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- 13.Nonlinear Problems

287–304, Belgrade 2008

**Hysteretic behavior modeling of
**

elastoplastic materials

Dragoslav Šumarac ∗ Bojan Medjo †

Nataša Trišović ‡

Abstract

In the present paper the Preisach model of hysteresis is applied to model

cyclic behavior of elasto-plastic material. Rate of loading and viscous

effects will not be considered. The problem of axial loading of rectan-

gular cross section and cyclic bending of rectangular tube (box) will be

studied in details. Hysteretic stress-strain loop for prescribed history

of stress change is plotted for material modeled by series connection of

three unite element. Also moment-curvature hysteretic loop is obtained

for a prescribed curvature change of rectangular tube (box). One chap-

ter of the paper is devoted to results obtained by FEM using Finite

Element Code ABAQUS. All obtained results clearly show advantages

of the Preisach model for describing cyclic behavior of elasto-plastic

material.

Keywords: cyclic plasticity, Preisach model, cyclic bending

1 Introduction

Mathematical modeling of engineering materials is important issue in design

of structures. Model itself should satisfy two conditions: first to explain in the

best way mechanical behavior of material and second to be as simple as possible

for easy every day application in engineering. In the present paper the model of

elastic-plastic behavior for quasi static cyclic loading will be explained. Special

∗

Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73,

11000 Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: sumi@grf.bg.ac.yu, sumi@grf.bg.ac.yu

†

Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000

Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: bojanmedjo@gmail.com, bojanmedjo@gmail.com

‡

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000

Belgrade, Serbia, e-mail: ntrisovic@mas.bg.ac.yu, ntrisovic@mas.bg.ac.yu

287

From these examples it is obvious that suggested (Preisach) model is simple enough and very appropriate to describe hysteretic behavior of elasto-plastic material.1. N. The phenomenon of hysteresis occurs in various branches of physics: mechanics. Constitutive relations will not include viscous effects and rate of loading application.Medjo. the Preisach model implies the mapping of an input of strain ε(t) on the output of stress σ(t) in the integral form: ZZ σ(t) = P (α. dealing with the problem of magnetism. a weight (Green’s) function of the hys- teresis nonlinearity to be represented by the Preisach model. magnetism.βε(t) 1 β α -1 Figure 1: Elementary hysteresis operator Parameters α and β are up and down switching values of the input. respectively.Trišović attention will be made to hysteretic behavior and mathematical models applied for their description. B.288 D. β) is the Preisach function. β) Gα. optics. In this paper short outline of Preisach model of hysteresis will be presented. According to [7]. while P (α. i. Application of the Preisach model to cyclic behavior of elasto-plastic material is shown in [5] and extended to cyclic bending by [3]. Gα. 2 The Preisach model of hysteresis The Preisach model of hysteresis. adsorption etc.β ε (t) dαdβ (1) where Gα.Sumarac. The domain of . is described thoroughly in the monograph of Mayergoyz [7].e. In this paper moment-curvature loops will be constructed for cyclic axial loading and cyclic bending.β is an elementary hysteresis operator given in Fig.

Maxima or minima of loading history are represented by the ver- tices with coordinates (α. and vise versa if it is decreased it is vertical.β0 = −α0 ) being the triangular vertex (Fig. the final link of L(t) is horizontal.2). β plane. -α0 α0 .. α0 L(t) A-(t) β A+(t) Figure 2: Limiting triangle with the interface staircase line L(t) ho s Eo E* s s Y E e (a) Y l L (b) Figure 3: (a) Elastic-linearly hardening stress-strain behaviour with elastic modulus E. His- tory of loading corresponds to staircase line L(t) which divides triangle into two parts [5]. 289 α α0. Therefore. β) on staircase line L(t) in such a way if the input at a previous instant of time is increased. with α = β being the hypotenuse and (α0 . (b) Three-element unit reproducing the stress-strain behaviour in (a) integration of integral (1) is right triangle in the α.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic.. the triangle is divided into two parts with the positive and negative values of Gα. initial yield stress Y and hardening modulus Eh .β by the interface .

