygen demand a is:

0.69 gmol O2 (2.65 gmat cens)
a= =183
1 gIno! cells 1 gmol glucose .

From Table B.2 (Appendix B), the degree of reduction of glucose relative to NH31srS'='4;00. The degree of
reduction of the biomass relative to NH3 is:

_ lx4+1.79xl-0.56x2-0.17x3 -416
~- - .
If no products are formed other than biomass, the theoretical oxygen demand can be determined from Eq. (4.16) with!
= 0; from Eq. (4.13), w = 6 for glucose:

a = 1/4(w1!l-clll) = 1/4 (6x 4.00-2.65 x 4.16) = 3.24

As the theoretical oxygen demand is significantly higher than that observed, formation of other products acting as
electron acceptors is likely to have occurred in the culture.

Answer: Yes

4.12 Medium formulation
Using the atomic weights'in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of (N14)zS04 is 132,1 and the biomass
molecular weight is 26.16. Using a basis of 1 litre, production of 25 g cells corresponds to 25/26,16 = 0.956 grool
cells. As each gmolcells contains O.25gmol N, (0.956x0.25) = 0.239gmol Nare-neededfrom the'medium for
biomass synthesis, As (NH4)zS04 is the sole N source and each gmol (Nl4)zS04contains 2gmol N, 0.239/2= 0.120
gmol (N14)zS04 is required. Multiplying this by the molecular weight, 0.120 x 132.-1 = 15.9 g (N14)zS04 are
required. The minimum concentration of (N}4)zS04 is therefore 15.9 g 1*1.

Answer: 15.9 g I-I

4.13 Oxygen demand for production of recombinant protein
(a)
Recombinant protein can be considered as a product of cell cuItureeven though it is not excreted from the cells;
assume that recombinant protein is synthesised in addition to the normal E.- coli biomass composition. From Table
4.3, the chemical formula for E. coli can be taken as CH1.7700.49N0.24; from Table B.2 (Appendix B), the molecular
formula for glucose is C6H1206' Substituting these formulae into the general stoichiometric equation for growth and
product formation, Eq. (4.13), gives:

C~1206 +a02 +bNH3 -lo cCHL7,o0.4~O.24+dC02 +e H20+fCHl.s.sO0.3INO,2S

Using the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of glucose is 180.2, the biomass molecular
weight is 25.00, and the recombinant protein molecular weight is 22.03.

Solutions: Chapter 4 39

Assume that the biomass yield refers to the cell mass without recombinant protein. The value of the stoichiometric
coefficient c can be determined from the yield Yxs = 0.48 g g-l and Eq, (4,12):

Yxs(MWsubs"ate) 0.48gg-1 (180.2g gmol-l) 346 I I-I
c= = =. gmogmo
MWcells 25,OOggmoll

The value of the stoichiometric coefficientfcan be determined from the yield Yps =0.20 x 0.48 =0.096 g g-l and Eq,
(4.14)'
1
f _- Yps(MWsubstrate) __ 0.096gg- (180.2ggmol-l) -,gmogmo
_ 079 I I-I
MW product 22.03 g gmol 1

The ammonia requirement can be, detemPneq. using an elemental balance for N.
N balance: b = 0.24 c + 0,25 f .'
Substituting the above valoesforc and/into the N balance gives b = 0,24 x 3.46 + 0.25 x 0,79 = 1.03,

Answer: 1.03 gmol grool-l glucose
(h)
The oxygen demand can be determined using an .electron balance. From Table B,2 (Appendix B), the degree of
=
reduction of glucose relative to NH3 is -ns 4.00; from Table 4.3," the degree of reduction 'Of E. coli relative to NH3 is
=
JB 4.07. The degree of reduction of the recombinant protein relative to NH3 is:
_ lx4+1.55xl-0.31x2-0.25x3 _ 418
~- - .
=
From Eq. (4.13), w 6 for glucose andj =1 for recombinant protein. Substituting these values into Eq. (4.16) for the
theoretical oxygen demand gives:

a = 1/4(W~-C1tc-fjJP) = 1/4 (6 x 4.00-3.46x 4.07- 0.79 x 1 x4.18) = 1.65

Answer: 1.65 gmol per gmol glucose
(e)
Iff in the stoichiometric equation is zero but c remains equal to 3.46, the ammonia requirement can be determined
using an elemental balance for N as follows:
N balance: b = 0.24 c = 0.24 x 3.46 = 0.83
Therefore, in wild-type E. coli the ammonia requirement is reduced from 1.03 to 0.83 grool gmol-1 glucose, a
decrease of 19%, Eq. (4.16) for the oxygen requirement becomes:

Therefore, the oxygen demand is increased from 1.65 to 2.48 gmol gmol-l glucose, a rise of 50%.

Answer. The ammonia and oxygen requirements for wild-type E. coli are 0.83 grool and 2.48 gmol per gmol glucose,
respectively. These values represent a 19% reduction and a 50% increase, respectively, compared with the genetically
engineered strain.

4.14 Effect of growth on oxygen demand
The stoichiometric equation for acetic acid production using cell culture must include terms for growth. Based on Eq.
(4.13), the stoichiometric equation for growth and product formation is:
C2H4>+a02+bNH3 ~ cCHLSOo.sNo.2+dC02+eH20+jC2f402

From Table 8.8 (Appendix B), the molecular weights of ethanol and acetic acid are 46.1 and 60.1, respectively. From
the atomic weights in Table B.1 (Appendix B), the biomass molecular weight is 24.63. The value of the
=
stoichiometric coefficient c can be determined from the yield Yxs 0.14 g g~l and Eq. (4.12):

_Yx",s"(MW"","S::U,,bs::"_at-,-e) 0.14 g g-1 (46.1 g gmol-1) -1
c = = "'" 0.26groolgmol
MW cells 24.63 g gmol 1

. The degree of reduction of the biomass relative to NH3 is : _ lx4+1.00. 1/4(w/S-C1B-fj1P) = 1/4(2x6.1ggmol-l) -I f = MW odu pr ct =.13). 1 -.t (46.71 gmol gmol From Table B. 4. 1.00) =.8xl-0.20-0.40 Solutions: Chapter 4 The value of the stoichiometric coefficient!can be determined from the yield Yps = 0. Therefore. (4. the degree of reduction of ethanol relative to NH3 is rs =. From Eq. 1.1ggmor 1 =.71x2x4. 6O.26x4.92 g g-1 and Eq.92gg. with growth. (4. (4. Substituting these values into Eq.5x2-0. and the degree of reduction of acetic acid relative to NH3 is 'no =. The oxygen demand is increased by 31 %. compared with 1 gmoloxygen per gmol glucose without groWth.14): Yps(MWsubstrate) O. the oxygen demand for acetic acid production is increased by31%. W = 2 for ethanol and j =.2 (Appendix B).2x3 _ 420 1ll. with growth. 2 for acetic acid. Answer.31 groat oxygen are required per gmol glucose consumed. 6.00. 0.00-0.31 Therefore.16) for the theoretical oxygen demand gives: a=.

Energy Balances 5..(01531) dT calg-l = J.1. The specific enthalpy change calculated using Eq."c (0.6(Appendix B)..551 cal g-IoC l (100 .248+ 0. The sensible energy change can be determined = = by evaluating the integral of this expression between the limits T 150°C and T 65°C: M = J.69 cal g-1 Answer: -5.~~ (28.94 + 0.l (d) From Table B3 (Appendix B).965 x lOw9 T3 where Cp is heat capacity in J gmol-l °C l and Tis temperature in °C.94 + 0.5 (Appendix B).3191 x 10-5 f2 ..25)OC !ill : : : 41.965 x 10-9 rJ) dT J gmor1 15O"C l5O"C .569 cal g-l °C·l (10.20)OC !ih :::: -5.3191 x lOw 5 y'2 _ 1.248 + 0.1.569 cal g-1 "C. (5.69 cal g~l (c) Prom Table B.4147 x W· 2 T + 0..00153 T.551 calg.1 Sensible energy cbange (a) From Table B. where Tis in "c and Cp is in cal got °C~l.5 (Appendix B).lS"C 1S"C 6h = (0248T+0~153r2)[ calg-l M = 36. Cp for m~cresol between 25"'C andlOO"C is 0. 41.4147x 10-2 T+ 0. Cp for ethylene glycol betweenlO"C and 20"C can be taken as 0.Thespecific enthalpy change calculated using Eq.3 cal g-1 (b) From Table B.13) is: M = Cp aT = 0. the heat capacity of air between 65"C and 150"C is given by the equation: Cp :::::: 28.9 cal g.I oC-t.'~ Cp dT = J.3 cal g-t Answer. The sensible energy change is best determined from the integral of this equation between the limits T:::: 15"C and T:::: 1200C: 6h '''''' CpdT = J. Cp for succinic acid between 15"C-and 120°C is given by the expression 0. (SIB) is: M = Cp aT = 0.

3 kPa.1 5.16).3kPa From Table C.l at 253.0 kJ kg. from Table A.05 kJ kg. Taking the average of the values at nee and 34°C~ Ah v = 2423. the enthalpy at 100 kPa and 275°C is 3024 kJ kg-I.2 Heat of vaporisation -The latent heat of vaporisation of water at BOC is obtained from Table C. °C (ii) FkJw sheet . Interpolating between these values gives an enthalpy of 3019.t .4 kJ kg-I.55 kJ kg-Ij .5 atm = 2. 42 Souaions: Chapter 5 t:.11.l (Appendix C). !:J.50kJ gmal-] 5.I Answer: 48. Answer: 3019.I (Appendix C) as 2574.4 kJ kg.3 (Appendix C). 1 atm "" 1.I (2423.5 kJ h. Answer: 104. (5. the enthalpy at 500 kPa and 275"'C is 3013 kJ kif 1.h = -2500. Answer: 2574. Using the relationship on p 89.I (Appendix C).l 5.9 J gmol~l "" -2.11~gl Mf = 48.5 atm . kJ.S (Appendix A). The enthalpy of liquid water at 3S"C relative to the triple point can be estimated as the average of the values in Table Col for 34<>C and 36°C = 146.hy = 2296.50 kJ gmat.55 kJ kg~l at 33°C From Eq.05 kJ kg-! at 85°C.l (Appendix C).3.l Answer: -2. h.al=253.0) kJ kg-I"" 104.013 x lOS Pa.lli:.Ql.4 Pre-heating nutrient medium 1. Assemble (i) Units kg.l (dJ The enthalpy of superheated steam at 2.5 atm and 275°C relative to the triple point can be obtained from Table C.42.l (bJ From Table C.3 Steam tables (aJ The heat of vaporisation of water at 85"C is obtained from Table C. To convert the pressure to kPa.8 kJkg.55 kJ kg-I (cJ -The enthalpy of saturated water vapour at 40°C relative to the triple point can be read directly from Table C.8 kJ kg. Answer: 2296.5 kJ h. the enthalpy of water at 35°C relative to 1000e is therefore (146.55 .55 kJ kg-I. Mf = M!>h v = 20 gb.:~5pal.55 k:J kg-t. the enthalpy of liquid water at IOce relative to the triple point is 42. Therefore: 2. Taking the average of the values at 84"C and 86"C.

9) applies: :E(Mh) . Analyse (i) Assumptions .. With symbol MD = medium. (5.:E(Mh).187 x 103 J (fable A.13): (M h)MDuut = M Cp aT = 3250 kg (0.1 kJ kg.system is homogenous .S.l. or 3250 kg medium in (ill) Reference state H = 0 for water (steam) at its triple point = H 0 for medium at 15°C (iv) Extra data = = C medium 0. (5. Calculate (i) ldmtify ta"" in the 'nagy-balan" .2.Solutions: Chapter 5 43 System boundar.quatian Ws =O.9 kca1 kg-I °C. Appendix C) 1 kcal = 4.condensate temperature is 150°C .Q. Eq.(fable C. \ .l )(44 -15loe = 8.9 keal kg-l 0c.(M h)MD out .steady state -no leaks .1 6h 1 v waterat 150°C = 2113.483 x 104 keal Converting to kJ: . Appendix A) 1 W = 1 J s-1 (fable A. Appendix A).no shaft work (li) Basis 1 h. There are two components for the beat term. 1 kW =·1 kJ s~l (v) Mass balance The mass balance is already complete.9 cal g-l 0(.22 kW r 1 I I Medium in . Q: Qross and Q from the condensing steam. Q (loss) =0.7. = 0 input output """"" """"" 3.-1 0.Qloss =0 (M h)MD in = 0 (reference state) (M h)MD out at 44°C is calculated as a sensible energy change from H = 0 at 15°C using Eq. 2. therefore. the energy-balance equation becomes: (M h)MD in . (vi) Energy-balance equation At steady state.Q+ W.-_~ Heating vessel 1--'----_ Medium out 3250 kg h-1 3250 kg h-1 15°C 44°C -Q (from condensing steam) (ill) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sbeet.

5% glucose 4% glucose I / I r--t- 96% water 25°C I .483 x 10 kcaL 1 kcal '1000 1 I"" 3.16) and must be equal to -Q.lkJkg. .000 lltres) 2000 kg h.56xloSkJ "" Msteam!JJl v = Msteam(21l3.~ .22 kW.44 Solutions: Chapter 5 (M h)MD out = 4 8. 3. kJ. .-.-1113600'1 1kW · l h =792kJh-1 Therefore. -.1 I I 0.56 x 105 kJ Q has a negative value which is consistent with the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88: heat must be supplied to the system from the surroundings.5 Production of glutamic acid (a) L Assemble (i) Units kg. This heat is provided as the latent heat of vaporisation as saturated steam at 150<>C condenses.1 1 atm. {hess "" 792 kJ. -. °C (ii) Flow sheet Off-gas System boundary . Converting to k:J hoi: O.1) Mstearn "" 168 kg 4. on the basis of 1 h. The enthalpy change from this change ofphase is calculated using Eq.187X103J111kJ The rate of heat loss is 0. .55 x 105 kJ-Q-792kJ "" 0 Q = -3. Substituting values into the energy~balance equation gives: 0-3.55 x 105 kJ 14.. Q (cooling) Inlet gas 100.000 litres min. [lkJ.22kW = O. b. (5. 15"C 88% air 12%NHs (ill) System boundary The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.22kW. 1 I I I I I Reactor I Feed Product (25. Finalise Answer: 168 kg 5.

ammonia.3): mass in = mass out (vii) Energy-balance equation The modified energy-balance equation.8 (see Problem 2. (4.negligible sensible heat change .all COz produced leaves in the off-gas . Appendix B): glucose = 180.0 Nz = 28.2).system is homogenous . On a basis ofl h.solutions are ideal .is Eq. 79% Nz by volume Heats of combustion (Table B.17 x l06litres.2 NH3 = 17.inlet air and off-gas are dry . (526). mass in + mass generated = mass out +. (2. the volume ofNZ in = 0. with the temperature converted from °C to degrees Kelvin using Eq.5): R = 0. 88. ammonia.steady state -no leaks . or 2000 kg feed (ill) Reference state H = 0 for water at its triple point H = 0 for feed at 25°C (iv) Extra data Molecular'weights (Table B. Using the known composition of air. carbon dioxide and water are involved in the reaction.t. Eq. oxygen.1 kJ gmor 1 (v) Compounds involved in reaction Glucose.28 x 106 = 1.28 x 106 litres. Converting these gas volumes to moles using the ideal gas law. the volume of air in is 88.28 x 106 = 4.1 Ah~ glutamic acid =-2244. (4.20 x 105 litres.8.0 02=32.24): . Analyse (i) Assumptions .21 x 5.glucose. (vi) Mass-balance equations For. Chapter 2) Ideal gas constant (fable 2.Solutions: Chapter 5 45 (iv) Reaction equation 2. glutamic acid.no evaporation .6kJ gmol.0 glutamic acid = 147. (2.1 C02 =44.000 litres NH3 enter the reactor every min. applies: -MIrxn-MyAhv-Q+ Ws =0 3.000 x 60 = 5.all excess NH3 is dissolved in the aqueous phase .79 x 5.0kJ gmol-l Ah~NH3 =-382.000 x 60 = 7. the appropriate mass~balanceequation. the volume ofNE3 in is 12. the volume of Oz in = 0.32).0 H20 = 18. Appendix B): Ah~ glucose = -2805. oxygen.0820571 atm K-l gmol-l Composition of air (p 17): 21% Oz. . Calculate (i) Mass balance As gas compositions are normally given in Yol%.no shaft work (ii) Basis I h.0 air = 28. carbon dioxide and water.11 x 106 Utres.mass consumed For Nz and total mass. Eq.9.000 litres air and 12. glutamic acid. the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq.

8 4928.0kg 4 MassofNH3 in = 3.0 kg N2 in = N2 out N2 out = 4928.15) K MI · _pV -_ o esofN 2m .0820571aJlnK 'gmol-'(15+273.ll~gl = 5185 kg Therefore.0 0 -.! .05 x 10 gmol.II..8 + 4928.0820571alm r' gmor 1 (15 + 273.20xt051) =3.--.69xI04gmol RT 0.5 1500.. The calculation tables below show all known quantities in kg.="-_==.l1 x 1Q6t) = 4.17XI0'1) -176 .ll~gl = 1500.05x10 4 g.I5)K MolesofNH in=pV = latm(7.005 P) kg Converting the glucose consumed to molar terms: Olucoseconsumed = (80-0.3 Off-gas Product Total _ _ 80-=__~=". x 10' gmoI RT 0.3 -==. Converting these molar quantities to masses: .5 = 6947. These molar quantities can now be converted to masses using the molecular weights: Mass of02 in = 4.005 P kg glucose out + glucose consumed Glucose consumed :::: (80 .-- 518.69 x 10 4 ~Ol·l i~~II.-_ Stream Out Glucose NHS °z NZ Gluconic acid COz HZO Total Peed Inlet gas Off~gas 0 0 ? ? 0 ? 0 G Product 0.I5)K ..0.5 x the number of kgmo1 02.mol 3 RT 0.8kg Mass ofN2 in = L76x 10 5 ~OLI i~~II.0 kg Glucose balance 80 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated = 0.-_ 0 _--. conversion of this number of kgmol glucose requires the same number of kgmol NH3 and 1..005 P) kg ·1 :8~:~ 1= (0. the total mass of product is denoted P.0 + 518.005P ? 0 0 ? 0 ? P Total 0.5 1500. the total mass of inlet gas is 1500.=_ 1920 _ 8947.775x 10-' P)kgmol From the reaction stoichiometry..~.8 4928.ll~gl = 4928.0 o 0 o 6947. The total mass of off~gas is denoted G. 4928.0820'71aJlnK 19moll(I'+273. Stream In Glucose 02 Gluconic acid C02 HZO Total Peed 80 o o o o 0 1920 2000 Inlet gas o 518.-_-".444-2.005P ? ? ? ? ? ? G+P N2 balance N2 is a tie component.3 kg.- laJln(4.46 Solutions: Chapter 5 Moles of 02 in = pV = 1 atm(l.

8 kg02 in + 0 kg 02 generated = 02 out + (21. 02 and C02 out gives the total mass of off-gas.1.444-2.3kg = (6427.444-2.j .5 x (0.3 kg = 1.1 ~4:~~~ I Glutamic acid generated = (65.221 x 10-3 P) kg C02 G = (6427.775 x 10-5 p) kgm01.5 + 1.775 x 10-5 p)kgm01.3 kg Therefore.312-1. 1.332 x 10-' P)) kg 02 out = (1479.from the stoichiometry: Glutamicacidgenerated = (0.11 x 10-4 P) kg Total mass balance 8947. 1.312 .775 x 10-5 P)kgmol =(0.3 P) kg Water generated = 3 x (0.3 P) kg 02 + (19.0 kg N2 + (1479.11 x 10-4 P+ P)kg 2520.Solutions: Chapter 5 47 NH.332 x 10-3 P) kg 02 consumed 02 out = (1500.718 x 10-4 P) kg 02 consumed = 1.3 kg total mass in = (0 + P) kg total mass out Substituting the above expression for a into the total mass balance: 8947.444-2.221 x 10-3 P) kg Adding together .000 P kg P = 2520.332 x 10-3 P) kg C02 balance okg C02 in + (19.976 .~:~11 02 consumed = (21. expressions for the masses of glutamic acid.312 -4.~~~ll NH3 consumed = (7.O: a = 4928.2520.775 x 10-5 P)kgmol = (0.536 .1 .~:~11 Water generated = (23.5 + 1.536 .775 x 10-5 P)kgmol = (0.221 x 10-3 P) kg C02 generated = C02 out + 0 kg C02 consumed C02 out = (19.775 x 10-5 P)kgmol =3 x (0.775X 10-5 p)kgm01.0+ 1.1 ~:~ll C02 generated = (19.3) kg G = 6427.548-4.444-2.0+ 1.444-2. from the total mass balance: G = (8947.444-2.775X W-5 p)kgm01.775 x 10-5 P)kgmol = 1. consumed =(0.1.444-2.536 . C02 and water generated can be determined . 02 and C02 balances gives: .444-2.312 .332 x 10-3 P) kg Similarly.1.444-2.8 .1.499 x 10-3 P) kg 02 balance 1500.332 x 10. 1.082 x 10-3 P) kg CO2 generated = (0.775 x 10-5 p)kgm01.221 x 10.5X(0.(21.the masses ofN2.444-2.536 .1 .3 .0kg Substituting the result for P into the glucose.

548-4.14kg Water balance 1920 kg water in + 20.9 4928.48 Solutions: Chapter 5 Glucose consumed = (80 .3 P) kg :::: 55.14 1482. Therefore.20 8947. the energy*balance equation becomes: -AHrxn-Q::: 0 The heat of reaction is evaluated using Eq.536 .60 kg Ozconsumed = (2L312-1.40 kg Glucose out = 0.3 All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly to within round-off error.20 kg These results can be used directly in the energy balance for evaluation of the cooling requirements.20).20 kg Glutamic acid balance o kg glutamic acid in + 55.02 kg The Out side of the mass-balance table can now be completed with all quantities in kg.46 1940.20 kg water generated = water out + 0 kg water consumed Water out::: 1940.9 kg C02 out = C02 generated = (19.332 x 10-3 P) kg = 1482.36 kg Glutamic acid generated = (65.02 16.312. Converting the masses of reactants and products consumed or generated to moles: Glucoseconsumed::: 67.40kg ::: 67AOkg ·ll~gl·1 :8~o~ I::: 374gmol . NH3 balance 518.20 2520 Total 12.5 kg NH3 in + 0 kg NB3 generated = NH3 out + 6..976 .02 kg glutamic acid generated ::: glutamic acid out + 0 kg glutamic acid consumed Glutamic acid out::: 55. 1.46 0 6427.0.221 x 10-3 P) kg =: 16. (ii) Energy balance Ws =0.60 512.4 Product 12.499 x 10*3 P) kg = 20..0 55. (5.02 kg Water generated = (23.. Stream Out Feed Glucose NHl °z NZ Gluconic acid CO2 HZO Total Inlet gas Off-gas 0 0 1482.332xlO*3p) kg = 17.02 0 1940. completion of the mass balance allows the calculations to be checked. The nin this equation are the moles of reactant or product involved in the reaction.36 kg NB3 consumed NH3 out =512. However. 4.005 P) kg = 67.14 0 0 55. Mv =O.0 0 16. A ::: NH3 and GA = glutamic add.082 x 10. As the heat of combustion ofCOZ and H20 is zero: rxn = (nM~)G+(nM~)A -(nM~)GA Mf where G ::: glucose.1.95kg 02 out = (14795 + 1.9 4928..005 P kg = 12.718 x 104 P) kg = 6.46 kg Using the result for P to evaluate the masses of the other reactants and products involved in the reaction: NH3consumed = (7.60 512.

5.1 is absorbed by 2000 kg h. and that the heat capacity of the gas stream is equal to that of air :: approx. Appendix B):: 29 kJ kgmol-l °C-l.Solutions: Chapter 5 49 As NH3 and glutamic acid are involved in the reaction in stoichiometric quantities.1 aqueous medium and 6947-3 kg l:r 1 gas.. :: 23"C 1 (2000 kg h-1)(75. Therefore.26): -6Hrxn -Mv tih v -Q+ Ws :: 0 with Ws :: 1.06gmolh- 1 The heat of reaction for aerobic metabolism is approximately -460 kJ gmol. For a rough calculation of the effect of this heat on the temperature of the reactor. 374 gmol NH3 are consumed and 374 gmol glutamic acid are produced.25kgh- 1 0: 1. From Table A. Q positive indicates that. the temperature without cooling woulJ. (5. 1 W:: 1 J s-1.1 1 g :: 39.1 Oz (p 100). therefore 1 kW:: 1 kJ s·1 and: . 5 1 T :: 353 x 10 kJ h..1 ~~~ll .4 J gmol-l °C-l (Table B-3.53 x loS kJ -Q : 0 Q : 3. Answer: 353 x 105 kJ h.Assume that the heat capacity of the = aqueous medium is close to that of water:: 75.25kgOZh-1 4kgkg 1 Converting this quantity to gInol using the molecular weight of 02 =32.6 Bacterial production of alginate Alginate production at a rate of 5 kg h~ 1 requires: 5 kgh-1 : 1.1)(29 kJkgmor1 oc-1j . Appendix B) 75.1 kJ gmol-lj M:lrxn = -353 x lOS kJ Substituting this result into the energy~balance equation: 3. From Eq.53 x loS kJ From the sign conventions outlined on W 87-88. (5.1 ~~~~ll +(6947. Substituting these quantities into the heat of reaction equation gives: MI"" : 374 gmol (-2805.3 kg h. Assuming that the usual temperature for the reaction = is 25°C.~~~ll As a temperature rise of 23°C in the reactor would not be well tolerated by most commercial organisms. assume that the 353 x 105 kJ h. 29 J gmol-l 0C.6kJ gmOl-lj_ 374 gmol(-2244. the heat of reaction would be absorbed as sensible heat by the streams passing through the reactor.8 (Appendix A).1 (Table B.3.4 kJ kgmol-l °C-l.i increase to (25 + 23)OC 48°C.I.0 (Table B.heat must be removed from the system.12): 6T: MI (M Cplliquid + (M Cpl. .0kJ gmol-lj + 374 gmol(-382.1 (b) If cooling were not provided. Eq.4kJ kgmor oc-1j.5 kW andMv := 0 (no evaporation). Appendix B): 0zrequired:: 1. provision of adequate cooling for this reaction is an important consideration. the heat of reaction for alginate production is: 'This result can be used in the modified energy-balance equation.1 .

l2): _ Yxs (MW substraJe)) _ 0.80o. the molecular fannulae and molecular weights are: sucrose = C12H2Z011: MW:: 342.59 = 0.3) _ /4 . (4. MWI achC. the heats of combustion of the reactants and.average.2 x 1.2 c = 0.I From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.1 = 1.14): Yps (MW substrate)) 0040 g g-I (342.1 (342. CH1.I .59 The coefficientsh .13 Of the remaining coefficients b.3) 11 = MWpropionicacid = 74.32. 25. (4.3 x 10" kJ h.13) for anaerobic growth andproo.85 = Yps(MWsubstrate)) = 0.2kJ gulOr l M~ butyric acid =-2183. because CO2 and H20 do not figure in heat of reaction calculations as their heat of combustion = 0.3 x 104kJh· 1 5.1" - acetic acid = Czf40Z: MW =60.S andB.1 = 0. nus can be done using an elemental balance on N.3kJ gmol-l M~ acetic acid=-874.9.products are required from Table E.50 Solutions: Chapter 5 1.z'. (4.2 +dCOZ +eHZO+!I C3~02 +h C2H 40 2 +Jj C4H . To calculate the heat of reaction.gOo./2. Yps (MW substrate)) 0.1 = lactic acid C3H603: MW =90.034 g g-l (342.12 gg-l (342.3 propionicacid=C3H60 Z: MW =74.3) = 114 h MW acetic acid 60.l(Appendix B)..1.sNo. the molecular weight of the biomass is 25.02 +14 C. only b need be determined.9 .1 From p 75./3 and/4 can be determined similarly using the product yields and Eq.6kJ gmol-l M~biomass=-552kJ gmor 1 M~ propionic acid = -l527. MW cells . d and e.8 (Appendix B): M~ sucrose=-5644. The reaction equation can be obtained by modifying Eq. From the end of Table E.20gg.5 kJ 8. 90.0.3) Jj = MW butyric acid = 88. 19 _ Yps (MW substrate)) _ 0.9kJ gulOr l M~NH3 =-382.H60 3 The biomass yield from substrate Yxs = 0.05 g g-I (342. N balance: b = 0. Q positive indicates that heat must be removed from the system.3 kJ gmol-l . Answer: 2.sNo.1 butyric acid=C4HgOZ: MW = 88. the biomass molecular formula can be taken.asthe.80x 104 kJh-1_O_ Q+ 1. This value can be used to determine the stoichiometric coefficient c using Eq.7 Acid fermentation From Tables B.12 g gol.6kJ gmor 1 M~ lactic acid = -1368. acl·d .1 ·13~s 1 :: 0 Q = 2.8 (Appendix B).1 .uct-fonnation: C 12HZZ0 11 +bNH3 -+ cCHl..3) _ c .

