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NOISE Polution Cause: 1.

Industrializaton sources affects the normal functioning of


2.Poor Urban Planing 3.Social Event life. Elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide
4.Transportaton 5.Construction Activitie (NO2) & smog cause increase in incidence of
6.Household Chores allergic diseases like nausea, vomiting & and
NOISE Polution Efect: 1.Hearing Problem eye irritation. The toxic elements in the
2.Health Issue 3.Sleeping Disorders atmosphere R responsible for asthma,
4.Cardiovascular Issues 5.Trouble bronchitis emphysema & related respiratory
Communicating 6.Effect on Wildlife disorders. Elderly people, infants, pregnant
women & people with cardiac & respiratory
NOISE POLLUTION PREVENTION &
disorders R especially vulnerable to air
CONTROL: 1.Construction of soundproof pollution. Organic lead emitted from
rooms for noisy machines in industrial & automobiles get absorbed in brain, liver,
manufacturing installations must be kidney & blood, causing convulsions,
encouraged. This is also important for muscular paralysis, reduction in Red Blood
residential buildingnoisy machines should Cells (RBC) count & brain damage. Carbon
be installed far from sleeping & living rooms, monoxide (CO) combines with blood
like in a basement or garage. 2.Use of horns haemoglobin much faster than oxygen thus
with jarring sounds, motorbikes with reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of the
damaged exhaust pipes, noisy trucks to be blood. It combines with haemoglobin more
banned. 3.Noise producing industries, than 200 times faster than oxygen (O2).
airports, bus & transport terminals & railway Carbon monoxide in heavy traffic causes
stations to sighted far from whr living places. headache, drowsiness & blurred vision.
4.Community law enforcers should check Exposure to air containing even 0.001% of
the misuse of loudspeakers, worshipers, carbon monoxide for several hours causes
outdoor parties & discos, as well as public coma & even death. Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
announcements systems. 5.Community laws irritates the respiratory tissues. It also reacts
must silence zones near schools/colleges, with H2O in the atmosphere to form
hospitals etc. 6.Vegetation (trees) along sulphur-containing acids. The acids when
roads & in residential areas is a good way to inhaled affect the lungs. Nitrogen oxides
reduce noise pollution as they absorb sound. (NO & NO2) irritates lungs aggravates
Air Pollution Cause:1.Urbanization asthma or chronic bronchitis & increases
2.Industrialization 3.Deforestation susceptibility to respiratory infection like
4.Vehicular exhaust influenza. The continued inhalation of ozone
AIR POLLUTION EFFECT: Air Pollution causes chest pain, breathlessness &
effect on human beings: Prolonged irritation of eye, nose & throat.
exposure to toxic pollutants from various
Air Polution Efect on Plant: Air polution Air Polution Efect on Material: Air
cause damage to crop plant, tree & polutants break down the exterior paint on
vegetaton as a whole. Chronic exposure of car & house. Al over the world, air polutant
the leaves to air polutants break down waxy have discolored irreplaceable monument,
coating that help in preventing exces H2O historic building, marble statues, & other
loss & provide protection to plant from heritage & natural beauty sites.
disease & pests infestation. Elevated level of Air Polution Control: 1.One of efective
Sulphur dioxide in atmosphere adversely mean of controling air polution is to have
afects flowering in plant & causes injury to proper equipment in place. This include
leaves. High concentration of sulphur device for removal of polutants from the flue
dioxide gas cause damage like breaking gases through scrubber, closed colection
down of chlorophyll leading to chlorosis & recovry system, use of dry & wet colector,
necrosis. Sensitivity to sulphur dioxide varies filter, electrostatic preciptaton etc. 2.Since
from crop to crop & species to species. plant R sinks of CO2 hence green belt
Among vegetable crops alfalfa & tomato, plantaton must be raised around industral
wheat & barley among cereals & apple unit & in urban area. 3.Forest cover should
among the tree crops R the most sensitive to be protected, & deforested areas must be
higher concentration of sulphur dioxide. restord through reforestaton program. 4.In
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) cause severe develpng country. 5.Since vehicle substan-
damage to leaves & relatively young tissues, tialy contribute to air poluton, their engine
& induce many biochemical & physiological should be redesignd in such a way that may
change. PAN inhibits Hill reaction of minimze emission of polutant. Instalaton of
photosynthesis. Alfalfa, beans, maize, beet R catalytic converter in vehicle should be made
some crops sensitive to PAN. Vegetable compulsry. 6.Buildng of highr smoke stacks
crops like cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, faciltates discharge of polutant far away
onions R resistant to PAN. Fluorides cause from the ground. Industry should be carefuly
various types of injuries to plants. The leaves located to minimize efect of polution after
of apple, apricot, peach R more susceptible considrng topography & wind direction.