N. β) Gα. B. 3. corresponding to the material model in Fig.β ε (t) dαdβ (2) A+ (t) A− (t) . From formula (1) it is than obtained: ZZ ZZ σ (t) = P (α.Sumarac.-e ) 0 0 Figure 4: Major hysteresis loop and several transition lines.b f a s b Y a -Y E Eh (-s . a ax m 2Y b= A a- b in m Y b =2 a- 0 b= a- Figure 5: The Preisach function corresponding to series connection of infinitely many three element units staircase line L(t).290 D.Trišović e (s . β) Gα.β ε (t) dαdβ − P (α.e ) 0 0 f a.Medjo.

0 -24.5 .. 291 s / Y m in 3 .2.0 -3.0 2 .0 10.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic.1.5 .β from the limiting triangle.0 20.0 5 .0 5. 0 -2.0 -5. 0 .0 -15.0 15.0 1 .0 -4.0 eE/Y min -1..0 3 .0 2. it .0 -2.0 4 .4 .0 -10.0 -20.0 -3.0 1.0 t .3 .5 2 .0 2.0 Figure 6: History of stress input s/Ymin 3.0 0.0 1.5 1 .5 3 .5 3 .0 Figure 7: Stress-strain loop Denoting the output value at ε = β by fα.

the Preisach weight function is derived in the form 1 ∂ 2 fα. β) = (4) 2 ∂α∂β .0 -2.0 1.0 -2. β 0 ) dα0 dβ 0 (3) β β By differentiating expression (3) twice.0 2.0 -2. B. with respect to α and β.0 3.0 t -1.292 D.0 5.0 4.Trišović dh k y h dh gb gb b Figure 8: Rectangular tube (box) cross section k/kel 2.0 Figure 9: History of curvature change follows that 0α Zα Z fα. N.0 2.Sumarac.0 6.β P (α.β − fα = −2 P (α0 .0 2.Medjo.0 1.0 0.

0 -1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 y/h y/h Figure 10: Residual stresses (a) for κ = 2κel .5 -1. (b) for κ = 0 M/EIkel 1.5 1.0 0.25 -0.6160 0.0 s/Eeel h/2 0.04261 1.76406 0.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic.0 2..5 0.48551 rectangular section (I=I) box section (I= WI) -1.78125 Figure 11: Moment curvature loop .18939 1.25 0.78125 1.25 0.0 k/kel -0.0 -1.18939 -2..04261 -1.5 0.0 0. 293 (a) (b) k=2kel k=0 0.

3 0 .Medjo.numerically obtained The Preisach model explained above possesses two properties: wiping out and congruency properties.5 1 .5 0 .0 1 . B.4 0. N.2 0 .5 y/h y/h a) b) Figure 13: Residual stresses (a) for κ = 2κel .5 0.5 0 .0 0. (b) for κ = 0 .3 0 .294 D.Trišović Figure 12: FE mesh 1.Sumarac.0 0.0 0 .0 0 . Those properties and much more about Preisach model is explained in [5] and [6].1 0 .2 0 .0 0.4 0. 1 0 .5 s / E eel s / E ee l 1. .