3g -474. Answer:4.26).44+3b 1.gmOll( 342.48-d) + 2e 1.48-d = Hbalance: 12+3b = 1.13). As the heat of combustion of C02 and H20 is zero: Mlrxn = (n 6. the molecular weight of ethanol is 46.2 kJ gmol-l) -0. PA propionic acid.76gmolgmol MW product 46.75c+2e+6x1. the n in this equation are the stoichiometric coefficients.1 g gmol I The other coefficients can be determined using elemental balances.Solutions. M v = Ws = 0.21d-L55 = 2e e = 0.14): Yps(MWsubstrate) 0. (5.61 d-0.6kJ gmol-l) -0. For 30 kg sucrose consumed over a period of 10 d: M rxn =30kg. llkg .20).h~)s +(nah~)A -(n M~)B -(n M~)PA -(nM~)AA -(nah~)BA -(nM~tA = = = = where S sucrose.' Chapter 5 51 The heat of reaction is determined using Eq.59 gmol(-552kJ gmol-l) .18 (2.58c+2d+e+1x1. B = biomass.76 ~ 1. (4.80 The value of the stoichiometric coefficient/can be determined from the yield Yps= 0.76 -+ c 2. (4.78 .1 (180.l4 gmol (-874.32gmol (-382.3 kJ gmol-l) t:Jirxn = -474.18d Substituting this and the results from the C and N balances ioto the H balance: L44+ 3 (0. and LA = lactic acid.7. Substituting values: Iili"" = 1 gmol(-5644. the stoichiometric equation under anaerobic conditions is: C6H1206+bNH3 ~ CCH1.45-g g-1 and Eq. (5.'::: = 27.16x 104 kJ 5. Taking into account the 8% ash: Biomassmolecularweight = 2.19 gmol(-2183.6kJ gmol-l)_ 1.18d) = 1.5SNO.75c+2e+6f= 1.16x 104 kJ The cooling requirements are determined using the modified energy~balanceequation. Cbalance:6 = c+d+2f= e+d+2x1. IOOOgll.45gg.1.8 kJ gmol-I) =-4.58. A = NH3.45-0.8 Ethanol fermentation From Table B2 (Appendix B).8 kJ This M rxn was determined on the basis of I gmol sucrose. so that: Q = -Mfrxn = 4.3 kJ gmol-1)-1.85 gmol(-1527.75 (2.2 and the biomass fonnula weight is 25. Q positive means that heat must be removed from the system.58c+2d+e+f= 0.Eq.58c+2d+e Nbalance: b = 0. From Eq.lS+dC02+eH20+fC2H60 From Table B.13 gmol(-1368.24 = 0. From the atomic weights in Table B. Using a basis of I gmol sucrose.48-d) = 0. the molecular weight of glucose is 180.s00. For no evaporation and no shaft work.75c+2e = o balance: 6 = 0. the molecular formula for glucose is C6H1206 and the molecular fonnula for ethanol is C2H60.16 x 104 kJ From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.I (Appendix B). BA butyric acid.76 ~ 4.8 (Appendix B).18e Substituting the expression for c from the C balance into the N balance: b = 0. = 1.9kJ gmol-l) +0.45-0.1. AA acetic acid.2ggmol-l) -1 f = = .

the heat of combustion of yeast can be taken as -21.0 (Table B. Eq.~ "" 3.76 Substituting this value· for d into the expressions for the other coefficients gives c "" 0.5 kJ h. Appendix B): 1 lJ.5 kJ h. . The heat of reaction is determined using Eq.58 = 2. b = 0.8 k:J gmar l From p 101.76 = 4.72. 11 U .6kJ gmol-l tJh~ ethanol"" -1366. (5. with M v =0 and Ws =0: Q=-Mlrx.I water from lOoC.0kJgmor1) + O.0g· lkg .76 CO2 + O. 18.78) 3.I is used to raise the temperature' of 25 I h.29HZO + 1.24 = 0.d) + 2 d + (0.8 (Appendix B) are: 8h~ glucose: -Z805.2kJ g-l)·1 ~7:o~ I .68gmolx 1.8.13 and e "" 0.55 gmat The heats of combustion from Table B. Cp for water = 75.29.2°C = 2L2°C Answer: 21.4 J gmol-I = °C*I (Table B-3.8 kJ gmol-l) = -1175 kJ Mlrx. As the heat of combustion of C02 and H20 is zero: Mlrxn = (nAh~)G+(nAh~)A -(nah~)B-(nAh~)E = = where G glucose.n Using the modified energy~balance equation.72CH u sOO.2°C . 0. The sensible heat change of the water can be calculated from Eq.93 gmol (-2805.61 d .6kJ gmol-1)_3. 117. and the molecular weight of water 18.2 kJ g-1.12).48 . Substituting values gives: /lH= = 4.n= 117.52 Solutions: Chapter 5 Substituting the expressions for c.68 gmol x ~:~~ "" 0. (5.1 ~~11 " 8. in this case.pp87-88.4 kg ethanol are produced.93gmol Moles NH3 consumed "" 8. . Using a value of 1 kg I-I for the density of water.5kJ From the sign conventions outlined on .0.58 (2. 18+ 1. lOOOJU The final temperature of the water is therefore lOoe + ll.03 d d = 1.0kJ gmor 1 8h~NH3 =-382.26). The completed stoichiometric equation is therefore: C6H1206+0.68 gmol x ~:. _ 112"<: Mep (25Ih-1 Ilkg~(754J 1-1oC.l.13NH3 ~ O.68gmol From stoichiometry: 1 Moles glucose consumed "" 8.SSNO. Appendix B).11~gl. Q positive means that heat must be removed from the system. The n in this equation are the actual moles of reactants and products consumed or produced. .76CZH60 Using a basis of 1 h. (5.20).68 gmol (-1366. b and e into the 0 balance: 4.64gmol (-382.64 gmal Moles biomass produced "" 8.55 gmol(c21. Converting this to moles: Molesethanolproduced= OAkg . A = NH3' B biomass and E = ethanol.T = ~_ = 117.1 11gmOllllOOOgll~fi . gmo .

the heat of reaction for aerobic growth is approximately -460 kJ gmol-l 02 consumed.17+dCOZ+eHZO Using the atomic weights in Table R1 (Appendix B).1 From p 100.8300.45 x 0.l .~~ll : 6.22) = 5. the molecular weight of sucrose is 342. w: 12 for sucrose: a = 1/4 (w)S-cJ1!) = 1/4 (12x 4. the molecular formula for sucrose is C12HZ2011' Therefore.000 litre fermenter. (4.26). Converting this to moles: 5 Rate of 0 1 consumption : 2.3ggmol-1) = 6.3 and the biomass formula weight is 25.0 g Ozlll gmol biomass 0. 26. As 0.15 Therefore.0 from Table B.r...1 .79 gmolOz 132. The value of the stoichiometric coefficient c can be determined from the yield Yxs: 0. Therefore: The rate of heat removal from the fermenter is determined using the modified energy·balance equation. 1 .09 X 106 kJ h. Answer: 3.49gmolgmol-l MW cells 26.96 g g -1 1_ z The specific growth rate represents a rate of growth of 0. (4.1 x 5 x 105 g: 2. Taking into account the 5% ash: Biomass molecularweight = ~~ : 26. withWs:Mv:O: From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.55X2-0.43 g Oz.15 x loS g Oz h· 1. (5.04.43 g g-1 h. the mass of cells is 10 g 1..36 The degree of reduction of the biomass relative to NH3 is: ni:::h ~.49 x 4.96: 0.36 g gmol 1 The oxygen requirements can be determined from Eq. Eq.x 50/}00 1: 5 x 105 g.4). from Eq (4. this corresponds to 0. the stoichiometric equation for aerobic cell growth is: CIZH22011 +a02+bNH3 -? cCHl.96 g 02 are required per g biomass produced.13).12): C = Yxs(MWsubstrate) = 0. .79 gmol Oz per gmol biomass. the specific rate of Oz consumption is 0.X4+J.79 gmol 0Zper gmol blOmasS .. 5.45 g biomass produced per g biomass per h. The degree of reduction of sucrose relative to NH3 is: 12x4+22x1-11x2 _ 400 rs _.15x 10 gh-1 . (4. _ 0.49 gmol biomass produced.16) with/: 0.1 gmol biomass' 1 gmol0 .5sNo. the total rate of 02 consumption is 0. When the biomass concentration is 10 g 1~1 in a 50.0. Q positive confrrms that heat is removed from the system.9 Production of bakers' yeast From Table B. from Eq.17x3: 4. .r g biomass per h.15 gmol Oz are required for each 6.22 . Therefore..00-6.8 (Appendix B).5 g g~l and Eq. Converting this oxygen demand to mass terms using the molecular weight of oxygen: 32.I (Appendix B): .72x 10 3 gmolh.36 g biomass .5gg-1 (342.83X1-0.Solutions: Chapter 5 53 5.

000 litres + the volume of the solids.000 L Att::::: 0.1 CA I I I V I CA I I (Ii) Define variables V = volume of material in the tank. the volume of material in the tank is constant (see Example 6.2) so that V = Vo at all times. RO RC = 0. I Water I I Outlet stream F::::: 40. (6.OOO I h. = = Mi 0. = therefore.000 kg.5) gives: d(VCA) dt = -FCA As V is constant. in this problem. Mo F CA and M= V CA.Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances 6. 1 I I I . CA::::: CAO: CAO::::: 10. As there is no reaction. The initial mass of solids in the tank is 10. (6.000 I h· 1 I I F=40. therefore CA in the outlet stream::::: CA inside the tank . Vo::::: (440. .000) 1 450.000 kg 0022k 1-1 450. CA ::::: concentration of suspended solids (ill) Assumptions -no leaks -tank is well mixed. System boUndary\ r . if the density is 1 kg I-I. . V::::: Vo ::: 440.1--- " .000 1 h· I .1 Dilution of sewage (i) Flew sheet and system boundary These are shown in the figure below. it can be taken outside of the differential: .ooof:::::' g (v) Total mass balance As the volumetric flow rates of material in and out are the same and the density of the inlet and outlet streams are assumed to be equal.000 + 10.5). (vi) Solids mass balance = The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq.density of the solids is the same as that of water"'" 1 kg I-I (iv) Boundary conditions = At t 0. F ::::: volumetric flow rate into and out of the vessel::::: 40. Substituting into Eq.

Separating variables and integrating: Using integration rules (D.24) from Appendix. M = Mo.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: -F InCA = -yl+K From the initial condition for CA. Me k M where k is a constant.2 Production of fish-protein concentrate (i) System The system is the whole gutted fish placed in the batch drier at time zero.022 e-O·089 t where CA has units of kg I-I and t has units of b. the differential equation contains only two variables. During drying. =-1 CAO V C~ = CAOe (-FIV. (li) Assumptions No additional assumptions are required. From this equation. the mass of the system decreases as water is removed. (iii) Boundary conditions At t = 0. the~fore Mi = 0. at t = 0. t Substituting the known values for CAo.Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: . the mass of water in the fish in the drier is equal to M() (iv) Water mass balance The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq.Solutions: Chapter 6 55 As F is also constant. (6. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: -F InCA = -yt+InCAO CA -F In. CA and t. at t= 5 h. D and combining the constants of integration: lnM=-kt+K At I"'" 0. Answer: 0. As there is no reaction.5).014 kg I-I 6. Separating variables gives: dCA -F -=-dt CA V Integrating: J-FV f dCA CA = dt Using integration rules (D'. as the rate of water removal Me is proportional to = the moisture contentM. F and V: CA = 0. RO = RC = O.27) ¥td(D. K"'" In Mo. In CAO = K. No water is added during drying. At any time during drying.014 kg I-I. Substituting into Eq.5) gives: dM Cit =-kM where M and t are the only variables. therefore.27) and (0. CA =0. (6.

56 Solutions: Chapter 6 InM = -kt+1nMo M In M o = -let At t= 20 min.. .0347 t o In 0.05 := -0.oil tank: is well mixed.0347 t t = 86.0347 min~l Therefore: M In Mo = -0..I601~n! = =: l. System boUndary\ \..44 h 6.3 min 86. therefore ¢ in the outlet stream ¢ inside the tank ..densities of each oil and the oil mixture are the same .3min. r . 1 I I I I Inlet stream I I Outlet stream Cod-liver oil drum F.5 = -k (20 min) k = 0. F 0 volumetric flow rate of mixed oil out of the oil tank. 1. J (li) Define variables = V = volume of oil in the tank. .05 Mo_ Therefore: O..44h Answer.0347 t where t has units of min. When 95% of the water has been removed. . . Substituting these values into the equation: O. .5 MO. p"'" density of vegetable and cod-liver oils (ill) Assumptions .. M = 0. ¢ = mass fraction of vegetable oil. Fi "'" volumetric flow rate of cod~liver oil into the oil tank. M =0.3 Contamination of vegetable oil (i) Flow sheet and system boundary These are shown in the figure below. I I Fo P p I V I </ I p I </ I I Oil tank L .05MO In M = -0.5M In -:MOo = -k (20 min) In 0.no leaks = .

1 . The mass flow rate of vegetable oil out is Mo "'" F o P 4>. they can be taken outside of the differential and p can be cancelled: VP~ = -Fop¢ V~ = -Fo ¢ As F0 is also constant. As there is no reaction. (6. Separating variables and integrating: . Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: V= (£i-Fo)t+ Vo = The time between 8 p. therefore Mi "'" O. The total mass of oil in the tank is equal to the volume of oil multiplied by its density: M = V p.81h. (6.5) gives: d(V. Separating variables and integrating: I dV = I (Fi-FdJdt Using integration rule (0. RG "'" RC O.4>= ¢o = 1.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: From the initial condition for V.5).5 1 = h. The t2. (6.ta1 mass = flow rate into the oil tank is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density of the cod-liver oil: Mi Fi p. As this volume is less than the tank capacity of 1001. At t= 0. V p 4>.:::. and 9 a. Substituting these expressions into Eq. Vegetable oil mass balance = The general unsteady~state mass-balance equation is Eq. Substituting these expressions into Eq.m. No vegetable oil enters the tank. ' Answer: No (b) Total mass balance As the volumetric flow rates of oils into and out of the tank are the same and the density of the inlet and outlet streams are assumed to be equal.Solutions: Chapter 6 57 (iv) Boundary conditions At t= 0 when cod-liver oil first enters the oil tank. at t = 0.1 and Vo=60l. V and t. Fi 7. Mo = Fo p. 60 1 at all times. As there is no reaction.5) gives: d(VP)=Fp_Fp dt ' 0 As P is constant it can be taken outside of the differential and cancelled: dV Pdt = (Fi-FdJp dV dt = (Fi-FdJ The differential equation contains only two variables. the volume of oil in the tank is constant (see Example 6. RO = RC = O. The mass of vegetable oil in the tank at any time is M"". Similarly.m..2)-s0 that V = Vo.:¢) = -Fop¢ As both V and p are constants. the next morning is 13 h. K = Vo. 4> and t. the tank will not overflow.V""'95. (6. the differential equation contains only two variables.Fo =4.11. (a) Total mass balance The general unsteady~state mass--balance equation is Eq.5). From the above equation for V.for t 13 h. V = Vo = 60 litres.

Substituting these results into Eq. Answer. Mj ::::: Mo : : : O. at midnight.4'= 0.24) from Appendix. The time between 8 p. e. Substituting the known values for </Jo and V: II : : : 1 e. at t= 4 h. The rate of generation of cells RG is proportional to the concentration of cells present: RO = J. F0 ::::: 4.. For a mass balance on cells.(l·080 t where <Pis dimensionless and t has units of h..5). D and combining the constants of integration: lnx = j1.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: -Fo In¢::::: yt+K From the initial condition for 41.m.. For a batch culture.tx V dx dt = J. Therefore. x =xo. The total mass of cells M is equal to the culture volume V multiplied by the cell concentration x: M = V x. Therefore. 73% vegetable oil. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: -Fo ln~ = y'+lnib ~ -Fo lnib=y' ~ = ib e(-F.t+K = Assume an initial condition: at t 0 at the beginning of ex.58 Solutions: Chapter 6 Using integration rules (D. Separating variables and integrating: -dxx = I'dt Using integration rules (0. at t =0.t x V where jJ is a constant.73. (6.. xis the cell concentration and· V is the culture volume.II'J' In this problem. In Xo =K.ponential growth. x and t. by lysis. (6. RC::::: O.27) and (D. 27% cod-liver oil 6. at t =0. In <Po::::: K. and midnight is 4 h.4 Batch growth of bacteria The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq.5) gives: d(Vx) = J. From the above equation. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: . it can be taken outside of the differential: dx V dt = J.txV dt Assuming that V is constant throughout the batch culture.8 I h-l.g.27) and (0. the composition of oil in the tank is 73% vegetable oil and 27% cod-liver oil. assuming there is no loss of cells from the system.tx The differential equation contains only two variables.

5). therefore.54 x 104 times the cell concentration at the beginning of exponential growth. M j = Mo = O.5) gives: d(:CJ =-k.0154t XO x = XQ eO.= j1.S Radioactive decay The general unsteady~state m. Substituting these results into Eq.ass~ba1ance equation is Eq. Answer: 6. Separating variables and integrating: dC C = -k 1 dt Jdg = f -k) dt Using integration rules (D27) and (D. Substituting these values into the equation: 2XO I n .0154 min'l Therefore: In''::' = 0. x = 2 xo. the cell concentration at the beginning of exponential growth is usually very close to that at inoculation. If there is a lag phase.54 X 104 times the inoculum level 6. The rate of isotope decay RC is proportional to the concentration of isotope present: RC -/q C V. (6. (6. the cell concentration is about 6.t XO When t = 45 min. For t= 12h = 12 x 60= no min: x=6. where kl is a constant. V is constant and can be taken outside of the differential and cancelled: dC V(if =-k 1 CV dC (if = -k1 C The differential equation contains only two variables.CV If we assume that the density of the solution is constant during isotope decay.Solutions: Chapter 6 59 lnx = j. The total mass of isotope M is equal to the solution volume V multiplied by the isotope concentration C: M = V C.Ol54 t where thas units of min. the cell concentration is 6.54 x 104 times the inoculum level.tt+lnxo x In.u(45 min) XO ln2 = j. RO O. C and t. In this problem. C is the isotope concentration and V is the solution volume.t (45 min) j. For a mass balance on = = isotope.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: lnC=-k1 t + K .= .t = 0.54x 104 XQ After 12 h.

01 Co -2 In Co = -4. Therefore: In2 th = kl Answer. C "'" CO..= -kIth Co In 0. ForC=O. 95 days .5 Co.60 Solutions: Chapter 6 Assume an initial condition: at t "'" 0.2 t t = 95 days Answer. 10) in Appendix D.3 days: kl = 4. Using mathematical rule (D. Therefore.85 x 10-2 d. the half-life of the isotope.5 = -ki !h _ -tn0.5 =In 1/0. (b) From the equation derived in (a): For t:h =14. C = 0.85 x 10 t In 0.D. at t "'" 0.85 x 10..Ol CO: 0.- k. In Co = K.01 = -4.5 th .5 =In 2.85 x 10-2 t where thas units of days.I Substituting this value of kl into the general equation for isotope concentration: In go = -4.E. Substituting this value of K into the equation: InC = -ktt+lnCo C In-=-k i t Co (a) When t= !h.5 Co I n . Substituting these values into the equation: 0. Q. -In 0.

2) 8. Answer: kl =f.. The rate of cell generation RG = rx V = kl x V.= x(kt--) d' V dx F Answer: dt = x (k I . respectively.5) gives: d(Vx) -_. (aj Cell mass balance The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq. x = concentration of cells.<iv . therefore x and s in the outlet stream =x and s. =concentration of cells in the feed... The mass flow rate of cells out Mo = F x.V) (b) At steady state. Mi =O. it can be taken outside of the differential. Substituting these terms into Eq. The mass of cells in the fermenter M is equal to V x.Solutions: Chapter 6 61 6.fermenter is well mixed. RC = O. dxldt = O. from the equation derived in (a).x=XO· (v) Total mass balance As the volumetric flow rates into and out of the fermenter are the same and the density of the inlet and outlet streams are assumed equal. at steady state kl must be equal to FIV. . Si =concentration of substrate in the feed (iii) Assumptions -no leaks . the volume of broth in the fermenter is constant (see Example 6.. dx V dt = -Fx+k1xV Dividing through by V and grouping terms: dx F . Assuming that cell lysis is negligible.. As no cells enter in the feed stream.. F = volumetric flow rate into and out of the vessel.5). 1 Product F I I F xI =0 x I I " I I • I I I V I I x I I • I (li) Define variables V =volume of broth in the fennenter. Xi. s = concentration of substrate. inside the fermenter . (6.density of the fermentation broth is the same as that of the feed (iv) Boundary condition Att=O..6 Continuous fermentation (i) Flow sheet and system boundary 'These are shown for a continuous fermenter in the figure below. (6.. Therefore.r. " System boUndary\ Feed r . = -Fx+k1xV d' As V is constant.Iid equal to Vat all times..

Answer: x:::: XOe 1 V (d) Substituting the parameter values into the equation derived in (c} -1 22001h-1 x:::: (0.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: F lux:::: (k1-V)t+K From the initial condition for x.5 eO.9 h (e) Substrate mass balance The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq. For x:::: 4.10.IlI where x has units of g 1-1 and thas units ofh.5) gives: d(Vs) ( i t = Fs i -Fs-k 2 xV As V is constant.0 g I-I.5gl-1)e(0.0001)/ x :::: 0.9h Answer: 18.:::: (kl--)t '0 V F x=.The mass of substrate in the fermenter M is equal to V s. In Xo = K.v F (k --) .62 Solutions: Chapter 6 (e) As F. the differential equation derived in (a) contains only two variables. V and kl are constants. Substituting these terms into Eq.27) and (D. 4 = 0. The rate of substrate generation RG =0.5 eO.at t= 0. For substrate. x and t. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: F Inx:::: (k1-y)t+1nXO • F 10. (6.33h . the mass flow rates in and out are Mj = F si and Mo = F s.II t inS = 0. it can be taken outside of the differential: Dividing through by V and grouping tenus: Substituting the expression for x from (c): .5).xoe(kl--)t . the rate of substrate consumption RC =IS V = k2 x V.11 t t:::: 18.. Separating variables and integrating: <Ix F -. (6.= (k'-l1)dt J~ = f(k.-~)dt Using integration rules (D.

s = concentration of substrate in the fermenter. Si = concentration of substrate in the feed. x = concentration of cells in the fermenter. V. & Answer.7 Fed-batch fermentation (i) Flow sheet and system boundary These are shown for a fed-batch fermenter in the figure below. F. dt = VF (si -s)-k1X{)e ~l-~t V (f) An equation for &/dt in terms of x was dt. &/dt =O. At steady state. s and t. Therefore: F V (si -s) = k 2 x Vk Z si.- Feed r 1 F I I s. s = si -Tx 6. making algebraic solution difficult.Solutions: Chapter 6 63 In this equation. kl and X{) are constants and there are only two variables.:rived in (e) as: . F = volumetric flow rate into the fermenter. I I I I V I x 1 I s I p I I L J (ll) Define variables V = volume of broth in the fermenter.fermenter is well mixed .s = F'x VkZ Answer. p I I .density of the fermentation broth is the same as that of the feed . - '". p = density of the feed and fermentation broth (iii) Assumptions -no leaks . System bOUndary\ - \. However. the variables cannot be easily separated as in the previous problems.

V=Vo. No mass leaves the fennenter. therefore Mo =O. V and t.5). (a) Total mass balance The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq. (6. Expanding the differential using the product rule (D.64 Solutions: Chapter 6 (iv) Boundary condition Att=O. the differential equation contains only two variables. The total mass in the fermenter M is equal to V p. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: v= Ft+Vo Answer: V=Ft+Vo (b) Substrate mass balance The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq. it can be taken outside of the differential and cancelled: dV Pdi = pF dV = F dt As F is constant.5) gives: d(VP)=pF dt As P is constant. (6.) -at =Fsi-klsV As neither V nor S is constant. = = The mass of substrate in the fermenter M is equal to V s. The mass flow rate in Mj = p F. Vo =K.5) gives: d(V.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: v= Ft+K From the initial condition for V. Separating variables and integrating: dV = Fdt Using integration rule (D. The mass flow rates of substrate in and out are = = Mj F si and Mo = o. RO = RC =O. Substituting these terms into Eq.5). (6. As total mass cannot be generated or consumed. the rate of substrate consumption RC rs V kl S V. (6. both must be kept in the differential as a product. at t =0. The rate of substrate generation RO 0. Substituting these terms into Eq.22) from Appendix D: Using the equation dV1dt =F derived in (a) : Grouping terms gives: <is F Answer: dt = V(Si-S)-kt s .

(6... it can be cancelled from each of the terms: 0= CAulz-CAulz+&-rcAz Dividing through by A.. Reactant is not generated. the rate at which reactant leaves the system is: Mo = CAuAI ..13) in Appendix D: -d(eA u) 0= '"--az--rC or d(CA u) dz = -rC As the fluid velocity is constant throughout the reactor. z distance along the reactor. ~_ _!. The general unsteady-state mass-balance equation is Eq.. CA := concentration of reactant.: Taking the limit as Llz approaches zero and applying the definition of the derivative (0.5)..Solutions: Chapter 6 65 6..I .-_ _~ Fee~--"""-II : -=-. . therefore RO = O. A = reactor cross-sectional area (iii) Assumptions -no leaks -plug flow (a) Reactant balance Consider the system to be a small section of the reactor located between z and z + &..8 Plug-flow reactor (i) Flow sheet and system boundary These are shown for a plug-flow reactor in the figure below.<. As A is constant and does notdepend on z..:. (6.... Similarly.. u can be taken outside of the differential: .~rOduct ~ I z ~Ml L J (ii) Define variables = u := fluid linear velocity.. S-.. System bOUndary.5) gives: 0= CAuAlz-CAuAlz+hz-rcA&. CAi = concentration of reactant in the feed stream. The rate of consumption of reactant is given by the equation: Rc=rcV:=rc A & where A ilz is the volume of the system and rc is the volumetric rate of reaction.+<\. The rate ofentry of reactant into the system is: Mj = CAuAl z where k means that the parameter values are those at distance z from the front of the reactor.. Substituting these expressions into Eq..... At steady state there is no accumulation in the system and dM/dt = O..." ' .

no evaporation . the above equation can be written as: CA "" CAie""*lt which is the same as the equation for reactant concentration in a batch reactor where CAi is the concentration at time zero. CA =CAi (e) If the reaction is first-order. In CAi =: K.no shaft work . Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: CA -kl 1n-=-z CN U CA =: CAi e(-k.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: -k) InCA = -z+K U From the initial condition in (b).lu) z (d) The equation derived in (c) is directly analogous to the equation for change. Separating variables and integrating: dCA = -k) dz CA U f fdCA "" CA -k) dz U Using integration rules (D.beat losses are negligible . (i) Assumptions .9 Boiling water The system is the beaker containing water. the differential equation contains only two variables. The differential equation becomes: As u and kl are constants.66 Solutions: Chapter 6 dCA Answer: u liZ "" -rC (b) Answer: at Z"" O.the density of water is constant between 18"C and lOO"C .water is well mixed .2?) and (D.heat capacity is independent of temperature . in reactant concentration in a batch reactor. CA and z. rc =: kl CA where kt is the first-order rate constant. As z "" u t where t is the time taken for the fluid to travel distance z. at z = 0. Answer: Essentially identical 6.

(6.4 kJ kgmol-l "'C-l Molecular weight of water (fable B.0 = 1 W = 1 J s-l (fable A.10) gives: dT - MC Pdt =-Q dT - Answer: M Cp dt = -Q (b) If Q.l.1 "'e. Converting the Cp for water to mass terms: 1 1 Cp = 75. also Ws = O. 1 kW = 1 kJ s·l (iii) Boundary conditions Att=O.Solutions: Chapter 6 67 (ii) Extra data Density of water = 1 kg I-I Cp water = 75. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: -12 T= MC t+To p Using the density of water = 1 kg t.8.T=TO=18°C (a) The general unsteady-state energy-balance equation is Eq.189kJkg "'e- Q = -62. Energy is accumulated by the system in the fonn of sensible beat only. Appendix A). Cp and M are constant. Mi = Mo =0. T and t are the only variables in the differential equation. therefore. the negative value for Q confirms that heat is added to the system.11 = -L04kW From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.45kJmin- 1 ·116~snl·ll ~.4kJ kgmor "'C. (6.45kJmin- 1= -62. Substituting these expressions into Eq.. For a batch system.10). at t= 0. the mass of 2 litres of water M= 2 kg. t =11 min. Substituting the parameter values into the equation for T: lOO"C = ( -Q 1 I) (11 min) + 18°C 2kg 4.I T =the boiling temperature of water =100°C. Separating variables and integrating: Using integration rule (D. Answer: L04 kW . therefore: dE <IT (jJ=MCpdt where M is the mass of water in the beaker and T is its temperature.4 J gmol-1 "'C-l (fable B.189 kJ kg.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: T= -Q t+K MCp From the initial condition for T. Appendix B) 18. To =K. Appendix B) = 75.3.1.1 ~::~11 = 4.

0 1 kcal "" 4. For a batch system. Appendix A).T=To=15"C (a) = The general unsteady-state energy-balance equation is Eq.ideal solution . MW and Mo are constant.187 x 103 J (Table A. Appendix B) "" 18. 1 kW = 1 kJ 5.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: T= -0.I. Substituting these expressions into Eq. also Ws = O.4 kJ kgmol-l °C.1 Molecular weight of water (Table B.tank is well mixed . which have different heat capacities.l (Table B.l (Table B. Energy is accumulated by the system in the form of sensible heat only. this equation can be written: where Mw is the mass of water in the tank.187 k1 1 W =1 J s-1 (Table A.10 Healing glycerol solution The system is the stirred tank containing the solution of glycerol in water. CpW is the heat capacity of water.10). Separating variables and integrating: Using integration rule (0. t+K (MwCpW+MGCpG) From the initial condition for T. T and t are the only variables in the differential equation. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: . therefore heat losses are negligible (ii) Extra data Cp glycerol = 0.heat capacities are independent of temperature between 15<>C and 90"C .no shaft work . at t= 0.3. Appendix A) = 4.s.1 Cp water = 75.no evaporation .10) gives: M has two components. (i) Assumptions -no leaks . (6. therefore: dE=MC dT dt Pdt where M is the mass of glycerol solution in the tank and T is its temperature.4 J gmol-l °C.576 keal kg-I "C.1 (iii) Boundary conditions Att=O. glycerol and water. Appendix B) = 75.system is adiabatic. Cpw. (6. and CpO is the heat capacity of glyceroL <IT - Answero(MWCpW+MOCpG)"dI =-Q (b) If ii. therefore. CpO.7.S. Appendix B) = 0. MO is the mass of glycerol. Mj =Mo 0.68 Solutions: Chapter 6 6.576 cal g-t °C. To:: K. Therefore.

14. Q must be negative as heat is added to the system.189 kJ kg-1 <)C.1 Converting the Cp for glycerol to kJ: CpO = 0. ..576kCalkg-loc-l. 1 I I I I I I Molasses solution in Heating tank Molasses solution out 1020 kg h.1 I I 1020 kg h.1 20'C M T I / T I I I .412kJkg loe 1) t = 1.2 h 6. .11 Heating molasses (i) Flow sheet and system boundary These are shown in the figure below..2 kW "'" 2. Q"'" -2.88 x 2. .no evaporation .2 kJ s-l. System boundary~ .no shaft work .2 kJ s-l.~:1 = 2..189kJkg loC l)+45kg(2.2h Answer: 3. therefore.2kJs. . the mass of water Mw =55 kg.- -Q (from steam) (ii) Assumptions .412kJkg-l oc-l The rate of heat input to the system is 0.5 kW "'" 2. therefore the temperature of the molasses solution out is the same as in the tank .Solutions: Chapter 6 69 -12 Answer: T = (MwCpw+MOCpG) t+ To (c) The mass of glycerol in the tank MO = 4S kg.-.From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.111~~~11 = 4...l6x104 s = 1. t+ 15"C 55kg(4.tank is well mixed.no leaks . Substituting the parameter = values into the equation for Twith To 15<)C and T= 90<)C: 1 9O"C "'" 2.l6X104S'13~sl "'" 3. Converting the Cp for water to mass terms: Cpw = 7SAkJkgmor l <)c-l'. -.beat capacity is independent of temperature .negligible heat losses .

