Contents

Section I

Introduction
Essentials

Section II - Grammar

Nouns
Pronouns
Adjectives
Verbs
Adverbs
Prepositions
Conjunctions

Section III - Usage

Courtesies
Questions
Negation
Ownership
Numbers
Quantities
Which one?
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Which one?
Time

Section IV - How to say...

This section will be coming soon...

Appendices

Arabic writing and pronunciation
More about verbs than you will ever want to know
Irregular verbs
About this document
Copyright

Introduction
This document is a concise reference to grammar for people who are learning the spoken arabic of
Egypt. It is intended to be used alongside other study aids available free of charge at
www.lisaanmasry.com.

If you want to see a wider range of examples of Egyptian Arabic, check out the Lonely Planet
publication "Egyptian Arabic Phrasebook" by Siona Jenkins. It is a very useful pocket guide.

Getting started

This document is made up of three main sections:

essentials - an introduction to grammatical terms and to Egyptian arabic, pointing out the
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similarities and differences between Egyptian and English
grammar - a description of how to build sentences using the standard language elements
usage - commonly used words, phrases and expressions

A word about arabic writing
It is not difficult to learn to read and write in arabic, but it is an additional barrier to learning.
Realistically, you are unlikely ever to see Egyptian Arabic in print: notices, packaging, adverts, web
sites etc are written in Modern Standard Arabic. And if you want to read Arabic handwriting, that's a
different ballgame altogether. An understanding of the Arabic alphabet can sometimes be useful,
but it is by no means essential.

The examples in this document are therefore written in both arabic and roman letters. There are two
ways of writing arabic using roman letters: the transliterated form tells you exactly how it would be
written in arabic, and the pronounced form gives you an indication of how to pronounce it in
european letters. For the pronounced form, I have chosen to write things how and english person
would. My apologies to people whose first language is not english.

The pronunciation rules, the arabic alphabet and the transliterated and pronounced spelling are
explained in the section on arabic writing and pronunciation

The examples in the PDF version are this document are written in arabic and in pronounced form.

The essentials- Same same but different
In many cases, Egyptian uses the same structure as English: let's first look at some simple
examples where the structure is similar, then move on to the differences.
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Nouns and verbs
Here is a simple sentence in both english and Egyptian:

Ahmed loves sarah
aacHmad biyiHibb saarao

Element English Egyptian
'ahmad
subject noun Ahmed
‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬
biyihibb
verb loves
‫ﺐ‬
ّ ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﺤِـ‬
saara
object noun Sarah
‫ﺳﺎ َر َة‬

In both the English and Egyptian examples, there are three words: two words are nouns (people,
things or ideas) and the middle word is a verb, which explains what is happening. In both cases, the
noun before the verb (Ahmed) is the subject (the person or thing that is doing something) and the
noun after the verb (Sarah) is the object- is the person or thing that is having something done to it.

We can change the meaning by turning the words around, like this:

Sarah loves Ahmed
saarao bitHibb aacHmad

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com . Here are some examples: Element English Egyptian saara name Sarah ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة‬ irraagil PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the one who is loved. but in Egyptian it changes a little because the subject is now female. in the section on verbs. We will look in more detail at how exactly verbs change to match the subject later. the verb does not change at all. not male. they have just moved: we know from the order of the words that Sarah is now the subject. Subject and Object The subject and object can be a name. and Ahmed is now the object. In english. Element English Egyptian saara subject noun Sarah ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة‬ bitihibb verb loves ‫ﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﺤِـ‬ 'ahmad object noun Ahmed ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ The nouns do not change.the one who is loving. but there are some other possiblities as well. for example Sarah and Ahmed.

irraagil noun (specific) the man ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ‬ issitt the woman ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ا ِﻟﺴِـ‬ il'utta the cat ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ‬ ilfikra the idea ‫ا ِﻟﻔـِﻜﺮ َة‬ raagil noun(general) a man ‫را َﺟـِﻞ‬ sitt a woman ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ 'utta a cat ‫ﻗُـﻄﱠـﺔ‬ fikra an idea ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ َة‬ shwyit rigalae noun(quantity) some men ‫ﺷﻮﯾـِﺔ ر ِﺟﺎ َﻻ َة‬ chamas rigala five men ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫ﺧـَﻤـَﺲ ر ِﺟﺎ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Pronouns Pronouns are the short words like I and they that often replace nouns in spoken English and Egyptian. to make our speech clearer and more concise. Here is a simple example: I love her aacnaa baHibbahaa PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 'ay raagil any man ‫أي را َﺟـِﻞ‬ huwwa pronoun(subject) he ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ hiya she ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ -uh pronoun(object) him ‫ــُه‬ -ha her ‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ The word il. Note that adding il. The noun just appears on its own.com .‫ ا ِﻟـ‬to a word affects the pronunciation if it begins with a sun letter.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬is corresponds to 'the' in english. but there is no equivalent to 'a'.

com . Let's turn that round and see what happens: she loves me hiya bitiHibb-ny Element English Egyptian hiya subject pronoun she ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ bitihibb verb loves ‫ﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﺤِـ‬ -ny object pronoun me ‫ـﻨﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Element English Egyptian 'ana subject pronoun I ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ bahibb verb love ‫ﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﺑـَﺤِـ‬ -aha object pronoun her ‫ــَهَا‬ We can see that the subject is still at the start of the sentence and the object is still at the end of the sentence. but in Egyptian the object pronoun is attached to the end of the verb.

Subject Object English Egyptian English Egyptian 'ana -ny I me ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻨﻲ‬ 'ihna -na we us ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻨَﺎ‬ 'inta -ak you(m) you(m) ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ــَك‬ 'inti -ik you(f) you(f) ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ــِك‬ 'intu -ukw you(pl) you(pl) ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ــُكو‬ huwwa -uh he/it(m) him/it(m) ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ــُه‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API hiya -ha pdfcrowd. what happened there? Everything changed. There is a third form of the pronoun that indicates ownership (my/his/your/their/its) but we will save that until we cover pronouns in more detail. there are different forms of the pronoun for subject and object. Woa. in both English and Egyptian! The reason is that.com . in both languages. For now. let's just look at the subject and object pronouns. Remember that object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb.

hiya -ha she/it(f) her/it(f) ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ humma -uhum they them ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻢ‬ ‫ــُهـُم‬ Here are a few more examples: English Egyptian 'ana Aaarifuh I know him ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـُﻪ‬ 'ahmad Aaarifuh Ahmed knows him ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـُﻪ‬ saara Aaarifah Sarah knows him ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﻪ‬ 'ana bashrab sagaeyar I smoke cigarettes ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺑﺎ َﺷﺮ َب ﺳـَﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ‬ 'ana baktib kutub I write books ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺑﺎ َﻛﺘـِﺐ ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ 'ahmad biyiktib kutub Ahmed writes books ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ huwwa biyiktib kutub PRO version he writes books Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

but. he writes books ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ Note that the subject pronoun can be omitted if the meaning is still clear There is no 'is' The word is/am/are is one of the most commonly use verbs in english.com .... but it's not too difficult. Let's take a look at some examples: English Egyptian 'ana taAbaen I am tired ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ahmad masry Ahmed is Egyptian ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬ il'utat fy ilginyna the cats are in the garden ‫ا ِﻟﻘـُﻄـَﻂ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ‬ saara mawguda Sarah is available ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة ﻣـَﻮﺟﻮد َة‬ innahaarda ilgumAa today is friday ‫ا ِﻟﻨـَﻬﺎ َرد َة ا ِﻟﺠـُﻤﻌـَﺔ‬ dy miraaty PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. That's quite a big difference. there is no word in Egyptian for 'is'. if you are talking about something now (not the past or future).

will be are used. Here are some simple examples: English Egyptian 'ana taAbaen I am tired ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ahmad taAbaen Ahmed is tired ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ana kunt taAbaen I was tired ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻛـُﻨﺖ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ahmad kaen taAbaen Ahmed was tired ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻛﺎ َن ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ana hakun taAbaen I will be tired ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻫـَﻜﻮن ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ 'ahmad hayikun taAbaen Ahmed will be tired PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. dy miraaty this is my wife ‫دي ﻣـِﺮا َﺗﻲ‬ guzy fy ilbiyt my husband is at home ‫ﺟﻮزي ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ When you are talking about a past or future situation.com . This will be covered in more detail later under verbs.was and haykun ‫ ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬. then the Egyptian words kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬.

Here are PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Meaning English Egyptian maAaya kabryt have with me I have matches ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﯿﺎ َ ﻛـَﺒﺮﯾﺖ‬ Aandy biyt own I have a house ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺑـِﯿﺖ‬ laezim 'aruwh must I have to go ‫ﻻ َز ِم أر ُوح‬ I will have dinner hatAashsha eat. but there is no equivalent verb in Egyptian. feminine.com . Ahmed will be tired ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﻮن ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ There is no 'have' The verb have is widely used in English. all Egyptian nouns are either masculine or feminine. Have is used in many ways in English. plural Like many european languages. etc (I will dine) ‫ﻫـَﺘﻌَـﺸﱠﺎ‬ I will have a nap haechuz taAsyla take (I will take a nap) ‫ﻫﺎ َﺧـُﺬ ﺗـَﻌﺴﯿﻠـَﺔ‬ Masculine. and in Egyptian a different word is used for each meaning.

some examples: Gender English Arabic kitaeb masculine book ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ kalb masculine dog ‫ﻛـَﻠﺐ‬ raagil masculine man ‫را َﺟـِﻞ‬ biyt masculine biyt ‫ﺑـِﯿﺖ‬ laban masculine milk ‫ﻟـَﺒـَﻦ‬ salaem masculine peace ‫ﺳـَﻼ َم‬ mudarris masculine teacher ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِس‬ mudarrisa feminine teacher ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳـَﺔ‬ fikra PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

like woman and daughter. the majority of feminine nouns end in -a ‫ــَة‬. We will cover this in more detail in the section on nouns. There are a few exceptions though: some are obvious.com . fikra feminine idea ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ َة‬ tarabyza feminine table ‫ﺗـَﺮا َﺑﯿﺰ‬ ‫َة‬ warsha feminine workshop ‫و َرﺷـَﺔ‬ sitt feminine woman ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ daughter bint feminine girl ‫ﺑـِﻨﺖ‬ naar feminine fire ‫ﻧﺎ َر‬ raas feminine head ‫را َس‬ As you can see. but others. there are two forms of a noun: singular and plural. In both english and Egyptian. you just need to learn them. Here are some examples of plurals: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

English Arabic Singular Plural Singular Plural kitaeb kutub book books ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ ‫ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ kalb kilaeb dog dogs ‫ﻛـَﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻛـِﻼ َب‬ raagil riggala man men ‫را َﺟـِﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫ر ِﺟّﺎ‬ tifl 'atfael child children ‫ﻃـِﻔﻞ‬ ‫أﻃﻔﺎ َل‬ biyt buyut house house ‫ﺑـِﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺑـُﯿﻮت‬ laban milk ‫ﻟـَﺒـَﻦ‬ salaem peace ‫ﺳـَﻼ َم‬ mudarris mudarrisyn teacher(m) teachers ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِس‬ ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳﯿﻦ‬ mudarrisa mudarrisaet teacher(f) teachers PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

the vowels move about a bit but the consonants PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . the majority of plural nouns are the same as the singular. feminine nouns that end in -a ‫ ــَة‬have a very straightforward plural. teacher(f) teachers ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳﺎ َت‬ fikra 'afkaar idea ideas ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ َة‬ ‫أﻓﻜﺎ َر‬ tarabyza tarabyzaet table tables ‫ﺗـَﺮا َﺑﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﺗـَﺮا َﺑﯿﺰا َت‬ ‫َة‬ warsha wirash workshop workshops ‫و َرﺷـَﺔ‬ ‫و ِر َش‬ sitt sattaet woman women ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ ‫ﺳَـﺘّﺎ َت‬ daughter daughters bint banaet girl girls ‫ﺑـِﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺑـَﻨﺎ َت‬ naar nyraan fire fires ‫ﻧﺎ َر‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺮا َن‬ raas ru'wus head heads ‫را َس‬ ‫ر ُ وس‬ In english.or -at ‫ـﺎ َت‬: plurals of masculine nouns vary quite a lot. but there are a small number of words with unusual plurals. for example man/men and child/children. with a suffix of -s for example book/books. In Egyptian.

both in english and Egyptian. Note that.for example.for example milk and peace. feminine and plural. In english. You will need to learn them. remain the same.com . Here are some examples: English Egyptian huwwa taAbaen he is tired ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ hiya taAbaena she is tired ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َﻧـَﺔ‬ humma taAbanyn they are tired ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َﻧﯿﻦ‬ huwwa kuwayis he is good ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺲ‬ hiya kuwayisa she is good ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. good or small. adjectives do not change. Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe something. some words do not have a plural. but in Egyptian there are different forms of an adjective for masculine.

when. They can also be used to describe the extent of an adjective (very good) or even another adverb (very slowly).where. how much etc.-a ‫ــَة‬ and plural -yn ‫ ـﯿﻦ‬forms. Usage of adverbs is very similar in English and Egyptian: here are some examples describing English Egyptian 'ana hargaA baAd shuwaya verb I will come back soon ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻫـَﺮﺟـَﻊ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﺷـُﻮ َﯾـَﺔ‬ 'ahmad biyimshy bisuraAa verb Ahmed walks quickly ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻤﺸﻲ ﺑـِﺴـُﺮ َﻋـَﺔ‬ 'ahmad shaatir giddaen adjective Ahmed is extremely clever ‫ا‬‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺷﺎ َﻃـِﺮ ﺟِـﺪ‬ 'ahmad biyisu' bisuraAa maA'ula adverb Ahmed drives reasonably fast ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﺴﻮق ﺑـِﺴـُﺮ َﻋـَﺔ ﻣـَﻌﻘﻮﻟـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. humma kuwayisyn they are good ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴﯿﻦ‬ The good news is that the majority of adjectives require just a different ending for feminine. how often. Many English adverbs end with -ly.com . adverbs say something about a verb . We will cover this in more detail in the section on adjectives Adverbs Just as adjectives describe a noun.

com . prepositions link to a noun. Here is an example: I want to make bread but I don't have enough flour PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Prepositions In English. for example have is usually expressed using the prepositions Aand ‫( ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬own) and maAa ‫( ﻣَـ َﻊ‬have with you): see ownership for more information. Here are some examples of prepositions: English Egyptian English Egyptian baAd hiya gaet baAd ilAashaa' after she came after dinner ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺟﺎ َت ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ wara ilginyna wara ilbiyt behind the garden is behind the house ‫و َرَا‬ ‫ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ و َرا َ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ Aand Aandy biyt fy il'aehira have I have a house in Cairo ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺑـِﯿﺖ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﻘﺎ َﻫـِﺮ َة‬ fy fy mayae there is there is water ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣـَﯿﺎ َة‬ Conjunctions A conjunction joins two clauses to make a much more complex sentence. prepositions are widely used in place of verbs. In Egyptian. This is possible in Egyptian. but prepositions are also commonly used in place of verbs.

but in Egyptian it may be different. Element English Egyptian preposition 'iGsil iydyk 'abl ilAashaa' wash your hands before dinner (dinner is a noun) ‫إﻏﺴـِﻞ ا ِﯾﺪﯾﻚ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ conjunction 'iGsil iydyk 'abl ma taekul (you eat is a clause. Aaayiz aacAamil Aiysh lakin maAandysh diqyq kifaayao Part English Egyptian Aaeyiz 'aAamil Aiysh Main clause I want to make bread ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ أﻋـَﻤـِﻞ ﻋـِﯿﺶ‬ lakin Conjunction but ‫ﻟـَﻜـِﻦ‬ maAandysh di'y' kifaeya Second clause I don't have enough flour ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻨﺪﯾﺶ د ِﻗﯿﻖ ﻛـِﻔﺎ َﯾـَﺔ‬ In English.wash your hands before you eat it contains a verb) ‫إﻏﺴـِﻞ ا ِﯾﺪﯾﻚ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ﻣﺎ َ ﺗﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ Nouns PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the same word is often used for a preposition and a conjunction. Sometimes it is only necessary to add the word ma ‫ ﻣَﺎ‬to convert a preposition to a conjunction.com .

nouns can be masculine or feminine. Here are some examples of feminine nouns: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Most words that end with -a ‫ ــَة‬are feminine.com . A noun represents a person. Here are some examples: Type English Arabic 'ahmad person Ahmed ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ raagil person man ‫را َﺟـِﻞ‬ laeAib person player ‫ﻻ َﻋـِﺐ‬ gild thing leather ‫ﺟـِﻠﺪ‬ hikma concept wisdom ‫ﺣـِﻜﻤـَﺔ‬ myAaed concept appointment ‫ﻣﯿﻌﺎ َد‬ Masculine and feminine In arabic. This does not necessarily mean that they belong to male and female persons. In addition. Some of these words are obvious: others less so. thing or concept. there are a small number of words that do not end in -a ‫ ــَة‬that are also feminine.