consequently. respectively. where h = h0 (l + L)/L. it is given by · ¸ 1 E − Eh P (α. 2E 2Eh Ymax − Ymin A −σ0 (7) . [6].α σ (t) dα + Gα.4.e. 295 3 The Preisach model for cyclic behavior of ductile materials One dimensional hysteretic behavior of elasto-plastic material can be success- fully described by the Preisach model.α σ (t) dα + Gα..Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic. Parallel Connection of elastic and slip elements. β) = δ (α − β) + δ (α − β − 2Y ) . The Preisach function can be determined from the hysteresis nonlinearity shown in Fig.1 A three-element unit Elastic-linearly hardening material behavior. (6) 2E Eh −σ0 2Y −σ0 The first and second term on the right-hand side of (6) are elastic and plastic strain. the total strain is σ Z0 Z Z 1 E − Eh 1 ε (t) = Gα. can be modeled by a three-element unit shown in Fig. which relates the stress input to strain output.β σ(t)dαdβ . (5) 2E Eh The expression for strain as a function of applied stress is.3a. σ Z0 Zσ0 1 E − Eh ε (t) = Gα. (E and Eh are elastic and hardening moduli). Elastic element of length l and modules E0 is connected in a series with a parallel connection of elastic and slip element. The Preisach function in this case has support along the lines α − β = 0 and α − β = 2Y . connected in a series and with uniform yield strength distribu- tion within the range Ymin 6 Y 6 Ymax . Ductile material is represented in vari- ous ways by a series or parallel connections of elastic (spring) and plastic (slip) elements [6]. of length L modulus h0 and yield strength Y . It then follows that E = E0 (l + L)/l and Eh = Eh (E + h) .. characterized by the stress-strain curve shown in Fig. Series connection of elastic and slip elements are discussed elsewhere [3]. These results have advantage in comparison with classically ob- tained [4] and [1] because of simplicity and strict mathematical rigorous pro- cedure.3b. i.α−2Y σ (t) dα . 3. For a system consisting of infinitely many of three- element units. Here we will consider a three element unit.

6. Sat- uration occurs and the system responds elastically with the Young’s modulus Eh = E/9. the Preisach function becomes µ ¶ E 1 Y P (α.5Ymin response is linear with the Young’s modulus E: .5.5Ymin < σ < 3. i.Sumarac.2 Illustrative example To illustrate the application of the Preisach model the stress-strain hysteretic curve is determined for material model of series connection of three unite element introduced in the previous subsection. (8) 2 2 E The stress expression is form (1) Zε0 Zε0 E 1 σ(t) = Gα.Trišović In (7) the integration domain A is the area of the band contained between the lines α − β = 2Ymin and α − β = 2Ymax in the limiting triangle.e.5 and consequently response is nonlinear: µ ¶µ ¶ εE σ σ = −22 + +2 5+2 (11) Ymin Ymin Ymin At the stress level σ = 0 the strongest element Ymax starts to yield. in the region 0 < σ < 3. (9) 2 2 E −ε0 2Y −ε0 E 3.296 D. β) = δ (α − β) − (E − Eh ) δ α − β − 2 . N.Medjo.5 (12) Ymin Ymin In the region 1. The first term on the right-hand side of (7) is the elastic strain. shown in Fig. In the case when the strain is the input and stress output.α−2 Y ε (t) dα. which can be written as σ (t)/E. staircase line L falls into the band are A shown in Fig.5Ymin : εE σ =9 − 12. B.α ε(t)dα− (E − Eh ) Gα. In the calculation it is used Eh = E/9 and Ymax = 2Ymin . The loading history of stress change is shown in Fig. From the procedure explained above the strain in the first portion −4Ymin < σ < −2Ymin is linear: εE σ = −20 + (10) Ymin Ymin For further increase of stresses in the region −2Ymin < σ < 0.

now every level y is represented by one limiting triangle. κ(t) is prescribed curvature change. Instead of having only one triangle.5Ymin . In this paragraph symmetric pure bending of rectangular tube (box) cross section is considering (Fig.5Ymin < σ < −0.5Ymin < σ < 1.5 + 9 (15) Ymin Ymin The further procedure is obvious. which represents the whole cross section in the case of axially loaded members. Knowing stresses for arbitrary fiber given by y and defined by (17) the bending moment as a function of the curvature is obtained: Zb M (t) = yσ (y. The inte- gration given by formula (17) is performed over the triangle that is dependent on the distance from the neutral fiber. Taking into account Bernoulli’s hypothesis one obtains strain as a function of y and intensity of curvature κ(t) in the form: ε (t) = κ (t) y (16) Substituting (16) into (1) yields to: ZZ σ (y.. In this way the prism with a triangular base.5 + (13) Ymin Ymin Further decrease of stresses.. β) Gα.5Ymin .8). t) = P (α. −0. 297 εE σ = 15.β [κ (t) y] dαdβ (17) α>β In expressions (16) and (17).5 − 4−2 (14) Ymin Ymin Ymin In the region. can be extended to cyclic bending of beams. and the stress-strain loop is presented in Fig 7.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic. t) b (y) dy (18) a . 4 Cyclic bending of rectangular tube (box) beam Uniaxial cyclic loading of bars. −3. leads to nonlinear response with the quadratic parabola: µ ¶µ ¶ εE σ σ = 17 − 1. which hereafter will be referred to as a Preisach prism. saturation again occurs and the system responds as elastic with the Young’s modulus of Eh : εE σ = 11. is obtained.