(6..13): ho = ~ = Cp(T-Tref) Ws = O.S.7'C) + 1020 kg .5 m 2)) T ' 5000kg(0.271 T where T has units °C and t has units h. H"" 0 for molasses solution at 200 e (iv) Extra data Cp "" 0. Substituting the known numerical values for the parameters: dT _ 190kcal m-2 .1 1 psi = 6.-1 (0.) + 190 kcalm-2 .1 oC. Energy is accumulated in the form of sensible heat only. Tand t are the only variables in the differential equation derived in (a). Cp • Tref and M are all constant. The value of h o relative to the reference state is equal to the sensible heat-absorbed by the molasses'solution between Tref and the exit temperature T. the differential equation is: dT = UATsteam+MoCpTref _(fJoCp+UA)T dt MCp MCp dT Answer: dt (b) As U.8 kPa interpolated from Table C.895 kPa Converting 40 psi to kPa: 40psi = 40PSi. The rate at which the molasses solution is heated is given by the equation: Q = -U A (Tsteam -1) From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.10).84-0.85kcalkg lo C 1) _(1020 kg .condensate from the steam leaves at saturation conditions (iii) Reference state Tref"" 20oe. the mass of molasses solution in the tank M is constant and equal to 5000 kg at all times.85kcalkg loC 1) dT dt = 12.85 kcal kg. (v) Boundary conditions " Att=O.5 m2) (130.Tref) + U A (Tsteam .2 (Appendix C) "" l30.7°e.-1 (0. (a) The general unsteady-state energy-balance equation is Eq~ (6.8kPa The temperature of saturated steam at 275. From Eq. T=To=20°C (vi) 'Total mass balance As the mass flow rates into and out of the tank are the same.~al = 275.8.-1 oC' (l.85 kCalkg-1 oC. therefore: dE=MC dT <It P <It Substituting these expressions into Eq.16. 5000kg(0.(1. From the reference state. Mo.895 x 103 Pa (fable A. Separating variables and integrating: .10) gives: dT - M Cp dt = -Mo Cp (T . (5. Appendix A) = 6. n After rearranging. Q must be negative as heat is added to the system. Tsteam.) (20"C) ' ' <It .85 kcal kg~l °C. hi = 0. A. 70 Solutions: Chapter 6 .-1 0C.

0..84-0.271 In (12.L_ _-'-_ _-'-_ _. t CC) (h) 20 0.2711)+7.84-0.271 K In (12.271 T - Using integration rules (D. T Time.' o 5 10 15 20 25 Time (h) .----.68 35 2.271 T -felt f dT 12.84.271 In (12.3 21..28) and (D.. 20 .-----. Substituting this value for K into the equation gives: -I 0.01 46 11. 50 r----.Solutions: Chapter 6 71 dT = eIt 12.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: -1 0.----.84-0.271 To) Applying the numerical value of To =20°C.2711) = t+ K From the initial condition for T.395. K =-7.----.2711) + 7. at t = 0: -I = 0.00 25 0. Temperature.84 45 9.8 47.74 30 1.93 40 4.-_ _-'-_ _.84-0.0 47 15.84-0.395 = t (c) Values of t corresponding to various temperatures in the tank can be calculated from the equation derived in (b).271In(l2.5 The results are shown in the figure below.395 =t -I Answer: 0.

84 h. Appendix A) (ill) Boundary conditions Att=O. Cpy is the heat capacity of the vessel.72 Solutions: Chapter 6 (d) From the equation derived in (b). Energy is accumulated by the system in the form of sensible heat only.10). which have different heat capacities.T=To=15°C (iv) Energy balance The general unsteady-state energy·balance equation is Eq. (6. T and t are the only variables in the differential equation. fennenter is well mixed . CpM.. (e) 'The temperature cbanges constantly with time. as the logarithm of zero and negative numbers is not defined (p 413). no shaft work . Answer. Therefore. beat losses are negligible (li) Extra data Cp glass vessel"" 0.12 Pre-heating culture medium The system is the glass fermenter containing nutrient medium. Answer: 4.S. the temperature reaches 40°C after 4. the theoretical maximum temperature that can be achieved in the tank occurs when 12. also Ws =0. when T= 47. Le.271 T= 0. MM is the mass of the medium.84 . however. there is no steady state.20 keal kg-I oct Cp medium"" 0. Separating variables and integrating: dT= -Q dt (My Cpy + MM CpM) f dT-f- -Q (My Cpy+MM CpM) dt Using integration rule (D. heat capacities are independent of temperature between 15°C and 36°C .433 x 10-2 keal min-I (Table A. the glass vessel and the medium.no evaporation . Substituting into Eq. About 16 b (f) From the calculation table in (c). the temperature approaches a constant value after about 16 h. this equation can be written: where My is the mass of the glass vessel.l "" 0.84 h- 6. For practical purposes. Cpy. therefore. therefore: dE dT dt =MCpdt M has two components.10) gives: dT - (MyCpy+MMCpM) dt =-Q As (i. Mi = Mo = 0.92 cal g-l °C l "" 0. (i) Assumptions . and CpM is the heat capacity of the medium.92 keal kg-loCi 1 W"'" 1.4°C.20 cal g-l 0C. (6. For a batch system. My and MM are constant.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: .0. strictly speaking.

Substituting this' and the other parameter values into the equation for Twith To = 15¢C and T= 36¢C: l 6. (6.10) gives: dT - MCpdi=-Q (aj There are two components to Q: the rate of heating from the steam. (6.heat capacity is independent of temperature .0 = = 1 kcal = 4. Substituting into Eq. Energy is accumulated by the system in the form of sensible heat only. Substituting these expressions into Eq.45 kcal min.7.92kcal kg-I 'C. at t= 0.187 x 103 J (fable A. Appendix A) 4.3.~kcalmin-l! =-6A5kcalmin-t • Co From the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88.!1.20 kcal kg-I 'C. For a batch system.8 min Answer: 30.Solutions: Chapter 6 73 T= -Q t+K (MV CpV + MM CpM) From the initial condition for T.8 min 6.4 J gmol~1 oC-L(Table B. T=To =24"C (iv) Energy balam:e The general unsteady-state energy-balance equation is Bq. Appendix B) 18.no leaks . To =K.1 Molecular weight of water (Table R. (i) Assumptions .condensate from the steam leaves at saturation conditions (li) Extra data = = Cp water 75.433X lO.4 kJ kgmol-t 0C. Converting this to kcaI min-l: Q = -450W =-450W. t+ 150C 36'C = 12.10).no evaporation .l. (6.10) gives: . Appendix B) 75. Mi=Mo =O. Q must be negative as heat is added to the system.13 Water heater The system is the tank containing the water.187 kJ (iii) Boundary conditions Att=O.tank is well mixed .75 kg (0. therefore: dE dT dt = MCPdt where Mis the mass of water in the tank and Tis its temperature.a1soWs =O.I) t = 30. and the rate of heat loss to the surrounding air: Q = UtAt (T-Tair)-UZAz(Tsteam -1) This equation reflects the sign conventions outlined on pp 87-88: the term for the heat loss to the atmosphere is positive to indicate heat removal from the system.I) + 7. while the term for heat input from the steam is negative. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: T= -Q t+To (Mv CpV + MM CpM) The rate of heat input to the system is 450 W.no shaft work .5 kg (O.

K = -21.I 0C-l (O.2 h.74 Solutions: Chapter 6 MC dT Pdt dT UZA2(Tsteam-1) .026~. (6..28) and (D. Substituting this value for K into the equation gives: -1 0.088 In (9. Yair.088 ToJ Applying the numerical value of To =24"C.3m 2)(130-n"C dt = -1-000-'k=g7(7'=S=.088 T where T has units of"C and t has units of h..088T = f dt Using integration rules (0.0. Separating variables and integrating: dT =dt 9.026-0.026-0.0881) = '+K From the initial condition for T.TI'I"'.20Y'C = dt ( . Answer: 14.. Cp and M are all constant. Substituting the known parameter values: dT 220 kcal m-2 h.97 = . T and t are the only variables in the differential equation.VtA I (T-Tair) Cit = MCp As Vt.1 0C-l (0. T steam. 1118.97. AZ./':/i::8~::C~"-.:~ dT dt = 8. at t= 0: -I K = 0. t =14. 4.026 .l (03 m 2)(130-1)°C _ 25 kcal m-2 h.088 T f 9.026-0.=~=k0:i.0kg lOOOkg 75. for T = 80"C.10) becomes: dT MCp <It dT UZAZ (Tsteam -1) Cit = MC p Substituting the known numerical values: dT 220kcalm-2 h. Qhas only one component and Eq. A 1> Uz.2 h (b) If beat losses can be neglected.4"'kJ=-k-'gm=-OI--I"'o-c--"'1'11'i~'.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: 0~81n(9.0881) + 21.026-0.1 "'C-1 .187k:JU n dT dt = 9.0. From this equation.066 T where Thas units of "C and t has units ofh.4kJkgmol kgmOllllkCai .576 .I 0c.9m 2) (T .088 In (9. Separating variables and integrating: .

or 20% of the time required when heat losses occur .28) and (D.47. t "'" 11. for T = 80°C.8 h. at t= 0: -1 K = 0.2.066 In (8.4 h. Answer: 2. Therefore. which corresponds to 20% of the time required when heat losses occur. Substituting this value for K into the equation gives: -1 0.576..4) h"'" 2.0. the time saved is (14.066 ToJ Applying the numerical value of To =24°C.47 =t From this equation..576-0.11.Solutions: Chapter 6 75 dT = <It 8.066 T = f <It Using integration rules (0.066 In (8.576 ~.0661) = t+K From the initial condition for T.:.0661) + 29. K =-29.066 T f 8.576-0. from (a).24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: -1 0.& h.066 In (8.576-0.

100 1000 10000 Shear rate (s-l) ..L_.. 600 600 400 300 200 100 ol-_.7 for pseudoplastic fluids.. therefore.... 700 ._---''-_-'-_.. It is not clear from the rheogram whether the fluid exhibits a yield stress at r= 0 or not.---... From the equation in Figure 7.----r---. both non-Newtonian models are worth checking.--..Fluid Flow and Mixing 7. a plot of shear stress versus shear rate on log-log coordinates would be expected to give a straight line.. This plot is shown below.1 Rheology of fermentation broth (a) The rheogram is obtained by plotting shear stress againSt shear rate...7..---r---.l.L_--' o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Shear rate (s·1) (b) The rheogram in (a) is similar to those for pseudoplastic and Casson plastic fluids in Figure 7.

2 Rheology of yeast suspensions From Eq. K = 11.-0587. for pseudoplastic fluids.587 and the consistency index K =. 3.587. Log-log plots for the different cell concentrations are shown below. (I) Answer.8). Comparison of the residuals from the two models suggests that the equation for a pseudoplastic fluid is the better fit Answer.587 cm-2 (200 S_I)O. 11.648 ytl2. From the equation in Figure 7. Pseudoplastic fluid: n = 0.3 dyn s cm-2 7. From the equation in Figure 7..43 dyn sit cm.3dynscm-2 Answer: 1.93 + 0.7 for Casson plastic fluids. .587-1 = 1. Therefore.7 dyn s cm. (7.2.2 (Ii) J1a = Kyn-l = 11.8) and can be calculated using the parameter values determined in (b). the flow behaviour index n = 0. this means that K p = 0.2.l and the yield stress 't{) = 35. The equation for the straight line in the plot is liZ =.2 (e) The apparent viscosity for a pseudoplastic fluid is given by Eq.43 dyn sn cm. 5.7. (7. a plot of the square root of shear stress versus the square root of shear rate on linear coordinates would be expected to give a straight line. The sum of squares of the residuals for this data fit is' 1137. a plot of apparent viscosity versus shear rate on log-log coordinates can be expected to give a straight line.Solutions: Chapter 7 77 The equation for the straight line in the log-log plot is '1:= 11. The sum of squares of the residuals for this data fit is 8986.43dynsO.43 .2 dyn cm. This plot is shown below.648 dyn 11z Sllz cm.

. I 10 1 10 100 Shear rate (s·l) . t ••E e !l ~ 10 1 10 100 Shear rate (sol) 1000 .. L ••t • 10.. ~ 8 .1) 100 Cell concentration: 12% 0::- .. D 6% .78 Solutions: Chapter 7 10 Cen concentrations: . Cell concentration: 18% 0::- .£.£.5% • I ~ t3- " 1 1 10 100 Shear rate (8.1.~ 100 ~ E .£...5% 03% 0::.

..--".07.0r =2.J..92 5.Il o 5 10 15 20 25 Cell concentration ('Yo) .0 5 ! ! 0. n • Flow behaviour o Consistency.1 -:0.91 r-:O..8 10 £ 0...---..9 10..050 0.' -_ _..4 12 r Jl.=2. K 1. = 1.J.6 0. index. -" 1.--..2 c ~..... K (cp sn-l) 1..4._ _._ _. <>.. index.1) The equations and parameter values for the straight lines in each plot are listed below. 1..69 21 Jla = 833 7-:0.. = 5.5 ·0 3 1'..' ' -_ _.38 r. 0.0 1 2.251 0.4 '--_ _...75 K and n are plotted as a function of cell concentration below.---.61 50 18 J. Cell concentration (%) Equation Flow behaviour index....95 2.0 6 Pa = 2.a = 50.la = 162 7-:0·307 0.5 1 1.Solutions: Chapter 7 79 Cell concentration: 21% • f I 10 100 Shear rate (5.5 I'.5 r·0 = 1..395 0.--.5 I'. n Consistency index.

(7. Answer: Yes: n = 0.45 x 10-6 0. From Eq.6 0.20m-2.049NsO.31 x 10-6 0.185 s·1 and using the = unit conversion factor 1 N 1 kg m s·2 (Table A.0 10.. .L. conditions at the other stirrer speeds are also laminar.0540 1.0559 1.23).57 x 0.89 0. 7.13 0. this means that the flow behaviour index n is 0.20 and the consistency index K is 0.4.20 (O.163 3.07 0.185.-1)2-0.20. = 10.05 11- ~ e "m" ~ 0.126 3.5 2 Shear rate (s-1) The equation for the straight line on the log-log plot is 1'=O. Appendix A): N'~ D' P (0. we can conclude that flow at this and lower stirrer speeds is laminar.03'. The flow behaviour index continues to decrease until a cell concentration of about 12% is reached.185 3.04 <J) 0.049jr°·20.049 N s1l m-2 (b) The impeller Reynolds number for pseudoplastic fluids is defined in Eq. Stirrer speed (s·l) Torque (Nm) Shear stress (N m. Therefore. If Rei at the highest stirrer speed is in the laminar range.1 and Dj. a plot of shear stress versus shear rate on log-log coordinates can be expected to give a straight line. The results are listed below and plotted below. therefore.12) with k =10.. K = 0. then becomes pseudoplastic. lk~~S- This value for Rei is at the upper limit of the laminar range (p 137).29 0.2) Shear rate (gw 1) 0.11) and (7. Values of shear stress and shear rate can be determined from torque and stirrer speed data using Eqs (7.20-1 0.20 x 10.0518 1.04m)' l000kg m-3 Rei = ~1 ~ = -->=="(r'---"==-"IC"':""-"'-:"O. Answer: Flow is laminar. .66 0. (7.7).. 80 Solutions: Chapter 7 The cell broth is Newtonian up to a cell concentration of about 2%. -' 1 1.3 Impeller viscometer (a) If the rheology can be described using a power~law model.049 N sn m. for Ni = 0.06 i 0 ~ 0..20. "'" 4 em "'" 4 x 1<r2 m..0501 1.111 3.2. The consistency index rises !broughout the culture with increasing cell concentration.

049 N sO. from Table A.23) and substituting values of n and Kfor the fluid from (a).8= 2. Vj =30 em =0. .llll =10 xlo-6 m. 7.0 m s-1 for bubble dispersion: N = tipspeed = 2.I = 2.9 s-1 with a Rushton turbine impeller to 44 s-1 with a helical- ribbon impeller..I s~I.7 times higher than for ceIl suspension.1 s-1 1 1t Vi 1t (0. PL =density of water = 1000 kg m.48 s-l Therefore.02s-1.Solutions: Chapter 7 81 (oj From Table 7.8 Ni = 1. Taking the average minimum tip speed of 2.8 m s~2 (p 16).. Pp -_ 104 -3 Iloocml3 . shear rates up to 30 x 1.lL 10-3 kgm. gcm.11).9 (Appendix A).1 8-1 VL =-= PI.9 s-l as determined in (a) for the upper limit of laminar flow with a Rushton turbine impeller. This is a considerable improvement on the restricted range-of. As power in the turbulent regime is proportional to the stirrer speed cubed. m .up to about 1.3 m) The stirrer speed for air dispersion is 3. lOOOkgm-3 =10-u m2 s-1 The density of the cells PP is 1. Converting to kg m. = 1O~3 kg m.kinematic viscosity from p 133: f. (7. from Eq. about 50 times more power is required to disperse the air bubbles than to keep the cells in suspension. therefore. k = 30 for a helical-ribbon impeller. (7. Answer: The shear rate range can be extended from 1.4.4 Particle suspension and gas dispersion The Zwietering equation is an equation in numerics (p 12).3 .20 = 103 (30o. the parameter values used in the equation must have the units specified.".04m)21000kgm 3 Nl.25..zo-1) (0.04 g cm-3. I~I_ lOOOg .48 = 44 s-1 can be used. as r= 30Ni for a helical-ribbon impeller.20 m -21 1 kgms-2 ~ 1N II I (0. These conditions allow use of higher stirrer speeds within the laminar region than is possible using a turbine impeller. Solving for Ni from Eq. From Figure 7.3 . this is the same as J4. The dynamic viscosity of water J4. V p =10 J. Answer: Bubble dispersion requires significantly more power than cell suspension.. Using the definition of . flow with this type of impeller is laminar up to about Rei = 103.lO4Okg m-3 Substituting values in the correct units into the Zwietering equation: This minimum stirrer speed for suspension of the cells can be compared with the minimum stirrer speed for dispersion of air bubbles.0ms. at 20"C is about 1 cP (p 133). g =9..3 m. the maximwn stirrer speed at Rej = 30 can be calculated as: N?--n = Rei ~1 K 1 vf P !if.

under turbulent conditions with the density of water p= 1000 kg m.1 ill s-1 _ 089 -1 '" _ 1tDj _ 1t ( 75cm.s- Answer: 3. The power required is evaluated using Eq.I s·1 = 103 cP. this value of Rei corresponds to turbulent flow and Np can be taken as 5.II:sn~3 (l m)5 = 1.C 11 = 1.9 (Appendix A).1 Rei 10 Converting to cP: = 50cP Answer: Scale-up increases the maximum viscosity for turbulent conditions to 50 cP.11~~ml) = 2.1 s-l.2): NiDrp (90min-I·116~sn~(lm)21000kgm-3 6 Rei = Ji = lO 3 kgm.3: 2 ND~ P .l=.I .= = . s Using this value of Ni to calculate the maximum viscosity as in (a): N:. 1 .l s.1 160miDll(5 cm)2 U .l lOocm 1m l ) _ . _ tip speed _ 2.89S-I((75Cm)2·1100Im 1)lOOOkg m-3 2 JJ.05kgm. therefore: 3 33 10-3kg m J.96x 104 kg m2 s-3 . (7.11001m1 em ) 1000 kg m-3 I.1 (SOOmin..8 (lOOOkg m-3)(90 min.3 cP (bJ The tip speed in the laboratory equipment is: Tipspeed = 7tNj Di = 1£ (800min-1 -I 16: sD 1)(5 em .8.5 x 10 From Figure 7. 7.em =O.6 Effect of viscosity on power requirements (aJ Dj =1 m. If the tip speed is kept the same after scale-up: M. from Table A.9 (Appendix A).kg m. x 10-3 kgm-1-1 s From Table A. Using this equation to evaluate the maximum viscosity jJ.x -1 s -1. 82 Solutions: Chapter 7 7. 10 cP l l = '33 cP 1kgm.p= 1 gcm-3 =1000 kg m-3.1 m 8- 1 In the large-scale vessel. this is the same as lO-3 kg m.2). (1) The viscosity Of water at 20"C is about 1 cP (p 133). Substituting parameter values into Eq.s Scale-up of mixing system (aJ The Reynolds number for a Newtonian fluid in a stirred vessel is defined in Eq. (720): P = NppNf Dr = 5.24 for a Rushton turbine.(7. Di =15 x 5 em =75 em.~p O.D.t = 1 I Rei = S 104 = 33.

RCi is: NiD[ p (90 min- 1 .80 x 103 kW .l IOkgm1s1 From Figure 7.80 x 106 W = 5. turbulence with Np =5.1 s-l = 10 kg m.24 for a Rushton turbine.8kW Answer: 11.Solutions: Chapter 7 83 From Table A8 (Appendix A). Np read from Figure 7. the stirrer speed required can be detennined from Eq. therefore: P = L96xl04w = 19. (7.5.6 kW (ti) For a viscosity of 100 x 10-3 kg m.24 for a Rushton turbine. this value of Rei is within the transition regime.5 x 10 # 0.18): P = NppNf Dr = 3.8.6 kW. Answer: 19. 1 W = 1 kg m2 s-3.1 s-1 = 1kg m.2).1 s-l.1 kgm. 1 W = 1 kg m2 s-3.80 x 1()3 kW Answer: 5. Rei is: NiDf p (90min- 1 .! 16~n~3 (l m)5 = 1.6 kW (iii) For a viscosity of 104 x 10-3 kg m.8 is achieved at a minimum Reynolds number of about 104.1 s-l. about 3. Using this result in Eq. (7.24 for a Rushton turbine.20): P= NppNI D.8 (1000 kg m-3j(1O s-lj3 (I m)S = 5. For a viscosity of 1000 x 10-3 kg m.1 . (7.6kW Answer: 19. 1 W =I kg m 2 s-3. the power required is the same as that calculated in (i): P =19.5 {tOOOkg m-3) (90 min. this value of Rei is still within theturbulent regime so that Np isagain5.1 s-1 =0.24 is. The power required is evaluated using Eq.s- From Figure 7.1 s-l. = 5. Therefore.8 kW (b) From Figure 7.1 kg m. therefore: P = 5.80x 106 kg m2 s-3 From Table A8 (Appendix A).18 x 104 kg m2 s-3 From Table A8 (Appendix A). therefore: P = L18xl04W = 11.11=~(l m)2 1000kgm-3 ~= = =1~ J.11~n~(1 m)21000kgm-3 4 Ret' = = 1 1 = 1.

8 (Appendix A).67 m. the volume Vis: 3 V = 7t{. I W = I kg m 2 s'3. p =.l. The stirrer speed can be evaluated using Eq. (7.1000 kg m~3. The power required is evaluated using Eq.24 for a Rushton turbine.9 W.9 (Appendix A). therefore. therefore 1 kW = 1000 kg m2 s-3.20): N:= P =~42xI03kgm2s-3 =120s-3 . the maximum power Pis: P = (L5kWm-3)6.29s-l)(O.I s 1 From Figure 7. 10.S (Appendix A). NppDi 5. (7. 60s U .3 kg m. (7.42 x 103 kg m 2 C 3 Assume for now that the fluid flow is turbulent and Np = 5.= 3 I I = .67m)5 . therefore the value for ~ assumed above is valid.9W This value is considerably lower that the electrical power consumed by the stirrer motor. this value of Rei corresponds to turbulent flow and N~ can be taken as 5.11~~3 (O.l 4 x 10 3 kg m.28m (aJ If the maximum specific power consumption is 1. For high Rei> the mixing time can be calculated using Eq.1 8. Substituting parameter values into Eq. this is the same as 10.6x 105 j.24 for a Rushton turbine. this value of Rei is well into the turbulent regime.8. Answer: 32. Jl = 4 cP = 4 x 10.07m)5 = 32.16): .7 em =.2): Rei = NiDf P = (2. p = density of water = 1000 kg m.3.20): p = NpPNf Dr = 5.t 2m = 6. Rei for Newtonian fluids in a stirred vessel is defined in Eq.9kgm2 s-3 From Table A.07 m.S (1000 kg m-3) (O. 84 Solutions: Chapter 7 7.7Ax 10 J.0. From TableA.42kW From Table A. The viscosity of water at 20°C is about I cP (p 133). (7. 1.2): 2 (900' -1 11minn(007 )2 1OOOk -3 NiDi P nun. 1 W =. from Table A.8 (1000 kg m-3) (900min-1 .29 sol = 137 rpm Check that this stirrer speed provides turbulent mixing conditions by evaluating the Reynolds number.9 (Appendix A).7 Electrical power required for mixing Di =. a significant fraction of the electrical power is dissipated as beat within the motor housing 7. For a cylindrical tank of diameter Dr= 2 m and height H= 2m. therefore: P = 32.5 kW m'3.8 Mixing time with aeradon Di = 0. m gm 4 Rei = --'-cC:-C.3 kg m~I s'l.67m)21000kgm-3 = 2.28m3 = 9. (7. Ni = 2.' Much of the remainder of the electrical power is converted into heat within the motor bousing.1 kg m2 8-3.8. I cP = 10. ConvertingP to kg m 2 s·3: P = 9.3 kg mol s-l.ll°oo~-:2s-31 = 9.kgm s From Figure 7.Y H = 7t{2.42kW = 9A2kw.

2.67m)5 .89s-1 Answer: The maximum allowable stirrer speed is 2. (7.8 = 2. . .54(6.8.42 x 103 kg m2 s-3 can be evaluated using Eq.241 -3 (Np) pD.29S-1 = 14s Answer: The maximum allowable stirrer speed is 2.29 s-1 or 137 rpm. Nj (O.Solutions: Chapter 7 85 t = 1.89 s·1 = 173 rpm The mixing time evaluated using Eq.67m)3 2 . therefore.9(lOOOkgm-'j(O. s g Nj = 2.54(6.28m') = II s m DfN 1 (O.54 V = 1.5 x 5.28m') m D.67m)3 2.18): Nt = P 5 = 3 2 3 9. . The stirrer speed which delivers the maximum power P= 9. the power number with gassing (Np)g =0. the mixing time is 11 s.89 s-1 or 173 rpm. (7. (b) The ungassed power number was 5.9.16) is: t = !541' = 1. the mixing time is 14 s.42x10 kgm s.

14): Q= I1T = 620K = 1033W= 1.OO6m + 1 +0 1 1 U 830Wm 2r.3 Wrn.tWm lK 1)1.7 kWm w2 K-l and hfc= O.33 + 0. = 1 + 1 + O. 1.5m2 ~ Therefore.006 m.27KW-1 k2A (o. the total wall resistance RW= RI + RZ ::::: (0.80) ::::: 620"C.03kW Rw O. which is equal to 620 K as temperature differences are the same on the Celsius and Kelvin scales (p 18).04m ::::: O.60 K W~l. Their magnitudes are calculated using Eq.ll~:1 19Wm IK.60KVI Answer: 1.2 kW m· 2 K-I.24) with hfh::::: 830 W m~2 K-I.= -+-+-+-+- U hfh hh k he hfc 1. (8.94 x 10-3 W-l m2 K U= 340Wm·2 K-I . he"" 1. liT"".15). = 2.2 OveraU heat-transfer coefliclent The overall heaNransfer coefficient is calculated using Eq. so that: RZ::::: 82::::: a. 1 lIB 1 1 . B =6mm::::: 0.27) K W~ I ::::: 0. hh::::: 1.86 kW (b) In this case there are two thermal resistances in series.03 kW 8.) Urn (620K) = 1860W = 1.86kW B a. 1.15 m. (8.1 Rate of condnction (a) B::::: 15 em "" 0.l K-l.04 m. The rate of heat conduction can be calculated using Eq.10): l 1 2 Q = kA !'J = (0. (8. For thennal resistances in series.K.2kWm-2r-1. k= 19 Wm. (8. Heat Transfer 8. For the firebrick: For the asbestos. B2 ::::: 4 em ::::: 0. qoo -.15m Answer: 1.11~:1 i. the rate of heat conduction is calculated using Eq.7kwm-2K'"1.

8 (Appendix A).l s·l.32): Q = McC".6 kJ sol (b) The mean temperature difference between the fermentation fluid and the cooling water is calculated from Eq.6kJ. (8. 14.I.4.6"C (f) From Eq.I)4.6 J 8"1 m.32). Converting Cpc ta a mass basis using the molecular = weight af water 18. B: 6 mm.l 10.I0C.:: = W mol "e l . . Cpc Cp water 75. 23.5"C (c) U A is evaluated using Eq.l : 75. Cp culture fluid 4.35): 2 Tp-(Tct+Tco) (2 x 35)OC-(S + 151'C /iTA: 2 : 2 : 23.l "C-l.93 kJ s'} °C·l (c) Applying Eq.llb. 1 W = 1 J s·l. therefore k fb 0. Appendix B) 75.:: 4.5"<: ATA (d) UA': 1. installation of the new coil allows a 70% reduction in cooling-water requirements.19kJkg.7"<: U A' 0. (8.(Tco-Tct) . for the new coil with Q: 14. (8.4 kJ kgmol-l "C. Q .C".I (Table B. _ 015k -I c . (8. ktb = 0. (8.3 N s m· 2. gs Therefore.5xO.93kJs.3.4kJkgmor l "c-I.2 x 1()3 J kg'} "c l . from Table A..6 . 1 !iTA : -iL : 14.6"C: .0 (Table B.62kJs.6 kJ s- 1 = 15.I "C-): 0.18kJkg. -I M .(T".l oc.6.35): Answer: 30.Solutions: Chapter 8 87 8.5OC Answer.-Tct) = (0. (8.5kgs.9 (Appendix A).2 kJ kg· l °c l : 4.6kJs-1 Answer.93 kJ s-l °C The new cooling water outlet temperature Tco is determined using Eq. 14. Answer: 70% 8.6 kJ s-l 23.1 ~~~ll .Sl'C .1 Answer: 0.19) with /iT: /iTA: UA = Q = 14.4 Calculation of heat~transferarea in fermenter design = = = = Ni: 80 rpm 80'60 1.l . I N sm·2 =} kg m· l s-l.6kJ s-l.33 s·l.19) to determine /iT: /iTA for the new coil: .4 kJ kgmol-l "C.:: 0.l (15-S)"C = 14. therefore Jlb = 10-3 kgm.1 "C.5UA: 1. Appendix B): Cpc = 75. Tci = goC and Teo =30. from Table A.4 J = = gmol'} "C.006 m.3 Effect of cooling-coH length on coolant requirements (a) The steady~state energy~balance equation for the cooling~coil is Eq.18kJkg-IoC I(30.