English Arabic fikra idea ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ َة‬ sitt woman ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ bint daughter ‫ﺑـِﻨﺖ‬ naar fire ‫ﻧﺎ َر‬ raas head ‫را َس‬ Plurals If there is more than one of something. Gender Ending Singular Plural -yn muhaesib muhaesibyn masculine ‫ﻣـُﺤﺎ َﺳـِﺒﯿﻦ ﻣـُﺤﺎ َﺳـِﺐ ـﯿﻦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. For many nouns.com . the noun becomes a plural. only the ending changes.

have a collective noun. -at muhasba muhaesibat feminine ‫ﻣـُﺤﺎ َﺳﺒـَﺔ ـﺎ َت‬ ‫ﻣـُﺤﺎ َﺳـِﺒﺎ َت‬ Occupations Generally speaking.com . You can PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the plural for trades ends with either -yn ‫ ـﯿﻦ‬or -aya ‫ــَيـَة‬. English Singular Plural naggaar naggaaryn carpenter ‫ﻧَـﺠّﺎ َر‬ ‫ﻧَـﺠّﺎ َرﯾﻦ‬ chudary chudariyya greengrocer ‫ﺧـُﻀـَﺮ ِﯾﯿـَﺔ ﺧـُﻀـَﺮي‬ mudarris mudarrisyn male teacher ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳﯿﻦ ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِس‬ mudarrisa mudarrisat female teacher ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳﺎ َت‬ Collective nouns In english. In Egyptian. but for professions there are different endings for men -yn ‫ ـﯿﻦ‬and women -at ‫ـﺎ َت‬. many foods.and some other things. fish can mean pieces of fish or one fish or several: the former is described as a collective noun.

for example one fish..things that can be used to make something from. are treated in the same way: you add -a ‫ ــَة‬to give the meaning a piece of. like leather or cloth. English Collective a piece chashab chashaba wood ‫ﺧـَﺸـَﺐ‬ ‫ﺧـَﺸـَﺒـَﺔ‬ sabun sabuna soap ‫ﺻﺎ َﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﺻﺎ َﺑﻮﻧـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . talk about one item. by adding -a ‫ ــَة‬ending English Collective one biyd biyda eggs ‫ﺑـِﯿﺾ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿﻀـَﺔ‬ samak samaka fish ‫ﺳـَﻤـَﻚ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻤـَﻜـَﺔ‬ dibbaen dibbaena flies ‫د ِﺑّﺎ َن‬ ‫د ِﺑّﺎ َﻧـَﺔ‬ Many materials..

com . There are slightly different forms for feminine nouns and words ending in -y ‫ـﻲ‬. Here are some examples: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. see the section on two in numbers. For a single shoe. or approximately two. it is necessary to say fardit gazma ‫ﻓـَﺮد ِة ﺟـَﺰﻣـَﺔ‬. If you want to talk about two things (not people or quantities). This is equivalent to a couple which can mean exactly two. English Egyptian gazma shoes ‫ﺟـَﺰﻣـَﺔ‬ sharaab socks ‫ﺷـَﺮا َب‬ guwanty gloves ‫ﺟـُﻮا َﻧﺘﻲ‬ Duals If you want to talk about two people. you should use the dual suffix -yn ‫ـﯿﻦ‬. or specify a quantity of two. Pairs The egyptian word for shoes (gazma ‫ )ﺟـَﺰﻣـَﺔ‬relates to a pair.

English Egyptian Suffix English Egyptian kitaeb -yn book (m) two books kitaabyn ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ ‫ـﯿﻦ‬ chair kursy -tyn two chairs kursiyyin (ends with y) ‫ﻛـُﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ـﺘﯿﻦ‬ di'y'a -iyyin minute (f) a couple of minutes diqiqtyn ‫د ِﻗﯿﻘـَﺔ‬ ‫ــِييـِن‬ Ownership One way to express belonging is to add a posessive pronoun to the end of a noun.com . See ownership for information about other methods. Here are some examples: English on its own with pronoun kitaeb kitaebuh his book ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َﺑـُﻪ‬ miraaty my wife does not exist on its own ‫ﻣـِﺮا َﺗﻲ‬ fikra fikritak your(m) idea ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ َة‬ ‫ﻓـِﻜﺮ ِﺗـَﻚ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

English Arabic kys blastik a plastic bag ‫ﻛﯿﺲ ﺑﻼ َﺳﺘـِﻚ‬ ilkys ilblastik the plastic bag ‫ا ِﻟﻜﯿﺲ ا ِﻟﺒﻼ َﺳﺘـِﻚ‬ 'akyaes blastik plastic bags ‫أﻛﯿﺎ َس ﺑﻼ َﺳﺘـِﻚ‬ il'akyaes ilblastik the plastic bags ‫ا ِﻷﻛﯿﺎ َس ا ِﻟﺒﻼ َﺳﺘـِﻚ‬ Pronouns Pronouns are short words that are used to replace nouns in spoken English and Arabic. In this example. Note that adding il.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬the qualifying noun is also preceded by il. If the main noun is preceded by il.com . for example to say what material it is made from. Compound nouns You can describe a noun using another noun.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬. The qualifying noun is always singular. to make our speech clearer and more concise.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬to a word affects the pronunciation if it begins with a sun letter. Ahmed is the noun and He is the pronoun: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

I. his. that indefinite pronouns . anywhere relative pronouns . etc demonstrative pronouns . He walks with it every day aacHmad Aand-uh kalb wa huwwa biyitmashshY maAa-uh kul ywm There are four main groups of pronoun: personal pronouns . you. Ahmed has a dog. which. he. that Personal pronouns In English.this. himself): in Egyptian.who. there is an additional version (to him). English Egyptian Form huwwa he subject ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ -uh him object ‫ــُه‬ -luh to him indirect object ‫ـﻠـُﻪ‬ -uh PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . him. there are four versions of the personal pronoun (he.somebody.

it is necessary to use the he or she form. depending on the gender of the noun Subject pronouns A subject is the noun that appears before the verb. but there is no neuter (it): instead. there are separate forms of you for masculine.the person or thing that is doing something.com . I like to read aacnaa baaHib aacktib The subject pronouns are: English Egyptian 'ana I ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ 'ihna we ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ 'inta you(m) ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. feminine and plural. -uh his posessive ‫ــُه‬ nafsuh himself reflexive ‫ﻧـَﻔﺴـُﻪ‬ In Egyptian.

Object pronoun suffixes You can attach an object pronoun (for example me or him) as a suffix to an imperative.com . 'inti you(f) ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ 'intu you(pl) ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ huwwa he/it(m) ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ hiya she/it(f) ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ humma they ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻢ‬ Personal pronouns are not needed with verbs. verb or participle. but it is common to use them. as it is clear from the verb. They are often used with participles. especially for emphasis. to refer to the object. give me the knife iicddyny iil-sikkynao PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

The object suffixes are similar to posessive suffixes on nouns: English Suffix -ni me ‫ﻦ‬ ِ‫ـ‬ -na us ‫ﻦ‬ َ‫ـ‬ -ak You(m) ‫ــَك‬ -ik You(f) ‫ــِك‬ -kum You(pl) ‫ـﻜـُﻢ‬ -u Him/it(m) ‫ُـ‬ -ha Her/if(f) ‫ـ َﻪ‬ -hum Them ‫ـﻬـُﻢ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

‫ـﻬـُﻢ‬ If there is an I before the last consonant and the suffix starts with a vowel. Here are examples for nouns that end with one or two consonants: Nouns ending in two consonants English after -C after -CC saahib kalb ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺐ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺐ‬ -y saahiby -y kalby my ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒﻲ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. possessive pronoun suffix Things that would be expressed using a posessive pronoun (my. etc) in English can be handled using a possessive suffix attached to the noun. what (is) your name? iicsm-ak iicyh? The posessive pronouns themselves are pretty easy to learn.. but when the pronouns are attached to nouns.is dropped. the -i.com . your.. the vowels do a little dance to make sure that you don't get three consonants in a row... so. or using bitaA ‫ﺑـِﺘـَﻊ‬. The latter is used for most imported words.

-na saahibna -ina kalbina our ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒﻨَﺎ ـﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ــِنَا‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـِﻨَﺎ‬ -ak saahibak -ak kalbak your(m) ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒـَﻚ ــَك‬ ‫ــَك‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـَﻚ‬ -ik saahibik -ik kalbik your(f) ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒـِﻚ ــِك‬ ‫ــِك‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـِﻚ‬ -kum saahibkum -ukum kalbukum your(pl) ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒﻜـُﻢ ـﻜـُﻢ‬ ‫ــُكـُم‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـُﻜـُﻢ‬ -uh saahibuh -uh kalbuh his/its(m) ‫ــُه‬ ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒـُﻪ‬ ‫ــُه‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـُﻪ‬ -ha saahibha -aha kalbaha her/its(f) ‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ــَهَا‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـَﻬَﺎ‬ -hum saahibhum -uhum kalbuhum their ‫ﺻﺎ َﺣـِﺒﻬـُﻢ ـﻬـُﻢ‬ ‫ــُهـُم‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺒـُﻬـُﻢ‬ For nouns ending in -a ‫ــَة‬.com . the -a ‫ ــَة‬is replaced by -t ‫ ـﺖ‬or -it ‫ ــِت‬and then the ending is added. Nouns ending in -a ‫ــَة‬ English after -C after -CC kura shanta PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

‫ﻛﻮر َة‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـَﺔ‬ -ty kurty -ity shantity my ‫ـﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺗﻲ‬ ‫ــِتي‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘﻲ‬ -itna kuritna -itna shantitna our ‫ﻛﻮر ِﺗﻨَﺎ ــِتنَا‬ ‫ــِتنَا‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘﻨَﺎ‬ -tak kurtak -itak shantitak your(m) ‫ـﺘـَﻚ‬ ‫ــِتـَك ﻛﻮرﺗـَﻚ‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘـَﻚ‬ -tik kurtik -itik shantitik your(f) ‫ـﺘـِﻚ‬ ‫ــِتـِك ﻛﻮرﺗـِﻚ‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘـِﻚ‬ -itkum kuritkum -itkum shantitkum your(pl) ‫ﻛﻮر ِﺗﻜـُﻢ ــِتكـُم‬ ‫ــِتكـُم‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘﻜـُﻢ‬ -tuh kurtuh -ituh shantituh his/its(m) ‫ـﺘـُﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺗـُﻪ‬ ‫ــِتـُه‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘـُﻪ‬ -itha kuritha -itha shantitha her/its(f) ‫ــِتهَا‬ ‫ﻛﻮر ِﺗﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ــِتهَا‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘﻬَﺎ‬ -ithum kurithum -ithum shantithum their ‫ﻛﻮر ِﺗﻬـُﻢ ــِتهـُم‬ ‫ــِتهـُم‬ ‫ﺷـَﻨﻄـِﺘﻬـُﻢ‬ Nouns that end in alif -a ‫ ـَﺎ‬are treated almost like feminine nouns. ie the alif is replaced by -it ‫ـﺎ ِت‬ and then the ending is added.com . PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Nouns ending in a vowel -a -y -w English ‫ـَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ـﻮ‬ vyla kursy Aadw ‫ﻼ‬ َ ‫ڤﯿ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪو‬ -ya vylity kursya Aadwy my ‫ﻲ‬ َ‫ـ‬ ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿَﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوي‬ -na vylitna kursyna Aadwna our ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗﻨَﺎ ـﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوﻧَﺎ‬ -k vylitak kursyk Aadwk your(m) ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗـَﻚ ـﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻚ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوك‬ -ki vylitik kursyky Aadwik your(f) ‫ﻚ‬ ِ ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗـِﻚ ـ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪو ِك‬ -kum vylitkum kursykum Aadwkum your(pl) ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗﻜـُﻢ ـﻜـُﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻜـُﻢ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوﻛـُﻢ‬ -h vylituh kursyh Aadwh PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . Nouns ending in -y ‫ ـﻲ‬or -w ‫ ـﻮ‬are listed below. one would normally use bitaA ‫ﺑـِﺘـَﻊ‬ rather than a posessive suffix. for example baltw ‫ﺑـَﻠﺘﻮ‬. Note that for most words ending in -w ‫ـﻮ‬.

-h vylituh kursyh Aadwh
his/its(m)
‫ـﻪ‬ ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗـُﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوه‬
-ha vylitha kursyha Aadwha
her/its(f)
‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوﻫَﺎ‬
-hum vylithum kursyhum Aadwhum
their
‫ڤﯿﻼ ِﺗﻬـُﻢ ـﻬـُﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرﺳﯿﻬـُﻢ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪوﻫـُﻢ‬

Father and brother 'abb ‫ب‬
ّ ‫ أ‬and brother 'achch ‫خ‬
ّ ‫ أ‬become 'abw- ‫ أﺑﻮـ‬and brother 'achw- ‫ أﺧﻮـ‬when a
possessive pronoun is added.

father brother
English
aacbb aacKK
'abwya 'achwya
my
‫أﺑﻮﯾَﺎ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﯾَﺎ‬
'abuna 'achuna
our
‫أﺑﻮﻧَﺎ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﻧَﺎ‬
'abuk 'achuk
your(m)
‫أﺑﻮك‬ ‫أﺧﻮك‬
'abuky 'achuky
your(f)
‫أﺑﻮﻛﻲ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﻛﻲ‬
'abukum 'achukum
your(pl)
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your(pl)
‫أﺑﻮﻛـُﻢ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﻛـُﻢ‬
'abuh 'achuh
his/its(m)
‫أﺑﻮه‬ ‫أﺧﻮه‬
'abuha 'achuha
her/its(f)
‫أﺑﻮﻫَﺎ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﻫَﺎ‬
'abuhum 'achuhum
their
‫أﺑﻮﻫـُﻢ‬ ‫أﺧﻮﻫـُﻢ‬

reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself)

Reflexive pronouns can be used after a noun or a verb.

English Egyptian
haechud baly min nafsy
I can look after myself
‫ﻫﺎ َﺧـُﺪ ﺑﺎ َﻟﻲ ﻣـِﻦ ﻧـَﻔﺴﻲ‬
irraagil nafsuh
The man himself
‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ ﻧـَﻔﺴـُﻪ‬
huwwa Aaemalha binafsuh
He did it by himself
‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻋﺎ َﻣـَﻠﻪ َ ﺑـِﻨـَﻔﺴـُﻪ‬

Demonstrative pronouns
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These are the words that you use when you want to point at something.

English Egyptian
dah
this (man)
‫د َه‬
dy
this (woman, thing)
‫دي‬
dul
those (men)
‫دول‬
dyh
those (women,things)
‫دﯾﻪ‬

If you want to use one of these with a noun, to indicate which one, (for example, this book), you
should use a Demonstrative adjective. Fortunately, in both English an Egyptian, the demonstrative
pronouns are the same as the demonstrative adjectives. Note that, when using demonstrative
adjectives in Egyptian, the noun retains its il- ‫ ا ِﻟـ‬prefix.

demonstrative English Egyptian
bikaem dah
pronoun how much is this
‫ﺑـِﻜﺎ َم د َه‬
bikaem ilkitaeb dah
pronoun how much is this book
‫ﺑـِﻜﺎ َم ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬
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‫ﺑـِﻜﺎ َم ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬

Indefinite pronouns

These are words like anybody, something etc. In Egyptian, these are made up of two words, but
they are used in exactly the same way as in English.

