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**CALCULATION OF SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT FOR
**

BIG ASPECT RATIO WING

Plan:

1. Calculation of shear forces and bending moments

2. The diagram of the reduced moments

3. Features of calculations of loading for swept wing

4. Check of the loading calculation.

1. Calculation of shear forces and bending moments

**In previous lecture we considered calculation of distributed loads. In this lecture we
**

shall consider calculation of shear force and bending moment.

Calculation of the total distributed loading qt is spent on sections, breaking length of

the console on k= 11 sites by 12 cross section. As near of the wing tip the function Г(z) is

strongly curved so the cross section with relative coordinate z 0.95 is entered. The

relative coordinate z is equal:

z 2z

z ,

0.5Lw Lw

where Lw – is the wing span.

The total distributed load is equal:

qt qa qw qa qw .

Table 1. Calculation of the total distributed load

**Ns, i zi b(z) Гfw Г Гt qa qw qt
**

m N/m N/m N/m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 0

1 0.1

2 0.2

3 0.3

4 0.4

5 0.5

6 0.6

7 0.7

8 0.8

9 0.9

10 0.95

11 1

1

Table 2. Calculation of shear forces and the bending moments.

**Ns, i zi z, q t, Qd, Qd, Pagr, Qc Qt, М, М,
**

m N/m N N N N N N*m N*m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

0 00

1 0.1

2 0.2

3 0.3

4 0.4

5 0.5

6 0.6

7 0.7

8 0.8

9 0.9

10 0.95

11 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

**In third column of the table #2 we should compute distance between cross sections zi
**

from i-th cross section up to i+1 cross section in meters by formula:

zi 0.5Lw ( z i 1 z i ) .

You should calculate from tenth cross section where i=10, because z11=0.

The forth column you should rewrite from previous table #1 last column. Result of

previous table is initial data for those calculations.

From strength of materials size of shear force is equal to:

Q q t ( z )dz Gci n uy , (1)

**where Gci means weight of i-th cargo.
**

Integration it is begun from the tip of the wing console as for cantilever beam.

Summation of the concentrated cargoes is conducted from the tip of a wing to section with

coordinate z. In practice there are carry out numerical integration, procedure consists in the

following. On the wing tip in the cross section N=11 we have ΔQ11 Q11 Δz 11 0 .

We calculate shear force from distributed loads in cross section N=10 at z =0.95 by the

approached formula, taking into account, that on the tip of a wing Q z 11 =0 and change q

upon a curve also in this section shear force is equal to its increment

2

Qd 10 Qd 10 qt 10 z10 , (2)

3

**In all other cross sections increment of shear force from distributed loads Qdi is found
**

so:

q t ,i q t ,i 1

Qdi z i (3)

2

2

where i – is number of the cross section.

In this formula it takes into account a cargo is located on i-th site.

The size of shear force from distributed loads is summation

Qdi Qdi 1 Qdi . (4)

In 7-th column you should write down ultimate loads from aggregates as for

concentrated loads:

Pagr ,i Pagr

u

,i n Gagr ,i n magr ,i g ,

u u

**where Gagr,I – is aggregate weight in i-th cross section.
**

You compute these values only for cross sections with aggregates, in any cross

sections you should write down 0.

The shear force from concentrated loads is summation from wing tip:

Qc,i Qc ,i Pagr ,i .

The total shear force is equal:

Qt ,i Qd ,i Qc,i .

On diagram of shear forces from concentrated loads and the total shear forces we

have discontinuous jump in places of applied of concentrated forces and have two values

shear force before and after application of concentrated force.

The diagram bending moments is received as a result of integration diagram shear

forces, integration conduct from the wing tip as for cantilever beam:

z

M Qdz . (5)

0

Integration is carried out numerically, a tabulated way by the method of trapezes. On

the tip of a console wing, as it is known:

Mt = Qt =M11=Q11=ΔM11=ΔQ11= 0. (6)

In penultimate section increment of bending moment is equal to product of the shear

force in this cross section multiplied by half distance between them:

1

M 10 Q10 z 10 ;

2

M 10 M 10 . (7)

In other sections are:

Q Qi 1

M i i z

2

M i M i 1 M i . (8)

2. The diagram of the reduced moments

**For calculation of a wing on strength it is necessary to have the diagram torque.
**

Torque T is equal to product of shear force Q multiplied on its distance up to the center of

rigidity r.

3

T= Q*r (9)

At a design stage of a wing, at the calculation of loading geometrical characteristics of

wing cross section are unknown, so as position of an axis of rigidity is not known. Therefore

computation of torque at the given stage is impossible. So we plot the diagram the reduced

moments that is the moments of shear force rather any way chosen axis. The knowledge the

diagram the reduced moments allows to find a point of the attack of shear force in the wing

cross sections. This coordinate is used in designing and checking calculations. For

realization of calculations we must do the drawing of a wing in the plan. As an axis of

reduction it is convenient to choose a straight line taking place at the point of intersection of

the wing leading age with the axes of a fuselage and perpendicularly to axes of a fuselage

(see fig.1). On the drawing we indicate position of the centers of pressure, the centers of

gravity of the wing cross sections and fuel tanks, we shown the centers of weights of the

concentrated cargoes. Let's consider any cross section with coordinate z. Calculation we

conduct from the tip of the console of a wing. In the each cross section by the drawing we

find sizes of distances from an axis of reduction to the points of the attack for the distributed

and concentrated forces Хa, ХW, Хf and Хc.