17xlO-4W-1mZoC V hh k 2AxI03Wm 20(.40kWm-20e l From Eqs (8. (c) The energy-balance equation for the cooling water. (a) The fermenter-side heat-transfer coefficient can be evaluated using the empirical correlation. an expression for the outlet cooling-water temperature is: . the proportion of tbetotalresistance.6 Wm. (8.87(3. (8. Aiirxn =-2500kW.21) and (8. the inlet and outlet temperatures and the rate of heat transfer. (8. From this equation.0)0.33).2 °C.39): Pr is given by Eq. 1. the total resistance to beat transfer is l/Vk Therefore.5 x 106 W.33 (1)0. from Eq.14= 2. Q=-Mrxn =2500 kW =2. 1 W =1 J 8.4 x 103 W m-2 °e 1.1 (b) The overall heat-transfer coefficient in the absence of fouling layers can be calculated using Eq. (8. Answer: lAO kW m. Eq. According to the sign conventions on pp 88-89. From Table A.87 Re?. Q positive is consistent with heat being removed from the system.0x 104 From the definition of Nu in Eq.= . The pipe wall contributes 42% of the total resistance to heat transfer.23). as the fennenter fluid is the hot fluid. (8.5 x 106 J s·1 =2500 kJ s-I. (8. when evaporation and shaft work can be neglected. The dimensionless nwnbers in this equation are Rei.62 (7.84X 106)°.4 X 103 Wm-2 0C.duetothe-pipe wallis: BfkA = BU = O. relates the cooling water flow rate. Answer: 204 x 103 W m-Z oC.0x 104 (0. hh = 2. Pr and Nu.8 (Appendix A).32). I Therefore. Assuming that the heat-transfer coefficient for the cooling water h c can be neglected (p 185): 1. 88 Solutions: Chapter 8 From p 97. From the modified energy-balance equation. (8AO): From Eq.62 pr033(::fI4 = O.!. Eq. therefore Q= 2. (8."1 20Wm-1OC 1 U = L40x 103 wm-Zoe 1 = 1. the beat-transfer resistance due to the pipe wall is B/k A.l °C-1) h=--= D Nukfb 5m = 2.20).1.22).OO6m (L40 x 103 Wm-2 oc-1j = 042 l/VA k 20Wm 10C-1 . Eq. ·(8A5).37): 2. as the heat of reaction for an exothermic reaction is negative. Rei is given by Eq.45): Nu = 0.OO6m = 7.+~ = 1 + O.

0x loS 12. -'..0x loS 17.'fe 25.19) for evaluation of A with AT= ATA and the value of Ufrom (b). at a cooling.40kWm-Zoc-1(25_ T.. Me x 1Q-5 (kg h· 1) (d) = From the.05 m: A 101 m 2 L = 21tr = 21t(0.. The above equations for Teo and A allow evaluation of these parameters as a function of Me' The results for several values of Me between 1. An expression for the mean temperature difference between the fermentation fluid and the cooling water can be determined from Eq.2 where !!TA and Teo have units of °C.05m) = 321 m Answer: 321 m. Substituting this expression into Eq.. Teo 14.2 x loS kg b· 1 and 2 x 106 kg b· 1 are listed and plotted below...---. This is a long cooling·coil.25..200 41 • Temperature o Area o'.water flow rate of 5 x loS kg h*l.9 163 2..2 x loS 27.0x loS 15.3°C and A = 101 .-. _ 2 Tp-(Tci + Teo} _ (lx30)OC-(1O+Tco}OC _ 6O"C-10"C-Tco _ Teo ATA .35). M..8 123 3.0xloS 20. For a = radius of 5 em 0. . 2 . representing a considerable expeme whenfabricatedfrom stainless steel.---.0 x 106 12.. (8. The area A of a cylindrical cooling·coil is equal to 2 1t r L.. 2 .....7 97 1.-----...Solutions: Chapter8 89 where Tco has units of °C and Me has units of kg b· 1.2 95 2.0 x J(j6 ILl 93 30. where r is the cylinder radius and L is its length.4 104 8..Teo has units of °C.(kgb.tn.8x 103 U!1TA 1..equations developed in (c).J''--_ _--' 50 o 5 10 15 20 Cooling-water flow rate.. (8.. J. 2 .2 1I0 4. A =~ = 2500kW = 1. T~ where A has units of mZand .----.I ) Tco (0C) A (m 2) 1..2. .

3.4 kJ kgmorl 'C-l = 75.I) (2S-12)'C = 1340. = 1.32). Converting to mass terms using the molecular weight of water = 18.'C- I From Eq. Appendix B): Cpc = 75.I.3.5 Effect of fouling on heat-transfer resistance (a) = Cpc Cp water = 75. Evaluating Ufrom Eq.1340.5 m2 . For r= 6cm = O. (8.20) using the value of U from (a): .8kJs.4 kJ kgmorl 'c-ll i~~11 = l 4. 1340.0 (Table B.. Appendix B):o 75.19) with aT aTA: = . The new outlet cooling~water temperature can be calculated from Eq. (8.6)'C 1J.19) with AT= tiTA: U =~ = .32): 1340.20): RT = _1_ = I = 9. 1 .46 X 10. 'The resistance before cleaning is calculated from Eg.06 m) (150 m) :0 56. where r is the cylinder radius and L is its length.7OC The beat-transfer area is the same as before cleaning: A = 56. . (8. the rates of heat removal Q before and after cleaning must be equal.TA = 2 = _.6OC 13kgs-I(4.19kJ kg..1 'C. 2 Tp-(Tci + Tco) (2 x 37)'C-(12 + 2S)'C LiTA = 2 = 2 = 17'C The area A ofthe cylindrical cooling~coi1 is equal to 2 1t r L.19kJkg.5 m 2 Evaluating the overall heat-transfer coefficient U from Eq. 90 Solutions: Chapter 8 8. (8.87kJs-1m-20c-1 ALiTA (565 m2) 12.8kJ s-1 + 120C = 36. the rate of heat removal to the cooling water before cleaning is: Q = McCpc(Tco-Tci) = 20 kg s-I (4. (835).19kJkg-l.k]""1 s 0C UA L87kJs-'m 2'C-l (S65m 2) This is the beat-transfer resistance after cleaning the cooling coil. 2 TF-(Tci + Too) (2 x 37)'C -(12 + 36.The mean temperature difference between the fermentation fluid and the cooling water after cleaning is detennined from Eq. (8. (8.8kJs- .C I) (e) .-140kJ - -1 -Z'C-1 sm ALiTA (565m2)I7'C ' (b) If the fermentation temperature is maintained the same after cleaning the cooling-coil. (835).SkJs-1 The meantemperatute difference between the fennentation fluid and the cooling water can be calculated from Eq.4 J groat-! 0C"l (Table B. 2 = 12.-Q.4 kJ kgmo}·l °C~l.06mandL= 150m: A = 2 1t (0.7'C The overall beat-transfer resistance is given by Eq.- U .

1 'C1)(28-1O)OC = 1048.005 m. (2. (S.19kJkg.sectional area of the tube.32).-I) Pr____ =78 k tb 0.1 °C-1. (8.~~ll = 4.-1 Answer. the mass flow rate of the medium is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density: The steady-state energy-balance equation for medium in the tubes of the heat exchanger is Eq. Pr is given by Eq. B =: 5 mID =: 0. kfb medium =: 0. Re is given by Eq.54 W m. From Eq.1 °C l .Cpc(T. Pr and Nu. k = 50 x 10. from Table A. 30°C. this is the same as 0.9 (Appendix A). Therefore: 50 3 h-1 I~I u =: volumetricflowrate =: m . Appendix B) 75.25 of the total resistance before cleaning. from Table A.. this is the same as 10"3 kgm.. The linear velocity of the fluid u is equal to the volumetric fIowrate per tube divided bythecross.S (Appendix A).4kJkgmorl 0c-1 =: 75. From Eq.05 m: Substituting parameter values into Eq.4 J gmol"l °C l (Table 8. therefore: Q = M.05m(0.= 1. 3600s =: 0.19kJkg.541 5""1 m~l 0C.42).u water =: H}"'"3 kg m-I s-l.I.62 J s-l mol °C-1.025 ml' =5 cm =0. Therefore.I .tberefore. kfb medium = 0.24).62 Wm. which is close enough to the conditions in the heat exchanger for evaluation of thermal conductivity. The cross-sectional area ofa cylindrical tube =: 1£.40): _ Cpi'b _ 4. The parameters in this equation are Re. therefore.9kg.18 x 104 JIb 1O-3 kgm Is 1 This value of Re is within the range of validity of Eq.from Table AS-{A-ppendix A). (8.1 °C-1 P medium =: p water =: 1000 kg m"3.236m.46 x 10"3) = 3.1 ar 1 0C.I s-l.O(Table B.l.4 kJkgmot l °C l . (8.025m. (al From the definition of density (P-16).4kJkgmorl OC-1 .o-Td) = 13.1 .25 8. fouling contributes: 3. (8. Converting to mass terms using the molecular weight of water = IS.42): .1 "C 1 (10-3 kgm-I .3 kJ s-l m. this is the same as 50 J s-l mol °C-l.3 kJ s-I (b) The heat-transfer coefficient for the medium in the tubes of the heat exchanger can be calculated using the empirical correlation. therefore.42). From Table S.3. k pipe wall = 50 W mol °C-I. Answer. The viscosity of water at 20°C is about 1 cP (p 133).u medium =:.54 x 10-3 kJ s-l m.l °C l . (8. from Table A. (8.1.-I)IOOOkgm.54x1O-3kJs-1m-1oC I .3kJ.14x 1O-3 kr 1 soC ==~=:T'-:':: L26x 10 2 kri soC = 0.14 x 10-3 kJ.I s 0c.8 (Appendix A). ktb water =0..6 Pre-beating of nutrient medium = Cph =: Cpc =: Cp water =: 75.38).z where ris the tube radius = 25 cm =: 0. Eq. 303 K =: approx. 0. this is the same as 0. (8. kfb water at 303 K= 0...38) with the tube diameter D 3 Re = Dup = 0.1 °C-l. therefore.-1 (4. Appendix B): Cph = Cpc = 75.42).Solutions: Chapter 8 91 The resistance due to the fouling deposits is equal to the difference between these two overall resistances =: (1.236ms-1 numberoftube.62 x 10-3 kJ 5.(n?) (30) n (0. 1048.26 x 10-2 _ 9.19kJkg. This value of Pris also within the range of validity ofEq.

2 "C-l. Remax is given by Eq.Jr°.6 (6. from Eq.52 kJ s·l m~2 0C.44). (8. (8. C 0.= O.l s-1 As this value is > 6 x UP. (8. s m As the medium in the tubes is the cold fluid in this heat exchange system.31): .1 (d) The outlet temperature of the water from the shell is detennined from Eq. (8. -.40): Therefore.62 x 10-3 kJ s-l m.005 m = 0.60~ .37) with D the outside tube diameter: Nukfb 115 (0. m.92kJ1 sm 2 °C U = 0.8 (7.l . 92 Solutions: Chapter 8 Nu = 0.8)°. (8.l OC.26(9.05m -. As the tubes of the heat = exchanger are arranged in line.8)0.02 kJ s·l m-2 0C.. (8.3kJs. (8.33 = 115 From the definition of Nu in Eq. hb = 1. Prior theshell·side water is given by Eq. Q ~ - 1048.19kJkg-loc-l) The fluid flow directions and the inlet and outlet temperatures for a single~pass countercurrent shell-and-tube heat exchanger are represented graphically below.33 = O.06m{O. Substituting parameter values into Eq.023 ReO. The parameters in this equation are C.18 X 104)°. from p 183..13~sl{4. Eq.00 x 103 max fib 10-3 kg m.Lbl .38): Re = Dup = 0.06 m.1 m. diameter and the pipe wall thicknesses: D = 0.kJs-1 m-1 oc-1) _ 102kJ -1 -2 "C-1 h . ~ = 1.. (8. (8. D . I ~ .00X 103}O.44).44): Nu = CRe~Z.lSms-1)tOOOkgm-3 = 9.06m = 1. Remax is within the range of validity of Eq..19kJs. he =1. .19 kJ 5.6 From the definition of Nu in Eq. O. .Lho . Remax.26.1) 1 2 1 h =-D."C- As water is the hot fluid in this heat exchange system. The heat-transfer coefficient for the water flowing in the shell of the heat exchanger can be calculated using the empirical correlation. (8.S PrOA = 0.54xlO-3 .37): _ Nukfb _ 94.~.38) with D equal to the outer tube diameterdetennined as the sum of the inner tube. = 30~ ~ MhCph 3x 104kgh-l.4 = 94.023 (1. Prand Nu.05 m + 2 x 0.. (e) The overall heat-transfer coefficient without fouling factors is calculated using Eq.6{O.23).

The viscosity of water at 20"'C is about 1 cP (p 133).4 k1 kgmol·l °C.5"C (e) The heat-transfer area is determined from Eq.62 J s-l m.1. (2. 303 K =- approx. Cph =. which is close enough to the conditions in the fennentation system for evaluation of thennal conductivity. therefore.50 rpm::::: 50/60::::: 0.0 (Table B.83 s-l.4kJkgmor l °C.5OC In (32120) Answer: 25.42) used. Assume that this value applies under the conditions in this system.45).39): .62 x 10-3 kJ sol m. As this value is > 60.I (25.52kJ s-I m-2 oc.1.Tl =.7 Suitability of an existing cooling-coil Ni =. kfb water at 303 K =. From Eq.l oCl. I A ::::: ~ ::::: 1048. Appendix B)::::: 75. where D is the tube diameter.025m)30 ::::: 16.10"C / Teo =.75.I. where r is the tube radius. The dimensionless numbers in this equation are Rei.to detennine the tube-side heat-transfer coefficient is valid.24). From Table 8.l . from Table A.! ~::~1! : : 4. For r::::: 2.20 e = 25. Pr and Nu. Appendix B).28) ::::: 32"C.103 kg m'3.Solutions: Chapter 8 93 j60 C 0 Tei =.28<>C /' Heat exchanger Tho=-30"C The temperature differences at the two ends of the exchanger are fl. (8. 30°C.3 kg m. (8. Converting to mass tenns using the molecular weight of water::::: 18.05 ::::: 336.62 W urI "'C-l.3k1s.025 m and N::::: 30: A 79m2 L::::: 21trN::::: 21t(0. # fennentation fluid =. (8.8 m 8. = LlTZ-LlTI L In(LlT2I<lTd r = (32.9 (Appendix A).5OC) Answer: 79 m 2 (f) The total area A of the tubes in a shall-and-tube heat exchanger is equal to 2 1t r L N.3.19) with AT::::: /1TV . p fennentation fluid::::: p water =. The fennenter-side heat-transfer coefficient can be evaluated using the empirical correlation.34) for the log-mean temperature difference: <IT.b. this is the same as to. (8. (8.5 cm::::: 0.4 J gmol-l °C-l (Table B.8 (Appendix A).l. from Table A. LID::::: 16.Cpc =-75.8m From these results. L is the length of the tubes and N is the number of tubes.4kJkgmor 1 "'c.1 °C 1.(30 . Eq. Substituting these values into Eq. application of Eq.l sol. kfb::::: 0.19kJkg-1 "'C-l kfb fennentation fluid =-ktb water. Cph::::: Cpc::::: Cp water::::: 75. and that the fluid viscosity at the wall J1w is equal to the bulk viscosity J.8/0.# water. this is the same as 0.to) ::::: 20"C and /1T2 ::::: (60 .0. Answer: 16. ::::: 79m2 U LlTL 0.1 =. Rei is given by Eq.

56 kg s-1 4.75 em = 0.7 X 103 (0.fermenter attbe rate at which it isprodu. hh i:::: 1.45): Nu = 0. Q= -AHrxn = 230 kJ s·l. (8. (8. tbecooling-coil must be capable of removing heat from the . (8.62 (6.32).+ 12"C = 21.19) for evaluation of A with aT= !lTA: The area A of a cylindrical cooling-coil is equal to 2 1t r L.59 .9"C Mc Cpc 5.3 x 1O~0.o) (2 x 28)'C-(12 +21.calculatedusing Eq.9)"C tli'A = 2 = 2 = 11.1 D 3m Therefore. According to the sign conventions on pp 88-89.37) with D::::: the tank diameter:= 3 m: Nu k 7.3 b.1 m-2 °C.14 = 7. Eq. (8.33).0375m) . U:= klJ = 1. From p100. The overall heat-transfer coefficient in the absence of fouling layers is .l The mean temperature difference between the fermentation fluid and the cooling water can be determined from Eq. From the definition of density(p 16). from Eq. (8.1"C Substituting the results into Eq.40): From Eq.59kJ 8. 1.+ Tei = ( ).87(8.7 x 103 From the definition of Nu in Eg.I.0375 m: A 13m2 L=--= _ =55m 21tr 21t(0. if the maximum oxygen demand = 90 gmol m. as the fermentation fluid is the bot fluid.62 x 10-3 kJ s-1 m.l and the fennenter volume = 20 From the modified energy-balance equation. the mass flow rate of-the.23). where r is the cylinder radius and L is its length.I oc.8P·33 (1)0.23).".33 (::::)""14 = 0. (8.19 kJ kg-I oc.2oC.ced..87 Re?.62 Pr0.l ) h =~ = . To maintain thefennentation temperature constant.5/2 = 3. Therefore. when evaporation and sbaft work can be neglected.35): 2 Tp-(Tci + T. Assuniingthat the beat-transfer coefficient for the cooling water he and the tube wall resistance O'kean be neglected (p 185).2 oe·!. (8. For r = 7.56kgs. the outlet cooling-water temperature is: Q 230kJs-I Tco = ---. (8.59 kJ s-1 m. Qpositive is consistent with beat being removed from the system. (8. = 20m3h-I(103kgm-3)'13i~sl = 5.kJ s·l m.cooling water is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density: Xl.1 From Eq.the heatof reaction for aerobic cultures is -460 kJ pergmol ~ygen consumed. 94 Solutions: ChapterS Pr is given by Eq.

·62 kJ .)0. (8.l . (a). therefore.kg m.37) with D = the tank diameter = 2.6Np(103 kgm-31N.l .tb = 10. Answer: No 8. From Table A. therefore.9 (Appendix A). (b) and (e) The fermenter-side beat-transfer coefficient can be evaluated using the empirical correlation. In this system.LIb 2kJkg-Ioc-l(lOkgm-ls-I) 4 Pr=-P-= =10 ktb 2 x 10 3 k1 C l m. (8.33(:::t 14 = 0. assuming evaporation is negligible: . assuming that the viscosity at the wall is equal to the viscosity of the bulk-fluid: Nu = 0.O.45).173NpNf kJ s-l lOOOkgm s From the modified steady-state energy-balance equation.ktb = 2 J s -1 m. Eq.-3 where the value of Np depends onRej.000 x 1O~3 .11. 1 J s·l = I kg m 2 s·3. kfu = 2 W m.1 °C = 2 x 1O~3 kJ s-l mol °C.20N?·62 kJs -I m-2 °C. 1 cP = 10-3 kg m. the value of Np with gassing (Npg) is 40% lower or 0. Eq.-l m -2'C 1 (14m 2jzO"C = 56. this is the same as 2 J gol mol °C. Pr is given by Eq. From Table A.20AP.I s-l.14 = 232AP.45). the second·hand fermenter without modification is unsuitable for the proposed culture.-1 The power dissipated from the stirrer.8 N.40): C. (7.·62 kJ .6 x the value of Np read from Figure 7. (8.20Ni kJs m 0 C Therefore.l °C. = P = NpgPN.87 (60.20N?·62 kJs -l m-2oC-1 Assuming that the heat~transfer coefficient for the cooling water he and £he tube wall resistance Blk can be neglected (p 185). (8. 1 kJ s~l = 103 kg m2 s·3 and: Ws = 173NpN[ kg m2 s-3 . therefore.000 cPo From Table A.8 (Appendix A). Dr = 0. Therefore: W.1 Substituting the known parameters into Eq.62 -1 -2 -1 h = -V = 203m =0.l 0C-l From Eq. kgm2 . The dimensionless numbers in this equation are Rei. Ws ' is equal to the power P calculated using Eq. The dependence of Rejon stirrer speed is given by Eq. U = hh = 0. (8.0AP.39).23).19) with liT = liTA = WOC: Q = UA6TA = 0.1.78m)' = 173NpN. Pr and Nu. (8.Solutions: Chapter 8 95 As the required length of cooling-coil is considerably longer than the 45 m available in the offered fermenter. (8. from Eq. as the fermentation broth is the bot fluid: hh = 0.18). JJb = 10.I sol.·62 From the definition of Nu in Eq.24.8 Optimum stirring speed for removal of heat from viscous broth J. where Ni has units s-l. (0.87 Rep·62 p.3 m: Nukfb 232NP·62(2XlO-3kJs-lm-loc-l) .1 kJS-~ 1 -31 = 0. and Nj has units of s~l.I s~I = 10 kgm.8 (Appendix A). (8.62 (104)".33).33 (1)0.

Prog. Everett.0 60.1 3.6 77..I h· I.3 0.8 48.8 56. 467-476) for more accurate interpolation of the power curve in Figure 7.4 l.8 225 -38 8. if the rate of oxygen consumption per g cells is 6 rnmol g.I h· I = 6 x IO~3 gmol g. Chern.I.7 5.0. when the stirrer speed is 3 s·l and 6Hrxn =-93AkJs· I : .3 2.4 5. Ws and -tilirxn are plotted as a function of Nj below.0 0.36 48.9 3. Answer: About 3 s·1 (e) From p 100.6 39. W S and -tJirxn calculated using the equations derived above are listed below as a function of Ni.3 93.H.1 0.0 182 111 3.96 Solutions: Chapter 8 Therefore: -Mrxn = Q.12 80. Eng.0 692 -459 The values of ii. Nj (s·1) (d) The rate of removal of metabolic heat (the -Aiirxn component of 'h reaches a tnaltimurn at aroundNj =3 8.9 92. 00 a Ws • -AHrxn 5 10 Stirrerspeed. 1.0 354 -151 10.0 122 86. Costich and H.W.0 426 187 3.7 17.8 4.9 74.4 36.1) Np Ws (kJ s-l) -Mirxn (kJ s·l) 0.0 4.173NPNf)kJS-l Values of Q.0 304 152 3.4 4. Nj (s~l) Rei Q(1<1 . the heat of reaction for aerobic cultures is -460.0 243 132 3.0 365 170 3. Power characteristics of mixing impellers. Values of Np as a function of Rei were obtained from the original reference (I.0 486 203 4.vp·62_0.5 0. Therefore.4 4.8 142 28. E.kJ per groal oxygen consumed.5 30.6 48.1 7.0 6.0 608 233 4.10 36.46. Rushton.24.WS = (S6. 1950.69 55.

the overall heat-transfer coefficient increases as beat transfer through the boundary layer in the fermentation broth is improved.. . as the stirrer speed is raised. When the curves for Qand W s intersect. the system bas limited capacity to handle exothermic reactions. the system in unable to remove any of the heat generated from reaction.2 g l~l (I) From the graph..- 1m Answer: 12. g 10m . Therefore.Solutions: Chdpter 8 97 1 Biomass = -93.4k:Js. Accordingly. --. However. the rate at which heat is dissipated by the stirrer W s also increases with stirrer speed. the entire heat-transfer capacity of the fennenter cooling system is being used just to remove the heat from stirring. =L22XIIYg x 6 10-' gmolg-I h. the rate at which heat can be removed from the system Qis increased. at high stirrer speeds. L22xl0 g 22 I-I CeII concentration = 3 11000 11 = 1 .I'6~sl (-460kJ gmol-I) I The cell concentration is equal to the biomass divided by the fermenter volume: 5 .

'!LI 19mol .ygen uptake rate using the molecular weigbt of oxygen =32.10 s-1 (bJ From Table 9. 9. = qox = 7. Appendix B): 1 I qox = 80 mmo11.-I The rate of oxygen transfer is given by Eq. the solubility of oxygen in water at 30"C under 1 atln oxygen pressure is 3. x 10-4 kgm-3 (aJ From Table 9.I. 3600s = ' 444 x 10-5 g g-1-1 s At a cell density of 40 g 1~1.3) Answer: 0.h... Appendix B): I qo = 5 mmo1g-I b.2.15s.9 x (8. the maximum oxygen requirement is: qox = 4.0g ..25X 1O-3kgm-3 _1. l000g' 11~IIIOOOIII~1 1m3 ' 36008 = 711 . the solubility of oxygen in water at 30"C under 1 atm air pressure is 8.Mass Transfer 9.37). Answer: Limited by mass transfer. NAis maximum when CAL "" 0: kLaC~ "" O.05 x 10-3 kg m· 3 . (9.78 x 10-3 kg m-3 .11XlO-4 kgm -3 s-1 = O.1.2 leLa required to maintain critical oxygen concentration Converting the units of the oxygen uptake rate using the molecular weight of oxygen"" 32.0 g lI. C~ = 0.25x 10-3 kgm-3 To maintain the oxygen concentration in the medium at the critical level.0 (Table B.28X 10-4 kg m. m m11- 1 IlgmOI I o . l000mmol ' 1-.I..44XIO-5gg-I. (9. 1lOOOmmol 1 gmol 1.1 Rate-controlling processes in fennentation Converting the units of the maximum specific ox.84 x 10"2 kg m-3. the system will be limited by mass transfer.1 (ax 1O-3 kgm-3) "" 1. 1lOOOmmol 32.. If the solubility in medium is 10% lower.10 s-1 ent (C~ -Cerit) (7.05 x 10-3) kg m-3 = 7.0 (Table B.41): (kLa). 11gmol .20 x 10-3 kg m-3 s-l As the maximum oxygen demand of the culture is greater than the maximum oxygen transfer rate in the fennenter. from Eq. x 10-4 kgm-3-1 s Converting the units of the critical oxygen concentration: Ce· n = t0004mM= ' 0004 .2. Therefore: .-I(40grl)rl~lll~gl = 1.0g II~I I gmol 1. 119mol 32. l000g' 1100011-128 1m3 .

0289 groom 1 01'1000II. (9. the partial pressure of oxygen in the exit gas is = = (0.20Iatm)1 NA = 0.0289 gmol m.8 x 10-3 kg m-3) The kr.0. the partial pressure of oxygen in the inlet air at 1 atm is (0.llxlO-4 kgm-3 s-1 = 0. the actual value is (l/Ll x 20. From p 17.kg m.021 s-l 9.183atm)1 NA .201 atm.15)K NA = 0.2Iatm) (1891min-I·I~10.183 x 1 atm) = 0. qox = 7.37) with NA converted to mass units: NA 1 -3 s-I .15)K .2Iatm) (189Imin-I·I~10.. (9.a value obtained in (b) using the incorrectly calibrated oxygen analyser is 60% of the actual leLa value.0174gmolm-3 s· 1 Answer: 0.3 s-1 Therefore.5 and converting the temperatures to degrees Kelvin using Eq.I.. (kLa) .48). = .0174 gmol m~3 s~l (b) From Eq. From Eq. the error is therefore 40%.15 s-l (e) If the measured exit gas composition of 20. (9.1 from Table 2.25s 1 (CAL .OOOO82057m3 atmK-1 gmorl (2001) (20+273. Appendix B): Answer: 0.3% = 02.3 Single-point !<La determination using tbe oxygen-balance metbod (a) The oxygen transfer rate for kLa determination by the oxygen~balance method is given as Eq.1% 02 is an overestimation.0346kgm-3-1. ..21 atm.8 x 10.24): N = _ I [(FgPAG) _(FgPAG) 1 A RVL TiT 0 1 [(200lmin-l·I~10. Using R 0.08 0.28XI0-4kgm-3) Answer: 0.37) with the units of NA from (a) converted to mass terms using the molecular weight of oxygen = 32. .201 x 1 atm) 0.41).0 (Table B.15)K NA = 0... (28 + 273.21 x 1 atm) = 0.!>LI _ kLa =.52x 7.Solutions: Chapter 9 99 From Eq.-0. (9.48): NA = _ I [(FgPAG) _(FgPAG) 1 RVL TiT 0 _ 1 [(200lmin-l·I~10. assuming that the exit gas leaves the fermenter at the fermentation conditions (l atm pressure and 28°C). the partial pressure of oxygen in the exit gas is (0. 132.000082057 m3 atm K-1 gmol. from Eq. = gIn g = 0.t.1)% 18.183 atm. (2. (9.15) K . Therefore.021s-1 ent (CAL -Cerlt) (0. (28 + 273.CAL) 3 3 (7.OOOO82057m3 attn K-1 gmol 1(200 I) (20+ 273.

0.1g' 1 1 m 3 1 = 0.3. x 104 kg m-1 8-1 -_ 343 .12 g 1-I .869Xlo-6atml_ 1 I . 11mol 1 1 1 m3 1 = 0. S04 2.09g1-1. (NH4)2S04 = 132.1g· Na+ -0.8 132. gr 2x13 1 I 1molg' .34 atm.485 x 10. 9. This calculation illustrates the sensitivity of the oxygen balance method to the accuracy ofall of the measured parameters used in Eq. therefore: Ps -_ 343 .3 2 0.485 x 1<r3 2 l.303 x 10. 0.12g1-I . g "" 9.037x 10-3 1 10001 H2P04.869 x 10"6 aim.3 2 1.11~.0g· 1m3 = 1. the error in the final kIft value can be very large. Medium component Hi or Kj(m 3 mo1·l) Zi GiL or CJL (mol m· 3) Glucose 0. (9.4 leLa measurement (a) From p 16.8 Ca2+ -0.0 and KH2P04 = 136.l s·2 = 9.From Table A.l (Appendix B). 19. 1 kg m. Answer: 1.5g1-I .~~I'111~'1 = 0. When similar errors in both Fg terms are taken into consideration.119 x 10.720 x 1<r3 1 .8 m 8.s- Ps is the pressure due to_the head of liquid above the sparger. CaC03 = 100.3gl-I.ll~~~I'II~311 = 13.1.3 2 10001 1.0 C032.63 K+ -0596 x 10-3 1 0. sucrose (C12H22011) = 342. 0.11~~~~I'111~11 = 13. (9.1 g' Substituting these values into Eq.2 . The parameter values for application in Eq.09g1-I .88 136.S (Appendix A). Values of Hi and Kj are taken from Table 95.3g1-1.034 . The static pressure at the sparger is: Ps = P g h "" 1000 kg m. 142. 0.2g 1m3 = 11l Sucrose 0. Na2HP04 = 142. x 104 kgm-1 s-1 . the molecular formulae for glucose and sucrose and the molecular weights of the medium components are: glucose (C6H1206) = 180.8 m s·2) (3.45) gives: .8 and B.3 (9. atm 1 kgm.1.0 10001 NR. 132.3 HP042. This sensitivity arises from the subtraction of two similar numbers for the moles of oxygen in and out of the system. lImo] 11 1m3 1= 9.1.43 x t()4 kg mwl s·l . 100 Solutions: Chapter 9 Answer: 40%.48).3. 342.3g· 1m3 =24. 11mol I 10001 136.45) are listed below.3g1-I .34 aim (b) From Tables B.550 x 10-3 1 I 1mol 11100011 2xO. p "" 1000 kg m.149 x 10.3 I 1mol 11100011 8.1 I 1 1m3 1 = 197 .5 m) "" 3.3 20g1-111mOllfoooll 180.2. (9. oThctotal pressure at the'llparger iSh + atmospheric pressure "" 1.88 1.453 x 10. Assuming the density of the culture broth to be the same as warer.+ -0.

