# Lecture #22(14).

Strength conclusion
Plan:
1. Strength conclusion of the wing cross section
2. Calculation of the elastic center position
3. Computation of deflections for a wing of the big aspect ratio
4. Calculation of torsion angle for a straight wing

1. Strength conclusion of the wing cross section.

For spar caps, stringers and skin excess strength factors and the strength
conclusion are estimated by results of calculation normal and shear stresses for the cross
section on the given critical loading condition from the shear forces, bending and torque
moments for whole wing. Influence of local loads is not taken into account. For
longitudinal elements - spar caps and stringers the excess strength factors  are
calculated so
 fi
i  , (1)
 ai
here fi - is the failing stress in i-th element, ai – is the actual stress of the same
element.
In the tension area fi=k1 ut =(0.9 – 0.95)ut or to directive stress fi=dir, in the
compressed area for spars fi =ut, and for stringers fi = min (cr).
The element is considered strong, if 1(0.95). The cross section is considered
strong if  1(0.95) for all elements. At rationally designed cross-section minimal
excess strength factor is  1(0.95). The others  always are more. In a wing bend it
cannot be that all  were identical.

spar

ut Ec sp

Ec st

stringer

cr st
skin

cr sk

ut sp

Fig. 1. The diagram of deformation for a panel.

1

therefore it is expedient to use a method of the fictitious moment. Calculation is conducted on all sites of a skin from two sides of each longitudinal element. in a skin there is two-dimensional stress state.i=k1 ut or dir. In this case skin stresses close stringers are equal to: =q  . under the application of shear force in which.i i  fsk . (3) E cst Values Еc are taken for strains. received at the calculation of normal stress.i=k1 ut or dir. The elastic center is a point in cross section of a wing. (2) and accordingly: E csk σ sk  σ st . The sequence is those for calculation of position of the elastic axis: 2 . Too the excess strength factor is similarly calculated. (7) where  ske   x2   z2   x z  3 2 . Thus. In attaching points of the skin to stringers strains are equal to: sk=st. here cr – is critical shear stress for the given element. Similarly calculation is carried out for spar web. Calculation is carried out after stress calculations. According to criterion of distortion energy the strength condition looks like for skin skefsk. Calculation of the elastic center position Position of the elastic center should be known for the further calculations of wing aeroelastic characteristics. x= -cr. According to third strength theory from mechanic of materials in median plane equivalent stress in junction of skin with stringer are equal to: e E σ sk  σ s2 ( csk ) 2  4τ 2 . and in the tension area f. 2. (6) z=a +-cr.i At compression we should take ut as failing stress and at tension we should take f. In case of skin buckling additional stresses are appeared in cross direction of a skin as it was considered earlier. (5) esk . (4) E cst The excess strength factors  are calculated by the similar formula:  . as they have different shear stress. (8) In the compressed area failing stress fsk is equal to ut . there is no twisting of a contour.

qq q q 1   t 1ds   ti 1ds . Loading the first contour by the unit torque. 3. (9) G G If we have received 1' >0. 2). 3). hence. for this purpose the unit torque is put to a contour (fig. We put unit torque to both contours (fig. we show a direction of SF on sites by arrows.  11 M 1   12 M 2   21 M 1   22 M 2 . M 1  M 2  1  (11). 1 2 In this system all factors are earlier determined at calculation of shear stress. 3. 3 . Fig. (10) For a computation q01 and q02 let's write down two equations. it is possible to calculate a relative torsion angle of the first contour under application of the external unit moment on all section. 4. q02  2 . 1  2  Let's write down the second equation in more detail M1  M 2  1 . 1. M2  q02  2 . Loading the whole cross section by the unit torque. 2. We compute position of the elastic center. In this contours torques operate which are equal to: M1  q011 .  1   11 M 1   12 M 2 . Fig. We determine a relative angle of twisting for the first contour. 2. Thus. We graph qt. here M1 M q01  . the twisting is occurred at direction of the enclosed unit torque.

then torque is proportional to a relative torsion angle that is: M T  A 1 . Similarly under application of the unit torque M =1 we have: M  A 1 . We consider that calculation of normal stress was carried out by reduction factor method. 4 . (12) where A – is unknown factor. (14)  1 Thus. МT it is equal to the attitude of relative twisting angles of contours. This value is equal to:  d ec  1 . (17) 3. Deflection from bending moment Vertical deflections of a wing from bending moment we shall find as result of integration of the elastic axis equation for a beam. The reduced cross section is considered as linearly deformable system.is bending stiffness factor for the reduced cross section. On the other hand MT it is equal to product shear forces on distance up to the elastic center of rigidity: φ1 M T  Qd ec = (15) φ1 where dec is the distance from the application point of shear force up to the elastic center. We graph bending moments.1. (13) Let's divide (12) on (13)  MT  1 . (18) 2 E I dz r rx here Мх – is bending moment concerning an axis х. aileron efficiency and an estimation of influence of elasticity on aerodynamic characteristics. Computation of deflections for a wing of the big aspect ratio The knowledge of deflection size is necessary at calculation of a control system. Deflections of a wing we find as the sum of displacement from bending moment and shear force: y=yM+yQ. 2. From mechanic of materials the equation of an elastic axis is: d 2 ym Mx  . ЕrIrx . We graph bending stiffness factor for the reduced cross sections. Sequence of calculation is next: 1. (16) Q 1 3.