English Egyptian
hadd
somebody
‫ﺣَـ ّﺪ‬
'ay hadd
anybody
‫أي ﺣَـ ّﺪ‬
wala hadd
nobody
‫و َﻻ َ ﺣَـ ّﺪ‬
haega
something
‫ﺣﺎ َﺟـَﺔ‬
'ay haega
anything
‫أي ﺣﺎ َﺟـَﺔ‬
wala haega
nothing
‫و َﻻ َ ﺣﺎ َﺟـَﺔ‬
makaen
somewhere
‫ﻣـَﻜﺎ َن‬
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or to specify which one of several you are talking about. 'ay makaen anywhere ‫أي ﻣـَﻜﺎ َن‬ wala makaen nowhere ‫و َﻻ َ ﻣـَﻜﺎ َن‬ Relative pronoun The relative pronoun illy ‫ ا ِﻟّﻲ‬is used to represent that. English Egyptian kiryza hamra describe a cherry is red ‫ﻛـِﺮﯾﺰ َة ﺣـَﻤﺮَا‬ ilkura hamra describe the ball is red ‫ا ِﻟﻜﻮر َة ﺣـَﻤﺮَا‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . who and which the left turn that is coming (ie the next left) iil-yimyn iilly gayy the man who lives here iil-raagil iilly saakin hinaa Adjectives Adjectives can be used in two ways: to describe something.

Aaeyiz kura hamra describe I want a red ball ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﻛﻮر َة ﺣـَﻤﺮَا‬ Aaeyiz ilkura ilhamra specify I want the red ball ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ا ِﻟﻜﻮر َة ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺮ َة‬ ilkitaeb kibyr describe the book is big ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ 'araa't kitaeb kibyr describe I have read a big book ‫ﻗـَﺮا َءت ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ 'araa't ilkitaeb ilkibyr specify I have read the big book ‫ﻗـَﺮا َءت ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا‬ ‫ِلكـِبير‬ irraagil 'aAma describe the man is blind ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ أﻋﻤﻰ‬ raagil 'aAma barra describe a blind man is outside ‫را َﺟـِﻞ أﻋﻤﻰ ﺑَـﺮﱠا‬ irraagil il'aAma barra specify the blind man is outside ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ ا ِﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺑَـﺮﱠا‬ In English.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬before both the adjective and the noun: the il. but you put il. It is almost the same in Egyptian. when you use an adjective to specify which one of several you are talking about.com . you put the word the in front of the adjective.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬before the adjective is the one that means that the PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

but in Egyptian. plural In english. feminine. Note that adding il. Masculine. there is only one form of an adjective. Here are some examples: English Egyptian irraagil shaatir the man is clever ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ ﺷﺎ َﻃـِﺮ‬ issitt shaatrah the woman is clever ‫ﺖ ﺷﺎ َﻃﺮ َه‬ ّ ‫ا ِﻟﺴِـ‬ il'atfael shaatiryn the children are clever ‫ا ِﻷﻃﻔﺎ َل ﺷﺎ‬ ‫َطـِرين‬ The following table shows some typical feminine and plural forms: English Egyptian masculine feminine plural -ah -yn PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. most adjectives must agree in gender and number with the noun that they relate to.com . adjective is specifying which one you mean.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬to a word affects the pronunciation if it begins with a sun letter.

Note that some words. ‫ــَه‬ ‫ـﯿﻦ‬ kibyr kibyrah kubaar big ‫ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ َه‬ ‫ﻛـُﺒﺎ َر‬ kuwayis kuwayisah kuwayisyn good ‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺲ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴﯿﻦ‬ 'ahmar hamrah humr red ‫أﺣﻤـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺣـَﻤﺮ َه‬ ‫ﺣـُﻤﺮ‬ sahl sahlah sahlyn easy ‫ﺳـَﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻬﻠـَﻪ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻬﻠﯿﻦ‬ latyf latyfah lutaaf nice ‫ﻟـَﻄﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟـَﻄﯿﻔـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻟـُﻄﺎ َف‬ faady faadyah faadyyin free ‫ﻓﺎ َﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ َﺿﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ َﺿﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ bunny bunny bunny brown ‫ﺑُـﻨّﻲ‬ ‫ﺑُـﻨّﻲ‬ ‫ﺑُـﻨّﻲ‬ The feminine form of most adjectives is made by adding the suffix -ah ‫ــَه‬. and the plural is formed by adding the suffix -yn ‫ـﯿﻦ‬.you use the same form for masculine. We will look at some of the common exceptions later. for example brown bunny ‫ ﺑُـﻨّﻲ‬are invariable. feminine and plural.com . Note that adding a suffix may affect the pronunciation. PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

This can be used to refer to a person. English Country m f pl -y -iya iyyin ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ــِيـَة‬ ِ‫ﯾﯿِـﻦ‬ masr masry masriya masriyyin Egypt ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬ ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ ilyunaen yunany yunaeniya yunaeniyyin Greece ‫ا ِﻟﯿﻮﻧﺎ َن‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻧﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻧﺎ َﻧـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻧﺎ َﻧـِﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ 'iytalya 'iytaly 'iytalya 'iytalyyin Italy ‫إﯾﻄﺎ َﻟﯿَﺎ‬ ‫إﯾﻄﺎ َﻟﻲ‬ ‫إﯾﻄﺎ َﻟﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫إﯾﻄﺎ َﻟﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ issiwyd siwydy siwydya siwydyyin Sweden ‫ا ِﻟﺴـِﻮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺳـِﻮﯾﺪي‬ ‫ﺳـِﻮﯾﺪﯾـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـِﻮﯾﺪﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ ishshimael shimaly shimaeliya shimaeliyyin the North ‫ا ِﻟﺸـِﻤﺎ َل‬ ‫ﺷـِﻤﺎ َﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺷـِﻤﺎ َﻟـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺷـِﻤﺎ َﻟـِﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ 'uurubbiyyin 'uurubba 'uurubby 'uurubbiya Europe ‫أ ُور‬ ‫أ ُور ُﺑﱠﺎ‬ ‫أ ُوروﺑّﻲ‬ ‫أ ُوروﺑﱢـﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫بـِييـِن‬ ّ ُ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . Countries A country name is usually converted to an adjective by adding -y ‫ـﻲ‬. a language or something from a country.

.. ilhind hindy hindya hunud India ‫ا ِﻟﻬـِﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫـِﻨﺪي‬ ‫ﻫـِﻨﺪﯾـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـُﻨﻮد‬ 'amryka 'amryky ‫(أﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬people) amrikiya amrykaen America ‫أﻣﺮﯾﻜَﺎ‬ 'amrikany ‫( أﻣﺮ ِﻛﺎ َﻧﻲ‬things) ‫ا َﻣﺮ ِﻛـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ا َﻣﺮﯾﻜﺎ َن‬ For some countries eg England. Irregular ones.com . Here are some examples: English Country m f collective noun -y -iya ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ــِيـَة‬ 'ingiltira 'ingilyzy 'ingilyziyah 'ingilyz England ‫إﻧﺠـِﻠﯿﺰ ِﯾـَﻪ إﻧﺠـِﻠﯿﺰي إﻧﺠـِﻠﺘـِﺮَا‬ ‫إﻧﺠـِﻠﯿﺰ‬ Aaraby Aaraby Aarabiyah Aarab Arabia ‫ﻋـَﺮ َﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺮ َﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺮ َب‬ rusya rusy rusyah rus Russia ‫روﺳﯿَﺎ‬ ‫روﺳﻲ‬ ‫روﺳﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫روس‬ 'almanya 'almany 'almanyah 'almaen Germany ‫أﻟﻤﺎ َﻧﯿَﺎ‬ ‫أﻟﻤﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ ‫أﻟﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫أﻟﻤﺎ َن‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the adjective is made from the collective noun.

the ending is -awy ‫ـﺎ َوي‬. English Country m f pl -awy -awiya -awiyyin ‫ـﺎ َوي‬ ‫ـﺎ َو ِﯾـَﺔ‬ ‫ـﺎ َو ِﯾﯿﺎ ِن‬ innimsa nimsaewy nimsawiyyah nimsawiyyin Austria ‫ا ِﻟﻨـِﻤﺴَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧـِﻤﺴﺎ َوي‬ ‫ﻧـِﻤﺴـَﻮ ِﯾﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻧـِﻤﺴـَﻮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ faransa faransaewy faransawiyah faransawiyyin France ‫ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴَﺎ‬ ‫ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴﺎ َوي‬ ‫ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴـَﻮ ِﯾـَﻪ‬ ‫ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴـَﻮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ One common usage of the country adjective is to talk about a person from that country. 'asbanya 'asbany 'asbanyah 'asbaen Spain ‫أﺳﺒﺎ َﻧﯿَﺎ‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎ َﻧﯿـَﻪ‬ ‫أﺳﺒﺎ َن‬ For countries ending in two consonants and alif.com . Here are some examples: English Egyptian waehid masry an Egyptian man ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬ wahda masrya an Egyptian woman ‫وا َﺣﺪ َة ﻣـَﺼﺮﯾـَﺔ‬ waehid 'ingilizy PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Here are some examples: English Egyptian markib yunany a greek boat ‫ﻣـَﺮﻛـِﺐ ﯾﻮﻧﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ gibna faransaewy French cheese ‫ﺟـِﺒﻨـَﺔ ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴﺎ َوي‬ ilAarabiyaet 'amrikany american cars ‫ا ِﻟﻌـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿﺎ َت أﻣﺮ ِﻛﺎ‬ ‫َني‬ Colours PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. For inanimate objects. waehid 'ingilizy an englishman ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ إﻧﺠـِﻠـِﺰي‬ wahda 'ingilyzya an englishwoman ‫وا َﺣﺪ َة إﻧﺠـِﻠﯿﺰﯾـَﺔ‬ waehid faransawy a frenchman ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴـَﻮي‬ wahda faransawiya a frenchwoman ‫وا َﺣﺪ َة ﻓـَﺮ َﻧﺴـَﻮ ِﯾـَﺔ‬ The feminine and plural are used only for people.com . the masculine form only is used.

PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . They are invariable: the feminine and plural form is the same as the masculine form. The main colours follow a pattern. Here are some examples: English m f pl C=consonant aCCaC CaCCah CuCC 'abyad biyda biyd white ‫أﺑﯿـَﺾ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿﻀَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿﺾ‬ 'iswid suda suwd black ‫إﺳﻮ ِد‬ ‫ﺳﻮدَا‬ ‫ﺳـُﻮد‬ 'asfar safra sufr yellow ‫أﺻﻔـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺻـُﻔﺮ ﺻـَﻔﺮَا‬ 'azra' zar'ah zur' blue ‫أزر َق‬ ‫ز َرﻗـَﻪ‬ ‫ز ُرق‬ 'achdar chadra chudr green ‫أﺧﻀـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺧـُﻀﺮ ﺧـَﻀﺮَا‬ 'ahmar hamra humr red ‫أﺣﻤـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺣـَﻤﺮَا‬ ‫ﺣـُﻤﺮ‬ Colours derived from a material or thing just have a -y ‫ ـﻲ‬added.

English m/f/pl
brown bunny
coffee ‫ﺑُـﻨّﻲ‬
zahaby
golden
‫ذ َﻫـَﺒﻲ‬
faddy
silver
‫ﻓَـﻀّﻲ‬
nahasy
copper
‫ﻧـَﺤﺎ َﺳﻲ‬
rumady
light grey
‫ر ُﻣﺎ َدي‬
dark grey rusaasy
lead ‫ر ُﺻﺎ َﺻﻲ‬
dark green zyty
olive ‫زﯾﺘﻲ‬
kuhly
dark blue
‫ﻛـُﺤﻠﻲ‬
labany
pale blue
‫ﻟـَﺒـَﻨﻲ‬
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nibyty pdfcrowd.com

dark red nibyty
wine ‫ﻧـِﺒﯿﺘﻲ‬
kastanae'yy
chestnut
‫ﻛـَﺴﺘـَﻨﺎ َﺋﻲ‬
light brown Aasaly
honey ‫ﻋـَﺴـَﻠﻲ‬
purple banafsigy
violet ‫ﺑـَﻨـَﻔﺴـِﺠﻲ‬
burtu'aly
orange
‫ﺑـُﺮﺗـُﻘﺎ َﻟﻲ‬
deep purple bitangany
aubergine ‫ﺑـِﺘـَﻨﺠﺎ َﻧﻲ‬

Personal attributes

Personal attributes or disabilities follow the same pattern as the basic colours:

English m f pl
C=consonant aCCaC CaCCah CuCC
'ahbal habla hubl
foolish
‫أﻫﺒـَﻞ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺒﻠـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـُﺒﻞ‬
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'ahwal hulaa' huwl
squinting
‫أﺣﻮ َل‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻻ َء‬ ‫ﺣـُﻮل‬
'a'raA 'arAa 'urA
bald
‫أﻗﺮ َع‬ ‫ﻗـَﺮﻋـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻗـُﺮع‬
'aslaA salAaa' sulA
bald
‫أﺻﻠـَﻊ‬ ‫ﺻـَﻠﻌﺎ َء‬ ‫ﺻـُﻠﻊ‬
fair skin 'ash'ar sha'ara shu'r
blonde ‫أﺷﻘـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺷـَﻘـَﺮ َة‬ ‫ﺷـُﻘﺮ‬
dark skin 'asmar samra sumr
brunette ‫أﺳﻤـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻤﺮ َة‬ ‫ﺳـُﻤﺮ‬
'akrat karta kurt
frizzy haired
‫أﻛﺮ َت‬ ‫ﻛـُﺮت ﻛـَﺮﺗـَﺔ‬
'ashwal shula shul
left handed
‫أﺷﻮ َل‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻟـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻮل‬
'ayman yimna yumn
right handed
‫أﯾﻤـَﻦ‬ ‫ﯾـِﻤﻨـَﺔ‬ ‫ﯾـُﻤﻦ‬
'aArag Aarga Aurg
lame
‫أﻋﺮ َج‬ ‫ﻋـُﺮج ﻋـَﺮﺟـَﺔ‬
'aAma Aamya Aumy
blind
‫أﻋﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻤﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻋـُﻤﻲ‬
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'atrash turshaa' tursh
deaf
‫ﻃـُﺮش ﻃـُﺮﺷﺎ َء أﻃﺮ َش‬
'asam samaa' summ
deaf
‫أﺻـَﻢ‬ ‫ﺻـَﻤﺎ َء‬ ‫ﺻُـ ّﻢ‬
'achras charsa churs
mute
‫أﺧﺮ َس‬ ‫ﺧـُﺮس ﺧـَﺮﺳـَﺔ‬

Slightly, Very... Extremely...

The following adverbs can be placed after the adjective:

English Egyptian
shwaya
slightly
‫ﺷﻮ َﯾـَﺔ‬
bi'iAtidael
moderately
‫ﺑـِﺈﻋﺘـِﺪا َل‬
'awy
very
‫ﻗـَﻮي‬
chaalis
extremely
‫ﺧﺎ َﻟـِﺺ‬
giddaen
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giddaen ‫ا‬‫ﺟِـﺪ‬ Aail'achir ‫ﻋـَﺎ ِﻷﺧـِﺮ‬ 'awy too ‫ﻗـَﻮي‬ Here are some examples: English Egyptian ilAarabiya 'itdarrarit shwaya the car is slightly damaged ‫ا ِﻟﻌـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ إﺗﻀَـ ّﺮ َر ِت ﺷﻮ َﯾـَﺔ‬ issigaeda kaenit Galya 'awy the carpet was very expensive ‫ا ِﻟﺴـِﺠﺎ َد َة ﻛﺎ َﻧـِﺖ ﻏﺎ َﻟﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻗـَﻮي‬ huwwa Gany giddaen he is extremely rich ‫ا‬‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻏـَﻨﻲ ﺟِـﺪ‬ ilbiyt dih kibyr 'awy this house is too big ‫ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ د ِه ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ ﻗـَﻮي‬ You may have noticed that the word qawy has two meanings: very and too. for example. too much when they PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. This sometimes causes confusion when Egyptians speak english: they say.com .