57 x 10.57)XIO-3 kgm-3 -(9.22)xIO 3 kgm 3 (C~ -CALt = 3A6x 10-3 kgm-3 Answer: 3.2.2015 x 1 aim) = 0. (9. (-o.22 x 10*3 kg m~3.000082057 m3 attn K-l gmol-l from Table 2.63 + (-0. Le.-CALlo 10[(7. Eq. Using this value for C~. therefore: C~ = L34(7.5 and converting the temperatures to degrees Kelvin using Eq.2015 atm.3 + (0.88 + (1.53): (c'" -CAL) = (C~-CAL)o-(C~-CAL)i = {7.8J • • CAL = 0. Answer:. From (b).57) X 10 'kgm-'j In (C~L -CALli {9.21 x I attn) = 0.14xlO-3 kgm-3} = 957xlO-3 kgm-3 Answer: 957 x 10-3 kg m.95 x 7.34 attn rather than 1 attn.14 x 10-3 = 3.3 (d) The logarithmic~meanconcentration difference is given by Eq. using R = 0.88 + [(0.14-3. From Table 9. the solubility of oxygen in water at 35°C and 1 attn air pressure is 7.65 x 9.14 x 10-3 kg m~3. Assume that the volumetric flow rates of gas into and out of the fermenter are measured under ambient pressure.14-3. From (a). Assuming that the exit gas leaves the fermenter at the fermentation temperature (35°C).Solutions: Chapter 9 101 10g1O(C~) CAL = O.8 +] -.485 x 10-') (2)2 13. the total pressure at the bottom of the tank is 1.53). the solubility of oxygen at the bottom or inlet end of the vessel is 9. C~ = 0.52 x 10-3 kg m~3.720x 10-') (1)2 19.57 x 10-3 kg m~3. (9.596 x 1O-')cl)2 0 . From (c).5~HiZ?CiL + ~KjCJL t j _ 05 [(-0.24): .21 attn. the solubility of oxygen at the top or outlet end of the vessel is 7.46 x 10-3 kg m. at I attn.3.0 + (-o.52 x 10-3 kg m*3 = 7. the partial pressure of oxygen in the outlet gas is (0.50 x 7.3 kg m. (2.0+(0.550X 10-') (1)2 1.303 x 10-') (2)213.57 x 1O~3 = 6.22)xlO-3 kgm-3 AL L [(c:u.453 x 10-') (2)2 9.57-6.95CAIJ) Solutes in the medium reduce the oxygen solubility by about 5%.7 +(0. the dissolved oxygen concentration at this location is 50% air saturation or 0. the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the total pressure.57-6.14x 1O~3kgm~3.3 (e) The oxygen transfer rate for !La determination by the oxygen-balance method is given in Eq. From p 17.119X 10-') 111 + (0.485 X 10-') (2)2 0. the partial pressure of oxygen in the inlet air at 1 attn is (0.43). Substituting these values into Eq.14 x 10-3 kg m-3 (e) From Henry's law.149 x 10-') 24. (9A8). (9.037 x 10-') (1)2 0. the dissolved oxygen concentration at this location is 65% air saturation or 0. 7.

43.0gll~II~I-19g1 .6 20 2.2latm) (4071S-1·1~10. • From Eq.~p.s7)XIO-3]kgm-31~1 _ -1 x max .2. (9. 1000 I _ kLa =.5 Dynamic kLa measurement kLa is determined using Eq. (35 + 273. 0.46 x 10 3kgm 3 Answer: 0. Calculated values of In (..3 30 3..:::.0167 gmol m. Appendix B): 3Z 0g NA 00167 .2015atm)1 NA . 0.40) with C~equal to the average solubility of oxygen between the top and bottom of the fermenter: _ kLa(c~) _ 0I5s-I[C·14. 102 Solutions: Chapter 9 _ I 3 [(25 m min- 1 Y~lo. '" =. qo -74 l_lh_lllgmOII132.I5)K NA =.0 (fable B.1 60 .5% air saturation.3 s·l (f) .0.10.CAL) = (CAL .15 s-1 (g) The maximum cell concentration supported by the fennenter can be calculated using Eq. Illkg .CAL)L from (d) and units of NA converted to mass terms using the molecular weight of oxygen = 32. mmo g .5%. Take!} =. gIno1m-3 s-1 .52) and the method described in Section 9. (9.~"'1 ) and (12 .15)K . lOOOmmol . 1gmol . 36008 Answer: 19 g I-I 9.10 s and CALI =.80 10 1.0. (9.15 s 1 (CAL -CALt 3..0 40 4.(1) are listed and plotted below.OOOO8Z057m3atmK 1gmor1(ZOm3) (25+273.~p. gIll g =.00 o OAI 5 0.t.1lOf.37) with (CAL .-=-.0167 gInol m· 3 s~l Answer: 0..9. looog . The steady-state dissolved oxygen tension CAL = 73.

069 s-l.004 9 0.(y AO)oJ for 0-10 b are plotted below.159 0.6 Measurement of kLa as a function of stirrer speed: the oxygen-balance metbod of Mukhopadhyay and Ghose From p 17.004 0.003 0.~Oll g = 3.006 11 0.184 0 4 0.(YAG)o] CAL [(YAG).178 0.138 0.106 0.(YAG)o] (gmol m· 3) (gmol m.125x 10-2 gmol m-J Values of CAL and fCYAO)i .003 0.106 0. -(YAG)o) CAL [(YAG).169 0.002 7 0.005 The tabulated values of CAL and [(y AO)i .1 g . Fermentation time Agitator speed (h) 300 rpm 500 rpm 700 rpm CAL [(YAGJi .004 0.l.001 0.131 0.006 10 0.166 0. Convert the data for CAL to units of gmol m.147 0.069 s~l 9. As CAL increases at 11 b after being constant at 9 and 10 b.3 using the molecular weight of oxygen"'" 32 (Table B. the mole fraction of oxygen in the inlet air CYAoh "'" 0210.163 0.3) 0 0.175 0. .128 0.11O~XJgl. .184 0 0.125 0.Solutions: Chapter 9 103 4 • 1 fq.003 0.128 0.005 0.a is equal to the slope of the straight line in the plot"'" 0.CYAO)oJ for each stirrer speed are listed below.004 0.. 1 ppm = 1: 109 (lOookgm-J) .3) (gmol m. Answer: 0.109 0.001 5 0.004 0.184 0 0.002 0.125 0.005 0.128 0. Appendix B) and assuming that the density of the fermentation broth is the same as that of water = 1000 kg m~3.131 0.153 0.002 0.147 0.003 8 0. the final values in the table for each stirrer speed most likely reflect the decline phase of culture growth and are therefore not included in the lqp analysis.001 6 0.

.002 0.15 <o~ 0.005 0. • 300 rpm o 500 rpm • 700 rpm f i 0.185.006 (a) The slopes of the straight lines in the plot for 300.qa using R = 0.0 (Table B. Taking the average.186 gmol m-3 .10 L-_.. 500 and 700 rpm are -19.58. stope For 300 rpm: For SOOrpm: At 700 rpm' -2.68 groot m-3.10 s·l at 300 rpm. 5.004 0. Converting to mass terms using the molecular weight of oxygen = 32.186 gmol m._ _.t. (224): -J1TF.OOOO82057m3atmgmor1r1(29+273.003 0. 0. liminfi 66SV _ -2..L_ _.---.000082057 m3 atm gmol-l K~l from Table 2...2)..187 gmat m-3.000 0..15)K{31)xs}ope .1 i~~ll·11~gl = 5.l86gmolm-3 = 0.l-_-''-_.----.68 gmol m-3 Answer: 0.21 s·1 at 700 rpm (b) The intercepts of the straight lines in the plot for 300.02 gmol m-3 8-1 kLa = RTVLX~ope = O.39) and (9P6.17 s·l at 500 rpm.3 atm (31 nun ..21 s- -9.186 and 0. C~ is 0.5 and converting the temperature to degrees Kelvin using Eg. . Appendix B): C~ = 0.. 0...95 x 1<r3 kg m~3 (c) Equating Eqs (9.04 and -9.. 104 Soluticns: Chapter 9 0. respectively.L_ _. respectively.---.J.. 500 and 700 rpm are 0... 0. These values can be used to determine. -12.-----. ' -1 ..3.20..---.02gmolm-3s-1 1 k La = = 0.95 x 10-3 kgm-3 Answer..001 0.----.J 0.

I O'{)OOO82057m3atmgmolIrI(29+273. (qoxhnax = 2.02 x 0.0 x 1O~2 gmol m-3 s-l.2 x 10. 1. 1.1 x 10-3 gmoJ m-3 s·l at 300 rpm.(YAO)o] is 0.(qO x)max = 2.02[(YAG)-(YAG) jgmolm 3.1 x 10.2 grool m· 3 s·l at 700 rpm .(YAeVo] is 0.006. At 300 rpm. therefore.Solutions: Chapter 9 105 PTFg qo x = R T II.1 at 500 rpm.02x 0. At 500 rpm.(YAGlo] 3atm(3Imin-lr~~[(YAG)i-(YAG)oj __ qox = = 2.3 gmol nr 3 s-l. the maximum value of [(YAo)i .02 x 0. Answer: 8.004 = 8. therefore. (qO x)max = 2.006=1. [(YAG)i . At 700 rpm. the maximum value of [(YAo)i . .15)K(31) I 0 The maximum rate of oxygen uptake occurs when [(yAO:>i .(YAo)oJ is 0.3 s-1.2 x 10-2 gmoJ m.(yAO)oJ is maximum.005 = 1.0 x 10-2 gmol m-3 8. the maximum value of [(YAo)i .004. therefore.005.

. which may practically be taken as zero.333\1~:-1 s-'j(1.03 0. Vf(m 3) tlVr(s rn*3) 120 0.110 3kgm Is Ij(22g1-111°OO1j.0180 2. The data after converting the units to s and m3 are listed and plotted below.0284 3. t (8) Filtrate volume.00 0.0 0.I~~ lcP 1m3 lOOOglJ a = 8..14).I s·2 (Table AS. Time.11 x 104 180 0. a plot of fl Vf versus Vf should yield a straight.0 • ~ Il: 0.18 x 106 s m...75 x 104 900 0.0218 2.0 • - 0 x .17x 104 1200 0.0108 1.9.c=c---':i-~=-=""-:-----.01 0.0 1 • .3 kg m-I g-l (Table A. the intercept K2 = -363 s m o3 . Appendix A) and 1 cP = 10.0 ~ ~ g ~~ 1.I1.75 x 104 4.1:::.l8x 106 sm-6) = ----. from .00p.. the specific cake resistance a is: 2(0.25m2)'36OmmHg.0 x lO lO m kg-! The intercept K2 is a relatively small negative number.49 x 104 360 0.0l2l 1. Therefore.02 0. ~ (m3) The slope of the 'Straight line in the plot KI = 1.1 Bacterial filtration (aJ According to Eqs (10.l:-:-----:-­ 4. (10. Appendix A).04 Filtrate volume. 3.13).333 x 102 kg m.6 .00 x 104 600 0.!!. using the conversion factors 1 mmHg = 1.0320 3.2.12)-(10. From Eq. .Unit Operations 10.line for determination of the filtration parameters.

5 x 106 2.3 x 106 3. x sm The filter area is obtained fromEq. a = 8.0 x lOS 2.5 2.8 x 106 3.3 x 1()6 2.-' = 649m 4 A = 25. Pressure drop (mmHg) 100 250 350 550 750 Vf(m 3) pelleted IfYr(S m· 3) 1. I1.2 x 1()6 5.0x 106 2. K2 =0.0 x lOS 1.5m2 10. (10.1 x 106 1.5 9.0 x 10"5 8.14).13X 10' 'm-6) 360mmHg.2 x 1()6 1.0 x 106 3.5 x 106 1.4 x 1()6 2.7 x 106 .5 l.4 x 106 2.333Xi~:-1 I .4 x 1()6 1.6 x 106 7.0 x 107 5.8 x 106 3.1 x 1()6 2. rm is effectively zero.1 x 106 5.& x 1()6 Pressure drop (mmHg) 100 250 350 550 750 Vf filamentous t/Vr(s m· 3) 1.5 x 1(T5 55 x 1()6 3.4 x 1()6 1.0 x 10. Answer.5 x 10-5 1. From(a).0 x 10.4 x 1()6 2.12): 3 1 _ t/Vr = 7.6 x 1()6 2.3x1OS &.5 x 10-5 5.5 x 10.:-I '-'I&·ox 10 1O 1 mkg.& x 1()6 1.0 x 106 4..3 x 1()6 3.5 4.7 x 1()6 2.7 x 106 3.3 x 1()6 4.3 x 1()6 4. (10.0 x lOS 5.5 x 10.1 x 106 1.4 x 1()6 3.0 x 1010 m kg-I.5 x 106 7.6x 106 45 x 1()6 4.5xl0.5 x 106 1.1 x 106 2.13) using the result for a from (a): ff.0 x 1()6 4.¥I·I~I) 3 .& x 1()6 3.1 x 1()6 1...3 x I1J6 3.0 x H. -6 Vf 40001' 1m3 'lmin .7 x 1()6 1.4 x 1()6 3.0cP .3 x 107 7.& x 1()6 3.0x 1O~5 6.6 x 1()6 2.2 FUlratlon ofmyceUaI suspensions (a) After converting units using the conversion factor 1 m3 = 106 mI.& X11J6 6.2 x 106 12 x 1()6 9.Solutions: Chapter 10 107 Eq.& x 1()6 2.1 x 1()6 25 x 1()6 5.0 x 1(T5 3. from Eq. \g:.9 x 106 2.3 x 1()6 4.7xl()6 3.7 x 106 4.5 x 106 2. the filter medium resistance rm is zero. I'tac 4.5 x 10-3 min 1~1.0 x lOS 7. the data for tlyfand Yr are listed and plotted below.3 x 106 3.2 x 106 4.& x 1()6 5.1 10.5 x 106 6.7 x 1()6 1.7 x 1()6 2.5 72x106 4.5 6.5 8. (h) tl yr = 7.0 x 106 5. therefore.0 x 10".7 x 1()6 2.1 x 106 4.5 x 10"5 9.0 x 1(T5 1J x 107 65 x I1J6 52 x I1J6 4.9 x 106 2. (10.1100011'160' 1 = 113 10' K 1.5 x 1(T5 9.3 x 1()6 9.0x lOwS &.minl.0 x 1()6 4.7 x 106 2.(22 g l- 1 A = 2Kt6p = 2(1.5 3.1 x I1J6 5.IXI1J6 4.5 x 10.3 x 106 1.& x 11J6 6.0x 10.7 x 1()6 1.

Pressure drop (romHg) 100 250 350 550 750 Pelleted Slope::: Kl (s m· 6) 2..75 x 1011 1.26 x 1011 L20x lOll 9.12).93 x lO lD 7.350mmHg ~ 6 8 o 550mmHg ~ .77 x 10 10 Filamentous Slope:::: KI (8 rn·6) 3.. 750mmHg x 8 _1:::. (10. 'These values are listed below..07 x 1010 5. 6 ~ ~g ~ • ~I 2 0 0 2 3 Filtrate volume..2 (Table A.I s·1 (Table A.- 0 6 E ~ ~g F • i 2 0 0 1 2 3 Filtrate volume.S.13 X 1011 1.9. • x 105 (m3) 6 6 From Eq. • V.38 X lOll Ll4 x 1011 = From Eq. 750mmHg x -1"'.350mmHg o 550mmHg .13). Appendix A) and 1 cP ::::: 1O~3 kg m. V. the slopes of the straight lines in the plots are equal to Kl for each pressure drop. $ 0 10 .. x 105 (m3) 5 6 . Appendix A). (10. using the conversion factors 1 mmHg 1.333 x 102 kg m.73 x lOll 2. 108 Solutions: Chapter 10 12 Pressure drops: PaUeted • 100mmHg f$ 10 o 250mmHg .I 8. the specific cake resistance aofthe pelleted cells is: . Pressure drops: Filamentous 12 • 100mmHg f o 250mmHg .

28 x 109 _ 100 .ll::gl -617 ).6pK 2(1.78 X 109 4.29 x 10' 3. .68 xla' 5..Il~mU: 6I .68 x 10' 5.p Jl{c 1_ - 1...K a- _ /.78 x 109 4.I = -"-.67 x 1()4 7. (10.lgml- ImmHg 1.30 x 109 3. = 2..1 s·Z (Table A.. the compressibility can be obtained by plotting the specific cake resistance a versus lip on log-log coordinates...5.p. 1~~~1'11::~1 where tip has units ofmmHg andKl has units of s m-6.p·11.::..333 x 102 kg m.07 x 109 Filamentous a(mkg. x v ~ Im g k-l The results for specific cake resistance obtained after substituting the values for tJ.4cP.. o Pelfeted !if • Filamentous S 6 -x " 10 Pressure drop.11C:O~mI2)2 /.28 X109 (b) From Eq..07 X 109 Filamentous a(mkg. Similarly for the filamentous cells: 2A2 K 2(1.pKI mkg.:. I10-3kf. .47 x 1O-5 /.60 x 108 l.58 X 108 9.333xlOZkgm-ls-ZjKl loocml 1~5A.--0'='-.41 x 108 8. 1 lit s.58 x loB 7. Pressure drop (mmHg) 100 250 350 550 750 Pelleted a(mkg~l) 558 x 108 7.2).-'---+'7'.".8Cm2 ..p and K 1 into the equations are listed below.25 gml- l ..l s-Z) 1.--'--.29 X 109 3.41 x loB 8.60 x 108 1. Apx 10'4 (kg m·1 s·2) ..1 10- 3k."-\.I~P)2 /. ~--~-_~-~_~.-l I a = -~.I ) 2.4cP .Solutions: Chapter 10 109 2AZ .8cmZ.I(0. 0.33 x 1()4 1.1 L333\1~:-1 s-ZjKI Jl{c· 1. Appendix A) to convert the units of lip. the data are listed and plotted below.58 x 108 9.33 x 1()4 3.00 x lOS Pelleted arm kg-I) 5.33 x 1()4 4.30x109 3.I s. Using the conversion factor 1 mmHg:::: 1. Pressure drop (kg m..I ) 2.

a= a' 1¥.5.1 10.415)m l +O.585 s1.585 :: 6.3 Rotary-drum vacuum mtration (a) For negligible filter medium resistance.1 g ml-1 . where lip has umts kg m· l s·2.415 from (b): (Ap)0. 10. for the filamentous suspenSIon.(l+s) m 1+s s2f and s= 0.323. 13600' Ih1 2 x (20m 3) IAcP . For the pelleted suspension. Appendix A): !¥J = 2.lI) with rm =0 and a= c£ !¥Js: t = Vf Solving for fJf a' c: t 2A 2 J1{a'c =---- Vi t>p>-1 Substituting the parameter values for the laboratory filter and using the conversion factor I psi =6.s. a= 4.895 x 103 kg mol s·2 (fable A.78 x loS kg mol s·2 Ap Converting units using the conversion factor I mmHg = 1.323 for the pelleted suspension and 0.585 mO. OA15 for the filamentous suspension (0) The filtration equation for a compressible filter cake is Eq.11) with a= a' ti[l. An assumption associated with this answer is that the filter cake characteristics measured at pressures between 100 and 750 mmHg apply at the much higher pressure of2086 mmHg.60 x 107 ApO.333 x 102 kg m I s-2 Answer: 2086 mmHg.2). Therefore..333 x 102 kg mol s·2 (fable A. and a' bas units kg-(l +s) m 1+3 sZs.170 = 2.323 for the pelleted suspension.2x 0.42 x 107 Ap0.415 .42X 107 kg-{I+O.5. a has units m kg-I.-114.1 I mmHg I = 2086mmHg 1. the equations for the two lines in tJ:e figure have the form.l 8-2 .415-1 :: Ih . Assuming that the filter medium resistance rm is negligible: Solving for (61')$-1: 2 (Ap)J'-l :: _I ~ v3f I'f a' c Substituting the parameter values for the filamentous suspension using consistent units. Appendix A): . the compressibility is 0. a= 2.415 ( 0.42 x 107 kg. 110 Solutions: Chapter 10 From Eq.78x 105 kg m.3 klgc~-l .415.54 x 10-4 kg-o. Answer: 0. 10 6 'I~I) 1 mm] 3 Iooog {1ip)-O. (ID. the filtration equation for a compressible fdter cake is Eq. (lO. including the results ex':: 4.415 for the fIlamentous suspension.78 x 105 kgm. (10.1 8-2 = 2.

.89S-x 103 kg m. Substituting this value for t into the left-hand-side of the equation in (e): O. 3kg -1 _2~0. and using the conversion factor 1 psi = 6. - .43 m-2.3 x the cycle time "" O.tXc "" 1 nun I "" 367x 105 kg0. Appendix A).2 m.3/N h. 2(2n(0:75m)(1. each cm2 of cloth is submerged for 0. Substituting the filter cake parameter values from (a).ips-I 2 V. (10.14 45 ..16..-sm _m3 N . 60s 21 lOOcm 1) 2 ( Scm. 95 xlO Ii 168 m s (20) ps 3 m 20 m3 .3IN h and Vf"" 20lN m3 . (el As 30% of the rotating filter cloth is submerged at any time.57-1 I I 0.x m s .2ml)' N N where N is the number of revolutions per hour. -1-' 23.430.11) with rm "" 0 and a". lI. t "" O.( 367 105kg0. (d) The volume filtered per revolution is 20 m3 h~1 x liN h "" 20INm3. ~ )2 ( 12 si.l4 r.43 m-2.3 h 3600s N'lh -'-'-~'.SIN h.67 x 105 kg0. Calculating both sides of the equation gives: 54sm-3 "" 134~.-.43 s0.ps is: lit a' c .=.5mm.I s-2 (Table AS. (el Eq.9 sm-3 N = 24..9rph Answer: 24.Solutions: Chapter 10 111 2 1m 2 .43 sO. pSt.5 N h . 2A Applying this equation to a single revolution of the filter..75 m and W is the drumwidth "" 1.57-1 . 14 (h) The cycle time is lIN hours per revolution.43 -2. evaluating the filter area A "" 2 1t r Wwhere r is the drum radius"" 0.3IN h to O. (Sooml..--c:.9-3 20 .89sxI03k~m-l 106 m1 P 1 pst e21~0. 13600 Ih '1 _ 1343.« !J.9 revolutions per hour (I) The ftltration time is increased from O. Answer: 3.

2 = 1 kg mol g-1. s: .u p 3 18 1. l000g 100 em 1 1. the sedimentation velocity for the quartz particles is: 3 _ - ug _ Pp -Pf 2 _ -D g _ ( (2000-997) kg m. m.31XIO-7ms-l g 18p P 18 (1.kgm 1 s:-1 From Eq.:gl. m s-1 = 110m2 lUg 2 (6.:g1·ll~~m 3 1 = 997kgm-3 1 Q = SOOlh.15).8 m s-2 (p 16).36x 10. (10. 1.9 (Appendix A).017 =6470 times that for the quartz particles.I. s: Pp =: 3 1. INs m.18): 4 3 I: = JL =: 1. D p = 5 MlD= 5 x 10-6 m. (10.36 x 10 3 kgm 1s-l) Substituting this result into Eq.18). Answer: By a factor of 6470.39xlO-4 m3 s-1 = From Table A. (10. gem-3 = 20. the sedimentation velocity is: 3 u = Pp -PfD 2g = (l060-997)kgm.1 nun = 0. r for the yeast cells is 110/0. 10.017m2 lUg Z(4. x 10-3 ms -1 18. 112 Solutio1lS: Chapter 10 N = 14.ll~:r = l060kgm-3 Pr =: 0.= 500lh-l'!l~JbJ~sl = l. as the density of water is close to 1. (01 10-3 m ) . 11m =: 2000kgm-3 Dp =0. ms-2 -_ 402 )2 98 .9 revolutions per hour 10.15) with g =: 9.997gcm- 3 .31 x 10 7 ms-l) Answer: 110 m 2 (b) From the relationship between specific gravity and density (p 16). From Eq. 'therefore J. gem-31.8ms-Z_=6.3 kgm. m.02xlo-3ms-l) From the result in (a). the sigma factor is: r = -lL = L39x 1O-4 m 3 s-1 = 0.997 gene 3 := O.I 8. From Eq.= L06gcm- 3 'lli..1. 1kg 3 Pp = 20.Ili.06gcm.9 rph Answer. x .39x W . (SXI0-6m)29.5 Centrifugation offood particles Convert the parameter values to units of kg.36 x 10. (10.4 Centrifugation of yeast (a) Convert the parameter values to units of kg.0000 g em-3 (p 16).1 x 10-3 m. 14.

35 cm = 0. (10. I Pa s = I kg m~l s~l.047x1O3 s_1)2 0.OOOrpm = 2ft (lO.) (10-5 m )2 98 .OOO) min-I .9 (Appendix A). Answer.506 x 103 m2 g 9.6m2) = 200m2 2 Q1 3.25 x Io-3 kgm-1 s-1 From Eq.IlH .25 x 10"3 kg m~1 8"1.Solutions: Chapter 10 113 3 Pr = 1. and . therefore /.00gcm- 3 ·ll~gl·ll~~mr = l000kgm-3 From Table A.70m(0.05 m and rl = I cm = m: om 1 .115 m. g _ _ ((l030-1000)1Qlm.! 1::-1 = 1. r= 11. converting the centrifuge speed to radians s~1: (J) = IO.8 m s-2)clan 45') 2048m = 4 34x 10' s-2 2 n(N .6m2 1 3gIanO 2 1 3(9.u p 18 1. = 3glanO:!:. As one revolution = 2ft radians where radians in a non~dimensional unit (p 11).20) withg 9. (10. .115m)2 = 6.19). and (J) converted to rad s·l using the conversion factor I revolution = 2 1t radians where radians is a non~ dimensional unit (p 11).(89.017 m 3 s~l 10.0Im)3) = 89. For the pilot-scale device. (10. ms-2 - _ . (10.00gcm. lmin Answer.075 m)3 . the sigma factor for the tubular~bowl centrifuge is: " 1: = 21t~J:!: = 21t ( 1.1j = 1 60s (0.8 m s·2 (p 16). _ 659 r ad s-1 .(0.1) 2 n (55 -1) (0.0235 m: 2 oJ.18).18).8ms 2)clan35') From Eq. = 3 (9. the sigma factor·:rz for the bigger centrifuge is therefore: I :!: = Q2:!:I = 801min.8 m s~2 (p 16). b = 70 cm = 0.= 1. 0.075 m and rt = 2.7 CeutrifUgatiou of yeast and ceO debris Combining Eqs (10.70 m. ~2 (25-1) 21t (21tx3000min. 3 ug __ - Pp -P'D2 .5 cm = 0.22) withg =9. ~ :!: = 2noJ-(N-ll(.l = 1.05m)3_(0. (10.15).3_. 1307 x 10-6 ms -1 18.0235m)3) . (J)- II revolution 21trad II 1- 60 s . D p = 10--2 mm = 10--5 m.15) and (10.20).5 1OOn-1 From Eq. '2 = 5 cm = 0.6290 rpm .6 Scale-up of disc-stack ceutrifuge = The sigma factor for the pilot~scale disc~stack bowl centrifuge 1:1 is calculated using Eq. (10.047 x 103 s-l From Eq.l . 6290 rpm 10.8ms 2 From Eq. for the bigger centrifuge with 1"2 = 75 cm = 0.

22 4.23).00 6.35 2. and subscript 2 refers to the centrifugation conditions for the cell debris.0671 min-I 10.90 3.94 3 1.2 .11 4.31 1.5 . .72 2 1.1 =1:2 and: Assuming that the particle and fluid densities are the same in both applications. These data can be converted to Rm/(Rm_R) as follows: Rm 100 100 Rm-R = loo-RIRm x 100 = 100-% protein release The results are listed and plotted below.41 2.05 1. Pressure drop (kgjcm.=-2- D pl Dp2 or Answer.22 1.88 11.67 2.70 8.30 1.10 1.1. At constant pressure. 0. cancelling terms gives: ~1 Ql !'2 Q2 .70 18.70 5 1.56 1.71 8.28 1.16 1. As the same centrifuge operated at the same speed is used in both applications.13 4 1. a semi-lagplat ofRm/(RnrR) versusN should yield a straight line.8 Cen disruption The relationship between pressure and protein release for a Manton-Gaulin homogeniser is given by Eq.75 2. The data for % protein release represent values of RIR m x 100. (10.2) 200 300 400 500 550 Rm N Rm-R 1 1.50 2.114 Solutions: Chapter 10 where subscript 1 refers to the centrifugation conditions for the yeast suspension.2 6 1.99 5.16 1. so thatthe value of k pa can be determined from the slope.

N The values of k pa obtained from the slopes of the straight lines for each pressure are listed below.. (10.---.580 A log-log plot of these values versus p can be expected to give a straight line with the value of a obtained from the slope. for this system.01 L.---.2.---.37. 550 kg._ _~ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ ' 100 1000 Pressure.1 '" 0. 0.an'2 .--. Eq.129 0. 200 300 500 550 0. • 200 kg f an-2 o 300kg f an"2 • 400 kg f an"2 10 o 500 kg.an'2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of passes. 'l..406 0...23) becomes: where p bas units ofkgjcm.Solutions: Chapter 10 liS 30. a = 2..050 0.----. .37.71 x 10-7 p2.. Therefore..2 ) As the equation to the straight line in the plot is k pa = 1.--.--. ---. p (kgfcm.267 0.