to air borne fluorides. Fluorides interfere CONCLUSION: Conclusivly it can be said that
with photosynthesis & respiration of plants. air polution causd mainly due to urbanizet-
Ozone enters through stomata (opening on ion, industrialzaton, deforestaton & vehiculr
the surface of leaves) in plants cause exhaust is seriou threat to health of human
damage to leaves. It damages bean, tobacco, being & plant. Its necesary to control air
tomato, pine & other plants. Ozone causes polution by employng al posible control
tip burn in pine seedlings. Furthermore, method to avoid its il efect on the health.
ozone disposes plants to insects.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: Solid Plastics Impact on environment R
waste is the material generated from extremely wide ranging. These
various human activities & which is normally include: 1.Careless disposal of plastic bag
disposed as useless & unwanted. choke drain 2.It blocks porosity of soil 3.It
CLASSIFICATION: 1.Municipal Waste causes problem for ground-H2O recharge
2.Domestic I Residential Waste 4.Plastic disturb the soil microbe activity
3.Commercial Waste 4.Garbage 5.Rubbish 5.Once ingested, can kil animal 6.They
6.Institutional Waste 7.Ashes 8.Bulky Waste contaminate foodstufs due to leaching of
9.Street Sweeping 10.Dead Animals 10.Dead toxic dyes & transfer of pathogens.
Animal 11.Construction & Demolit-ion
Waste 12.Industrial Waste 13.Hazardous Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Buy
Waste 14.Sewage Waste 15.Biomedical- Recycled: Best aproach to solid waste
Hospital Waste 16.Plastic. chalenge is to cut creation of waste.
Biomedical/Hospital Waste: wastes R 1.Reduce 2.Reuse 3.Recycle 4.Buy Recycled
categorized into 10 as: 1.Human anatomical Reduce: The USA is generating more waste
waste (tissues, organs, body parts etc.) now than ever befor & that's why reducng
2.Animal waste 3.Microbiology & waste (waste preventon-source reduction),
biotechnology waste, as, laboratory culture, is imp.
microorganisms, human & animal cell Source reduction? (waste prevention) as
culture, toxins etc. 4.Waste sharp as, hypod- activities designed to reduce the volume or
ermic needles, syringe, scalpels, broken glass toxicity of waste generated, including the
etc 5.Discarded medicines & cyto-toxic drugs design & manufacture of products with min
6.Soiled waste, as dressing, bandage, plaster toxic content, min volume of material,
cast, materal contaminatd with blood 7.Solid and/or longer useful life. Source reduction
waste 8.Liqud waste generatd from infected Example is bringng reusabl bag to grocery
area 9.Incineraton ash 10. Chemical waste store
Waste Plastc generaton Source: Waste reduction tip: Consumr: 1.Buy
1.Household 2.Carry bag Bottle Containr only what you need 2.Buy reusable or
Trash bag 3.Health & Medicare 4.Disposable refilable product 3.Buy in bulk and/or
syring Glucose bottle Blood & uro bag Intrav- economy size. 4.Avoid single-serving size.
enou tubes Catheter Surgical glove 5.Hotel & 5.Buy product with less packaging
Caterng 6.Packagng item 7.Mineral H2O Businesses/Organizations: 1. Reduce ofice
bottle 8.Plastc plate 9.spoon 10.Air/Rail papr waste by implementng a formal polcy
Travel 11.Mineral H2O bottle 12.Plastic plate to double-side all draft reports, & by makng
13. Glases 14.spoon 15.Plastic bag trainng manual & personel information
available electronically. 2.Improve product there. 3.Donate old clothes & miscellaneous
design to use less materials. 3.Reduce all items to a shelter or charity instead of
forms of packaging waste: 4.Bring your own throwing them away. 4.Have a garage sale.
bag 5.Redesign packaging to eliminate Repair, refurbish, & sell or donate used
excess material while maintaining strength. furniture.