We can compare two things using min ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬: English Egyptian 'ahmad 'atwal minny Ahmad is taller than me ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ أﻃﻮ َل ﻣِـﻨّﻲ‬ huwwa 'aGba min makunt faekir he is more stupid than I thought ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ أﻏﺒﻰ ﻣـِﻦ ﻣـَﻜـُﻨﺖ ﻓﺎ َﻛـِﺮ‬ We can also make comparison without specifying the second thing like this: English Egyptian 'ahmad 'atwal bikityr Ahmad is a lot taller ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ أﻃﻮ َل ﺑـِﻜـِﺘﯿﺮ‬ ilgaww haykun 'ahsan shuwaya bukra the weather will be a little better tomorrow ‫ا ِﻟﺠَـ ّﻮ ﺣـَﯿﻜﻮن أﺣﺴـَﻦ ﺷـُﻮ َﯾـَﺔ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َة‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. mean very much. The context indicates the meaning.com . In Egyptian there is one word. a comparative. Comparatives In english we take an adjective like big and add suffixes -er to make comparative bigger and -est to make the superlative biggest. that is used for both.

the comparative is often derived from the adjective as follows: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. biggest) the comparative is used immediately before a noun: English Egyptian muhammad 'atwal taalib mohammed is the tallest student ‫ﻣـُﺤَـﻤﱠـﺪ أﻃﻮ َل ﻃﺎ َﻟـِﺐ‬ huwwa 'asGar walad he is the youngest boy ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ أﺻﻐـَﺮ و َﻟـَﺪ‬ ittaalib il'atwal tuluh mitr 1 wa 90 santy the tallest student is 1m90 ٩٠ َ ‫ و‬١ ‫ا ِﻟﻄﺎ َﻟـِﺐ ا ِﻷﻃﻮ َل ﻃﻮﻟﻮه ﻣـِﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻨﺘﻲ‬ ilmashrub il'aGla 20 ginyh the most expensive drink is 20 pounds ‫ ﺟـِﻨﯿﻪ‬٢٠ ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﺸﺮوب ا ِﻷﻏﻠﻰ‬ dih 'ahla fustaen fy ilmahal this is the prettiest dress in the shop ‫د ِه أﺣﻠﻰ ﻓـُﺴﺘﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﻤـَﺤـَﻞ‬ kaen 'ahsan yum fy hayaty it was the best day in my life ‫ﻛﺎ َن أﺣﺴـَﻦ ﯾﻮم ﻓﻲ ﺣـَﯿﺎ َﺗﻲ‬ Making comparatives As you may have noticed from the previous examples. For the superlative (best.com .

English adjective comparative hilw 'ahla pretty ‫ﺣـِﻠﻮ‬ ‫أﺣﻠﻰ‬ Galy 'aGla expensive PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the final letter changes to alif-layena -a ‫ـﻰ‬. English adjective comparative kibyr 'akbar big ‫ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫أﻛﺒـَﺮ‬ sahl 'ashal easy ‫ﺳـَﻬﻞ‬ ‫أﺳﻬـَﻞ‬ tawyl 'atwal tall ‫ﻃـَﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫أﻃﻮ َل‬ raqy 'arqa classy ‫را َﻗﻲ‬ ‫أرﻗﻰ‬ exceptions kuwayyis 'ahsan good ‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾﯿـِﺲ‬ ‫أﺣﺴـَﻦ‬ For adjectives with two consonants and ending in -y ‫ ـﻲ‬or -w ‫ـﻮ‬.com .

com . English adjective comparative gadd serious no comp ‫ﺟَـ ّﺪ‬ gidyd 'agdad new ‫ﺟـِﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﺟﺪ َد‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. expensive ‫ﻏﺎ َﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﻏﻠﻰ‬ Aaly 'aAla loud/high ‫ﻋﺎ َﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ Gany 'aGna rich ‫ﻏـَﻨﻲ‬ ‫أﻏﻨﻰ‬ sahy healthy no comp ‫ﺻـَﺤﻲ‬ Gaby 'aGba stupid ‫ﻏـَﺒﻲ‬ ‫أﻏﺒﻰ‬ zaky 'azka clever ‫ذ َﻛﻲ‬ ‫أذﻛﻰ‬ For adjectives with three consonants where the last two consonants are the same. the middle vowel is replaced with a fatha -a ‫َـ‬.

for example interesting: instead.more and 'a'ael ‫ أﻗﺎ َل‬. we say more interesting.com . The same is true in Egyptian: the words 'aktar ‫ أﻛﺘـَﺮ‬. muhimm 'ahamm important ‫ﻣـُﻬِـ ّﻢ‬ ‫أﻫَـ ّﻢ‬ Aadyd numerous no comp ‫ﻋـَﺪﯾﺪ‬ mahzuz lucky no comp ‫ﻣـَﺤﻈﻮظ‬ mahbub 'ahabb popular ‫ﻣـَﺤﺒﻮب‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ّ ‫أﺣَـ‬ chafyf 'achaff light ‫ﺧـَﻔﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ّ ‫أﺧَـ‬ lazyz 'alazz delicious ‫ﻟـَﺬﯾﺬ‬ ‫أﻟَـ ّﺬ‬ 'alayil 'a'ael few ‫ﻗـَﻠـَﯿـِﻞ‬ ‫أﻗﺎ َل‬ In English. Here are examples of adjectives that are handled this way Group English Egyptian PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. it is not possible to make a comparative in the usual way from some adjectives.less are used with the adjective.

you. writing. could etc PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.‫أـ‬ ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﺒﻘﺎ َ أﻧﺎ َﻧﻲ أﻛﺘـَﺮ ﻛـُﻞ ﯾﻮم‬ adjectives saara taAbaena 'aktar min 'ahmad Sarah is more tired than Ahmed ending with -an ‫ـًﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َﻧـَﺔ أﻛﺘـَﺮ ﻣـِﻦ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ Verbs A verb tells you what is happening. walking etc. book. participles ilAa'd ma'bul 'aktar kidah the contract is more acceptable like beginning with m- ‫ﻣـ‬ this ‫ا ِﻟﻌـَﻘﺪ ﻣـَﻘﺒﻮل أﻛﺘـَﺮ ﻛـِﺪ َه‬ participles 'ana ta'lidy 'a'ael minnak beginning with ta. the letters ktb are used to make the words write. written. future) case . reading. and several related words may contain this set of letters.who is doing it (I. prefixes and suffixes (extra bits at the beginning and the end). type. writer. the general meaning of a word is defined by the consonants.must.when something happens (past. he.for example. Here are some of the ways the exact meaning can change for verbs: tense . office and desk. For example. The exact meaning is affected by the vowels. etc) mode . In Egyptian. present. I am less traditional than you ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺗـَﻘﻠـِﺪي أﻗﺎ َل ﻣِـﻨﱠـﻚ‬ huwwa biyib'a 'anany 'aktar kul adjectives yum he gets more selfish every day beginning with 'a.com .

to it. Here are a some examples: Pronoun English Arabic 'ana Aaarif 'ahmad Subject I know Ahmed ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ 'ana Aaarifuh Subject. him. us.who is doing it. pronouns . to them In Egyptian. to you. it.I.say something is NOT happening The examples that follow use the verb katab ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬.com and the windows and Android apps that you can download from the web site all provides full details for the majority of verbs. The web site www. to him. which means write: about 30% of verbs follow this pattern. it.me. they object . them indirect object . and there are probably about three or four other patterns. the subject pronoun is a separate word before the verb: the object and indirect object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb. object I know him ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـُﻪ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. you.com . you. we.to me. Pronouns There are three main types of pronouns that can be used with verbs: subject . to her. he. her.lisaanmasry. to us. she. who is having it done to them negation .

com . Indirect give it to me! ‫ا ِدّﯾﻬﻮﻟﻲ‬ Subject pronoun The subject pronoun appears before the verb or participle. English Arabic 'ana I ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ 'ihna we ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ 'inta you(m) ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ 'inti you(f) ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ 'intu you(pl) PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 'ahmad shaefha 'imbaarih Object Ahmed saw her yesterday ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺷﺎ َﻓﻬﺎ َ إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ saara Aaarifah Object Sarah knows him ‫ﺳﺎ َر َة ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﻪ‬ iddyhwly Object.

verb or participle. you(pl) ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ huwwa he/it(m) ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ hiya she/it(f) ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ humma they ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻢ‬ Object pronoun You can attach an object pronoun (for example me or him) to the end of an imperative. See pronouns for more information.com . Ahmed envies me aacHmad biyiHsad-ny English Suffix -ny me ‫ـﻨﻲ‬ -na us ‫ـﻨَﺎ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

If the verb requires a preposition (to. the -i.com .‫ ـِـ‬is dropped. Here are some examples: English Egyptian warryny show me! ‫و َرّﯾﻨﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. -ak you(m) ‫ــَك‬ -ik you(f) ‫ــِك‬ -kum you(pl) ‫ـﻜـُﻢ‬ -uh him/it(m) ‫ــُه‬ -ha her/it(f) ‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ -hum them ‫ـﻬـُﻢ‬ If there is an -i.‫ ـِـ‬before the last consonant and the suffix starts with a vowel. from etc) the object goes on the preposition.

mahaddish saeAidna nobody helped us ‫ﻣـَﺤَـ ّﺪ ِش ﺳﺎ َﻋـِﺪﻧَﺎ‬ 'ana shuftak I saw you(m) ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺷـُﻔﺘـَﻚ‬ 'ana bahibbik I love you(f) ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺑـَﺤِـﺒﱢـﻚ‬ 'ana Aaarifuh I know him ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـُﻪ‬ 'ana 'ultilhum I told them ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻗـُﻠﺘـِﻠﻬـُﻢ‬ Indirect object Some verbs require two objects. The indirect object suffixes are as follows: English Suffix PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.for example: give it(f) to me iiddy-haa-ly It is the direct object and to me is the indirect object.com .

now or in the future.com . a verb has different tenses to indicate when something happens. The usage of each tense will be explained in more details later. Here PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.in the past. -ly to me ‫ـﻠﻲ‬ -lina to us ‫ـﻠـِﻨَﺎ‬ -lak to you(m) ‫ـﻠـَﻚ‬ -lik to you(f) ‫ـﻠـِﻚ‬ -luku to you(pl) ‫ﻚ‬ ُ ‫ـﻠُـ‬ -lu to him/it(m) ‫ﻞ‬ ُ‫ـ‬ -laha to her/it(f) ‫ـﻠـَﻬَﺎ‬ -luhum to them ‫ـﻠـُﻬـُﻢ‬ Tenses In both english and Egyptian.

etc) ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ he knows how to write used with kaen ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ hayiktib he will write ha-imperfect 8 (i/we/you. are some examples using katab ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬: No of Form Example Meaning cases katab perfect he wrote 8 (i/we/you.eg he must write simple imperfect 8 (i/we/you. etc) ‫ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ used with kaen ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ kaetab active participle (he is) writing 3 (m/f/pl) ‫ﻛﺎ َﺗـَﺐ‬ maktub passive participle (it is) written 3 (m/f/pl) ‫ﻣـَﻜﺘﻮب‬ iktib imperative write! 3 (m/f/pl) ‫ا ِﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ kitaeba verbal noun (the box is covered with) writing 2 (s/pl) ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َﺑـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. etc) ‫ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ and kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬. etc) ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬ yiktib used with modals .com .he used to write biyiktib he is writing bi-imperfect he writes 8 (i/we/you.

imperfect just have prefixes added to the simple imperfect. Perfect PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Remember that the three imperfect forms are very similar. The usage of these tenses will be explained in more detail the section on time. Here is the he case of each tense: Tense English Egyptian huwwa katab perfect he wrote ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬ huwwa laezim yiktib simple imperfect he must write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻻ َز ِم ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ huwwa biyiktib bi-imperfect he writes ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ huwwa hayiktib ha-imperfect he will write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ There are eight possible cases for each tense.com . corresponding to the eight pronoun forms (I/we/you/he. etc). maktab place writing place (desk or office) 2 (s/pl) ‫ﻣـَﻜﺘـَﺐ‬ Case The two main tenses of a verb are the perfect and the simple imperfect: the bi-and ha.

com . Perfect English Pronoun Verb 'ana katabt I wrote ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﺖ‬ 'ihna katabna we wrote ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﻨَﺎ‬ 'inta katabt you(m) wrote ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﺖ‬ 'inti katabty you(f) wrote ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﺘﻲ‬ 'intu katabtu you(pl) wrote ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﺘﻮا‬ huwwa katab he/it(m) wrote ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬ hiya katabit she/it(f) wrote ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒـِﺖ‬ humma katabu they wrote PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. which is used for things that occurred in the past. Perfect Here is an example of the perfect.

with bi-prefix for things happening now with ha-prefix for things that will happen Here is an example with laazim. should etc. which means must. could. Simple Imperfect English Pronoun modal Verb 'ana laezim 'aktib I must write ‫ﻻ َز ِم أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫أﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ 'ihna laezim niktib we must write ‫ﻻ َز ِم إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inta laezim tiktib you(m) must write ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫ﻻ َز ِم إﻧ‬ ‫ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inti laezim tiktiby you(f) must write ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻲ ﻻ َز ِم إﻧ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . they wrote ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺒﻮا‬ Simple imperfect The imperfect has no meaning on its own: it is used in four ways: with kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬for things that happened in the past with modals like must.

and for habitual actions. it is the same for all cases. Later on. you will learn how to use participles and verbs as modals. with a bi. bi-imperfect For the majority of verbs. Note that there are some small changes to the beginning of the imperfect when the prefix is added.com . the bi-imperfect is used to describe things happening now. and you will see how they will change to match the case. bi-imperfect English Pronoun verb PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The Egyptian word laezim ‫ ﻻ َز ِم‬is a proper modal.‫ ﺑِـ‬in front. 'intu laezim tiktibu you(pl)must write ‫ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا ﻻ َز ِم إﻧﺘﻮا‬ huwwa laezim yiktib he/it(m)must write ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya laezim tiktib she/it(f)must write ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ humma laezim yiktibu they must write ‫ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا ﻻ َز ِم ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ The english word must is a proper modal. See active participles for the exceptions It is the same as the simple imperfect.

PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . 'ana baktib I write ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـَﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'ihna biniktib we write ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﻨـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inta bitiktib you(m) write ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inti bitiktiby you(f) write ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻲ‬ 'intu bitiktibu you(pl) write ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ huwwa biyiktib he/it(m) writes ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya bitiktib she/it(f) writes ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ humma biyiktibu they write ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ ha-imperfect The ha-imperfect is used for things that will happen at some time in the future.