33.33 _"" 3.An assumption associated with this answer is that the homogenisation characteristics measured at pressures between 200 and 550 kgfcm·2 apply at the higher pressure of578 klJfcm·2.5 CAl.23 VI = 0. Rm/(Rm_R) "" 3.5 CAl = 4. for K = 3.71xlO.5.8 Vu + 0. Eq. the product partitions into the upper phase.37 Therefore. 116 Solutions: Chapter 10 (a) For 80% protein release. from (a) for 80% recovery.5. for K"".S2x 106 7 7 L71xlO.5 and Yu "" 0.2 Vu v.23 VI = Vu 0.J = 3.71 x 10-7 p2. ln3.8 is: Vu 0. If VJ = 100 I. Rearranging the above empirical equation for the homogeniser and substituting p "" 460 kgfcnc 2 gives: N= In(R=~R) = ln5.5 Rearranging gives: 0.71 x 10-7 (460)2.0.24).27) withK:= 3.8 = v. Solving the equation fOTCM 502.f.8 x loS CAl = 955 u 1~1 .37 1. 80% protein release is achieved within 5 passes through the homogeniser. Answer: 5 (b) For 70% protein release. Vu = 115 l. CAu = 3. YJ = LI5 Answer: US (b) The mass of enzyme in the two phases must be equal to the mass of enzyme in the original homogenate.2 u ml. I Vu + 3.6 1. Rm/(Rm_R) "" 5. Rearranging the empirical equation for the homogeniser and substituting N=2 gives: In(R=~R) p2.24).0 = 4. Substituting these values into the mass~balance equation with Vo = 150 I and CAD = 3.(2) p := 578 kgjcm· 2 Answer: 578 kgjcm· 2. 10.9 Enzyme purification using two-phase aqueous partitioning (a) From Eq. The mass~ balance equation is: From Eq.37 = -"-'''--. (10.N-1. (10. 3. (10.2 x 103 u 1-1: where CAl has units ofu 1~1.

29).Solutions: Chapter 10 117 = As CAu 3.24).29).28) with VI =11. Substituting for CAl and CAO in this equation gives: (d) Using the equation for 4: derived in (c) with Vo = 51. the volume of the lower phase is 1 1.34 x 103 u I~I. the concentration factor for product partitioning into the upper phase is: Answer: 1. Vu = 61 and K = 10.. (10.10 Recovery of viral particles = From Eq. From Eq.04 10.= 10. = VuK + V. after phase separation. (10. for K. (10..2• CAn m·2 CAl and the product partitions into the lower phase. the volume of the = upper phase must be (5 + 2) . = 61(10-2)+ 11 = 0. (10. VI = I 1.94 (b) The mass of viral particles in the two phases must be equal to the mass of viral particles in the original culture broth. The mass.24): Rearranging the mass-balance equation in (b) and substituting for CAI gives: CAu CAuVu+CAIVi CAuVu+KVI CAO = Vo = The concentration factor for product partitioning into the lower phase is given by Eq.5 CAl> CAn = 3.7 . (10.balance equation is: (e) From Eq. If51 culture volume is added to 2 I polymer solution and.2: 51 Answer: 4.94 Answer: 0. Vu =61 and K = 10-2: Vr 11 Y.1 6 L (a) The yield of virus in the lower phase is given by Eq.

1: ViZ = r!'itT1 VTI = 10 m! 5 3 0. Vo2 in the large column is: 3 23m!.4 m is: VTl ::::.0584 m 3) + 0. (10. (10.6m =. 1t (2DI)2 HI::::' C 1& (OoOISm)2 2 OAm::::. Taxoid Kp = (V.11 Gel chromatography scale-up (a) The elution volume for the toxoid is lower than for the impurity.0.0384m 3 TI 7. 1t (TD02)2 HZ =.118m = 0. Therefore.171. the partition coefficients can be assumed to be the same-as those in the laboratory column. for toxoid in the large column with the value of K p from (b): Ve2 = Kp Va + Vo2 = 0.171 (0. Answer: Toxoid =. as the toxoid stays in the column for the shorter time.42): !'i = aW.015 m and height HI::::' 0.0384 m 3 = 0. respectively. Therefore.1t (osm)2 ~ O.0484 m 3 . impurity =.0.118m ( 3 ) = 0.07 x 10-5 m3 The total volume oitbe large~scale column of diameter D c2::::' 0.6 m is: VTI =.-V. the partition coefficients for the toxoid and impurity can be detennined using the measured elution volumes and Eq. 35ml = °171 .0751 m3 .629 (0.41). Vol = (29-23)m! . Impun°tyKp = (V.-Vo) = (45-23)m! = 0629 Vi .5 m and height HZ =.0584 m3) + 0.07 x 10 m If the pore volume fraction is also the same: 3 35m!. = IOgoll~gl(0003Sm3kg-l)oll~:~1 = 3Sml As V 0= 23 ml.0484 m3 Similarly for the impurity: Ve2 = K p Vi2 + Vo2 = 0. The total volume of the laboratory columnaf = = inner diameter Del 15 em 0. Answer: Toxoid (b) The internal pore volume in the gel in the laboratory reactor can be calculated using Eq.0584m3 7. 118 Solutions: Chapter 10 10.0384 m 3 = 0. 35m1 .41).m If the large·scale column is operated with the same packing and flow conditions.0. 7. impurity =0.0. it must be the larger molecule. (10.118m 3 If the void fraction in the large column is the same as in the small column. from Eq. ~ 6 V02 = rVol VTI = 10 5 m!3 ( 3) 0.629 (c) Let subscripts 1 and 2 denote the small and large columns.0751 m3 Answer: Toxoid =0.07 x 10.

4 2.H (m s-l) (m) 0. u x 1()4 (m $"1) .72 x 10.2 x 10-4 2. -1 . Answer: 0. Linear liquid velocity.4 3.0 2.69 x 10-4 0. 131 c2 1m 0.54 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-4 2.5 m 2 3 .5 x 104 2.1 min v2 0.----.0 x 10. using the results from (c) and (d): Ve2 0.8 x 10.0 0.4 3.5 Unear rrquid velcoity.-1 v2 "" VI n(D.27 x 10-4 1. u HETP..5 x 10-4 1.1 x 104 2.5 1.L. As the cross-sectional area "" 1& (DC/2)2.0484 m 3 IR=-= = 3.3 x 10-4 1.---. (D)2 "" 14mlmm._--' 0.12 Protein separation nsing chromatography (a) Selected values of u and H are listed and plotted below.0 x 10-4 2.5 2.0156m -6-' 10 ml .----.2 x 104 1.Solutions: Chapter 10 119 (d) The liquid flow rate is scaled up in proportion to the column cross-sectional area.95 x 10-4 1.87 x 10-4 0. For the toxoid in the large column.67 x 10-4 4.1 min 10.38 x 10. the volumetric flow rate v2 in the large column is: (D2)2 0 n 2.---. 1 '--_---'_ _.0156 m 3 min-I (e) The retention time t'R is equal to the elution volume divided by the volumetric flow rate.02 x 10-4 1.72 x 10-4 0.' -_ _. m IDlD .0 1..4 0.--..I) 2 "" VI -D cl (0015 ) "" 0.' -_ _.0156m3 min 1 Answer: 3.

235 1.fiifID(1.-1 ( ) H=-+Bu+C= 5 1 +1.51): .05xl0-4 ms-l +5.05+1 . . -I I60s . (c) The column diameter Dc = 25 em = 0.05 ) = 0.1 +5.5 1.85xlO-4 m The linear liquid velocity at which this value of H is obtained can be determined by rearranging the expression for H as a function of u and solving for u: .235 1.34xlO-4 m u 1.235-1)( 1. I mini 'm3 .05 = 1.311 min"1.4 m. From p 248.fIl =! .65x1O-5 ms. Answer: Yes (d) '.235-1)( 1.rate v is 0..65 X 10-5 m s~1.5 or virtual complete separation can be detennined using Eq. 120 Solutions: Chapter 10 (h) From the graph in (a). From Eq.7x1O-5 m= 1. as RN> 1. the value of H corresponding to RN= 1.67 X 10-4 m.= -+8 = 0 du .7xlO-5 m= 2. 110001 I _ = L05x 1O-4 ms 1 K(~'r K(02gmr Substituting this result into the equation for H: A 2x 1O"""m2 .65x1O ms Answer: The minimum HETP is 1.05 )=159 1.85 andkn = 1.85 A Substituting these parameter values into Eq. the two peaks are completely separated.-1 ( ) H=-+Bu+C= -4 1+1.25 m~ The --volumetric flow .38): o= kkB = 1.05xlO ms The capacity factors for the A and B chains are kA= 0.The-linear .2 Therefore: The value of H corresponding to this u is: A 2xlO"""m2 .67xl0-4 m u 3. respectively.05+1 H= 1.5s 1.05.Por L = 0.5.5s 3.0136Jiil 4RN 8 kB+I 41.51) with L = 1 m for the larger column and k2 = k]J: RN.fL(O-I)(~) =! .flow-rate u is obtained by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the column cross-sectional area: u = v = 0311 . =! 4Vli fT(O-I)(~)=\/ 0 kB+l 4 1m 2. mm. 00. This can be confirmed by differentiating the equation for H and solving for dH/du = 0: dB --A . obtained at a liquid velocity of 3. (10. the minimum HETP is around 1.235 0.7 m for the smaller column. (l0.7 X H.34xI0-4 m (1.

Solutions: Chapter 10 121 The solution to this quadratic equation is: -{C -H) ±\!<C _H)' -4B A H-C±. 18 x 10-6 m3 s-I . ·-1 nun Answer: 0.27 x 1O.48 x 10-5 m s·l or u = 2.48 x Io-S m s·I.48wlO-5 m s-l.85 x 104 m SO tbatRN> 1.!<C-H)2_ 4BA u = 2B = 2B Substituting the parameter values: u = (1.H < 1.2gmt = 3.7 x 10-5 m-1.191 min-I .21 x 10-5 ms.5 s)(2X 10-9 m2 s-l) 2 (1. The volumetric flow rate v is equal to u multiplied by the column cross--sectional area: v = U1t(~cr = {6.3.85X 104 -5.18xW"·Q m 3 s-1 Converting units: 10001 60s 1 = 0191 .7 x 1O-5)m± V (5.l ±2. 'Betweenu = 2.06xlO-S ms· 1 1be maximum flow rate for complete separation-is-u =·6.5 s) u = 4.85x 104 m)' -4 (1.48XlO-S ms-1}1t(o. 1 1m3 1 ' 1lmin v _ .06 x IO-S m s·l and u = 6.I Therefore: u = 6.5 and-eomplete:separationismaintained.S ms.

04 mol Answer: 0.69 RT 8.Homogeneous Reactions 11.95 mol mol~l .038 M K = = = 19 C01patequilibrium O..95 mol mol-1 Y moles GIP supplied 0.2) with G6P and GIP representing glucose 6-phosphate and glucose I-phosphate.275 The relatively small magnitude of K indicates that the reaction is reversible.9) and the reaction stoichiometry: .3144x 10-3 kJ K-I gmol-l. irreversible (b) FromEq.3144 J K-l gmol-l = 8.3): -t1GO 1 inK =~ = 14.038m?1 = 0.1klmol.5. The temperature is converted to degrees Kelvin using Eq.irreversible.3): _AGO 1 In K =~ = -32kJ mor = -1. (11.1 Reaction eqnilibrium From p 258. R =8.15K) K = 0. from Table 2. molesG6Pfonned 1mol -1 Theorettcal yIeld = mo1es GlP us ed to £orm G6P = -1-1 mo = I mol mol Answer:: I mol mol~l (c) From p 260 and using a basis of I litre: Gross ield = molesG6Pfo~ = 0. reversible 11. Answer: 295. = 5. (11.3144xlO 3 kJK Igmoll(25+273. take the standard conditions to be 25°C and 1 attn pressure.29 RT 8.275.2 Eqnilibrium yicld (a) From Eq.OO2M Answer: 19 (b) From Eq. (a) FromEq. (224). respectively: CGtiP at equilibrium 0.15K) K = 295 The large magnitude of K indicates that the reaction can be considered .3144xlO-3kJr1gmoll(25+273. (11. Answer: 0. (11.

02 0.8 g I-I h.Solutions: Chapter 11 123 11. (ij) Answer: The specific productivity is unaffected by change in volume.62 . rA =0.93 0.00460 3.0250 12.00204 2.00 0.0135 750 0.0227 11. and the total productivity is doubled.I . (b) Answer. s(moll.3 Reaction rate (a) Tenns used to express reaction rate are outlined on p 261. the specific productivity is unaffected.88 0.89 0.0125 7.1) Slv (min) 0. The total productivity is doubled if the fermenter volume is doubled. (11. From Eq. The values are listed and plotted below.0184 9.4 Enzyme kinetics Evaluate the enzyme kinetic parameters by plotting slv versus s as a Langmuir plot(p 272). The volumetric productivity is doubled. (e) (I) RA =100 kg d~l.67): 11. (1 1.95 0. (I) Answer: The volumetric productivity is unaffected by change in volume.16): I V = RA = = 52081 lookgd- rA 08gl-lb-ll~:III~gl Answer: 5208 I (ij) FromEq.00730 5. (iii) Answer.

41 x 10.. (11.25 X 10-3 mol 1-1 min'I.' . Multiplying this value by the result for Vmax. Therefore. with k equal to the initial fate of glucose production. Tis converted to degrees Kelvin using Eq. K m = 3.66 40 313....15 3.19 x Icy3 1..00 x Icy3 6.25 x 10"3 moII-} min-I.33 ..24).. from Eq..-----.30 x 10-3 0..5 Effect of temperature on hydrolysis of starch (a) The activation energy is determined from the Arrhenius equation...03 s (mol 1-1) The equation for the straight line in the plot is slv = 1. 124 Solutions: Chapter 11 15.21).' 0.t .83 x 10-3 moll.00 0. T('C) T(K) liT (K'I) Rate.70..----.70 + 445 s.. (11... k (mmel ro w3 s' I) 20 293...3 0...----. According to the Arrhenius equation. (2.. Also from Eq. Eq.15 3....-. a plot of k versus liT on semi-logarithmic coordinates should give a straight line. so that Vmax = 2. K m = 3.15 3. 10 ! -I> 5 0 ' . = (11. Ktn/ vmax 1. 'The parameter values are listed and plotted below.39)..Q1 0.31 30 303.02 0. Answer: Vmax =2.83 x 10-3 mol 1-1 11..wheres has units ofmoll-} and Slv bas units aiulin.39)... I/vmax = 445 mOlll min.20 60 333.15 3.

4 3.15 K: k d = 2. Substituting this value into the equation for k obtained in (a): k = 1.6. where k has units ofmmol m-3 5"1 and T has units ofK.(1.5.08/0.1.Solutions: Chapter II 125 . (11.15) = 0. T= 55 + 273.87 x WiD e-73001298. 15) = 6.08 romol m-3 s·1 Similarly. E= 7300 K x 8.42h-l Therefore.87x lO-4 h -l .5.25x 1027 e-4I.15 = 4.15 K: k = 1. At 55"C = 328.87x lO-4 h-1 and the enzyme half-life is: th . Answer: 60. (e) From Table 2. Answer: The reaction rateat55"C is 4.43 rnmol ro· 3 s·l at25"C.1 2.87 x 1010 e-73001T = 1.08 mmol m.3 3.25x 1027 e-41.87 x 1010 e-73OO/T = 1.65h h kd 0.15 = 0.15 =328. from Eq. for T= 25"C =25 + 273.15 K.25x 1027 e-4l. the value of R in the appropriate units.9872 cal K-l gmol. (b) Converting 55<>C to degrees Kelvin using Eq.R = 8. (11.5 times faster than at 25"C.630IRT = 2.9872 x 298.3 s·t or 9.3144 J K~1 gmol.kd .l . 10 "1 .24).9872 x 328.1 3.3144 x 10-3 kJ Kw l gmol-l.87 x lO lD c 73OO/ T." E §.5 1/Temperature X 103 (K 1) o = The equation for the straight line in the plot is k 1.In2 _ In2 = l009h .42b 1 At 25"C =298. from Eq.5 times faster than the rate of 0.43 mmol mw3 s·1 Therefore. therefore.15 K: kd = 2. (2.7 kJ gmol.43 = 9.21).l = 8.15 = 298.is 1. the rate at 55"C is 4.45).630.87 x 1010 e-73001328.63O!RT = 2. Therefore.9 3.3144 x 10-3 kJ K-I gmol-l = 60. the half-life of the enzyme at 55"C is: t = In2 = In2 = 1. EIR = 7300K From Table 2.2 3.0 3.630/(1. "g 'g 1 • I ~ ~ '5 ~ 0.7 kJ grool-l.25 x 1027 e-4I.

87 x 104) =: 611 Q times greater.. s= sO. Grouping tenus: 12.. gmo m nun From Eq.17) from AppendixD and combining the oonstants-ofintegration: -" = -v"""" e-kdt+ K kd The initial condition is: at t =0. Converting the units of VrnaxO: 60 10001 . n.e ' +---'0 kd k d S . v "" vmax ' As v= -ds1dt.65 h at 55°C. from p 269.254 -0.--.276 = 48. 1lOOOnunol' . s and t are the only variables.087 min where t has units of min.2 x 45 gmol m. combining Eqs (11. (11.3.24) and (0.. mmo11-1 s 1 gmol 11 1 m 11 '1 42 1 -3 ·-1 3 . Therefore: -Vmaxfl -$0= id+ K Substituting this expression for K into the equation for -s gives: -" = --vmaxO -k t VmaxO .( 1-e-<d I) = $ 0vmoxO kd At the beginning of the reaction.42/(6. min = .6 Enzyme reaction and deactivation K m = 5 roM = 5 x 10-3 gmol t 1 = 5 x Hy6 gmol m. The more practical operating temperature is probably 2jl'C.&tn.369 .0 groat m-3: As this concentration range is well above the value of . the rate of deactivation is 0. unless there are other considerations. 25°C would probably be the more practical temperature for processing operations. when 80% of the fat is hydrolysed: 0. The concentration offat is reduced from 45 gmol m~3 to 0. ·-1 th 8nun Substituting parameter values into the equation for $. nuno11-1 s-1 = 007 vmaxO = 007 -1.44) gives: -::: = VrnaxQ e-kd t In this equation.3 = 9. Therefore. SO = 45 gmol m-3.35) and (11. Answer: The enzyme half·life at 25°C is 1009 h or 611 times longer than the half~life of 1. s» K m and.2 x 45 gmolm-3 = 45 gmol m-3 _ 4.276 e-O·087 t e-o·087 t = 0.5 times faster at 55 C than at 25°C. 126 Solutions: Chapter II Although the reaction rate is 9. Separating variables and integrating: J--<Is = f vmaxOe-kdtdt Applying calculus rules (D.087 t = -1.45): _ln2 _ In2 -0087 mm k d-----.2 gmol m-3 ~in-l (1_e-(l·087 t) 0.

22 0.5 4.4 1.50 1.10 15. :l 0.20 0. .--r- o I:". .17 0.0 0.25 0.7 -0.6 0.42 2.50 3.5 1.7 Growth parameters for recombinant E. .21 om 0.9 2. Time.70 0.7 min Answer:: 15.5 0.0 0.x (kg m-3) <it (h) <!.50 0.20 2.00 3.75 0. The data and calculations are tabulated below.0 1.10 0. coli (a) The average rate-equal area construction is used to determine growth rates from the concentration data.8 6.0 2.48 0.10 0.9 0.20 -0. 14 - 12 rf 10 8 if - 6 / 4 1/ / 2 .10 7.33 3. .20 12.06 0.5 2.53 0. 0.32 4. t(h) x (kg m-3) <!.5 4.5 . .50 0.33 0.10 0. -2 .0 3.7 min 11.50 2. .47 0.00 1.xl<it (kg m-3 h.01 0.03 0.10 0.64 2.10 0.0 1.33 0.50 2.00 3.5 11. 15.30 8.27 2.60 1. . 16 .0 2.0 Time (h) . .40 0.7 11.32 0.6 The values of luIfit are plotted as a function of time below according to the method described on p 263.06 1.2 11.25 0.30 0.1 10. .Solutions: Chapter 11 127 t =.15 0.0 9.5 3.I ) 0.50 3.

Taking the average of the values of J1.50 ± 0. (11.91 0.5 0.I (c) .3 1.u are plotted as a function of time below.50 2. The average rate-equal area construction is used to determine the substrate consumption rates rs = -ds'dt from the concentration data. where 0. the observed biomass yield Yxs at any point in time is equal to the ratio of the observed growth and substrate consumption rates. i:. .05 is the standard deviation.0 .05 024 0.5 1.0 0.75 hand 3 h• . ~ 1. From Eq.5 1.5 t'" / 0. 2.0 1.5 1.49 1.8 -0.0 3.20 0.50 h.5 -0.3 -0.8 10.47 2.07 Values of the-specific growth rate.03 3.45 1.5 • • 0 1 2 3 4 TIme (h) (b) As expected for most batch cell cultures.33 0.l .1 11.05 h. Answer: 1.70 1.0 -0. growth occurs at around the maximum specific growth rate for most of the culture period.49).. Time.Ltmax = 1.41 1.0 14. 128 Solutions: Chapter 11 Results for <ix/dt read from the average rate-equal area curve and the calculated specific growth rates are listed below. 1.5 1.30 3.7 -0.51 3.75 0.5 .5 0.01 32 3. between times 0.0 1'" 0.4 1. t(h) 0.54 3.0 o o 0.57 2.5 6. as shown below.

5 3.0 5.0 0.25 0.Y (kg m-3) Lv (h) 0.8 -0.5 24.50 2.5 15.7 -5.0 3.33 0.25 1.30 18.33 24.17 0.5 1.0 -0.5 2.6 -0. 40 .20 0.0 2.55 0.0 2.2 -0.0 0.3 0.00 1.10 35.50 5. (11. 0.2 -5.0 3.5 23. · _ 1.Solutions: Chapter 11 129 Time. together with the instantaneous biomass yield coefficients calculated using Eq.0 Time (h) Results for -<is/ dt read from the average rate-equal area curve are listed below.5 0.20 1.1 1. t(h) .2 0.5 3.2 0.3 -2.5 0.5 4.0 0.0 0.50 10. .0 The values of-As/tit are plotted as a function of time below according to the method described on p 263.3 -1. 35 · 30 l.0 25.20 25. · ~ 11~ 15 rf 10 l- I · 1/ / 5 Y o • .8 10.67 3.. 25 J 1 20 I.75 24.0 0.2 -3.61 0.45 0.2 0.10 14.3 2.0 3.0 0.0 20.0 24.0 0.0 1.(kg m-3) LI.65 -1.49) and the values of rx from (a).8 0.6 0.7 -5.2 0.80 0.t>.20 2.5 3.7 0.0 0.30 0.

2 7.50 2.0 33.64 5 5 1.5 0.0 10 4.10 0.0 J .' 0.umax.95 5 3.1) 0 0. 0 1 2 Time (h) 3 • .50 3.0 1.-e1 (g 1.6 15 5.6 0.47 3.5 3. Answer:OA6 kg kg-I.7 o .S Growth parameters for hairy roots (a) The mid-point slope method is used to determine rates from the concentration data.40 3.4 - -~ 'll~ . ted) Biomass concentration.5 0.21 5 3.0 0.75 3. During the exponential growth phase between 0. x (g 1-1) e [(X).5 13.44 1. The growth data are listed and plotted below according to the method described on pp 264-265.47 2. • 0 D. t(h) 0. where 0.2 0.0 7.1 27.4 -{J.46 ± 0.5 0." 3.0 0.45 1.45 2.+e.02 is the standard deviation.33 0. D. Values of the observed biomass yield from substrate Yxs are plotted as a function oftime below.(x)t_el are read from the graph. 130 Solutions: Chapter 11 Time.1 - . ~s is approximately constant during exponential growth U.0 0.il0 0.0 0.• "x ~ .. Values of [(x)t+e.'" '" 0.0 0. Yxs is approximately constant with an average value of 0.(x). 5 3.8 . .5. 0 E e- 0.9 0.l = . Time.• ~ .02 kg kg-I.75 b and 3 h when /.6 0.33 0.75 1. .3 0" ~ E 0.8 22.2 ~ ~ 0.' o 0.5 0.

30 0.9 40 12.os 0.7 5 1.016 40 0.98 5 3.0 5 1. tId) o 5 0.053 25 0. .3 5 2.26 0.50 5 3.154 10 0. Time.12 0.6 55 13. These results and values of the specific growth rate J.8 50 13. are plotted below.Solutions: Chapter 11 131 20 6.19 0.34 0.1 5 0. f 12 ~ "'" ~ 10 ~ j 0 0 8 6 ~ • • ~ 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (d) The growth rate dxldt is determined using the central-difference formula.I.2 45 13.I.025 35 0.6 35 12.06 0.086 15 0.38 0.009 45 O.37 0.004 55 Values of the specific growth rate J.036 30 0. (11. are listed and plotted below as a function of time.7 5 16 1.5 5 0.069 20 0.7 25 9.4 30 10.23). Eq.006 50 0.36 0.

-~.-::::b!:=L----J o 10 ro M ~ W 00 Time (d) -Answer: Near the beginning of the culture.il.$ c 0 20 ~ ~ ~ c 8 15 . 132 Solutions: Chapter 11 - ~ :!?. . 0.05 '" 0. 35 30 - ~ 25 ." I I '" 10 I I <I I I I 5 I I I I I I 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (d) Values of[(s)t+e.e l"'l 0. (bl The mid~point slope method is used to determine the rate of substrate uptake as a function of time.-~. The sugar concentration data are plotted below according tathe method described onpp 264-265. .15 "- { .e ~ 0.10 "'" .00 L~.(s}t-el read from the graph are listed in the table below.

045 35 0.7 50 5.19 0.23).2 30 13.44 0.52 0. s (g 1.145 15 0.318 10 0. t (d) Sugar concentration.46 0.20 Jl 0.0 5 -3. 2 0. (l1.35 - ~ 0.8 5 -5.077 25 0.27 0.0 5 -5.055 30 0.15 " 0 7.7 20 18.7 5 -4.4 5 -6.6 35 9.2 10 23.014 55 0.031 45 0.54 0.4 5 -5.Solutions: Chapter 11 133 Time.037 40 0. These results and values of the specific rate of substrate uptake qs are listed and plotted as a function of time below. t (d) o 5 0.9 45 6. Eq.4 25 14.9 55 5.103 20 0.021 50 0.30 8' i 0. The results are listed and plotted below.1 15 21.4 40 8.49) and the values of rx and rs from (a) and (b).00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 TIme (d) (c) The instantaneous biomass yield coefficient is calculated using Eq.39 0.1 5 The rate of substrate uptake -ds1dt is determined using the central-difference formula. .61 0. (11.8 5 -2.0 5 5 27. Time.57 0.25 ! •" l\! 0.62 0.7 5 -1.3 5 -4.6 5 -6.05 0.1) e o 30.10 e t '" 0.

65 30 0.30-0.69 g g~l dry weight.31 45 0. t(h) o 5 0.67 20 0. 134 Solutions: Chapter 11 Time. the maximum theoretical yield of ethanol from glucose is 2 gmol gmol~l.51 g g-1 (h) In the absence of growth.7 e jg 0.8 "x 1!i 0.48 10 0. ethanol:: 46.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (d) Y Answer: xs varies during the culture period within the range 0.'" E '" 0.l~ll = gm _ 0.3 .1.2. The reaction equation for fermentation of glucose to ethanol without cell growth is: From the stoichiometry.1 (Appendix B) the mol. fJ. 1 ~ol Answer: 0.1 • <3 0.4 0.ecular weights are: glucose:: 180.30 50 0.g ·m-• 3iZ~ .32 55 _ 0 0. 11.5 .S. From Table B. the molecular formulae for glucose and ethanol are C6H1206 and C2H{jO. (11. in Eq.69 25 0.I ~.gmo:e~anol = 2 gmolethanol . respectively.9 Ethanol fennentation by yeast and bacteria (al From Table B.Q 0.59 15 0.57 35 0.6 ~ E 0.83) is zero and the equation reduces to: .2 '" ~ ~ 0.8 (Appendix B). Therefore: Maximumtheoreticalyield = .51gg 1 gmogucose 11802g1 1 gmol glucose.43 40 0.

cerevisiae: .94 for Z mobilis (ej From Eq.092 h.43 kg k:g"l for S. g O. including the result for mp from (b): .7 kg kg.18kg kg-I h-I O. cerevisiae....I (0. 7..I for S.s equal to the maximum theoretical yield: mp = 051 ms = = Foi S.gg 0.) + 1.l forZ mobilis (cJ During batch culture at usual glucose concentrations.70) withf.43 h. + 2..rnax for most of the culture period (p 279).Solutions: Chapter 11 135 .4 h + 0.PXc:I'm~. Answer: 0. Answer: 0.l = J. cerevisiae and mp =1. (11.12h.4h.092h-I _ 043k k.18 kg kg-I h.12 h.06kgkg 1 Answer: 0.l for Z rrwbilis.83) can therefore be written as: . Applying these parameter values in the above equation gives mp =0. 1.p Yps = Jlmax --+ms Yxs Substituting the parameter values for S..1 forS. 1 -. for Z mobiUs. mp YpS =- ms Therefore. cerevisiae: For Z.-+_m-. for Yr.3h. = J1.. cerevisiae. J1.I Yops.9kgkg._ 048k kg-I 1 -.43 kg kg-I = 084 maximum theoretical yield 0. cerevisiae.48 kg k:g"l for Z mobilis (dj Using the results from (8) and (c).12 h.I O.48kgkg-l = 094 maximum theoretical yield 0. for S.84 for S. _y. 0.092 h.(O.I)+0.3h. 0. cerevisiae.65 h. mobilis: Answer: 1. Efficiency = Yps = 0. cerevisiae.l for S.!max. _ 3.l . For Z mobilis: . 3.l forZ mobilis . ms 0.51 g g-1 .I . for S. Eq. mS 22 kg kg-I h.2 kg kg. (11.51 g g-1 .llkgkg 1 Similarly for Z 11Wbilis: I I I ips-.I h. cerevisiae. Efficiency = Yps = 0.