dy m 3. (20) i 1 dy m 4. as angle of deviation is equal to zero for this cross section z dy m Mx dz   Er I rx dz . z dy k dy y m   ( m )dz  i  1 m z . We compute wing deflections from shear force as a result of integration of diagram dyQ . 2.2. Integration is begun from the side rib of wing. (23) 0 Integration is conducted by the numerical method: k dyQ yQ   ( dz )z . For calculation of deflections from shear force we apply advantage of Mohr’s formula. (22) dz G here qt  q p  q01  q02 . We graph (angles of deviation) on wing span as a result of integration of dz the elastic axis equation. (19) 0 Or as the sum k dy m M dz   Er Ixirxi z . Computation of deflections from shear force We consider that calculation of shear flow in cross sections of a wing is carried out. Integration is begun from side rib. 1. (24) i1 The total deflection is equal to: 5 . For that we put unit shear external force in the elastic center of each cross section. Let's calculate deflections of a wing as a result of integration of diagram . dz Integration it is begun from side rib as in a place of fastening to a fuselage the deflection is counted equal to zero. From this force it is necessary to construct diagram of shear force as for external loading. dz z dyQ yQ  (  dz )dz . qt  q p  q01  q02 . The relative deflection from shear force is equal to: dyQ qq   t t dS . (21) 0 dz dz 3.

stresses of tension and compression. (31) 6 . we shall receive dy 1 z dz   dz  c1   c1 . (27) E t.  (29) Boundary condition at z=0 is that the angle of deviation is equal to zero for cross section dy  0 =c1.с . We consider unit length of the wing compartment. Let's to integrate second time z z2 y   dz  c 2  2  c2 . c – are deformations of tension and compression in the bottom and top panels of a wing. We consider. E c c  . 3. y =yM +yQ Usually the deflection is neglected for wings of the big aspect ratio from shear force. (28) dz 2  Let's integrate once this equation. according to the equation of an elastic axis of a beam we have: d2y 1  . (26) Hm here t.is radius of curvature for the elastic axis. that the wing is executed as full-strength structure and has mean depth Hm. (30) dz Therefore c1=0. The simplified estimation of deflections At design stage we assume at estimation of the wing deflections.3. Then. The angle of deviation  one cross section concerning another is equal to: 1 tg  . On the other hand we have (t  c ) tg  . that the physical law is linear t t  . (25)  here  .

this equality is provided by ribs a wing. Lt For wing of the big aspect ratio the maximal deflections of a wing can make 10- 12 % from length of the outer wing under limit loads. the deflection is equal to zero y=0.25 y max = 7 . (36) G1 The diagram 1 is plotted from side rib.rf ) .rf ).r f2 ) (35) 2 EH m Example: t = c =250 MPa. (34) 2 EH m where rf –is the radius of fuselage. (33) 2ρ or  -b 2 2 y t ( z . (32) 2ρ Therefore 1 2 2 y= ( z . Lt= 5 m. Torsion angles of contours are identical. 9 2 • 72 • 10 • 0. 7 .25 ) = 0.5 m. The diagram  of the torsion angle we receive as a result of integration 1 on the length of the outer wing z     1 dz . We graph of relative torsion angle for all cross sections.  -b y max  t 2 ( Lt . hence r f2 c2 = . the unit torque qq 1   t 1dS .0.344 ( m ) . At cross section z= rf that is on side rib of the fuselage. considering that the torsion angle in the cross section of the side rib is equal to zero.25 m. Calculation of torsion angle for a straight wing We consider that calculation of shear flow in cross sections of a wing is carried out. 4. (37) 0 Integration is carried out from the side rib. Hm=0. for example 1. The maximal deflection of wing tip is at z=Lt. E=72 GPa 6 2 • 250 • 10 y max = ( 25 . by putting to one of contours. rf=0.

4. GIT0 – is the torsion rigidity in the cross section of the side rib.  L2t  '0 Lt  φmax  φ'0  Lt  = (41)  2 Lt  2 ` 8 . 0 .a relative torsion angle in the cross Lt section of the side rib which can be found so: MT 0 φ'0 = (39) GI T 0 here MT0 – is torque in the cross section of the side rib.  1  z dz  φ0. Then we have:     0 ( 1  z ) .is relative coordinate z. (38) z where z = . Estimation of torsion angle At the approximate calculation of torsion angle we consider that diagram of relative angles is linear.1. We must to integrate on the wing length: z 2   φ   φ0.  z  z  (40) 0  Lt   2 Lt  The maximal value of the torsion angle is on the wing tip at z=Lt.