It is the same as the simple imperfect. ha-imperfect English Pronoun Verb 'ana haktib I will write ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'ihna haniktib we will write ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻨـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inta hatiktib you(m) will write ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inti hatiktiby you(f) will write ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻲ‬ 'intu hatiktibu you(pl) will write ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ huwwa hayiktib he/it(m) will write ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya hatiktib she/it(f) will write ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ humma hayiktibu PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Note that there are some small changes to the beginning of the imperfect when the prefix is added.‫ ﻫَـ‬in front. with ha.com .

words for was . There are. kaan kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬can be used on its own to talk about some situation in the past. humma hayiktibu they will write ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ is/was/will be As mentioned earlier. or it can be used with the imperfect and bi-imperfect to move the meaning of the verb into the past. however.haykun ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬. and with the ha-imperfect to indicate something that almost or nearly happened.kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬and will be . kaan English Pronoun Verb ana kunt I was ‫ا َﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ‬ ihna kunna we were ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛُـﻨﱠﺎ‬ 'inta kunt you(m) were ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ‬ 'inti kunty you(f) were PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . there is no word for is in Egyptian.

com . you(f) were ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺘﻲ‬ 'intu kuntu you(pl) were ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺘﻮا‬ huwa kaen he/it(m) was ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ hiya kaenit she/it(f) was ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻛﺎ َﻧـِﺖ ﻫِـ‬ humma kanu they were ‫ﻛﺎ َﻧﻮا ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ Here are some examples: English Egyptian kaen hina he was here ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ kunt taAbaen 'awy I was too tired ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن ﻗـَﻮي‬ ilhafla kaenit kuwayisa the party was good ‫ا ِﻟﺤـَﻔﻠـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َﻧـِﺖ ﻛـُﻮ‬ ‫َيـِسـَة‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

it was. kaen fy mayaeh wa chilsit preposition there was water. Here are some examples: haykwn English Pronoun verb ana hakun I will be ‫ا َﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻜﻮن‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. for prepositional sentences. haykwn haykun ‫ ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬simply means will be. kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬does not change with the subject of the sentence - it is always kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬. but it's finished ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ﻣـَﯿﺎ َه و َ ﺧـِﻠﺼـِﺖ‬ kaen Aandina biyt preposition we had a house ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻋـَﻨﺪ ِﻧﺎ َ ﺑـِﯿﺖ‬ kaen biyishrab sygaara bi-imperfect he was smoking a cigarette ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﺑـِﯿـِﺸﺮ َب ﺳﯿﺠﺎ َر َة‬ kaen biyishrab sigaeyar bi-imperfect he used to smoke cigarettes ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﺑـِﯿـِﺸﺮ َب ﺳـِﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ‬ kunt hadusuh ha-imperfect I almost ran him over ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ ﻫـَﺪوﺳـُﻪ‬ Note that.com .

com . ihna hankun we will be ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻨﻜﻮن‬ 'inta hatkun you(m) will be ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮن‬ 'inti hatkuny you(f) will be ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮﻧﻲ‬ 'intu hatkunu you(pl) will be ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮﻧﻮا‬ huwa haykun he/it(m) will be ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬ hiya hatkun she/it will be(f) ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮن‬ humma haykunu they will be ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮﻧﻮا‬ Here are some examples: English Egyptian ilhafla hatkun kuwayisa the party will be good ‫ا ِﻟﺤـَﻔﻠـَﺔ ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮن ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com .it will be.it is always haykun ‫ ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬. haykun ‫ ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬does not change with the subject of the sentence . for prepositional sentences. Time Here is a summary of ways to express when something happens: Construction Example Meaning katab perfect he wrote ‫ﻛـَﺘـَﺐ‬ kaen yiktib kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ imperfect ‫ ﻛﺎ َن ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬he was writing kaen biyiktib he used to write kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ bi-imperfect ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ biyiktib he is writing bi-imperfect he writes ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ he can write PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. haykun fy hawaa' kityr bukra there will be a lot of wind tomorrow ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻫـَﻮا َء ﻛـِﺘﯿﺮ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َة‬ 'ana hakun faady issaeAa chamsa I will be free at five ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻫـَﻜﻮن ﻓﺎ َﺿﻲ ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ Note that.

As they are adjectives.com . feminine and plural.masculine. there are three forms.active and passive. a participle is derived from a verb. There are two types of participle. but is used like an adjective. hayiktib ha-imperfect he will write ‫ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ kaen hayiktib he intended to write ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻫـَﯿـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ ha-imperfect kaen haymut he almost died ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻫـَﯿﻤﻮت‬ raayih yiktib raayih ‫ را َﯾـِﺢ‬+ imperfect ‫را َﯾـِﺢ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ he is going to write hayruh yiktib hayruh ‫ ﺣـَﯿﺮوح‬+ imperfect ‫ﻫـَﯿﺮوح ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ Participles In both English and Egyptian. in Egyptian. Participle English Masculine Feminine Plural -a -yn ‫ــَة‬ ‫ـﯿﻦ‬ Aaeyiz Aaeyiza Aaeyizyn Active wanting ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ َة‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰﯾﻦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

we can describe something happening now by using the present tense or the active participle: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Aaarif Aaarifa Aaarifyn Active knowing ‫ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓﯿﻦ‬ faehim faehima faehimyn Active understanding ‫ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻤـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻤﯿﻦ‬ Galayaen Galayaen Galayaen Active boiling ‫ﻏـَﻠـَﯿﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻏـَﻠـَﯿﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻏـَﻠـَﯿﺎ َن‬ sarhaen sarhaena sarhanyn Active daydreaming ‫ﺳـَﺮﺣﺎ َن‬ ‫ﺳـَﺮﺣﺎ َﻧـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـَﺮﺣﺎ َﻧﯿﻦ‬ mitgalid mitgalida mitgalidyn Passive bound ‫ﻣـِﺘﺠـَﻠـِﺪ‬ ‫ﻣـِﺘﺠـَﻠـِﺪ َة‬ ‫ﻣـِﺘﺠـَﻠـِﺪﯾﻦ‬ mubaarak mubaaraka mubaarakyn Passive blessed ‫ﻣـُﺒﺎ َر َك‬ ‫ﻣـُﺒﺎ َر َﻛـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـُﺒﺎ َر َﻛﯿﻦ‬ mawlud mawluda mawludyn Passive born ‫ﻣـَﻮﻟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣـَﻮﻟﻮد َة‬ ‫ﻣـَﻮﻟﻮدﯾﻦ‬ mafhum mafhuma mafhumyn Passive understood ‫ﻣـَﻔﻬﻮم‬ ‫ﻣـَﻔﻬﻮﻣـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـَﻔﻬﻮﻣﯿﻦ‬ Active Participles In English.com .

Generally. understanding.com . hearing states of mind: knowing. coming etc senses: seeing. angry states of body: sleeping Active English Verb Participle hatt haatyt put ‫ﻂ‬ ّ ‫ﺣﺎ َﻃﯿﺖ ﺣَـ‬ saefir misaefir travel ‫ﺳﺎ َﻓـِﺮ‬ ‫ﻣـِﺴﺎ َﻓـِﺮ‬ Airif Aaarif know ‫ﻋـِﺮ ِف‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The four groups of verbs where the participle is used are: movement: going. participles are used for verbs that relate to a state or continuous actions. the bi-imperfect is used. for some verbs. the active participle is the normal way of expressing what somebody is doing right now. For other verbs. present I look a single event or habitual action present I am looking a continuous action In Egyptian. but there is no flexibility: you have to use a participle for a particular verb whether the action is continuous or not.

feminine and plural forms. fihim faehim understand ‫ﻓـِﻬـِﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻢ‬ naem naeyim sleep ‫ﻧﺎ َم‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َﯾـِﻢ‬ ziAil zaAlaen angry ‫ز ِﻋـِﻞ‬ ‫ز َﻋﻼ َن‬ Active participles are like adjectives.com . and have masculine. Here are some examples showing how the participle agrees with the subject English Verb 'ana Aaarif 'ahmad I(m) know Ahmed ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ 'ana Aaarifa 'ahmad I(f) know Ahmed ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﺔ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ ihna Aaarifyn 'ahmad we know Ahmed ‫ا ِﺣﻨﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓﯿﻦ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ 'inta Aaarif 'ahmad you(m) know Ahmed ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ 'inti Aaarifa 'ahmad you(f) know Ahmed ‫إﻧﺖ ِ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﺔ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Passive participles are like adjectives. 'intu Aaarifyn 'ahmad you(pl) know Ahmed ‫إﻧﺘﻮ ا ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓﯿﻦ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ huwwa Aaarif 'ahmad he knows Ahmed ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ hiya Aaarifa 'ahmad she knows Ahmed ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﺔ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ humma Aaarifyn 'ahmad they know Ahmed ‫ﻫُـﻤّﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓﯿﻦ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ The participle is also used for an action that took place in the past but whose effect is still in force. for example reserving a room: Element English Arabic tabacht ilAasha perfect I cooked dinner (a long time ago) ‫ﻃـَﺒـَﺨﺖ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸَﺎ‬ 'ana taabach Aasha participle I cooked dinner (it is reaady now) ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻃﺎ َﺑـَﺦ ﻋـَﺸَﺎ‬ Passive Participles A passive participle describes something that has had something done to it.com .‫ﻣَـ‬. and in Egyptian. it often begins with ma. and PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. In English it often ends with -ed.

have masculine.there is no I/you/he form. English Arabic Verb il'akl matbuch tabach the food is cooked ‫ا ِﻷﻛﻞ ﻣـَﻄﺒﻮخ‬ ‫ﻃـَﺒـَﺦ‬ issultaniya maksura kasar the bowl is broken ‫ا ِﻟﺴـُﻠﻄـَﻨـِﯿـَﺔ ﻣـَﻜﺴﻮر َة‬ ‫ﻛـَﺴـَﺮ‬ il'ardiyaet maGsulyn Gasal the floors are washed ‫ا ِﻷرﺿـِﯿﺎ َت ﻣـَﻐﺴﻮﻟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏـَﺴـَﻞ‬ kunt mitgawwiz 'itgawwiz I was married ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ ﻣـِﺘﺠَـ ّﻮ ِز‬ ‫إﺗﺠَـ ّﻮ ِز‬ salamy mudachan dachchan smoked salami ‫ﺳـَﻼ َﻣﻲ ﻣـُﺪ َﺧـَﻦ‬ ‫د َﺧﱠـﻦ‬ modals: possibility. preference etc You can use a modal together with the simple imperfect to indicate whether something must. feminine and plural forms. Here are some examples: Modal Example Meaning laezim laezim yiktib PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. may. could happen.com . Most proper modals are invariable.

com . Here are some examples: Type Modal Example Meaning Aaewiz Aaewiz yiktib PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. laezim laezim yiktib he must write ‫ﻻ َز ِم‬ ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ mumkin mumkin yiktib he could write ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ mihtaeg mihtaeg yiktib he needs to write ‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج‬ ‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ yimkin yimkin yiktib he might write ‫ﯾـِﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ ‫ﯾـِﻤﻜـِﻦ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ ilmafrud ilmafrud yiktib he should> write ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﻔﺮوض‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﻔﺮوض ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ darury darury yiktib it is essential that he should write ‫ﺿـَﺮوري‬ ‫ﺿـَﺮوري ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ Aalashaen ‫ ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬Aalashaen yiktib in order to write pronounced Aashaen ‫ِﺐ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ِﻜﺘ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫َن‬ ‫َﺸﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫َﻠ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻋـَﺸﺎ َن‬ There are also some verbs or participles that can be used as modals.

yihibb yihibb yiktib verb he likes to write ‫ﺐ‬ ّ ‫ ﯾـِﺤِـ‬،ّ‫ﺣَـﺐ‬ ‫ﺐ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﯾـِﺤِـ‬ lihi'. yiruh raah yiktib verb he went to write ‫ ﯾـِﺮوح‬،‫را َح‬ ‫را َح ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ nisy. yihla' lihi' yiktib verb he managed to write ‫ ﯾـِﺤﻠـَﻖ‬،‫ﻟـِﺤـِﻖ‬ ‫ﻟـِﺤـِﻖ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ raah. Here are some examples. yiAraf yiAraf yiktib verb he knows how to write ‫ ﯾـِﻌﺮ َف‬،‫ﯾـِﻌﺮ َف ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ ﻋـِﺮ ِف‬ habb. Aaewiz Aaewiz yiktib participle he wants to write ‫ﻋﺎ َو ِز‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َو ِز ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ naewy naewy yiktib participle he intends to write ‫ﻧﺎ َوي‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َوي ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ nifs nifsuh yiktib noun he wishes he could write ‫ﻧـِﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻧـِﻔﺴـُﻪ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ 'idir.com . and verbs must be the appropriate case. yinsa nisi yiktib verb he forgot to write ‫ ﯾـِﻨﺴﻰ‬،‫ﻧـِﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻧـِﺲ ِ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ Participles must agree with the gender and number. True modals like laezim ‫ ﻻ َز ِم‬do not change. yi'dar yi'dar yiktib verb he is able to write ‫ ﯾـِﻘﺪ َر‬،‫ﻗـِﺪ ِر‬ ‫ﯾـِﻘﺪ َر ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ Airif. PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . Type English Arabic 'ana laezim 'aktib modal I must write ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻻ َز ِم أﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ 'inta laezim tiktib modal you(m) must write ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻻ َز ِم ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ huwwa laezim yiktib modal he must write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻻ َز ِم ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ humma laezim tiktibu modal they must write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﻻ َز ِم ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ 'ana Aaeyiz 'aktib participle I want to write ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ أﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya Aaeyiza tiktib participle she wants to write ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ َة ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ humma Aaeyizyn yiktibu participle they want to write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰﯾﻦ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ ana baehibb 'aktib verb I like to write ‫ﺐ أﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ ّ ‫ا َﻧﺎ َ ﺑﺎ َﺣِـ‬ huwwa biyihibb yiktib verb he likes to write ‫ﺐ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﺤِـ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

or to any preposition associated with it.com . English Arabic hiya Aaeyizany 'aktib she wants me to write ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ َﻧﻲ أﻛﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya Aaeyiza tiktib she wants to write ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ َة ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ hiya Aaeyizah yiktib she wants him to write ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ َه ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ huwwa Aaeyizha tiktib he wants her to write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰﻫﺎ َ ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. hiya bitihibb tiktib verb she likes to write ‫ﺐ ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺑـِﺘـِﺤِـ‬ humma biyihibbu yiktibu verb they like to write ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﺤِـﺒّﻮ ا ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺒﻮا‬ If the subject of the verb is not the same as the subject of the modal I want to go (same) I want him to go (different) in both english and egpytian you add an object pronoun to the modal: in Egyptian it is attached to the modal.

In Egyptian.masculine. feminine and plural. English Verb Masculine Feminine Plural -y -u Imperfect ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ـﻮا‬ yibuss buss bussy bussu look! ‫ﺺ‬ ّ ‫ﯾـِﺒُـ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ّ ‫ﺑُـ‬ ‫ﺑُـﺼّﻲ‬ ‫ﺑُـﺼّﻮا‬ yiruh ruwh ruwhy ruwhu go! ‫ﯾـِﺮوح‬ ‫ر ُوح‬ ‫ر ُوﺣﻮا ر ُوﺣﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . Here are some examples. bitihibbuh yiktib she likes him to write ‫ﺑـِﺘـِﺤِـﺒﱡـﻪ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ biyihibbha tiktib he likes her to write ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﺤِـﺒّﻬﺎ َ ﺗـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ chalitw yiktib I let him write ‫ﺧـَﻠـِﺘﻮ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ talabt minnuh yiktib I asked him to write ‫ﻃـَﻠـَﺒﺖ ﻣِـﻨﱡـﻪ ﯾـِﻜﺘـِﺐ‬ Imperatives When you want to tell somebody to do something. there are three forms. you use an imperative.

yiygy come! ‫ ﯾـِﯿﺠﻲ‬taAaela taAaly taAalu ‫ل‬ َ َ ‫ﺗـَﻌﺎ َﻟﻮا ﺗـَﻌﺎ َﻟﻲ ﺗـَﻌﺎ‬ irregular yaekul kul kuly kulu eat! ‫ﯾﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻠﻮا‬ yuskut 'iskut 'iskuty 'iskutu shut up! ‫ﯾـُﺴﻜـُﺖ‬ ‫إﺳﻜـُﺖ‬ ‫إﺳﻜـُﺘﻮا إﺳﻜـُﺘﻲ‬ yihda 'ihda 'ihdy 'ihdu calm down! ‫ﯾـِﻬﺪى‬ ‫إﻫﺪى‬ ‫إﻫﺪي‬ ‫إﻫﺪوا‬ walk! yimshy 'imshy 'imshy 'imshu (go away) ‫ﯾـِﻤﺸﻲ‬ ‫إﻣﺸﻲ‬ ‫إﻣﺸﻲ‬ ‫إﻣﺸﻮا‬ verbal nouns It is sometimes useful to make a noun from a verb. Here are some examples: English Arabic Verb iGsil iydyk 'abl il'akl kal wash your hands before eating ‫ا ِﻏﺴـِﻞ ا ِﯾﺪﯾﻚ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ا ِﻷﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻞ‬ Aandy hagz haegiz I have a reservation ‫ﺣﺎ َﺟـِﺰ ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺣـَﺠﺰ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Here are some examples: English Egyptian huwwa mish hina he is not here ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ huwwa makansh hina he was not here ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻣـَﻜﺎ َﻧﺶ ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ masafirtish barra masr I have not travelled outside egypt ‫ﻣـَﺴـَﻔـِﺮﺗـِﺶ ﺑَـﺮّا َ ﻣـَﺼﺮ‬ 'ana mish Aaarif I do not know ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ ma'dirsh yigy he was not able to come ‫ﻣـَﻘﺪ ِرش ﯾـِﺠﻲ‬ mish hayigy he will not come PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. or wrapped around it. illiaAba dih li'arbAa laAyba liAib This game is for four players ‫ا ِﻟﱢــَﻌﺒـَﺔ د ِه ﻟـِﺄرﺑﻊ َ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟـِﻌـِﺐ‬ ‫َعيبَا‬ Negation of verbs You can say that something is not happening using the word mish ‫ﻣـِﺶ‬. It can appear before a verb.com .