If (4) yields to M (t) = E Iκ the curvature is further increased.8 for the prescribed history of curvature change shown in Fig. curvature is in the elastic range 0 < κ < κel. such as the rectangular tub shown in Fig. Also material model is represented by parallel connection of infinitely many of elastic and slip elements connected in a series [3]. respectively. .Sumarac. It is assumed that wall thickness of webs is γb and δh of vertical and horizontal one.Medjo.β yκ (t) dαdβ dy (19) 2 (Ymax − Ymin ) −εL A In the above formulas a and b stand for distances of the lower and upper edges from the neutral fiber. From the expression (17) it is obtained: σ(y. Integrating this result. This linear diagram is shown in Figure 11.298 D. using ¯ (t). First nonlinearity will appear in the flange. B.9.Trišović Introducing expression (17) into (18) one obtains: Zb E M (t) = yb (y) × 2 a ZεL ZZ E Gα. where κel = 2εel /h and the whole cross section is in the elastic range. t) = Eκ(t)y. nonlinearity will appear. the neutral fiber is fixed at the center of the cross section. So we have two regions: κel > 1 − 2δ (23) κ plasticity takes place in the flange. Hence the moment of inertia is: I¯ = IΩ (20) where Ω = 1 − (1 − 2γ)(1 − 2δ)3 (21) and I stands for the moment of inertia of rectangular cross section: 1 I¯ = bh3 (22) 12 In the interval 0 < t < 0.5. N.α yκ (t) dα − Gα. For a double symmetric cross section. and for κel 6 1 − 2δ (24) κ plasticity takes place in the vertical web.

final moment curvature relation reads: ( 2 · 4 ¸ ¯ (t) − 3EIκel 1 κ (t) 4 κ el M [κ (t)] = E Iκ 1 − (1 − 2γ) (1 − 2δ) − 2γ 8 κ2el κ (t)4 · ¸ 1 κ (t) 3 κ3el − 1 − (1 − 2γ) (1 − 2δ) − 2γ 3 κel κ (t)3 · ¸¾ 1 2 κ2el + 1 − (1 − 2γ) (1 − 2δ) − 2γ (28) 4 κ (t)2 Comparing this result with the result obtained in [3] for I cross section. 299 In the region 0. .5 < t < 1. Substituting (25) into (4) and integrating. from (17) the stress at an arbitrary fiber is: " µ ¶2 # 2κ (t) y ³ εel ´ k (t) y 1 σ (y. they are the same except that 2γ in this paper should be replaced by γ and the result for I cross section is recovered.e. the moment curvature relation is: " µ ¶ ¯ 1 κ (t)2 κ4el M (t) = E Iκ (t) − 3EIκel 1− 8 kel2 κ (t)4 µ ¶ µ ¶¸ 1 κ (t) κ3el 1 κ2el − 1− + 1− (26) 3 κel k (t)3 4 k (t)2 Formula (26) is obtained for the case κel κ > 1 − 2δ. Then moment curvature relation is obtained from: h (1−2δ)µ ¶2 2Z ¯ − 6bγEεel κ (t) y 1 M = E Iκ − ydy− κel h 2 κel h κ 2 h Z2 µ ¶2 κ (t) y 1 4bEεel − ydy (27) κel h 2 h 2 (1−2δ) After integration. in the region κel κ < 1 − 2δ elastic plastic boundary falls in the web. t) = Eεel −H y− 2 − (25) κel h κ κel h 2 where H stands for the Heviside function.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic. which is published in [3]. plasticity takes place in the flange. The diagram of the stress given by (25) is shown in Fig. Increasing further curvature. or κel < κ < 2κel .. This expression is the same as for I cross section. i.. 10a for κ = 2κel .