Therefore.4h.105 kg kg.33.2 kg kg. to achieve the same total productivity at the same cell concentration.042 kg kg-I Answer: 0. the concentration of yeast must be 2.94 of the ethanol production is growth~~ociated and 0.l = 9. -I Yxs = 0. Answer: For S.3. Answer: 2.092 h· l . Non·growth~associated ethanol production is more substantial for Z. cerevisiae. As the value for Z. = 24.06 is non-growth·associated. = 0.7kgkg-I(0.0 kg kg-l Yxs Yxs J4nax 0.2 times the volume for the bacterial culture (0 From Eq. and for Z.81) with.· cerevisiae for ethanol production.9kgkg(OAh. cerevisiae is 0. mobilis. as the specific ethanol productivity qp for Z mobilis is 3. cerevisiae. (g) Fromp261. 0.11 kg kg-l O. mobilis. For Z mobilis: I Ypxl'max = 7. .54 kg kg-l Yxs YXS Pmax 0.u= #max. mobilis is LI /0. LI2 h' .1)+0. OJ The ethanol yield from substrate is 12% higher using Z mobilis than S.l ) Ypxl'max+mp . From (e).4h-l .1 times higher so that a smaller and cheaper fermentation vessel is required to achieve the same rate of ethanol production. mobilis produces a more substantial proportion of its ethanol in non~growth·associated metabolism.l for S.092h 1 = 0. cerevisiae. the proportion of ethanol production from growth for S.u in Eq. .1 times that of bacteria. the growth~associated term is Ypx .65 = 2. to achieve the same volumetric productivity. cerevisiae.33 is non-growth~associated. for S. Z. (11.= _1_ + _m_. the nonwgrowthwassociated term is mp_ Therefore. and Z mobilis produces less than half the amount of biomass generated by S. mobilis perfonns better than S. All of these factors mean that Z. the s~cific productivity qp for S. mobilis. cerevisiae.h. 136 Solutions: Chapter 11 (f) In Eq (11. 0.67 is growth~associatedand 0.70) is zero and q~ = mp. the specific productivity is 2. using the result from (e).3h-I)+L12h 1 and the proportion from non~growth metabolism is 0.43/1.volumetric productivity is equal to specific productivity multiplied byceU concentration._ = 1 + 0. total productivity is equal to specific productivity multiplied by cell concentration and fermenter volume.2 times that for the bacteria. For Z mobilis.042 kg kg.7 kg kg-I (0.umax. the fermenter volume for the yeast culture must be 12. As Z mobilis produces less biomass per mass of substrate consumed and per mass of ethanol produced than S. (11.3h 1 . from (b).l for2. At zero growth.1 times that of S.70).) = 0.06. Yx.06 kg kg.9 kg kg-I (0.2 times that of S.94 so that the proportion from non~growth metabolism is 0. cerevisiae: l -J._= I + 2.h. biomass disposal is less of a problem with the bacteria. cerevisiae is: Ypxl'max _ 3. cerevisiae per mass of glucose consumed. cerevisiae.18 kg kg. Answer: 12.l O.092 = 12.105 kg kg For Z mobilis: 1 l ~=_l_+_m_. 0.3 b.67 Ypxl'max+mp 7.1 times the concentration of bacteria (h) From p 261.

at 8()'>C: 1 3 kd = A e--EalR T = 10362 s-l e-283 kJ gmor /(8.002 0.0008 0.3144x 10. because of the high salt content. (h) aad (c) The specific death constant kd is evaluated using Eq. other aspects of the cultures and the ethanol production industry also need to be considered. 80"C (80 + 273.211 + 141.2(1. (11.15 K.32+214. ln2 _24.kJK""1 gmo1-1 x 353.66. from Eq.3144 x 10-3 kJ K-l gmol-1. R 8.65).32+ (2 24.000766 0.2 ln2 If the fraction of cells containing plasmid is F= 0.l+ O.15K) = 2.= 1.10 Plasmid loss during culture maintenance FromEq.32+p .0007 -0.2 s-1 and Ed = 283 k:J gmolw1.32 J.001 as the first guess.00077 0.0).I09-p 0. _ (0.2") Multiplying through by the denominator: 0.46) with A = 1036.. The biomass produced in ethanol fermentation by yeast is often sold for use in animal feeds. and is therefore more susceptible to contamination.38p(224. Therefore.1816 0. Answer: 0. From Table = = 2.025h.5-4. (11.2 (0. cerevisiae (3.0006 0.0095 0.20x 10--6 s-1 .15 K.49p(2 24 .". despite its superior ethanol production characteristics.2 p)-0.3144 J K-l grool-1 8.day period is. These are some of the reasons why Z mobilis has not been widely adopted for industrial ethanol production. whereas application of bacteria for this purpose is not as well accepted in the industry.000766 11.24).)28d·12::I_ n.32_(224.32+p Il)p 0. (2.15) 353. (11.5. a common substrate material for fermentations.0) for growth than S.15) = = 413.66): I _ .033h.000766 is sufficiently close to zero.49 p (2 24. Converting the temperatures to degrees Kelvin using = = = = Eq.001 0. . l_a_2 n(a+p-lJ p 1_1.00076 -0. Values of the left-band-side of the equation for various pare listed below. 121"C (121 + 273.109_p = 0 1bis equation can be solved for p by trial and error. 1 a = f.025h 1 The number of generations of plasmid-containing cells over the 28.2p) -O.32+Pl)p 0. and 140"C (140 + 273.2") =0. fromEq.15) 394.64): 066 = l-a-p = l-L32-p = 0.r = 0.49p(224.15 K.000017 As the value of the expression wben p = 0. (11. 11. the solution can be taken as p = 0.000766.0339 0.32+p = 0. starting withp = 0.. Z mobilis requires a higher pH (5. p 141.32+p 141. Z mobilis also does not grow well on molasses.11 Medinm sterilisation (a).Solutions: Chapter 11 137 However.

87). per m 3. 0. 10 11 cellsm- 3 Therefore. (11. 10. 1011. No =.24 =.I~I = 4070h kd 2. 10.3 s at 140°C . Converting the units of the initial concentration of contaminants xo: XC) = 108 cells 1-1 =. 1011 e-/cd t 10-14 =. 32.20 x 10-6 8-1 3600s t =.24 = 12. 32.04978-1 60s t = 32.2 s.87) gives: 10-3 =.3 . Substituting values into Eq.3 s kd 2.8 min at 121°C. -kd t 32.24 =.3144x 10-3 kJ~l gmor1x 394. N =. A e-ErJ/RT = 1036. (11.638.04978-1 d At 141°C: The relationship between the number of viable cells and time is given by Eq. 12.1 e-283 kJ gmorl/(8.24 =.l5K) =.1 Answer: 4070 b at 80oe.8 min kd 0.24 _II min I = 10. 32. 3224 . 138 Solutions: Chapter 11 At 121°C: k =. 108ceusl-l'111~11 =.24 t=-- kd Therefore.24 = 32. e-kdt -32. at 8We: t =.

at steady state: Assuming that the substrate diffusivity and sludge area do not vary with distance . with the rate of substrate generation = 0.Heterogeneous Reactious 12. Similarly. the rate of substrate input by diffusion is: where Vse is the effective diffusivity of substrate in the sludge.-:l)-k1SA'" = 0 Cancelling A and dividing through by tlz" gives: Taking the limit as A. Eq. Following the procedure on p 301.".dz. 12) in Appendix D: ~e:(:)-klS = 0 . Wastewater Siudga ---------------------..------- Iu --1------- z Bottom of lagoon //// Substrate diffuses into the shell across the upper boundary at z+. (D. from Pick's law.::: --+ 0 and invoking the definition of the derivative as in Eq.:::: !t'soA(:!. and diffuses out across the lower boundary at z. as shown in the diagram below. Substrate consumption within the shell follows firstMorder kinetics. (4. the rate of substrate output by diffusion is: The rate of substrate consumption in the shell is kl sA Az.Substituting these expressions into the mass-balance equation.1 Diffusion and reaction in a waste treatment lagoon (a) A substrate shell mass~balance is perfonned around a thin slice of sludge of area A and thickness Llz located distance z from the bottom of the lagoon.1).

we assume that the substrate concentration profile reaches a minimum so that ds/dz =O. cIs/dz::::: O./Vse Differentiating this equation using differentiation rule Eq. NezVk.M Jk 11!D" e-zJk11flJ" Applying the boundary condition at z::::: 0: Cancelling the square root terms gives: N=M Answer.17) in Appendix D: : = N Jkll!lJs. substituting the values for p from (I) above: s. or (H) If s::::: N ePZ + M e-Pz.:. s::::: Jb./!Dse + Me-1:Jk. using differentiation rule Eq.N=M (iii) Substituting N for M in the equation for $ in (6): . At Z "" O.17) in Appendix D: : = pNeP' Wld Substituting the expressions for s and d2s/dz2 into the differential equation in (a): !D"p2 N ePZ-k j NeI" = 0 Dividing through by N ePz and solving for p2. Answer: At z::::: L. s::::: Sb. (D. (c) (I) If s:::: N efJz. (0. 140 Solutions: Chapter 12 or d 2s Answer: 2JSe d? -k 1 S ::::: 0 (b) At z::::: L. ezJk11flJ" . at z:::: O.

~ A-~ Jk I r A.Similarly.l"s.l"s.obs: sinh (L Jk]I:lJ.cosh(LJk 1/.obs .q.27s ).) 'b . _ Jk1/.) 2 cosh (Z .) Solving for N: (Iv) From the definition of cosh x. Evaluating the derivative at z =L: Substituting this result into the expression for r A. _ cosh(zJk 11.q.D.) Applying the boundary condition at z =L: 'b = N(. J the denominator is equal to2 cosh (L kl/psc)' Therefore: e . the numerator in the equation for s in (iii) is equal to 2 cosh (z Jkl/. Se ~o 1 !OSe COSh(L Jk 1I!OSeSe ) . +e-<Jk""s. = N(ezJk. (d) Taking the derivative of s using the equation for s in (c) (iv).) or . +e-LJk. ) .Solutions: Chapter 12 141 .'b2Cosh(LJkl/.q.l Answer: QE. 12lo.q.LJk.

142 Solutions.81 x 10-6 1.46 0.14x 10-9 0.78 x 10-6 8. (12.96 0.0 8. tanh¢j ~il = -¢j- Answer: Q..00 x 10-6 3.34 x 10-6 1.92 (2) 2.E.obs 1]il = -.21 x 10-7 1.50 x 10. (12..00 x 10-5 1.) 17i1 = LJ k1ffDs.15 x 10--6 4.74 x 10-8 1.89x 10-6 2.10 0.00 x 10-5 1.obs from (d) into Eq.3 8.26). tanh <ftI and Tlil evaluated for the three sets of conditions are listed below. z (em) Condition (1) Condition (2) Condition (3) 0.0 0.66 x 10-6 9. S (gmo1 em.48 (3) 10 1.10 The substrate concentration profiles are calculated using the equation for s as a .08 x 10.83 x 10-7 I.27 x 10-6 4. (f) From the definition of tanh x. = 'A' Cancelling and grouping terms and applying the definition of tanh x gives: tanh(L JkIffD. For L = 2 em.2 9.S 9. the values of ¢I.25 x 10-6 8.0 1. Therefore.50 0.D. Condition ¢I 1]il (1) 0. For first-order reaction kinetics at substrate concentration Sb everywhere in the sludge.00 x 10-5 .50 x 10-6 6. Substrate concentration.87 x 10-<' 2. applying the definition of 1'1.26 x 10-6 3. the rate of reaction within the entire sludge volume is: Substituting this and the expression for rA.68 x 10-<' 2.8 9.8 1.function of z from (c) (iii) and applying the definition of 1'1: The results for Sb =10-5 grool em-] at various values of z are listed and plotted below.78 x 10--6 2.0 0.0 9.3) Distance.7 9.10 x 10--6 6.' Chapter 12 (e) The internal effectiveness factor is defined in Eq.26) for fIrSt-order kinetics: rA.

1Jil decreases.5 1.92 0.0x l. looog gmol kg = 0.1=10. Condition(3) .28 x 10.6 f g 0.17). 132 III I g .Ol6kgm-3 For zero-order reaction.012kgm-3) .1.19 x 10-2 1.0 0.5 x 10-3 9. 12. (12.E 1.71 x 10-3 05 x 10-3 2.8 x 4. Radius. the equation used to determine the substrate concentration inside the beads depends on whether CA remains > 0 throughout the particle.l m-3 Converting CAs to units ofkg m. = Therefore.0 0.5 2.· Because the immobilised-enzyme beads are smaller than this.113.11~gl = 4.0 1. as CAs is O. CA > 0 and the oxygen concentration profile can be calculated using the equation for zero-order reaction and spherical geometry in Table 12.0 x 1(J3 5. the concentration profile becomes steeper.02 x 10-3 0.60 x 10-3 1. CA (kg m-3) 2.2 nun.7 x 10-3 1. = 0.5mM = 05x to-3 gmoH.8 x 10-3 3.3 0.61 x to-5 kgs. 1111 = 0. Converting the units of ~ to a per volume of gel basis: k o = Vmax = 0..12 mol s-1 kg.4 Condition (2) ~ 0.2 x 1(J3 6.2 Oxygen prome in immobilised-enzyme catalyst (aJ From p 269.2 0 1.3: CAs -1 11000 = 0. r (m) Oxygen concentration.l (0. The maximum particle radius for which this occurs can be calculated using Eq. z (cm) As tPi increases.0 1.2 x 10-3 L51 x 10-3 0.0 Distance from the bottom of the lagoon.60x 1.1111=0. and the minimum suhstrateconcentl'ation in the sludge is reduced. the maximum particle diameter for CA >0 everywhere is 4.63 x 10-3 1.37 x 10-3 .0 " ~ Condition (1) -• '& 0.10 '" 0.2 I!. 1m3 III .Solutions: Chapter 12 143 .015:tnM= 33 times the value of Km• as a:frrst approximation we can consider the = kinetics to be effectively zero order with ko vmax.~11. Values for CA asa function of r areJisted and plotted below.5mM/0.50.

2 rom 12.9 timesKm• the assumption of zero·order kinetics is reasonable. of the bead is still about 2.5 2.725 rom "'" 7. (12.0 As the minimum value ofCA at·the centre.obs = r~s "'" k o "'" 3.0 (0) FOf zero·order reaction. As this radius is less than Rmax determined in (a).113~~II.9 mm.4 for spherical geometry: .m- 3 .2x 10-5 kg s-l m-3 The maximum particle radius for which oxygen concentration inside the beads remains greater than zero is calculated usingEq.15 - M 0 x <J " ~ 10 ~ § 5 0 c ~ 0 O'-_ _--''--_ _. T1i "'" 1.3 Effect of oxygen transfer on recombinant cells (a) Converting the units of ko to mass: l k o = 10-3 mols. From Eq.2 x 10-5 kg s-1 m-3 Substituting parameter values into the equation for the observable Thiele modulus tP in Table 12. Answer: 4. the maximum particle diameter for aerobic conditions is 2 x 1 A5 = 2. the maximum conversion rate occurs when the oxygen concentration is greater than zero everywhere in the particle. for zero-order reaction tbismeans that the entire bead volume is active.45/2 "'" 0.ll~gl = 3.25 x 10-4 m. The largest bead size for this to occur was calculated in (a) is 4.l .2 rom. Answer: 2. Therefore. as the kinetics are zero-order.17): = Therefore.0 0.26) with 1Ji "'" I: rA.9 rom (b) The particle radius is 1. Answer: 1.5 1. 144 Solutions: Chapter 12 20 f 0> ". -' 0. oxygen is present everywhere in the particle. --'. (b) As CA > 0 everywhere within the bead. (12.

44).1Jio= I. Answer: Yes .min = CAS(l-itP) = O. = 0.24mm 6.11 as a function of the observable Thiele modulus CPo Evaluating tP from the equation in Table 12.2 x 10-5 kg s-1 m. the minimum intraparticle oxygen concentration can be calculated from the equation in Table 12.4 x 10-6 kg s 1 m 3 Therefore. attP=0.50)) = 1.6: 3 3 l2=!i rA.11.ms 1(6xIO-3kgm-3} From Eqs (12.3 . 1Jeo =1.5xlO.(12.9XlO-9m2s-1(0. Calculating the observable modulus Dfor spherical geometry from Table 12. As CAs"'" CAb.s0 From Figure 12. the minimum intraparticle oxygen concentration can be calculated from the equation in Table 12. Using Eq.obs = 1.667: CA.min = CAs(I-~tJ») = 8XIO-3kgm-3(1_~(0.5 for spherical geometry and tJ) < 0. (12.667: CA.obs ( 'vAe CAs = (I. 11T= 1Jio l1eo= I X I = I.5 x 10-3 m. Answer: 6.46).97X6XlO-3kgm-3(1-~(0. ko is reduced to 1/5 its previous value.97X6xI03kgm3)=0.2 x 1O-5 kgs-l m.50.24xlO-3 m=3.3 (c) If the cell density is reduced bya factor of 5.24 = 6. From Eq. Answer: 1 (c) Using the results from (a) and (b).43) and (12.0xlO-3 kgm-3 Answer: 6. ko = 115 (3.4 Ammonia oxidation by Immobillsed ceUs (a) R = 1.Solutions: Chapter /2 145 Using this value.5 for spherical geometry and f/) < 0. the maximum particle diameter for aerobic conditions is 2 x 3. The internal effectiveness factor l1io can be determined from Figure 12.1 m-3 fJ)='3 3 1.7 for zero-order oxygen uptake kinetics.5 mm.2XlO-5 kgs.4 x 10-6 kg s-l m. (b) From Table 12.5XlO-3 m)2 2. external mass-transfer effects are insignificant.167») = 6.17): 4 0 9 m2 s8xlO 6 LxI 1) 3 kgm 3 =3.5 mm = 1.m 2.031 3 kSCAb 3 S 6xlO. Therefore.5 rom diameter 12.4 for spherical geometry using the result for CAJ> from (a): R)2 rA.3) = 6.5 x 10-3 kg m-3 This oxygen concentration is greater than the critical level. Answer: Insignificant.0 X 10-3 kg m. the surface oxygen concentration is only 3% lower than in the bulk medium.

. = CAb(l-D) = CAbO-0.8 m s·2 from p 16 and the uni{conversion factor 1 N s m. (12.21(Rep Sc)"·67 = v' 4 + 1.QJ5) = 0.11 kg m.9.2molm-3j From Eqs (12. As external boundary~layers have been eliminated. Evaluating the observable Thiele modulus tP from the equation in Table 12. ::::: 0.obs = 2 0.12. Therefore.PAe CAs 3 2 3 1.10-12. Appendix A: Gr= gD~PL(pp-PL) = 9.49) is: 1 10-3 Nsm-2 _II kgm.5 Microcarrier culture and external mass transfer D p "'" 120 JUD "'" 120 x 10.39 K (10-3 N sm-2 .m-3 3 ::::: 8 0 1 3 . x ros Dp 120xl0--6 m Using this value of ks to determine n from the equation in Table 12.39'18 =0.2 x Io'kgm-3 _1o'kgm-3) = 3. TJT =11i 11e::::: 0.. ::::: 4. from Eq.12.25 x 10. (12. As this value is less than 104.12 x I ::::: 0. Rep Sc = 0.I . (12. Answer: Negligible 12.985 CAb External mass*transfer effects are insignificant as CAs . The external mass-transfer coefficient can be determined using the equations on p 322 for free~moving_spberes.188 x 435 = 81. Because respiration is zero-order and the cells are present only-on the surface of the beads.Rep =Gr/18:= 3. flil =0.S2).3xlO-9m2s I) Therefore. The value of Pas defined on p 313 is: 3 jJ::::: Km ::::: 35kgm.51) with g "'" 9.21 (81. from Eq.21 (2.99 x 10 'ms I (0.12 CAs 0.sm = 435 PL.-I h2 1 Nsm 2 U Therefore.vAL 103kgm-3(2.6 m.85 kg m.11.) . .3 x 1O-1l m s-1 (0.12 . CA.8 m s-2 (I20X lO-6 mj' 103 kg m-3 (1. 8.4 for spherical geometry: 4> = (li)2 rA. .43) and (12.8P·67 = 5. From Figure 12.8 x 10. CAs> 0 is all that is required to ensure maximum reaction rate.12. (12. (l2.vAL _ 5.55): Sh = J4 + 1. .015 mol s-1 m.0. Answer: 0.8 x 10-3 m. (12.2 = 1 kg m. at <1>= 8.8 nun = 0.46). The Schmidt number from Eq.obs = (0.11 $c = IlL = IN.6 for spherical geometry: 120xlO-6 m 3 D = R TA.8. The Grashof number is calculated from Eq.3 x 10-9 m2 .l s·l from Table A.kg 5.50): _ Sh.85 kg m-3 and fie =1.m)2 3 1. CAs::::: CAb =0.44). 146 Solutions: Chapter 12 12.21 From the definition of the Sherwood number in Eq.85kgm 3 From Figures 12. the Sherwood number can be evaluated using Eq.015 3 k s CAb 3 9.6 Immobllised.enzyme reaction kinetics (3) R =0. this value of p means that the reaction kinetics can be considered effectively f:trst-order.-1) _ 999 10-5 -I kS .188. CAb.

021 1.. (12. from Eq.05 0.obs can be determined from these results and the.12 0.30) 1]u II¢!.039 0.80 0.20 0.3 The resultsfor 11i1 and rA.0 Enzyme loading (1lffi01 g·1) . 6 5 1" r¥.0244 11. and rA.01 0.086 0. gs m Por first~order kinetics.57 x 10~3 1.Por¢>I < 1O. -'.86 x lO~3 0.J 0 0.25 x Ily3 0.0 0.32 x lO4 0.kgs-I m-3 =OOlO4k -I -3 0. (kg s-t m-3) rA. The Thiele modulus 4't can be evaluated as a function of enzyme loading usingothe equation ·for first-order reaction and spherical geometry from Table 12.029 0.052 2.5 1.0122 8. 0.083 3.187 5. for tf1I > 10.0 0.5 2.0610 18.OI04kg s-1 m.obs (kg s-t m.0012 2. Enzyme loading (llJllol g~ 1) kl (.135 4.183 31.the-intemal effectiveness factor l1il is determined using the equation in Table 12.99 x lO-3 1.26): 3 L25xtO. = O.3 and the' definition·of coth x.85kgm-3 Answer: 0.034 0.3) 0.244 365 0.7 0.122 25.0010 3.8 0. with kt·directly proportional to the' enzyme 10ad.----.definition of the effectiveness = factor in Eq.0104 1.06 x lO~3 1.Solutions: Chapter 12 147 (b) From the definition of the effectiveness factor.1 Ilmol got.ing.-----.5 0.----. Calculated values of these'parameters for several different enzyme loadings are listed below.0061 5.obs are plotted below as a function of enzyme loading.6 0.1 2 ~ l! c 0 1 II ~ ~ 0: 0.3 0..34 0.043 0.6 0. For = each value of kJ.42 x lO-3 2.-I) ¢I 'lit r'"A.16 0.0122 s-I (e) The value of 0. therefore: • 3 k l = rAJ...027 0. (12.obs 4 "~ I! 3 - '0 x 02 ~ <!- =w~ 0.207 5.2. . (12. r~s =kl CAs.59 X 10-3 1. r~s kt CAs. 0..12 .2 0.0 ' -_ _-.0122 s·1 for kt corresponds to an enzyme loading of 0.3 0.156 4. = 0.8 0.0976 23.----.8 0.055 0.3 'A.220 34.l .81 X lO-3 050 0.104 4.0 1.1 0.6 0.159 295 0.40x lO4 0.59 x to.10 0.J'-_ _.032 0.0052 8.0 0..0122s-1 CAs 0.4. Eq.26).

78x 10-5 kg s-l m-3 _ 0075 3. Further increases in enzyme loading therefore represent an effective waste of more than 95% of that enzyme. The Schmidt number from Eq.5 !J.. The particle Reynolds number is evaluated using Eq.5 x 10-3 m(0. 1 g wet cells occupies a volume of 1 cm3 and rA.obs = 0.57). from p 16.5 x 10-3 m.48) withPL =: density afwater ::::: 103 kg m.3. 5 SeO. at loadings above about 0. ::::: 9x 1O-Qcm 2 s.I~p = 9x 1O-10 m 2 s-1 Ae 100cml iJ)AL =2 x iJ)Ae =2 x 9 x 10-10 m 2 s·1 =1. the Sherwood number can be evaluated as: Sh = 0..7 Mass-transfer effects in plant cell culture (a) Dp ::::: 1.24XlO-5ms-I(8mgl-I)·I.51"·5 (556)°·33 = 27. (12.49) is: From Eq. Appendix A): Re = DpUpLPL = 1. the external mass-transfer coefficient can be determined using Eq.9. Answer: The effect is small.m s.95 (12.5 p PL 10 3 kgm 1 8-1 As this value is within the range 10 < Rep < 104. As the specific gravity of the wet cells is 1.5 x 10 3 m 'This value of ks can be used to-determine the observable modulus for external mass-transfer D from the equation in Table 12.h- 3 I '11~6k~gl.I Dp 1. 148 Solutions: Chapter 12 As the enzyme loading is increased from 0.44): As CAs is close to CAb.mol g-t. the effectiveness factor drops significantly..IIi'~m j3 = 7. (12.5 X 10-3 m 2 7. h-I = 0. Converting the diffusivity units to m 2 8. 1Q6 mg 1 m3 From Eqs (12.13~sl.5 nun =: 1.01 ~ol got.95 ReO.obs = 0. (12.8 X 1O.6 for spherical geometry. 1: !lJ.0 p From the definition of the Sherwood number in Eq.8 x 10-9 m 2 s-l.4 for spherical geometry Using the result for CAs from (a): . Although the reaction rate continues to rise with increasing enzyme loading. (12.33 = 0.3: rA. 1 (Table A.) = 3.24xlO-5 ms. Converting these units to kg s~I m. andJiL =: viscosity afwater::::: 1 cP (p 133) = 10-3 kg mol 5. external mass-transfer effects are present but small. the surface oxygen concentration is 7.28 mg cm. 12.57) for spberical particles in a packed bed.28 mg cm-3 hoi.28mgcm-3.83 x 1O-2 ms-l)(lO'kgm-3j = 12.1 = 9x 10-6 cm2 s-1 .!!'Lj·jlOOO11. (b) Evaluating the observable Thiele modulus tP from the equation in Table 12.5% lower than in the bulk medium. (1250): 9 2 1 k s = Sha/AL = 27.0(1.43) and (12.78 X 10-5 kg s-I m-3 Substituting this and the other parameter values into the equation for D: 1. less than 5% of the potential activity of the enzyme is being utilised.

r b can be determined if we know 1JTo.5x10-3 m 5 1 3 8.m. Answer: 1 (c) In the absence of internal an." skgs.obs =( 2 7. As rAb is related to rA. which is only slightly less than the plant cell clump diameter of 1. 10 mg 1m From Figure 12. CAs is significantly less than CAb. l1eo = 1.5X to-3m)2 1 3 <1>=(li)2 rA. From Table 12.4 mg I-I at the external surface to zero just near the centre of the clumps.72 = 1.24) = 0. (12.78XlO'. As 1Jia is only very slightly less than 1.5 x 10-3 m.0.4mg'-1·1'6kQI'~11· _ 1Omgl' 1m .925X8mgl-I).1xlO-3 kgm.3 As.73. The presence of external boundary-layers can be checked by calculating the observable modulus for external mass-transfer. 12.17): F!- (9xto-lOm2S-1)7.obs by Eq. D. external mass-transfer effects are present. Taking rA. the maximum particle radius for the oxygen concentration to remain greater than zero throughout the clump can be evaluated using Eq.4 tor spherical geometry and the result for CAs from (a): . for CAs> 0.4 mg I-I.!1~1!.kgs.44): CAs = CAb(1-D) = CAb(1-0.45).Q=!!. 7.76 CAb = O.obs = 2.2 x 104 m = 0. it is likely that oxygen is exhausted just close to the centre of the clumps.m.0.3) = 6. the maximum particle diameter for oxygen through to the centre of the clump is 2 x 0.obs to be essentially equal to the intrinsic zero-order rate constantko. Answer. at t1J = 0. th~ reaction rate is r~b corresponding to CA = CAb throughout the pellets. (12. 17io is very close to but slightly less than 1.!16kg !.6 for spherical goomelry: . internal mass-transfer effects can be considered negligible.43) and (12.76(8Xl(r3 kgm.925 x 8 mg 1" I = 7.78 x 10-5 kg s-1 m 3 Rmax = 7.4 mm. Evaluating the observable Thiele modulus <P using the equation in Table 12.Solutions: Chapter 12 149 1.5 mm = 2.8 Respiration in mycelial pellets (aJ R = 2. Answer: Negligible (cJ CAs = 0.. rA..8x10 5 ms 1(8XlO-3 kgm-3) . Therefore.! external mass-transfer resistances..7XlO. From Eqs (12. Answer: Yes (bJ As oxygen uptake is considered a zero-order reaction.72 mm Therefore. =024 3 kSCAb 3.5 mm. The oxygen concentration falls from 7. -073 3 aJAeCAs 3 9X10-lOm2s-1(o.11 for zero-order reaction.

9 x 10-4 kg C 1 00-3 tP and TJio are related by the curve in Figure 12.30 x 1 = 0.3. (12. 2. compared with the observed reaction rate of'8.19 1.3 in the presence of both 'internal and external mass-transfer resistances.1'/io = 0.Because the reaction is zero--order.obs 'ho =-.9 x 10'4 kg lSI 00.7 x-1O. r~s = 2.3.92 0.11 for spheres and zero-order reaction.- r A.o (from Figure 12.obs "" 1.. The value of rA.obs = 2.30.1 00-3 .46). (12. take r A.x 10'""kgs -1 00-3 ~ro 0.0 x 10-4 0.5 kg g-l.- rAs = 2. from Eq.3.4 for spherical geometry is: ~ _(R)2 . rA. Using Eq.34 Since the values for 11io in the last row are as close as practical.obs r A.3 .3.66.26): r A. Therefore.9'x 10-4 kg g-1 00.obs rAb""'--"'" . therefore.45): r 87 10-'k -1 -3 '* A.96 0.11. Answer.x gs m = 29 . from the result in (c). ... and the equations derived above.30 Answer.obs 4 ( ) = 4.11 for zero-order reaction.75xI0-9 m 2 s 1 8xlO-3kgm 3 where. Under these conditions. l7To "'" TJio TJeo "'" 0.0 x 10-4 kg lSI 00. 2. 150 Solutions: Chapter 12 From Figure 12. rA.3.obs _ (2.obs (kg s-I 00-3) 11iO = r~Obs <1> 1Ji. as TJeo "'" 1 from (b).5 x 10. As a ftrst guess.0 x 10-4 0.30.obs can be determined bl trial-and-error using Figure 12.0 x 10-4 kg S' 00.34 4.obs as shown in the table below. eliminating the external boundary layers increases the reaction rate by about 15%. CAs = CAb = 8 x 10-3 kg 00. or more than three times the rate actually observed (d) If external mass-transfer effects were eliminated.. Depending on the difference between the values of 1]io obtained from the figure and from the equation with r ~s' adjust rA.69 9. r~s = r~b. (12. at <P = 5.96x 10 rA.7 x 10-5 kg Sol 00.obs 3 :tJAeCAs 3 1.0 x 10-4 kg s-I 00-3.m. an-expression for the observable Thiele modulus ep from the equation in Table 12.11) rA. Using Eq. Therefore.00)2 - 3 r A. and the observed reaction rate would be greater than 8.rAObs has units of kgs. 1.