6.Work with customers to design & Businesses/Organizations: 1.Create a
implement a packaging return program. "reuse center" in your building whr old office
7.Switch to reusable transport containers. supplies, books, magazines, etc. can be
8.Purchase products in bulk. 9.Keep mailing reused. 2.Buy rechargeable toner cartridges
list current. so that they can be reused & use paper that
What is EPA doing to promote waste has already been printed on one side in your
reduction? 1.Pay-As-You-Throw (or unit printer & copy machine. 3.Donate unwanted
pricing/variable-rate pricing) is a system whr equipment, furniture, & supplie to nonprofit
households pay for garbage collection by the organizaton or school. 4.Suport construction
amount of trash collected rather than a flat from reused building material &
fee. Households save money by throwing deconstruction/reuse, rather than
away less garbage & recycling. (Detailed demolition.
information is available in the report What Is EPA Doing to Promote
Measuring Source Reduction: Pay as You Reuse? 1.WasteWise is a voluntary
throw/Variable Rates as an Example (PDF) program that help busineses, govt agencies,
(18 pp, 399K). 2.WasteWise is a voluntary & nonprofit organization save money by
EPA program that helps businesses, reducing their garbge. 2.Reuse Development
government agencies, & nonprofit Organization Exiting EPA (disclaimer), Inc.
organizations save money by reducing their (ReDO), is a non-profit organization whose
garbage & recycling. 3.Climate Change & mission is "to promote reuse as an
Waste is an EPA program that encourages environmentally sound, socially beneficial, &
people to reduce waste in order to help slow economical means for managing surplus &
global warming. discarded materials. EPA provided grant
REUSE: Reuse is using a product or item in funding to ReDO to support education,
its original form more than once (e.g, reusing training, & outreach initiative.
a mug instead of using a disposable cup). Recycling: (including composting) means
Some Tips for Reuse: For Consumers: separating, collecting, procesing, marketing,
1.Take a reusable cloth bag to the grocery & ultimately using a material that would
store. 2.Take your own mug to the coffee otherwise have been thrown away. This
shop instead of getting a disposable cup morning's newspaper can be recycled for
another morning's news or other paper take less energy to make recycled product,
product. Carpet & clothng can be made from E.g. producing aluminum by recycling takes
recycled soda bottle. Quality products & 95% less energy than producing new
packaging R being made from recycled aluminum from bauxite ore. 3.SAVES CLEAN
materials that have been recovered from the AIR & H2O: Using recycled rather than virgin
waste stream. We can all promote recycling material reduce the amount of pollutants
by buying & using recycled product. emited during resource acquisition &
Recycling Benefits: 1.Recycling reduces procesing, & product manufacturing.
air & H2O pollution/emissions associated 4.SAVES LANDFILL SPACE: When materials
with landfilling & incineration. 2.Recycling that you recycle go into new product, they
conserves our natural resources such as don't go into landfills, so landfill space is
timber, water, & minerals because it reduces saved. 5.SAVES MONEY & CREATES JOBS:
the need for raw materials. 3.Recycling saves The recycling process creates more jobs than
energy Exiting EPA (NRDC) 4.Recycling landfills or incinerators, & recycling can
decrease emission Exiting EPA (NRDC) of frequently be the least expensive waste
greenhouse gases that contribute to global management method for cities & towns
climate change. 5.Recycling helps sustain the Recycled product? is made in whole or in
environment for future generation. part from material recovered from the waste
Why should we buy recycled stream. Many "recycled product" contain
products? One of the most immediate less than 100% recovered material. they R
recycling challenges today is to educate more accurately refered to as recycled
consumers about the benefits of buying content product. E.g, a rebuilt or remanu-
products made from recycled materials. factured commodity, as remanufactured
Manufacturing is driven by the marketplace. laser toner cartridge, recycled paper, &
Buying recycled content products creates recycled plastic lumber.
long-term markets for recyclable materials & Differ b/w Postconsumer, Pre-
increases recycling program revenues. If consumer, & Recovered Materials:
demand exists for recycled content product, Recycled content products R often labeled
manufacturer will produce recycled product. with percentages of postconsumer &
Benefits of Buying Recycled Products: recovered material.