Adverbs A verb explains what is being done: adverbs can be used to specify how.they are placed after the verb. he will not come ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﻫـَﯿـِﺠﻲ‬ matimshysh don't go! ‫ﻣـَﺘـِﻤﺸﯿﺶ‬ See Negation for more details. when. There can be more than one adverb. Here are some examples. where and in what manner it is being done.com . English Egyptian 'ahmad taalaA fu' direction Ahmed is going up (stairs) ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻃﺎ َﻟـَﻊ ﻓﻮق‬ 'ahmad gayy hina position Ahmed is coming here ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺟـَﯿﻲ ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ 'ahmad hayigy bukra biillyl time Ahmed will come tomorrow evening ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺣـَﯿـِﺠﻲ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َة ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ 'ahmad biyimshy daymaen frequency Ahmed always walks ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻤﺸﻲ د َﯾﻤًﺎ‬ 'ahmad biyimshy bisuraAa PRO quality version Are you aAhmed developer? Trywalks quickly out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

quality Ahmed walks quickly ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻤﺸﻲ ﺑـِﺴـُﺮ َﻋـَﺔ‬ 'ahmad biyimshy bisuraAa giddaen extent Ahmed walks extremely quickly ‫ا‬‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻤﺸﻲ ﺑـِﺴـُﺮ َﻋـَﺔ ﺟِـﺪ‬ 'ahmad biyitaalaA issalaelim daymaen Ahmed always walks slowly upstairs in bishwysh fy illyl the evening ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﻄﺎ َﻟـَﻊ ا ِﻟﺴـَﻼ َﻟـِﻢ د َﯾﻤًﺎ ﺑـِﺸﻮﯾﺶ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ direction Direction adverbs can be used with verbs like go English Egyptian English example Egyptian example fu' 'ana taalaA fu' up I am going upstairs ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻃﺎ َﻟـَﻊ ﻓﻮق‬ taht Gitis taht down he dived down ‫ﺗـَﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻏـِﻄـِﺲ ﺗـَﺤﺖ‬ shamael chushsh shamael left turn left! ‫ﺷـَﻤﺎ َل‬ ‫ﺶ ﺷـَﻤﺎ َل‬ ّ ‫ﺧُـ‬ yimyn buss yimyn right look right! ‫ﯾـِﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺺ ﯾـِﻤﯿﻦ‬ ّ ‫ﺑُـ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Here are some examples: English Egyptian English example Egyptian example halaen haftahuh halaen immediately I will open it immediately ‫ﻻ‬ ً َ ‫ﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ً َ ‫ﻫـَﻔﺘـَﺤـُﻪ ﺣﺎ‬ dilwa'ty 'ihna gaehizyn dilwa'ty PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Aala tul 'imshy Aala tul straight ahead ‫ ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬go(walk) straight ahead ‫إﻣﺸﻲ ﻋـَﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ location Location adverbs can be used with verbs like go English Egyptian English example Egyptian example hina taAala hina here come here! ‫ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻌﺎ َﻟﻰ ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ hinaek laezim 'aruwh hinaek bukrah there I have to go there tomorrow ‫ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك‬ ‫ﻻ َز ِم أر ُوح ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ time Time adverbs are used to specify when you do something: they can be used with almost any verb.com .

dilwa'ty 'ihna gaehizyn dilwa'ty now we are ready now ‫د ِﻟﻮ َﻗﺘﻲ‬ ‫إﺣﻨﺎ َ ﺟﺎ َﻫـِﺰﯾﻦ د ِﻟﻮ َﻗﺘﻲ‬ no already he (is) already here huwwa mawgwd equivalent ilhafla innahaarda biillyl innahaarda today the party is this evening ‫ا ِﻟﺤـَﻔﻠـَﺔ ا ِﻟﻨـَﻬﺎ َرد َة ﺑـِﺎ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻨـَﻬﺎ َرد َة‬ ‫ِلّيل‬ haruwh il'iskandiraaya bukrah bukrah tomorrow I will go to Alexandria tomorrow ‫ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ ‫ﻫـَﺮ ُوح ا ِﻹﺳﻜـَﻨﺪ ِرا َﯾـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ the day after baAd bukrah I will come back the day after 'ana hargaA baAd bukrah tomorrow ‫ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬tomorrow ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻫـَﺮﺟـَﻊ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ 'imbaarih wasalt 'imbaarih yesterday she arrived yesterday ‫إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ ‫و َﺻـَﻠﺖ إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ 'awil day before 'ashtarytuh 'awil 'imbaarih 'imbaarih I bought it the day before yesterday yesterday ‫أﺷﺘـَﺮﯾﺘـُﻪ أو ِل إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ ‫أو ِل إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ il'usbwaA hanrawwah il'usbwaA illigaey illigaey next week ‫ ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع‬we will go home next week ‫ﻫـَﻨﺮ َ ّو َح ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع ا ِﻟﱢـﺠﺎ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

‫ا ِﻟﱢـﺠﺎ َي‬ ‫َي‬ ihna fy 'agaeza il'usbwaA il'usbwaA dih dih this week ‫ ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع‬we are on holiday this week ‫ا ِﺣﻨﺎ َ ﻓﻲ أﺟﺎ َز َة ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ‬ ‫د ِه‬ ‫َع د ِه‬ il'usbwaA 'illy faet shuftaha il'usbwaA 'illy last week faet ‫ ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع‬I saw her last week ‫ﺷـُﻔﺘـَﻬﺎ َ ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع إﻟّﻲ ﻓﺎ َت‬ ‫إﻟّﻲ ﻓﺎ َت‬ badry laezim ni'um badry bukrah early we must get up early tomorrow ‫ﺑـَﺪري‬ ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﻧـِﻘﻮم ﺑـَﺪري ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ biillyl fy hafla biillyl evening there is a party this evening ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣـَﻔﻠـَﺔ ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ baAdyn hashufak baAdyn later see you later ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺣـَﺸﻮﻓـَﻚ ﺑـَﻌﺪﯾﻦ‬ Ganny il'aGniya dih kamaen kamaen marrah again marrah play that song again ‫ﻏَـﻨّﻲ ا ِﻷﻏﻨـِﯿـَﺔ د ِه ﻛـَﻤﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻛـَﻤﺎ َن ﻣَـ ّﺮ َه‬ ‫ﻣَـ ّﺮ َه‬ hanaekul wa baAd kida baAd kida we will eat and afterwards we will hani'Aad fyilginyna afterwards PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

baAd kida we will eat and afterwards we will afterwards ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﻛـِﺪ َة‬ sit in the garden ‫ﻫـَﻨﺎ َﻛـُﻞ و َ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﻛـِﺪ َة ﻫـَﻨـِﻘﻌـَﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺎ ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ‬ min I have lived here for a long time (lit. sikint hina min zamaen ago ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬ since a long time ago ‫ﺳـِﻜـِﻨﺖ ﻫـِﻨﺎ َ ﻣـِﻦ ز َﻣﺎ َن‬ frequency This group of adverbs specifies how frequently you do something.com . Here are some examples: English Egyptian English example Egyptian example baechud Aadataen taAsylla baAd Aaedataen usually I usually take a nap after lunch ilGadaa' ‫ﻋﺎ َد َﺗًﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ َﺧـُﺪ ﻋـَﺪ َﺗًﺎ ﺗـَﻌﺴﯿﻠﱠـﺔ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻐـَﺪا َء‬ daymaen maktabuh mitsattif daymaen always his office is always neat ‫د َﯾﻤًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣـَﻜﺘـَﺒـُﻪ ﻣـِﺘﺴَـﺘﱢـﻒ د َﯾﻤًﺎ‬ naediraan 'ana bashuf ahmad naediraan rarely I rarely see Ahmed ‫ﻧﺎ َد ِرًا‬ ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺑﺎ َﺷﻮف ا َﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻧﺎ َد ِرًا‬ bi'intizaem baruh ilgym bi'intizaem regularly I go to the gym regularly ‫ﺑـِﺈﻧﺘـِﻈﺎ َم‬ ‫ﺑـَﺮوح ا ِﻟﺠﯿﻢ ﺑـِﺈﻧﺘـِﻈﺎ َم‬ hadd s'aalny Aanuh dih min min 'urayib somebody asked me about that 'urayib recently ‫ﻣـِﻦ ﻗـُﺮ َﯾـِﺐ‬ recently PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

recently ‫ ﻣـِﻦ ﻗـُﺮ َﯾـِﺐ‬recently ‫ﺣَـ ّﺪ ﺳﺄ َﻟﻨﻲ ﻋـَﻨـُﻪ د ِه ﻣـِﻦ ﻗـُﺮ َﯾـِﺐ‬ 'abadaen mish Aaarifuh 'abadaen at all I don't know him at all ‫أﺑـَﺪًا‬ ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـُﻪ أﺑـَﺪًا‬ thany Aaeyiz 'aruh hinaek thany again I would like to go there again ‫ﺛﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ أروح ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك ﺛﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ Galibaen hiya taAbaena Galibaen often she is often tired ‫ﻏـَﻠـِﺒًﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َﻧـَﺔ ﻏـَﻠـِﺒًﺎ‬ lil'abad mahaddish biyiAish lil'abad forever nobody lives for ever ‫ﻟـِﻸﺑـَﺪ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺤَـ ّﺪ ِش ﺑـِﯿـِﻌـِﺶ ﻟـِﻸﺑـَﺪ‬ tul ilyum mattar tul ilyum all day it rained all day ‫ﻃﻮل ا ِﻟﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻣَـﻄﱠـﺮ ﻃﻮل ا ِﻟﯿﻮم‬ all kaen biyishrib sagaeyar tul tul ilAumr he smoked cigarettes all his (my/his/her) Aumruh ‫ﻃﻮل ا ِﻟﻌـُﻤﺮ‬ life life ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﺑـِﯿـِﺸﺮ ِب ﺳـَﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ ﻃﻮل ﻋـُﻤﺮ ُه‬ 'awilaen firstly ‫ﻻ‬ ً ِ ‫أو‬ 'achyraan zaar lundun 'achyraan finally he finally visited london ‫أﺧﯿﺮًا‬ ‫زا َر ﻟـُﻨﺪ ُن أﺧﯿﺮًا‬ min wa't baruh ilginyna min wa't lilthany lilthany PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

lilthany occasionally ‫ﺑـَﺮوح ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ ﻣـِﻦ و َﻗﺖ ﻟـِﻠﺜﺎ‬ ‫ ﻣـِﻦ و َﻗﺖ‬I go to the park occasionally ‫َني‬ ‫ﻟـِﻠﺜﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ biissaeAa laezim titammim biissaeAa hourly you must check hourly ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﺗـِﺘَـﻤﱢـﻢ ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ‬ binishuf samak 'irsh 'ahyanaen 'ahyanaen we sometimes see sharks sometimes hina ‫أﺣﯿﺎ َﻧًﺎ‬ here ‫ﺑـِﻨـِﺸﻮف ﺳـَﻤـَﻚ ﻗـِﺮش أﺣﯿﺎ َﻧًﺎ ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ 'aw'aet bitmattar fy masr 'aw'aet ‫أوﻗﺎ َت ﺑـِﺘﻤَـﻄﱠـﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣـَﺼﺮ‬ sometimes ‫ أوﻗﺎ َت‬it sometimes rains in Egypt Note: always goes at beginning of sentence Extent The following adverbs can be placed after an adjective or another adverb to indicate the extent: English Egyptian shwaya slightly ‫ﺷﻮ َﯾـَﺔ‬ maA'ula reasonably ‫ﻣـَﻌﻘﻮﻟـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

'awy very ‫ﻗـَﻮي‬ chaalis extremely ‫ﺧﺎ َﻟـِﺺ‬ giddaen ‫ا‬‫ﺟِـﺪ‬ Aail'achir ‫ﻋـَﺎ ِﻷﺧـِﺮ‬ 'awy too ‫ﻗـَﻮي‬ Derived adverbs Most adjectives in english can be converted to an adverb by adding the letters -ly. for example nice becomes nicely.com . the adjective can be converted to an adverb by adding the ending -an ‫ـًﺎ‬ English adjective adverb rasmy rasmyaen officially ‫ر َﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ر َﺳﻤﯿًﺎ‬ nazary nazariyaen theoretically PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. In Egyptian.

theoretically ‫ﻧـَﻈـَﺮي‬ ‫ﻧـَﻈـَﺮ ِﯾًﺎ‬ tabyAy tabyAyaen naturally ‫ﻃـَﺒﯿﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻃـَﺒﯿﻌﯿًﺎ‬ harfy harfyaen literally ‫ﺣـَﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣـَﺮﻓﯿًﺎ‬ Aumumy Aumumaen generally ‫ﻋـُﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـُﻤﻮﻣًﺎ‬ Aady Aadataen normally ‫ﻋﺎ َدي‬ ‫ﻋـَﺪ َﺗًﺎ‬ 'ulayil 'alayalaen slightly ‫ﻗـُﻠـَﯿـِﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ً ‫ﻗـَﻠـَﯿَـ‬ Similarly. a noun can be converted to an adverbal phrase by adding the word with.com . the same can be achieved by adding bi. for example with care.‫ ﺑِـ‬at the start of the word. In Egyptian. English Egyptian English Egyptian bihazar fatah ilAalba bihazar with care he opened the box carefully ‫ﺑـِﺤـَﺬ َر‬ ‫ﻓـَﺘـَﺢ ا ِﻟﻌـَﻠﺒـَﺔ ﺑـِﺤـَﺬ َر‬ bisurAa 'ahmad biyisu' bisurAa 'awy with speed Ahmed drives very fast ‫ﺑـِﺴـُﺮﻋـَﺔ‬ ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﺑـِﯿـِﺴﻮق ﺑـِﺴـُﺮﻋـَﺔ ﻗـَﻮي‬ PRO version biirraaha Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API 'ilaAbu biirraaha pdfcrowd.

biirraaha 'ilaAbu biirraaha with calm play (pl) quietly! ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺮا َﺣـَﺔ‬ ‫إﻟـَﻌﺒﻮ ا ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺮا َﺣـَﺔ‬ il'igtimaeA 'achad saeAa biizzabt the meeting took exactly one with precision biizzabt ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻈـَﺒﻂ‬ hour ‫ا ِﻹﺟﺘـِﻤﺎ َع أﺧـَﺪ ﺳﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻈـَﺒﻂ‬ with bi'iAatidael 'akul bi'iAatidael eat moderately moderation ‫ﺑـِﺈﻋـَﺘـِﺪا َل‬ ‫أﻛـُﻞ ﺑـِﺈﻋـَﺘـِﺪا َل‬ biillyl fy hafla biillyl in the evening there is a party this evening ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣـَﻔﻠـَﺔ ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ Miscellaneous English Egyptian English example Egyptian example together sawa 'ihna misaefiryn sawa we will travel together (people) ‫ﺳـَﻮَا‬ ‫إﺣﻨﺎ َ ﻣـِﺴﺎ َﻓـِﺮﯾﻦ ﺳـَﻮَا‬ together maAa baAd 'ihna misaefiryn maAa baAd (people and we will travel together things) ‫ﻣـَﻊ َ ﺑـَﻌﺾ‬ ‫إﺣﻨﺎ َ ﻣـِﺴﺎ َﻓـِﺮﯾﻦ ﻣـَﻊ َ ﺑـَﻌﺾ‬ kul wahid 'ihna misaefiryn kul wahid liwahduh we will travel liwahduh separately separately ‫ﻛـُﻞ و َﺣـِﺪ ﻟـِﻮ َﺣﺪ ُه‬ ‫إﺣﻨﺎ َ ﻣـِﺴﺎ َﻓـِﺮﯾﻦ ﻛـُﻞ و َﺣـِﺪ ﻟـِﻮ َﺣﺪ ُه‬ kuwayis huwwa biyiGanny kuwayis 'awy well PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API he sings very well pdfcrowd.com .

com . space.etc) between a noun and something else. 'ibtada issaeAa ithnyn reference to ‫ ﺣـَﺴـَﺐ‬the riot started at 2am ‫ ا‬،‫ﺣـَﺴـَﺐ ﻛـَﻼ َم ا ِﻟﺒﻮﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫ِلشـَغـَب إبتـَدى ا ِلسا َعـَة ا ِثنين‬ Aand Aandy biyt fy il'aehira ownership have I have a house in Cairo ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺑـِﯿﺖ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﻘﺎ َﻫـِﺮ َة‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. In both english and Egyptian. Here are some examples: Domain English Egyptian English Egyptian baAd hiya gaet baAd ilAashaa' time after she came after dinner ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺟﺎ َت ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ wara the garden is behind the ilginyna wara ilbiyt space behind ‫و َرَا‬ house ‫ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ و َرا َ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ zayy I need another pen like mihtaeg 'alam thany zayy dah quality like ‫ز َﯾﻲ‬ this ‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج ﻗـَﻠـَﻢ ﺛﺎ َﻧﻲ ز َﯾﻲ د َه‬ hasab kalaem ilbulys. ishshaGab according hasab according to the police. well he sings very well ‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺲ‬ ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﯿـِﻐَـﻨّﻲ ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺲ ﻗـَﻮي‬ Prepositions Prepositions define a relationship (in time. the preposition goes before the noun that it defines the relationship to.