We plot diagram the distributed reduced moment mz. For this purpose the current

reduced moment in each wing cross section by the formula in the beginning is calculated:

mz = - qaxa + qwxw +qfxf (10)

The reduced moment Mz is equal:

z

M z m z ( z )dz Gci n uy x ci (11)

0

Summation must be carrying out of the all concentrated cargoes located from the wing tip

up to cross section with coordinate z. On wing tip we have M z 11 M z 11 0 .

Mz10 = 0.5mz10z10

Mz10 = Mz10 (12)

A

cg of cargo reduced axis

cp

cg

cg of fuel

A

Fig. 1. Calculation of the reduced moments

4

ra qa

cg of fuel

xa

cg of wing

xf

xw

Fig. 2. Calculation of the current reduced moments

**In other sections are:
**

m zi m zi 1

M zi z i Gci n uy xci ,

2

Mzi = Mzi+1+Mzi. (13)

z

z

Fig. 3. The reduced moment diagram

**The increment of reduced moment from concentrated forces is equal:
**

ΔMzci= Magri×f×nl×g×xci.

The reduced moment from concentrated forces is equal:

n

M zсс M zci ,

i 11

where you should calculate from wing tip up to cross section with number n.

5

Table 3. Calculation of the reduced moments

**Ns, z, qa, xa, qw, xw, mz, Mz Mz, Qc, xc, Мzc Мzt,
**

i m N/m м N/m m N N*m N*м N m N*m N*m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 0 0

**Distance from an axis of reduction to a point of the attack of the resultant
**

force in the cross section with coordinate z equal to:

M

x ai zti (14)

Qti

It is necessary coordinate position of shear force in designing cross section from the

leading edge. Distance from an axis of reduction up to the leading edge d we take from the

drawing.

ra

Fig. 4. Calculation of a point of the attack of the resultant force

**Calculation of the reduced moments is carry out in the table by the method of
**

trapezes.

6

3. Features of calculations of loading for swept wing

Lwc

**Fig. 5. Calculation settlement sweep.
**

At swept wing his longitudinal axis is not perpendicular axes of the plane, and is

rejected back on flight. We draw the straight line taking place through 0.25 chords and we

compute the sweep angle by this line for the account sweep on the drawing of a wing.

Further we calculate the amendment on sweep:

Г Г 45

45 0

We draw the diagram:

t fw ,

where circulation of a straight flat wing Гfw we calculate for straightened swept wing.

With this purpose we draw so-called a straightened swept wing concerning a line which are

taking place through 0.4 chords that is equal by the area to swept wing. Then Гfw we find

out by the technique described above for a straight flat wing in view of aspect ratio and

taper of the straightened wing. In the further diagram is drawn for the straightened wing, as

well as for straight flat wing.

4. Check of the loading calculation

**For check of load calculation the approached calculation of loading and comparison
**

with earlier received results must be carried out. From previous lecture you know that

approximately aerodynamic force can be distributed proportionally to chords:

n uyG

qa b( z ) (15)

Sw

**Sizes of a wing chords may be calculated by linear interpolation by the formula:
**

b bt

b ( z ) br r z (16)

Lc

where в(z) - the current chord , вr – root chord, bt - tip chord, Lwc – length of wing

console, z - coordinate of cross section.

We count fuel as the concentrated cargo, and then the total distributed loading qt

equal to:

7

n uy ( G p G w )

qt b( z ) (17)

Sw

where Gp – weight of the plane, Gw – is wing weight.

C0

Sc Centre of

gravity

b0 b(z)

bt

z

Lc

Fig. 6. The circuit of the approached calculation of loading

**Shear force can be calculated by integration from wing tip as for cantilever beam:
**

z

Q q t dz Gci n uy ; (18)

0

**We must substitute qt from (17):
**

n uy ( G p Gw )

Q S c Gci n uy , (19)

Sw

where

z

S c b( z )dz (20)

0

- the area of a wing compartment from considered cross section up to the wing tip.

At point z=Lc in root section Q is equal to :

n uy ( G G w ) n

Q

2

Gci n uy , (21)

k 1

where n – quantity of the concentrated cargoes, Gp, Gw - weight of the plane and weight of

the wing, including two consoles.

Approximately bending moment in the cross section z is equal to:

S

M n uy ( c ( G G w )C 0 Gci C i0 ) (22)

Sw i

8

where C i0 - distance from the current cross-section to the center of gravity of the

concentrated cargo, С 0 - distance from the current cross-section to the center of gravity of

the wing compartment. Thus those cargoes which are located up to section with coordinate z

should be taken into account only from the wing tip.

Miscalculation for shear force must be no more 1% or 0.01 by formulas:

Qta Qth

δQ 0.01

Qth

where Qta – is value of shear force from table, Qth – theoretical value of shear force

from (21).

Miscalculation for bending moment must be no more 10% or 0.1 by formulas:

M ta M ap

δM 0 .1

M ta

where Mta – is value of bending moment from table, Map–value of bending moment

from (22).

9

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