1.SAVES NATURAL RESOURCES: By making Postconsumer material is a material or a
products with recycled materials instead of finished product that has served its intended
virgin materials, we conserve land & reduce use & then is diverted or recovered before it
the need to drill for oil, dig for minerals, & is disposed. It is the material consumers &
harvest trees. 2.SAVES ENERGY: It usualy businesses recycle; it does not include
manufacturers waste that is commonly substances that will modify H2O in negative
reused in original manufacturing process. fashion R discharged in it. This discharge of
Postconsumer material is part of broader pollutants can be direct as well as indirect.
category of recovered material. Water pollution is an appalling problem,
Pre-consumer material is material that is powerful enough to lead world on a path of
recycled before its used by a consumer. E.g, destruction. H2O is an easy solvent, enabling
paper mil scrap that R recycled at paper mil. most pollutants to dissolve in it easily &
Recovered materials R waste material & by- contaminate it. Most basic effect of H2O
product that have been recovered or pollution is directly suffered by organism &
diverted from solid waste landfills, but do vegetation that survive in water, including
not include those materials & byproducts amphibians. On a human level, several
generated from, & commonly reused within, people die each day due to consumption of
an original manufacturing process. E.g, steel polluted & infected water. As per
scrap from an automobile plant that is Economist report (dated 2008) each day
recycled & made into steel beams is over 1000 children die of diarrheal sickness
recovered material, but scrap paper that is in India & no. have only increased alarming
recycled again in paper mill is not. in last 5 year. H2O is polluted by both natural
H2O Polution: H2O they say is life, & as-wel-as man-made activites. Volcanic
indeed they were right. With about 70% of eruption, earthquake, Tsunami etc R known
earths cover being water, it undeniably to alter H2O & contaminate it, also affecting
becomes one of our greatest resources. As ecosystems that survive under water.
young students, we learned about variou H2O Pollution Sources: There R various
ways to conserve water; coming to think of classification of H2O pollution. Two chief
it, H2O is used in almost every important sources of H2O pollution can be seen as
human chores & processes. It is an important Point & Non-Point.
element in both domestic as well as 1. Point refer to polutant that belong to
industrial purposes. However, a closer single source. An example of this would-be
inspection of our H2O resources today, give emissions from factories into H2O. 2.Non-
us a rude shock. Infested with waste Point on othr hand mean polutant emited
ranging from floating plastic bags to from multiple source. Contaminatd H2O
chemical waste, our H2O bodies have turned after rain that has traveld through several
into a pool of poison. Contamination of H2O region may also be considerd as Nonpoint
bodies in simplest words means H2O source of pollution.
pollution. Thereby abuse of lakes, ponds,
oceans, rivers, reservoirs etc is H2O
pollution. Pollution of H2O occurs when
H2O Pollution CAUSE: 1.Industrial waste: Water pollutants also include both organic
2.Sewage & waste water 3.Mining activities & inorganic factors. Organic factors
4.Marine dumping 5.Accidental Oil leakage include volatile organic compounds, fuels,
6.Burning of fossil fuels 7.Chemical fertilizers waste from trees, plants etc. Inorganic
& pesticides 8.Leakage from sewer lines factors include ammonia, chemical waste
9.Global warming 10.Radioactive waste from factories, discarded cosmetics etc. H2O
11.Urban development 12.Leakage from the that travels via fields is usually contaminated
landfills 13.Animal waste 14.Underground with all forms of waste inclusive of fertilizers
storage leakage that it swept along way. This infected H2O
makes its way to our H2O bodies &
sometimes to seas endangering flora, fauna
& humans that use it along its path.
Current scenario has led to a consciousness
about H2O preservation & efforts R being
made on several levels to redeem our H2O
resources. Industries & factory setups R
restricted from contaminating H2O bodies &
R advised to treat their contaminated waste
through filtration methods. People R
investing in rain H2O harvesting projects to
collect rainwater & preserve it in wells below
ground level.