5 < t < 2.Sumarac. For the history of loading in the interval 1 < t < 1. The Preisach prism doesn’t change.78125EIκel which is the same as in [3]. The moment-curvature relation in this region is linear: ¯ − 3EIκel M [κ (t)] = E Iκ ½ · ¸ ¾ 2 1 2 1 2 1 γ (1 − 2δ) (2γ − 1) − (1 − 2δ) + (1 − 2δ) + − (31) 4 3 2 12 48 For this time period the response is elastic. and the stress reads: ( µ ¶ µ ¶2 κ (t) y h y 1 σ (y. t) = Eεel 2 −H y− 2 2 − + κel h 4 h 2 · ) κ (t) y ³y ´¸2 H (y − y∗ ) −2 −1 (32) κel h h where h 2κel y∗ = (33) 2 2κel − κ (t) For this step again we have two regions. in the case of rectangular cross section (δ = γ = 1/2) for κ = κel . the unloading starts. t) = Eεe 2 −H y− 2 2 − (29) κel h 4 h 2 The most important thing that we can calculate from the expression (29) is the residual stress which is obtained for κ = 0: µ ¶ µ ¶2 h y 1 σ (y.Medjo. B. the response is again nonlinear. t = 1. and consequently the response is elastic. except along the hypotenuse. In the first region (y∗ > h(1−2δ)/2) plasticity takes place in the flange. For the time interval 1. The stress is given by: " µ ¶ µ ¶2 # κ (t) y h y 1 σ (y. M = EIκel .300 D.0 or −2κel < κ < 0.5) = −Eεel H y − 2 2 − (30) 4 h 2 This diagram is plotted in Fig.5 or 0 < κ < 2κel . while for κ = 2κel .Trišović From (28) it is easy to see that. N.10b. Integrating stresses given by (32) yields to: © M (t) = E Iκ¯ − 3EIκel (2γ − 1) (1 − 2δ)2 · ¸¾ 1 2 1 1 γ − (1 − 2δ) + (1 − 2δ)2 + − 4 3 2 12 48 . M = 1.

5 Numerical analysis In this Paragraph. Substituting (32) into (18) and taking integration similar to (4) it is obtained: © ¯ − 3EIκel (2γ − 1) (1 − 2δ)2 M (t) = E Iκ ( " µ ¶2 # ) (1 − 2δ)2 1 κ (1 − 2δ) κ 1 1− −2 − − + 2 8 κel 3 κel 4 µ ¶2 ) 1 γ 2 γκ2el 1 κ 1 κ + − + − −2 − (35) 4 48 3 (2κel − κ)2 16 κel 3 κel The procedure for other steps is straight forward. preserving its size and shape. It can be seen that the results are very similar to those shown in Fig. It is clear that rectangular cross section is much stiffer than rectangular tube. Hardening is assumed to be either isotropic or kinematic. including hardening of the material. In the case of isotropic hardening. The results presented here are obtained using isotropic hardening model. Hex- ahedral elements with 20 nodes and reduced integration are used.11. Elastic-plastic analysis. This diagram is plotted in the same Fig. . The moment-curvature hysteretic loop is plotted in Fig.. the same problem of cyclic bending of rectangular box sec- tion. and vari- ation of the curvature during the time is the same as in Fig. the yield surface in the stress space expands. obtained by numerical procedure. while neglecting the distortion and movement of its center.10.11.9. 301 " µ ¶2 µ ¶ κ (t) 1 κ4el +EIκel 3 −2 − + κel 16 (2κel − κ)4 µ ¶µ ¶ µ ¶¸ κ 1 κ3el 1 κ2el 8 −2 − +6 − (34) κel 8 (2κel − κ)3 4 (2κel − κ)2 In the second region (y∗ < h(1 − 2δ)/2) elastic-plastic boundary falls in the web.13. Yield surface for the case of kinematic hardening moves with work hardening. FE model of the beam and its cross section are presented in Fig. The stresses for κ = 2κel and residual stresses for κ = 0.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic. are shown in Fig. Variable curvature is prescribed at both ends of the simply supported beam. is con- ducted.. is analysed using Finite Element Method (FEM) and software package ABAQUS. From all above expressions for moment- curvature relation for γ = 1/2.13. even though ABAQUS uses different procedures to describe the plastic behaviour in comparison to the Preisach model presented here. and δ = 1/2 the results for rectangular cross section is recovered.