84h At 90% conversion. (13.operating cost-downstream processing cost = $3240.25x3)gl-1 (16001) = 3600g As 1. $750 kg.9gI 1 h 1 The operating cost is therefore: Operating cost = 4.32 kg Therefore: Downstream processing cost = $130.j .81 h -I ~:~l $4800 day-l = $962 The cost of downstream processing per kg product is: C = 155 -0.0.10): Km I So sO-sf 1. which is equal to the change in substrate concentration multiplied by the volume of the reactor V: Mass of substrate consumed = (so-sf) V = (3-0.25 kg-I (4.$563 = $1715 Carrying out the calculations for 90% conversion.$962 .1 Economics of batch enzyme conversion For 75% conversion.5 g 1-1 In 3g1-1 +3gt.32 kg) = $3240 Therefore the cost benefit at 75% substrate conversion is: Cost benefit = revenue .25X3g1 1 O.33 X = 155 -0. sf = 0.1 (4.30 t<g-I The mass of substrate consumed is: .33 X = 155 ..:~I.2 x 3600 g "'" 4320 g "'" 4.n-+-.2 g product are fonned per g substrate consumed: Mass of product fonned = 1. = Vmax sf vmax O. the operating cost is increased due to the longer reaction time~ Operatingcost = 6.$4800day-l = $1368 The cost of downstream processing per kg product is~ C = 155 .84h.10 So is: = 6.33 (75) = $130.0.Reactor Engineering 13.9gI 1 h 1 O.81h tb = .TIle batch reaction time for enzyme processes is evaluated using Eq. the batch reaction time for Sf = 0.25 so.1-O.25 t<g-I The mass of product formed is detennined from the mass of substrate consumed.25X3g1-1 __ 4.33 (90) = $125.32 kg) = $563 The revenue from sale of the product is: Revenue"".

152 Solutions: Chapter 13

Mass of substrate consumed =: ($0- Sf) V =: (3 - 0.10 x 3) g I-I (1600 1) =: 4320 g

and the mass of product formed is:

Mass of product formed = 1.2 x 4320g "'" 5184g =: 5.18 kg

Therefore, the downstream processing cost is:

Downstream processing cost =: Sl2S.30kg-l (5.18 kg) =: $649

The sales revenue is:

Revenue =: $750 kg-! (5.18 kg) = $3885

Therefore, the cost benefit at 90% substrate conversion is:

Cost benefit =: revenue - operating cost- downstream processing cost "'" $3885 -$1368 - $649 =: $1868

The gain per batch from increasing the conversion from 75%:to90% is therefore $1868 -" $1715 =: $153.

Answer: There is a gain of $153 per batch; representing a 9% increase in the cost benefit at 75% conversion.

13.2 Batch production of aspartic acid using cell-hound ~nzyme
(0)
The initial concentration of substrate So =: 15% (w/v) =: 15 g per 100 ml =: 150 g 11. The final substrate concentration
Sf = 0.15 So = 0.15 x 150 g 1-1 = 22.5 g 1-1, Calculating the deactivation rate constant at 32"C using Eq, (11,45):

k d = In2 = ~ I~I = 275 IO-3 h-1
th 1O,5d'24h . x

For enzyme subject to deactivation, the batch reaction time is evaluated using Eq. (13.13);

tb =-lln[l-k
k
Km In SfSo + SO-S,)]
d ( vmaxo Vmaxo
d

1 1 l
= -I In 1_2.75XIO-3h-l( 4.0gl- 10 lSOgl- +(150-22.5Jgr ) = 23.6h
2.75 x 10-3 h- 1 5.9 gl 1 h-1 22.5 g I-I 5.9 g I-I h- 1

At 37"C, the deactivation rate constant is;

k = In2 = In2 I~I = 126 1O-2 h-l
d t 2.3d· 24h . x
h
The batch reaction time is;

tb = -lln[l-kd ( Km In So + so-S,)]
k d vmaxo VmaxoSf

1 1
= -I In l-l.26XIO-Zh-l( 4.0gl- In 150gl- + (150-22.5j gl-I) = 17.7h
L26xlO 2 h-l 8.5gl- 1 h- 1 22.5g1 1 8.5g11h 1

As the batch reaction time is lower at 37"C, 37"C is the recommended operating temperature.

Answer: 37"C
(h)
From Eq. (13.33), the total batch reaction time at 37"C is:

Solutions: Chapter 13 153

tT =- 1b+tdn =- 17.7h+28h =- 45.7h

Therefore. in one year. the number of batches carried out is:

365d!W!
Numberofbatches =- 45.7 h per batch =- 192

In each batch, the mass of ammonium fumarate converted is 0.85 x 150 g r 1 =- 127.5 g 1-1 multiplied by the reactor
volume V. Therefore. the mass of substrates converted is 1275 V g =- 0.1275 V kg, where V has units of litres. From
the reaction stoichiometry, as the molecular weights of ammonium fumarate and aspartic acid are approximately
equal, the mass of aspartic acid produced is also 0.1275 Vkg. After one year or 192 batches. the mass of aspartic acid
produced is 0.1275 V x 192 =- 24.5 V kg. Using the conversion factor 1 tonne =- 103 kg (Table A.3, Appendix A), the
target level of aspartic acid production each year is 5000 x 103 =- 5 x 1()6 kg. To teach this target level:

24.5 Vkg = 5 x 106 kg

V= 2.04 x 1051 = 204m3
Answer: 204 m 3

13.3 Prediction of batch cnllnre time
(aJ
The initial cell concentration Xo =- 12 g/loo I =- 0.12 g 1-1. Assume that stationary phase is reached when Sf =- O. The
batch culture time can be determined using Eq. (l3.27):
I
tb =- - -I I n [Y
XS
l+-(so-sr)] =- - -Il I n [0.575
1+
gg- (
I lOgl-I -0 l] =- 4.3h
Pmax Xo 0.9 h- 0.12 g I
Answer: 4.3 h

(bJ
If only 70% of the substrate is consumed, Sf =- 0.3 So =- 0.3 x 10 g I-I =- 3 g I-I. From Eq. (13.27):

tb = _1_ln[1 + YXS ('o-'d] = _1_1 1n[1 + 0.575 g g~I flO g I-I _ 3 grIl] = 3.9 h
Pmax Xo 0.9h- 0.12g'-
The biomass density at this time can be calculated from Eq. (13.19):
1
xf =- Xo ePmax iI =- 0.12 g.-I e(O.9h- x 3.9 h) =- 4.0 g I-I

Answer: 4.0 g 1-1

13.4 Fed-batch schednling
(aJ
The initial substrate concentration So =- 3% (w/v) =-3 g per looml =- 30 g I-I. The batch culture time to achieveS{=- 0
. is determined using Eq. (13.27):

tb = _1_ln[l+ YXS(so-'d] = I 1 1n[1+ 0.5 gg-I(30gl-I-Ol] = 13.3d
Jlmax Xo 0.18d- 1.5g1-1
The biomass density at this time can be calculated using Eq. (13.19):

xf =- xoePmuft. =- 1.5 g 1-1 i0.18a' x 13.3 d) =- 16.4g1-1

Answer: The batch culture time is 13.3 days; the final biomass concentration is 16.4 g 1. 1.

154 Solutions: Chapter 13

(b)
The mass of cells at the start of fed-batch operation is equal to the fmal batch cell concentration multiplied by the
initial medium volume:

Xo = xf V = 16.4 g 1,1 (100 I) = 1640 g

The fmal mass of cells after 40 d fed-batch culture can be determined using Eq. (13.50):

Answer, 4.04 kg

(c)
The mass of cells produced in each reactor run is equal to the final biomass minus the biomass used for inoculation:

Biomass produced per run := 4040 g - 1.5 g j-l (100 I) = 3890 g = 3.89 kg

By analogy with Eq. (13.33), the total reaction time is:

where lb is the batcbreaction time and lfb is the fed-batch operation time. Substituting parameter values using the
result for 1b from (a):

IT = !b+tfb+tdn:= 133d+40d+ld = 54.3d

In one year, the number of runs carried out is:
275d
Numberofruns = 54.3dperrun :: 5.06

The total biomass produced annually is equal to the biomass produced per run multiplied by the number of runs per
year:

Biomass produced per year = 3.89 kg x 5.06 := 19.7 kg

Answer: 19.7 kg

13.5 Fed-batch production of cheese starter cultnre
(a)
An expression for the liquid volume as a function of time during fed·batch reactor operation can be derived from an
unsteady-state total mass balance as shown in the solution to Problem 6.7afrom Chapter 6. Using this expression:

Vo =: V-Ft =: 40m3 _4m 3 h· l (6 h) = 16m3

Answer: 16 m3

(b)
From the definition of the dilution rate in Eq. (13.39), after 6 h cffed-batch operation when V"" 40 m 3 ;
3 1
D =!:.. = 4m b- =: O,lOh-1
V 40m3

Substituting this value into Eq. (13.45) for the substrate concentration at quasi*steady state:
I 3
s= DKS = O. 10 h- (0.I5kgm- ) = 0.06kgm-3
Iimax-D 0.35h I_ O. lOb 1

Answer: 0.06 kg ro· 3

(c)
Taking maintenance substrate requirements into account, for qp:: 0, Eq. (13.43) becomes:

54 kg m.lOh I +0. Ds.84x 104 kg kg-I s~l From Eq. Therefore.0kgm-3 _D_+ ms O.. the cell concentration".135kgkg. =0. s = 0. Vmax expressed on a'per volume gel basis is: Vmax = k2 ea = 1.3. if operation is at quasi~steady state.84 x 104 g urea (g enzyme)"l s~l = 1.=__~T'--""=':"-.l (Appendix B).) 1 3 x =.I h-1 Yxs 0.0 kgm. (11.-S)-(.:ration when the liquid volume is 16 m3 . Therefore.0. During the reactor operation.33). the mass of cells produced during fed~batch operation is (560 kg .0 g Nf4+. The active enzyme concentration per unit volume of catalyst ea is: ea = lO-4 g = lO-4 g . O.(SOkgm.1 60 . s.0 kg m.1 and the molecular weight of NH4+ is 18. the mass of cells is: x = xV = 14..J!..42 g 1~1 = 0.1~1.and: x=xV= 14. Expressing the turnover number k2 in terms of urea: k2 = l1.6 Continuous enzyme conversion in a fIXed-bed reactor Convert the parameter values to units of kg.lO m 2 s-1 From Table B..0 kg m-3 (d) After 6 h fed~batch operation.10h.0 kg m-3 (40 m3) = 560kg At the start of fed-batch 0r.02 kg m~3.OOOg NH1 (g enzyme)-l s-l = 11.3 (16 m3) = 224 kg Therefore. J1 '" D.54 g 1~1 =0. R = 1 mm = 10. ands« Sj.000 g NH1 (g enzyme)-l s-l . Answer: 336 kg 13.42 kg m~3. the equation reduces to: o = DSi-(~s +ms)x Solving for r.84 x 104 kg kg~l s·l (4 x 10-4 kg m~3) = 7.+ms)x 1 Yxs At quasi~steady state. = 14. 14.I!oocmI3 = 4xlO-4 kgm-3 250cm3 250cm3 looog 1m The effective diffusivity of urea in the gel VAe is: Ij) Ae = 7xlO-6 cm2 s-1 = 7XI0-6cm2s-I'I~12 l00cm = 7xlO.36 kg m~3 s-l As there are 250 em 3 gel per litre of liquid in the reactor. from the stoichiometry.0gNH4 k2 = 1.02 g 1~1 = 0.224 kg) = 336 kg.1 ore: 1 36.3 m.1 g urea produces 2 x 18. m. reaction of 60. Km.0 =36.. dsld! '" 0. the molecular weight of urea is 60.23 kg kg 1 Answer: 14.si = 0.Solutions: Chapter 13 155 dt = £Is D(S. Vrnax expressed on a per volume liquid basis is: .1.-'.

8) kg m- r-max XO O.06 x 3 10.04=3"(I"..0..06 x 10-3 s-I (Km + $) (si $) (0.2:.okg=mc.-'--:K 3 = -.lkgm The biomass density at this time is obtained fromEq. From the definition of f30n p 313 with CAs = s: 3 p= Km = O.0". lOOcm . Sf = s=0.02) kg m-3 From the definition of the dilution rate.54kgm-3 _Calculating the Thiele modulus from the equation in Table 12.6 h) = 16. (13.84kgills "'" 3.-V:. 156 Solutions: Chapter 13 1~131100011= 3 vrnax =736k .39): F = D V = 7.) V = (16.64 x 104 kg .02kgm-3 From Figure 12.1 g I-I = 0.02x40kg m-3 =0.27): 1 1 1 1 ' 3] = 11.10. = 7.44h-1 x I 1.02) kg m-3 (0.-_IL)0".8"4".kg"m"-. gm-3-1 s The rate of reaction can be determined after evaluating the effectiveness factor in the absence of external boundary layers. Eq.3.3-:o. the volume of urea solution treated is: Volume treated = 7.1 kgm-3 i0.71 Answer: 12. as TIe = 1.06 x 10-3 s-l (11) = 7.46).3 (1000 m3) = 1.. (13.3..54kgm.4I .44h O.3 = 0. the effective first-order rate constant kl is: -3-1 I .36).418-1 0.54+ 0. The batch culture time can be determined from Eq.6h tb = " In [Y xs gg I +-('O-Sf) = lin [10 +. 1]T= 0.7 Balch and conllnuous hiomass production SO= Si = 4% (w/v) = 4 gper 100ml =40 g 1-1 =40 kgm.I s-I (30 min) ·ll~n I = 12. (13.. = 0.01 g per 100 ml = 0.42-0..1) kg m.043 From Eq."'" 27 s O.3 (40-0.m7""'.0. Based on Eq.06 x 10-3 1 S'"l In 30 min.-_. fromEq.8 kg m.. for this value of p the reaction kinetics can be considered first-order. (12.30): 1 I ~il = <Pi / 23. gm-3 s_1(2S0Cm 11 ) .19): Xf = Xoe"mu. (13.54): D = 7V~_T. Eq..1 kg m.7litres 13. X() = 0.5 . (11.5kgm-3 Calculating the mass of cells produced per batch: x = (xf-x.2 for first-order kinetics and spherical geometry: As lPI > 10. 1m3 184k . For the batch reactor. (12. The flow rate of urea solution iDto and out of the reactor can be detennined by evaluating the dilution rate D in the mass-balance equation.01% (w/v) = 0.043.3 .

= -kl dt Using integration rules (D.54 x 106 kg. Substituting this value of K into the equation gives: .biomass.) _ -Ie V (it. from Eq.productionfrom batch culture is therefore 1.7 times the amount produced using batch culture.3 (0.78 X 107 kg. this term can be taken outside of the differential and cancelled from both sides of the equation: ds dt =-k 1 s The differential equation contains only two variables.l (1000m3) = 440m3 h.78 x 107/4. This production level is 5. Sf = S = 0.6h+20h = 31.41gg.1 in Chapter 6 for first~order reaction.25) = 340 d. 13. IS where V is the reaction volume and k} is the reaction rate constant.62): x = (Si-S)Yxs = (40-0.8)kgm. Answer: The annual biomass production using continuous operation is 5. 11000111~1 1 Ks+s . From the equation. Separating variables and integrating: ds .44h.3 can be detennined using Eqs (13.277 The total annual. mg r 07 3' 6 08kgm-3 +. S = so.78 x 107 kg. In So = K. For continuous reactor operation. the steady'-state cell concentration is given by Eq. the total biomass produced per year is 7084 kgh-} x 8160 h =5.Solutions: Chapter 13 157 If the downtime between batches tdn is 20 h.3.6bperbatcb .3. which is 12.01 x 100 kg m-3 = 1 kg m. the number of batches carried out is: _ 365dl¥*1 _ Numberofbatches .I x 16. As V can be considered constant in a batch reactor. 1 = 100 kg m. this corresponds to 340 d x 24 h d-} = 8160 h. (13.' = M4h. The number of days per year available for continuous reactor operation is (365 . Based on the -unsteady·state mass-balance equation derived in Example 6. therefore.8kgm.31.54 x 106 = 12.33): IT = 1b+tdn = 11.44h-1 . (13. (13. the equation for the rate of change of substrate concentration in a batch reactor is: d(V.l The rate of biomaSs production F x= 440 m3 h. .54 x 106 kg from batch culture.7 times the production of 4.{O.1.39): F = D V = O. Eq.1 kgm~3 = 7084 kg b. 1m 10 mg From the definition of the dilution rate.24) from Appendix D and combining the constants of integration: Ins=-klt+K The initial condition is: at t = 0.64 x 104 kg x 277 = 4.27) and (D.8 Reactor design for immobilised enzymes So = Si = 10% (w/v) = 10 g per 100 ml = 100 g 1.j = O.57) and (lL6O): 1 3 D = p = I'm". sand t. in one year. Therefore.6h Therefore.l ) = 16.8 kg m.1kgm-3 The dilution rate D corresponding to S = 0..

In-=-kt f '0 The batch culture time 1b is the time requited for the substrate concentration to reach Sf. 3600 s 400 tonnes year . Using the unit conversion factor 1 tonne:= 103 kg (Table A.3.er reaction derived in Example 6.3. themass~ balance equation for frrst·oro.1 in Chapter 6 becomes: 0:= FSi-Fs-1q sV 0:= FIV(Si-S)-kl sV Solving for Fly.0h+20h = 36h Therefore.65 x 103 kg num 0 atehesperyear 243 As the concentration of penicillin G added to the reactor is tOO kg m. 1. using the unit conversion factor 1 tonne:= 103 kg (Table A. Appendix A) and the concentration of substrate in the feed stream Si := 100 kg m-3.ci--'-l"to"n"ne".onn " = 400tonnes ·1_l0__k_ 3 g I= o.27x 10-4 m3 s-1 100 kg m-3 Applying this with the above result for Fly: . sf -l 1kgm-3 -10.0h k1 O. V is constant. the number of batches carried out is: 365d' Numberofbatches = 36hperbatcb = 243 lITl 24h To treat 400 tonues penicillin G annually.5 m3.65xl0 k:g = 165m3 100 kg m-3 The batch reactor volume required is 16. 1 365 d .X s si -s (100-1) kg m 3 The flow rate of penicillin G into the CSTR is 400 tonnes per year. _. 158 Solutions: Chapter 13 lns = -kl t+lnsQ . the total volumetric flow rate of the feed stream F is: I I i lId Illh I 3 1Yeai -1 10 kg . 1 tonne F:= := 1.1 V---. Fi ::::: Fo = F. 24 h . Therefore.. For a CSTR operated under steady state conditions. F.8XlO-4Cl·13~sl If the downtime between batches too is 20 b. (13. in one year.8 X lO-4 s-1(1kgm-3) _ 808 10-7 .3: 3 Reactor volume = I. and ds/dt = O. n 3 So lOOkgm tb = . _ kt s _ O.= = 16.33): tT = tb+tdn = 16. from Eq. Appendix A): Mass of penicillin G treated per batch = her 400 fh.

83 m3 The PFrR reactor volume required is 1. .SolutWns: Chapter 13 159 F 1. (13. As calculated for the CSTR.27 x 1O-4 m3 s-I v=-= = 157m3 FIV 8.onstants"of integration: -k. The smallest reactor volume is 1. z = L and S = Sf. Answer.85): sf In.27) and (0. Therefore. therefore: Applying the defInition of the reactor residence time .83 m3 . from the definition of . in Eq. the differential equation for change in substrate concentration with position in the reactor for first·order kinetics is: <Is Uctz=-k1s The differential equation contains only two variables. For the PFTR.24) from Appendix D and combining the<.8 x 104 s·l = 3. -=-dz S u Using integration rules (D.83). (13. Substituting this value of Kinto the equation gives: -k.2 x 10-4 s·l. from Eq..51): V = -rF = 4. if the density of enzyme beads is four times greater than in the other reactors.27 X 10-4 m3 8.! 3~~ 8 j1. From the equation. S = si. 1.0 h. By analogy with Eq. In sf= K. (13. Separating variables and integrating: <Is -k.=-kl't' si Rearranging and solving for 't': Note that this is 1/4 the value obtained for the batch reaction time th. Ins = -z+lnsj u At the end of the PFIR.83 m3 for a PFrR. s and z.. kl = 4 x 0.08xlO 7 8-1 The CSTR reactor volume required is 157 m3 . as expected from the analogous kinetic characteristics ofbatch and PFTR reactors and the 4 x higher value ofk] in the PFTR. F = 1. Ins = -z+K u The boundary condition is: atz= 0.27X 10-4 m3 s-I = 1. therefore.

lOh. (13. Pi = 0 for the second reactor. therefore.39).3 13. (13.0 kg m. From the definition of the dilution rate in Eq. For the two reactors together: (Si.-.64) and solving for p: p = qpxV = O. The substrate concentration is determined by rearranging Eq.3 . The dilution rate.3l)kg m-3 Overallsubstrateconversion::= _ .-x ::::.'".lOb-' (l.cS". .-!'.Skgm-3 501h-l·ll~11 Answer: 3. is calculated using Eq. The product concentration is determined by rearranging Eq. The substrate concentration can be determined using Eq.2 kg m-3.D O.lOh-' V a.10 Kinetic analysis of bioremediatlng bacteria uslug a cbemostat (a) From Eq. the substrate concentration is 5..5m3 The cell and substrate concentrations entering the second reactor are the same as those leaving the first reactor.12h-1-O.92).x 100%::= 3 x 100% = 97% si lOkgm Answer: 97% (cj As product is not formed in the first reactor.5kgkg I Answer: The cell concentration is 2.5m3 = 3. = 10001.~ = O.O".9 Two-stage cbemostat for secondary metabolite production (a) Sj::::: 10 g 1~1 ::::: 10 kg m. (b) As growth is negligible in the second reactor.59)and solving for s with fJ::::: 0: qp ) V s::::: $i.).D. The data are listed and plotted below. (13.lO"b"-. the cell concentration is calculated using Eq.(lcoO. The measured substrate concentration at 50 ml h.l indicates that washout occurs at this flow rate.3.Okgm-3 JJmax.5 kg m. this result is not included in the kinetic analysis.m=. (13.Okgm-3) = S.025 kg kg-1 h-1 Yxs O. which is the same for both reactors. Jlmax and Ks can be detennined from the slope and intercept of a plot of SID versus s.lOh. (1358): s = . 160 Solutions: Chapter 13 13. + 0.3. (13.• -3_ = 2. +ms O.0 kg ro.2 kgm-3 1 ..kg.39): 1m3 501h-1 1 I D = f.16kgkg-1b-'(22kg~-3)0. values of D are evaluated from the experimental flow rates using V = 11 = 1000 ml.( Y +mS x ps p Substituting the parameter values with Si ::= 5.1 When maintenance requirements are significant. = O.S) (lO-O.61): x:::: D(sj -s) = _O"'c. (13.3. Xi ::::: 2.2 kg m.

F (I hoI) Dilution rate. the slope = llPmax.1 2289 50 O.90 0.1) Substrate concentration. Kg = 142 liM (b) The critical dilution rate Dcrit is determined using Eq.095 h"l.054 1.502 .1 1673 20 0. (13. S (J.11 Kinetic and yield parameters of an auxotropWc mutant From Eq.095h.035 80.48 h = 0.~_.39).0 o. (13.095 0.020 39.015 25._~.J o 20 40 60 80 100 Substrate concentration.Solutions: Chapter 13 161 Flow rate.1 (100/lM) -1 Derit = KS+sj = 142Jl.039 h"l x 1000 ml = 39 ml h~I.66): tlmaxSj0.030 69.4 1740 15 0. Answer: Pmax =0.038 0. The intercept = KS/p:max. 2 l. (13.thereforeKg = 1493 J. (13. D (h"l) Substrate concentration.92).020 1.066 0.95 0.4 0.039h Calculating the flow rate from Eq.M+lOOliM = 0..010 0. F = D V"". F (ml h"l) Dilution rate.9 0...8 1990 25 0.so 0. (13. The relevant data are listed and plotted below.M hx· 0.010 17. S (p.4 2313 35 0. Flow rate. From Eq.089 1...071 0.477 0. • • 1500 1000 l-~_. therefore. the intercept is 1493 liM h.48 h.8 1872 30 0..7 0.tmax =1/10.106 1.l. From the definition of dilution rate in Eq.M) The slope of the straight line in the plot is 10.85 0.L_~_L. Jlmax and Ks can be determined from the slope and intercept of a plot of SID versus s.M.L_~_L.8 0.39) with V = 1000 mI.lM) SID OtM h) 10 0.80 0.6 0.095 h"l = 142 J. values of D are evaluated from the experimental flow rates using V""..078 1.l. S (g 1"1) SID (g I-I h) 1.70 0.095 h"l.025 46. Answer: 39 ml h"l 13. J. D (h.OSO 100 2000 2500 • • 2000 • :2 ~ • ore. 0.92).

6 0. F (l h.6 0.0 0.---.5 Substrate concentration.326 3.85 1.3 0.I.8 0.97 hoi.max. The relevantdata are listed and plotted beISt.90 1.94) '\II(ith Sj "" 10 g I~l.2 1.10 -'?:-X • • 3.70 1.329 3.97 h.4 0.95 LOS 0.1) Dilution rate.0 0.00 0.92).$ 0.2 0.8 1.323 3.040 1.2 0.067 3. the slope: Iftlmax. S (g 1-1) 'The slope of the straight line in the plot is 1.05 •• 3.012 g l-t.the intercept is 0.43 0.20.11 0.0 1. therefore Ks =0.18 0.027 h "'" 0.1 0. From Eq. Flow rate.80 1.4 - :2 ~ .---r--. 162 Solutions: Chapter 13 0. {13.0119 g I-I h.15 • -- b .8 2.7 0.086 1. 3.027 h.175 1.315 3. J.0 2.6 0.-. Yxs and ms can be determined from the slope and intercept of a plot of 1I~ versus lID. D (hw l ) liD (h) Y~s(g g-l) Ill" (g g-l) XS 1.--.--. therefore. From Eq.4 1.---.00 0.6 1.324 3.1 0.$ _ m 3..2 YOilution rate (h) .25 0.049 1.0 050 2. The intercept:::: KS/J..9 0.328 3.0119 g I-I h x 0.3 ~ICl 0. (13.t = 0.Lmax:::: 1/1.096 1.93). (13.4 0. where Y~s is calculated using Eq.

40.5. rns =.97): N1 14 In.5 kJgmol-l =.ms.withno:axial dispersion.n: .12 m(132.1) with pipe diameter D =.. (13.0. the intercept is 2. f.1/2 . 3.I . 1.z.288.1 x 15 m 3 =.39).97 h· 1.12 g g. A =. 1Jzlu D "" 1.1 13. 3. and the temperature convertedfromoC to degrees Kelvin using Eq.5.1 h.93). The linear velocity u in the holding section of the steriliser is determined by dividing F by the pipe cross· sectional area A =. (13. an expression for the Peelet number Pe is: . =.2 m (h) Calculating the Reynolds number for pipe flow using Eq.06 m: 3 1 U =.12 g g. Using the experimental curve as this gives a higher 2i than the theoretical curve and thus a more conservative design. therefore Yxs =. the medium volumetric flow rate F =.46) with R =.section. kd = 313.6m h-1) lOOOkgm-3 Re=---= =-3978 .24 x 10 14 Within the same 3-month period.0.012 g 1.6mh-1 A 1t (0.1.1.12 g g-1 h· l ..0.of:the steriliserpipe. (13.1 Within a period of 3 months "" 90 d.holding .5 x 1039 h-1 e-Z.14.L Therefore: NZ 1 =.1 h.l h. the number of cells Nl entering the steriliser is equal to the medium volumetric flow rate Fmultiplied by the cell concentration and the time: Nj = 1.34 g g-l.Solutions: Chapter 13 163 The scatter in the plot is typical for measured values of l/Y~. (11.3144 1.umax =. the acCeptable number of cells remaining at the end of the sterilisation treatment is NZ =.24): kd =A e-EdiR T == 7.06 m)Z The value of the specific death constant is evaluated using Eq. (2. where r is the pipe radius.132.8.5 m 3 h· 1. The intercept =- I/ yxs .6mh-1 xOJ07h =. Yxs =.12 Continuous sterilisation From the definition of dilution rate in Eq.u 4kgm-1 h 1 The value of !J)vu Dcorresponding to this Re is found from Figure 13.24x 10 14 (a) For perfect plug flow . the sterilisation time can be determined using Eq. the slope =.0.0.2m Answer: 14.0.101). 1n 3.09 x 10-15 Nt =.15H(] = 313. gruol·l .885 x loS J gruol·I.0.5 m 3 h-I ( 105 ml-1 1~:~)90d.34 g g.12 cm =.2.the length of pipe required is equal to the linear velocity of the medium u multiplied by t'hd: L = u!hd =.0. (13. of time in the. The slope of the straight line in the plot is 0.K~l from Table 2. Therefore: From Eq.93 h-I =. Ed =.l h.5x 1039 h· l .3144J gmor1 K"1)(130+ Z73.24XlO N2 1 thd =. Answer:.12::1 = 3. 132. therefore ms =. =.7.5m h. For r =. 1.0. Ks =.885 x lOS J gmorlt[(8.1h 1 = O.D V =.12 m: Dup 0.107h To allow the medium to remain for this period.6 cm =.93 g g-1. (7. From Eq.

Answer: One contaminant enters the fermenter every 80 min. 164 Solutions: Chapter 13 where L has units of m.12. from the equations developed in (b). As N2 :::: 1.14 19 105 45 1. the time required for 2 x 1011 contaminants to enter the steriliser is: 2 x 1011 Therefore.15 The last value of N2/NI is as close as practicable to 3. (13. i. . or 34% longer than that detennined for ideal plug flow.09 x 10. N} :::: 2 x 1011.1) L Da =. and the corresponding value for N2/Nl read from Figure 13.l .41.102) is: k L (313. N2/Nl is about 5 x 10. contaminants enter the fermenter at a rate of one every 80 min.4l.6mb-1 "'" 2. the required length of pipe in the holding section is about 19 m. Depending on how this value compares with the target of 3. Therefore. the value of L is adjusted until the results for N2/N} coincide.41. The calculations are shown in the table below.15 . one contaminant enters the fermentetfor every 2 x lOll that enter the steriliser.5 m 3 h. The values for Pe and Da are evaluated using the equations determined above. From Figure 13. Pe :::: 78 and Va:::: 34. Similarly.1 h.14.15 considering the resolution of Figure 13.09 x 10. an expression for the Damkohler number Da from Eq.2 m. L(m) Pe Da (from Figure 13.du "'" 132. NI/N2 :::: 2 X 1011.5 x to. therefore.41) 20 110 47 4x 18 99 42 1 x 10.e. Answer: About 19 m (e) For L =.36£ The design problem can be solved from this point using tria1~andwerror methods and Figure 13. try L = 20 ID.41. For F:::: 1. As a first guess.l and an input contaminant concentration of lOS ml.