.. See more about this below. delivered the carpet ‫و َﺻـَﻠﺖ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ ا ِﻟّﻲ و‬ ‫َصـَل ا ِلسـِجا َد َة‬ object wasalt baAdaha her I arrived after her pronoun ‫و َﺻـَﻠﺖ ﺑـَﻌﺪ َ َه‬ qualifying mihtaeg 'alam thany zayy dah this I need another pen like this pronoun ‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج ﻗـَﻠـَﻢ ﺛﺎ َﻧﻲ ز َﯾﻲ د َه‬ Be careful! If it's not a noun. but a complete clause (ie it has a verb). it's confusing because the preposition and conjunction are often the same word: in Egyptian it is necessary to insert the word maa to convert a preposition ot a conjunction. Prepositions of time PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. In english.com . you have to use a conjunction. The noun can be one of the following: Element Preposition English Egyptian hiya maAa 'ahmad name Ahmed she is with Ahmed ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ ﻣـَﻊ َ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ il'utta guwwa ilbiyt simple noun the house the cat is inside the house ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ﺟُـﻮّا َ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ wasalt baAd irraagil illy wasal complex the man I arrived after the man who issigaeda noun who.

English Egyptian English Egyptian baAd hanibtidy baAd ilAiyd after we will start after the feast ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻨـِﺒﺘـِﺪي ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻌـِﯿﺪ‬ 'abl I must paint the house before laezim 'adhin ilbiyt 'abl issyf before ‫ﻗـَﺒﻞ‬ summer ‫ﻻ َز ِم أدﻫـِﻦ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ا ِﻟﺼﯿﻒ‬ athnaa' ittadchyn mamnuA 'athnaa' ilAashaa' during smoking is forbidden during dinner ‫ا َﺛﻨﺎ َء‬ ‫ا ِﻟﺘـَﺪﺧﯿﻦ ﻣـَﻤﻨﻮع أﺛﻨﺎ َء ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ lihadd 'ana mawgud lihadd ilAashaa' till I will be here till dinner ‫ﻟـِﺤَـ ّﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـَﻮﺟﻮد ﻟـِﺤَـ ّﺪ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ humma mawgudyn liGaeyit saeAa liGaeyit till they are busy until 8pm tamanya ‫ﻟـِﻐﺎ َﯾـِﺔ‬ ‫ﻫُـ ّﻢ َ ﻣـَﻮﺟﻮدﯾﻦ ﻟـِﻐﺎ َﯾـِﺔ ﺳﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ Prepositions of space English Egyptian English Egyptian min huwwa min ilqaahira from he is from Cairo ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬ ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻣـِﻦ ا ِﻟﻘﺎ َﻫـِﺮ َة‬ Aan ilkalb garry minny away from the dog ran away from me ‫ﻋـَﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـَﻠﺐ ﺟَـﺮّي ﻣِـﻨّﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Aala irraagil dah bass Aalyna at/toward that man is looking at us ‫ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻋـَﻠﯿﻨَﺎ‬ ّ ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ د َه ﺑَـ‬ fy guzy fy ilbiyt at my husband is at home ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮزي ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ fu' sha''aty fu' ilmaGsala above my apartment is above the laundry ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺷَـﻘﱠـﺘﻲ ﻓﻮق ا ِﻟﻤـَﻐﺴـَﻠـَﺔ‬ taht there are many many fish under the fy samak kityr taht ilmayaeh below ‫ﺗـَﺤﺖ‬ water ‫ﻓﻲ ﺳـَﻤـَﻚ ﻛـِﺘﯿﺮ ﺗـَﺤﺖ ا ِﻟﻤـَﯿﺎ َه‬ ilmataAm 'usaad mahattit 'usaad the restaurant is opposite the railway il'ataar opposite ‫ﻗـُﺼﺎ َد‬ station ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﻄـَﻌﻢ ﻗـُﺼﺎ َد ﻣـَﺤَـﻄﱢـﺔ ا ِﻟﻘـَﻄﺎ‬ ‫َر‬ 'ubael opposite ‫ﻗـُﺒﺎ َل‬ fy ilbiyt fy wishsh issaharaa' facing wishsh the house is facing the desert ‫ش ا ِﻟﺼـَﺤـَﺮا َء‬ ّ ِ ‫ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ ﻓﻲ و‬ ‫ش‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻓﻲ و‬ maktab ilgamaarik Aand Aand at ilmataar ‫ ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬the customs office is at the airport ‫ﻣـَﻜﺘـَﺐ ا ِﻟﺠـَﻤﺎ َر ِك ﻋـَﻨﺪ ا ِﻟﻤـَﻄﺎ َر‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . chushsh yimyn Aand Aand at turn right at the pharmacy issayidaliya ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺶ ﯾـِﻤﯿﻦ ﻋـَﻨﺪ ا ِﻟﺼـَﯿـِﺪ َﻟـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ّ ‫ﺧُـ‬ wara il'utta waraaky behind the cat is behind you (f) ‫و َرَا‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ و َرا َﻛﻲ‬ gamb there was an accident beside the kaen fy hadtha ganb ilgamAa beside ‫ﺟـَﻤﺐ‬ mosque ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎ َدﺛـَﺔ ﺟـَﻨﺐ ا ِﻟﺠﺎ َﻣ َﻊ‬ fy ilkalb fy ilginyna in the dog is in the garden ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـَﻠﺐ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ‬ guwa laezim ni'Aud guwa ilbiyt inside we must stay inside the house ‫ﺟـُﻮَا‬ ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﻧـِﻘﻌـُﺪ ﺟـُﻮا َ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ bara Aaeyiz haga min baraa? outside do you want anything from outside? ‫ﺑـَﺮَا‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﺣـَﺠـَﺔ ﻣـِﻦ ﺑـَﺮا َ؟‬ Aala ilAysh Aala ittarabyza on the bread is on the table ‫ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻌﯿﺶ ﻋـَﻠﻰ ا ِﻟﺘـَﺮ َﺑﯿﺰ َة‬ ilGarda'a byn issaharaa' wa byn Hurghada is between the desert and ilbahr between ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ the sea ‫ا ِﻟﻐـَﺮد َﻗـَﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ا ِﻟﺼـَﺤـَﺮا َء و َ ا‬ ‫ِلبـَحر‬ fy Aawamyd nur biittul biittul ishshaariA PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

I am going to Cairo aacnaa raayiH iil-Qaahirao Miscellaneous Prepositions English Egyptian English Egyptian 'amae. concerning ٫٫٫َ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ٫٫٫َ‫ﻓـ‬ zayy Aandak haega zayy dih? like do you have something like this? ‫ز َﯾﻲ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك ﺣﺎ َﺟـَﺔ ز َﯾﻲ د ِه؟‬ fy fy bu'Aa Aala il'amys dih there is there is a stain on this shirt PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .go.... fa. biittul ishshaariA along there are lamp posts all along the street ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻄﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋـَﻮا َﻣﯿﺪ ﻧﻮر ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻄﻮل ا ِﻟﺸﺎ‬ ‫َر ِع‬ ilmanzar hawalyn ilbiyt gamyl hawalyn The view surrounding the house is 'awy surrounding ‫ ﺣـَﻮ َﻟﯿﻦ‬very beautiful ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﻨﻈـَﺮ ﺣـَﻮ َﻟﯿﻦ ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺟـَﻤﯿﻞ ﻗـَﻮي‬ Note that you don't need a prepositional to after words like raah ‫ را َح‬..

it will be hawaa' kityr bukrah to ‫ﺣـَﺴـَﺐ‬ windy tomorrow ‫ ﺣـَﯿﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ ﻫـَﻮا َء‬،‫ﺣـَﺴـَﺐ ﻛـَﻼ َم أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ ‫ﻛـِﺘﯿﺮ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ Aaks r'ayy Aaks r'ayak contrary my opinion is contrary to yours ‫ﻋـَﻜﺲ‬ ‫رأﯾﻲ ﻋـَﻜﺲ رأﯾـَﻚ‬ 'ila there is no food except this mafish akl 'ila ilAayshsh dah except ‫ﻻ‬ َ‫إ‬ bread ‫ﺶ د َه‬ ّ ‫ﻣـَﻔـِﺶ ا َﻛﻞ إﻻ َ ا ِﻟﻌـَﯿ‬ maAada except ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﺪَا‬ baddal 'idyna firaach baddal illahma instead of give us chicken instead of beef ‫ﺑَـ ّﺪ َل‬ ‫إدﯾﻨﺎ َ ﻓـِﺮا َخ ﺑَـ ّﺪ َل ا ِﻟﱠـﺤﻤـَﺔ‬ biirraGm min nigih biirraGm min ziraaAuh ilmaksur despite he succeeded despite his injuries ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺮ َﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻧـِﺠـِﺢ ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﺮ َﻏﻢ ﻣـِﻦ ذ ِرا َﻋـُﻪ ا ِﻟﻤـَﻜﺴﻮر‬ ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬ fy Aashara duyuf zae'yid 'ithnyn PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. there is there is a stain on this shirt ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑـُﻘﻌـَﺔ ﻋـَﻠﻰ ا ِﻟﻘـَﻤﯿﺺ د ِه‬ Aan I am reading a book about the ba'ra kitaeb Aan iththura about ‫ﻋـَﻦ‬ revolution ‫ﺑـَﻘﺮا َ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب ﻋـَﻦ ا ِﻟﺜﻮر َة‬ hasab kalaem 'ahmad. haykun fy according hasab according to Ahmed.com .

com . you need to use a conjunction. English Egyptian English Egyptian Aand Aandy Aarabiya own I own a car ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﻋـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ‬ maAa maAayah walaeAa have with you I have a cigarette lighter ‫ﻣَـ َﻊ‬ ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﯿـَﻪ و َﻻ َﻋـَﺔ‬ ly ly riglyn have got I have two legs ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ ر ِﺟﻠﯿﻦ‬ Aalashaen kaen fy mukalma Aalashaenak for there was a phone call for you ‫ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻛﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ﻣـُﻜـَﻠﻤـَﺔ ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َﻧـَﻚ‬ Subordinate clauses: maa A preposition connects a noun to a sentence. PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. zae'yid there are ten guests plus two muwazafyn plus ‫زا َﺋـِﺪ‬ staff ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة ﺿـُﯿﻮف زا َﺋـِﺪ إﺛﻨﯿﻦ ﻣـُﻮ‬ ‫َظـَفين‬ Prepositions of ownership This important group is discussed in more detail in the section on ownership. If you want to connect a clause (something with a verb) to a sentence.

Conjunctions PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. some prepositions can be converted to a conjunction by adding the word ma ‫ﻣَﺎ‬. In English. Here are some examples: Element English Egyptian 'iGsil iydyk 'abl ilAashaa' preposition wash your hands before dinner ‫إﻏﺴـِﻞ ا ِﯾﺪﯾﻚ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸﺎ َء‬ 'iGsil iydyk 'abl ma taekul conjunction wash your hands before you eat ‫إﻏﺴـِﻞ ا ِﯾﺪﯾﻚ ﻗـَﺒﻞ ﻣﺎ َ ﺗﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ hiya wasalit baAd ilmasarahiya preposition she arrived after the bus ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ و َﺻـَﻠـِﺖ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻤـَﺴـَﺮ َﺣـِﯿـَﺔ‬ hiya wasalit baAd ma ilmasrahiya 'ibtadit conjunction she arrived after the bus had gone ‫ﻫـِﻲ َ و َﺻـَﻠـِﺖ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ َ ا ِﻟﻤـَﺴﺮ َﺣـِﯿـَﺔ إﺑﺘـَﺪ ِت‬ biyitsarraf zayy ilmaelik preposition he acts like the owner ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﺘﺼَـ ّﺮ َف ز َﯾﻲ ا ِﻟﻤﺎ َﻟـِﻚ‬ biyitsarraf zayy ma yikun ilmakaen bitaeAuh conjunction he acts as if he owns the place ‫ﺑـِﯿـِﺘﺼَـ ّﺮ َف ز َﯾﻲ ﻣﺎ َ ﯾـِﻜﻮن ا ِﻟﻤـَﻜﺎ َن ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـُﻪ‬ yikun ‫ ﯾـِﻜﻮن‬is added in the last example because it is something that is unlikely to happen. See kaan for more details. many conjunctions are the same as prepositions: In Egyptian.com .