from results obtained in this paper Bauschinger s effect and Masing s law of cyclic plasticity are satisfied.Medjo. Uber die magnetishe Nachwirkung. Department of Civil Engineering.. through grants with numbers: OI 144027.. AMD.. 123. On a class of models for the yielding behaviour of continuous and composite systems.. monograph.. D. 1967. Mech. (Ed.. which made this work possible. 1992. Hysteretic response of ductile materials subjected to cyclic loads. . Phys.V. Dr.W. Krajcinovic. S. 144037.. 34. 144038. Mech.. that Preisach model has several advantages when it is applied to the problem of cyclic plasticity of axially loaded members and cyclic bending of beams as well. Appl. 1975. Elastic-plastic memory and kinematic type hardening. A/Solids. is indebted to Prof. In: Ju. A. D. R. D. 94. Dusan Krajcinovic not only for introducing him to Preisach model and Mayergoyz 1991.. Acta Metall. J. [4] Iwan. Sumarac. Also results obtained by FEM using well know code ABAQUS are in agreement wit analytically obtained. W. 612-617. both in case of axial loading and cyclic bending as well. F.. 23. can be recovered.Trišović 6 Conclusions In the present paper it is shown.S. J. 1996.. which are obtained in the paper [3]. D.J. but for the permanent support throughout the years. 277- 302. Mathematical rigor and a closed form analytical solutions makes the Preisach model very competitive with the other methods of solution. References [1] Asaro. B. The Preisach model for the cyclic bending of elasto-plastic beams.302 D. 145-157. Acknowledgments: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial sup- port provided by Serbian Ministry of Science to UB. Stosic.1936. on new examples. [2] Preisach. It is also shown that from results obtained for cyclic bending of rectangular tube section. N. J.Sumarac. 15 (1).. the results for full cross section. 1255-1265.) Recent Advances in damage Mechanics and Plasticity. 155-172. ASME Publication. Eur. As is shown previously. [5] Lubarda. [3] Sumarac. Z.D.

.. 12. Sumarac. A/Solids. A.. 303 [6] Lubarda. 2006. 445-470. 145-157. Krajcinovic.. D.Y.. USA Submitted on February 2008.V.Hysteretic behavior modeling of elastoplastic. [8] ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. D. [7] Mayergoyz. 1991. J. I... 1993. Eur. Mathematical Models of Hysteresis. N. 1-140. Mech. . n0 4. ABAQUS Inc.. Springer- Verlag.. Preisach model and hysteretic behaviour of ductile materials. D.

: 34C55.Medjo. 74C05.304 D. histerezis momenat-krivina za čeličnu pravougaonu cev je konstru- isan za zadatu istoriju promene krivine.Trišović Modeliranje histerezisnog ponašanja elastoplastičnih materijala U posmatranom radu Prajzakov model histerezisa je primenjen na modeliranje cikličnog ponašanja elasto-plastičnih materijala.Sumarac. U radu se detaljno proučava problem aksijalnog naprezanja pravougaonog poprečnog preseka i ciklično sav- ijanje pravougaone čelične cevi.Subj.Class. U posebnom poglavlju se obradjuju rezultati dobijeni primenom MKE korišćenjem programa ABAQUS.2298/TAM0803287S Math. 74S05 . doi:10. Takodje. Pri tome brzina nanošenja opterećenja i viskozni efekti se ne uzimaju u obzir. N. Svi do- bijeni rezultati jasno pokazuju prednost Prajzakovog modela kod opisivanja cikličnog ponašanja elasto-plastičnih materijala. B. Konstruisana je histerezisna petlja za zadatu promenu cikličnog opterećenja za materijal modeliran sa tri osnovna elementa.

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