I want to make bread but I don't have enough flour Aaayiz aacAamil Aiysh lakin maAandysh diqyq kifaayao Part English Egyptian Aaeyiz 'aAamil Aiysh Main clause I want to make bread ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ أﻋـَﻤـِﻞ ﻋـِﯿﺶ‬ lakin Conjunction but ‫ﻟـَﻜـِﻦ‬ maAandysh di'y' kifaeya Second clause I don't have enough flour ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻨﺪﯾﺶ د ِﻗﯿﻖ ﻛـِﻔﺎ َﯾـَﺔ‬ If you just want to attach a noun. For example: I feared that she was lost aanaa Kuft iinnahaa tikwn taahit The following table lists most of the common conjunctions. In English. Conjunctions are the useful little words that join clauses together to make more complex sentences. the same word is often used for both preposition and conjunction. and gives examples how they can be PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . there is a verb on both sides). it becomes an object pronoun attached to the conjunction. If there is a subject pronoun in the second clause. you should use a preposition. but there are differences in Egyptian: see prepositions and conjunctions for more details. then a conjunction is required. but if you want to attach a clause (ie.

com . hayikbar as ‫ﻃﻮل ﻣَﺎ‬ the plants will grow ‫ ا ِﻟﺰ َر‬،‫ﻃﻮل ﻣﺎ َ ﺑـِﺘـِﺴﻘﻲ ا ِﻟﺠـِﻨﯿﻨـَﺔ‬ ‫َع حـَيـِكبـَر‬ Aalashaen maAndysh Aarabiya Aalashaen ‫ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬ I don't have a car because there is mafiysh filus kifaeya because ‫ﻣـَﻌﻨﺪﯾﺶ ﻋـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن ﻣـَﻔـِﯿﺶ‬ not enough money pronounced Aashaen ‫ﻓـِﻠﻮس ﻛـِﻔﺎ َﯾـَﺔ‬ mihtaeg filus Aalashaen 'ashtiry in order Aalashaen I need money in order to buy food 'akl to ‫ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج ﻓـِﻠﻮس ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن أﺷﺘـِﺮي أﻛﻞ‬ baAd ma we will leave after the movie has hanimshy bAad ma ilfylm yichlas after ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﻣَﺎ‬ finished ‫ﺣـَﻨـِﻤﺸﻲ ﺑﻌـَﺪ ﻣﺎ َ ا ِﻟﻔﯿﻠﻢ ﯾـِﺨﻠـَﺺ‬ wi I went to the bank and it was raht ilbank wi kaen ma'ful and ‫ِو‬ closed ‫ر َﺣﺖ ا ِﻟﺒـَﻨﻚ و ِ ﻛﺎ َن ﻣـَﻘﻔﻮل‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. English Egyptian English Example Egyptian Example 'inn ana chuft 'innaha tikun taehit that I feared that she was lost ‫ن‬ ّ‫إ‬ ‫ا َﻧﺎ َ ﺧـُﻔﺖ إﻧﱠـﻬﺎ َ ﺗـِﻜﻮن ﺗﺎ َﻫـِﺖ‬ tul ma bitis'y ilginyna. izzaraA as long tul ma as long as you water the garden. used.

lend me chamsyn ginya if ‫إذَا‬ fifty pounds ‫ ﺳـَﻠـِﻔﻨﻲ‬،‫إذا َ ﻛﺎ َن ﻣـَﻌﺎ َك ﻓـِﻠﻮس‬ ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴﯿﻦ ﺟـِﻨﯿـَﺔ‬ instead badal ma badal ma matruh. kalimhum instead of going. salifny 'iza if you have some money.com . haetit chaani' if If you go. call them PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. you will get into a fight ‫إن‬ ‫ ﺣﺎ َﺗـِﺖ ﺧﺎ َﻧـِﻖ‬،‫ن روﺣﺖ ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك‬ ّ‫إ‬ 'iza kaen maAaek filus. Aala 'inn as if ‫ن‬ ّ ‫ﻋـَﻠﻰ إ‬ kae'inn biyusrif filus kae'innuh Gany as if he spends money as if he is rich ‫ن‬ ّ ‫ﻛﺎ َإ‬ ‫ﺑـِﯿـُﺼﺮ ِف ﻓـِﻠﻮس ﻛﺎ َإﻧﱡـﻪ ﻏـَﻨﻲ‬ biyusrif filus zayy ma yikun Gany zayy ma as if he spends money as if he is rich ‫ﺑـِﯿـُﺼﺮ ِف ﻓـِﻠﻮس ز َﯾﻲ ﻣﺎ َ ﯾـِﻜﻮن‬ ‫ز َﯾﻲ ﻣَﺎ‬ ‫ﻏـَﻨﻲ‬ 'abl ma before ‫ﻗـَﺒﻞ ﻣَﺎ‬ bass I would like to go but I don't have nifsy aaruh bass maAandysh wa't but ‫ﺲ‬ ّ ‫ﺑَـ‬ time ‫ﺲ ﻣـَﻌـَﻨﺪﯾﺶ و َﻗﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﻧـِﻔﺴﻲ ا َروح ﺑَـ‬ lakin but ditto ‫ﻟـَﻜـِﻦ‬ 'in 'inn ruht hinaek.

. he will do for like fyk ‫ز َي ﻣَﺎ‬ you ‫ز َﯾﻲ ﻣﺎ َ ﻋـَﻤـَﻠﺖ ﻓﯿﻪ ﻫـَﯿـِﺘﻌـَﻤـِﻞ ﻓﯿﻚ‬ lae. neither this is working nor is this biyinfaA nor.com ... call them of ‫ﺑـَﺪ َل ﻣَﺎ‬ ‫ ﻛـَﻠـِﻤﻬـُﻢ‬،‫ﺑـَﺪ َل ﻣﺎ َ ﻣـَﺘﺮوح‬ zayy ma Aamalt fyh hayitAamil zay ma as you did for him. instead instead of going. working ٫٫‫ و َﻻ َه‬٫٫٫َ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻻ َ د َه ﻧﺎ َﻓـَﻊ و َﻻ َه د َه ﺑـِﯿـِﻨﻔـَﻊ‬ 'aw mumkin naekul samak 'aw firaach or we can eat fish or chicken ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ ﻧﺎ َﻛـُﻞ ﺳـَﻤـَﻚ أو ﻓـِﺮا َخ‬ Aaewiz taekul samak wala or (in wala would you like fish or chicken? firaach? question) ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ‫و‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َو ِز ﺗﺎ َﻛـُﻞ ﺳـَﻤـَﻚ و َﻻ َ ﻓـِﺮا َخ؟‬ rather 'ahsan I would prefer to eat fish rather 'akul issamak 'ahsan min ilfiraach than ‫أﺣﺴـَﻦ‬ than chicken ‫أﻛـُﻞ ا ِﻟﺴـَﻤـَﻚ أﺣﺴـَﻦ ﻣـِﻦ ا ِﻟﻔـِﺮا َخ‬ wa 'illa 'ichrassy wa 'illa haarawahik otherwise shut up otherwise we go home! ‫ﻻ‬ ‫وَ إ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻻ َ ﻫﺎ َر َو َﺣـِﻚ‬ ّ ‫إﺧﺮ َﺳّﻲ و َ إ‬ matidyhush filus 'ila 'iza 'ana 'ila 'iza don't give him any money unless I samahtylak unless ‫إﻻ َ إذَا‬ allow you to َ ‫ﻣـَﺘـِﺪﯾﻬﻮش ﻓـِﻠﻮس إﻻ َ إذا َ أﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻤـَﺤﺘﯿﻠـَﻚ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. walaeh. la dah naefaA walaeh dah neither...

kunt qaryt iil-kitaab When conditional clause past 'iza kaen ‫ إذا َ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ perfect present 'iza kaen ‫ إذا َ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ imperfect future 'iza kaen ‫ إذا َ ﻛﺎ َن‬+ imperfect PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . the word then is occasionally used to complement if In Egyptian. In Egyptian. in English we use modals like 'would' and 'were'. If an event or situation is improbable or impossible. the word kaen ‫ ﻛﺎ َن‬is used after law ‫ﻟـَﻮ‬.. I will read the book iicdhaa Aandy waqt.) There are two words meaning if: they are 'iza ‫ إذَا‬and law ‫ﻟـَﻮ‬. haaqraac iil-kitaab if I had time. Compare these two sentences: if I have time. then. In English. I would read the book law kaan Aandy waqt. there is no equivalent word..... 'iza ‫ إذَا‬can be used under all circumstances: law ‫ ﻟـَﻮ‬cannot be used with the imperfect form of a verb or a preposition. If I were rich. conditional clauses (if.

ask for things and thank people on a day to day basis. Courtesies This section summarises the expressions that are used daily to greet and say goodbye to people. Religion Religion is very important in Egypt.com . There are several phrases that you will hear regularly in any conversation. Egyptian English ilhamdu lillah thanks to Allah ‫ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺪ ُ ﻟِـﻠﱠـﻪ‬ 'allah yisalaemak may god protect you m ‫أﻟﱠـﻪ ﯾـِﺴـَﻼ َﻣـَﻚ‬ 'allah yisalaemik may god protect you f ‫أﻟﱠـﻪ ﯾـِﺴـَﻼ َﻣـِﻚ‬ 'inn shaa' 'allah god willing ‫ن ﺷﺎ َء أﻟﱠـﻪ‬ ّ‫إ‬ ya rab Oh god! ‫ﯾﺎ َ ر َب‬ rabbina PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

boss! ‫ﯾﺎ َ ر َﯾـِﺲ‬ ya 'ustah driver! ‫ﯾﺎ َ أ ُﺳﻄـَﻪ‬ ya 'ustaez hey mister(teacher)! ‫ﯾﺎ َ أ ُﺳﺘﺎ َذ‬ to a respectable person ya 'ustaeza ‫ﯾﺎ َ أ ُﺳﺘﺎ َذ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Ahmad! ‫ﯾﺎ َ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ ya rayis hey. rabbina our god! ‫ر َﺑﱢـﻨَﺎ‬ issalaem Aalykum greeting ‫ا ِﻟﺴـَﻼ َم ﻋـَﻠﯿﻜـُﻢ‬ peace be with you m/f Aalykum issalaem response ‫ﻋـَﻠﯿﻜـُﻢ ا ِﻟﺴـَﻼ َم‬ Addressing somebody ya ‫ ﯾَﺎ‬is often used before somebody's name or title as a greeting Egyptian English ya 'ahmad hey.com .

there are some more formal versions: Egyptian English 'inta you m ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ 'inti informal you f ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ 'intu you pl ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ hadritak ‫ ﺣـَﻀﺮ‬sir ‫ِتـَك‬ hadritik ‫ ﺣـَﻀﺮ‬madam ‫ِتـِك‬ formal siyadtak PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. ‫ ﯾﺎ َ أ ُﺳﺘﺎ َذ‬hey madam! ‫َة‬ basha pasha m/f ‫ﺑﺎ َﺷَﺎ‬ In addition to the standard pronouns for you.com .

Egyptian English 'ahlaen wa sahlaen greeting welcome and ease ‫ﻼ‬ ً ‫ﻼ و َ ﺳـَﻬ‬ ً ‫أﻫ‬ 'ahlaen wa sahlaen response welcome and ease ‫ﻼ‬ ً ‫ﻼ و َ ﺳـَﻬ‬ ً ‫أﻫ‬ 'ahlaen byk response welcome to you m ‫ﻼ ﺑﯿﻚ‬ ً ‫أﻫ‬ 'ahlaen byky response welcome to you f ‫ﻼ ﺑﯿﻜﻲ‬ ً ‫أﻫ‬ hamd illah Aala salamtak greeting thank god for protecting you m PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . you can use one of these phrases... siyadtak sir ‫ﺳـِﯿـَﺪﺗـَﻚ‬ siyadtik madam ‫ﺳـِﯿـَﺪﺗـِﻚ‬ 'afandim Sir/Madam ‫أﻓـَﻨﺪ ِم‬ Greetings To welcome somebody.

Egyptian English PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the following informal greetings are used: Egyptian English sabaeh ilchyr greeting a day of wellbeing ‫ﺻـَﺒﺎ َح ا ِﻟﺨﯿﺮ‬ sabaeh innur response a day of light ‫ﺻـَﺒﺎ َح ا ِﻟﻨﻮر‬ sabaeh il'ishta response a day of cream ‫ﺻـَﺒﺎ َح ا ِﻟﻘـِﺸﻄـَﺔ‬ sabaeh ilful response a day of daisies ‫ﺻـَﺒﺎ َح ا ِﻟﻔـُﻞ‬ After sunset. you should shake hands (very gently) and use one of the following greetings. the following informal greetings may be used: I have heard them very rarely. though.com . greeting thank god for protecting you m ‫لـَه عـَلى سـَلا َمتـَك‬ ّ ِ ‫ﺣـَﻤﺪ‬ hamd illah Aala salamtik greeting thank god for protecting you f ‫لـَه عـَلى سـَلا َمتـِك‬ ّ ِ ‫ﺣـَﻤﺪ‬ Whenever you meet somebody that you already know. Before sunset.

you should ask how they are: Egyptian English Aaemil 'iyh? question what are you m doing? ‫ﻋﺎ َﻣـِﻞ إﯾﻪ؟‬ Aaemila 'iyh? question what are you f doing? ‫ﻋﺎ َﻣـِﻠـَﺔ إﯾﻪ؟‬ 'izayak? question how are you m ‫إز َﯾـَﻚ؟‬ 'izayik? question how are you f ‫إز َﯾـِﻚ؟‬ il'achbaar 'iyh? question what's new? ‫ا ِﻷﺧﺒﺎ َر إﯾﻪ؟‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. misaa' ilchyr greeting an evening of wellbeing ‫ﻣـِﺴﺎ َء ا ِﻟﺨﯿﺮ‬ misaa' ilchyr response an evening of wellbeing ‫ﻣـِﺴﺎ َء ا ِﻟﺨﯿﺮ‬ misaa' ilful response an evening of daisies ‫ﻣـِﺴﺎ َء ا ِﻟﻔـُﻞ‬ Next.com .

you should ask how their wives. etc. ilhamdu lillah response 100% thank god ‫ ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺪ ُ ﻟِـﻠﱠـﻪ‬،‫ﻣـِﯿـَﺔ ﻣـِﯿـَﺔ‬ kuwayis.. children. ilhamdu lillah response I m am good. Introductions PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .. thank god ‫ ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺪ ُ ﻟِـﻠﱠـﻪ‬،‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺴـَﺔ‬ nus nus response half and half ‫ﻧـُﺺ ﻧـُﺺ‬ mish battaal response not bad ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﺑَـﻄّﺎ َل‬ wa 'inta? question and you m? ‫و َ إﻧﺖ َ؟‬ wa 'inti? question and you f? ‫و َ إﻧﺖ ِ؟‬ If you know them well. ilhamdu lillah response I fgood. ilhamdu lillah response all ok. kuluh tamaem. thank god ‫ ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺪ ُ ﻟِـﻠﱠـﻪ‬،‫ﻛـُﻠـُﻪ ﺗـَﻤﺎ َم‬ miya miya. thank god ‫ ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺪ ُ ﻟِـﻠﱠـﻪ‬،‫ﻛـُﻮ َﯾـِﺲ‬ kuwayisa.

.. Egyptian English 'ismak 'iyh? what is your m name? ‫إﺳﻤـَﻚ إﯾﻪ؟‬ 'ismik 'iyh? what is your f name? ‫إﺳﻤـِﻚ إﯾﻪ؟‬ 'ismy . my name is .com ... ٫٫٫ ‫إﺳﻤﻲ‬ tisharrafna pleased to meet you ‫ﺗـِﺸَـ ّﺮ َﻓﻨَﺎ‬ Making you comfortable Egyptian English 'istirayah make yourself m comfortable ‫إﺳﺘـِﺮ َﯾـَﺢ‬ 'istirayahy make yourself f comfortable ‫إﺳﺘـِﺮ َﯾـَﺤﻲ‬ tishrab 'iyh? what will you m drink? ‫ﺗـِﺸﺮ َب إﯾﻪ؟‬ tishraby 'iyh? what will you f drink? PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

rice and vegetables ‫ﻏـَﺪَا‬ before Aasha dinner yogurt.com . English Time Types of food Egyptian bread with salads. luncheon meats. what will you f drink? ‫ﺗـِﺸﺮ َﺑﻲ إﯾﻪ؟‬ Meal time Egyptians normally have two big meals a day. fruit sleeping ‫ﻋـَﺸَﺎ‬ Here are some expressions that are often used around meal times Egyptian When to say it biilhanna wa ishshiffa remark before or after eating ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻬَـﻨّﺎ َ و َ ا ِﻟﺸِـﻔﱠﺎ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. juice. sweet things (Ramadan) ‫إﻓﻄﺎ َر‬ Gada lunch 5-8pm cooked meat or fish. tamiyya ‫ﻓـِﻄﺎ َر‬ breakfast 'iftaar sunset cooked meat. plus a snack before bedtime. dips. rice and vegetables. omelette with fitaar breakfast 11-12am bastirma.

com . sufrah daeymaen say to host remark before leaving table ‫ﺳـُﻔﺮ َه دا َﯾﻤًﺎ‬ like "thanks for the meal" biilhanna wa ishshiffa response ‫ﺑـِﺎ ِﻟﻬَـﻨّﺎ َ و َ ا ِﻟﺸِـﻔﱠﺎ‬ Please Egyptian English Aan 'iznak to m ‫ ﻋـَﻦ إذﻧـَﻚ‬excuse me Aan 'iznik to get past someone to f ‫ﻋـَﻦ إذﻧـِﻚ‬ law samaht to m ‫ﻟـَﻮ ﺳـَﻤـَﺤﺖ‬ please law samahty to f ‫ﻟـَﻮ ﺳـَﻤـَﺤﺘﻲ‬ min fadlak to m ‫ﻣـِﻦ ﻓـَﻀﻠـَﻚ‬ please min fadlik to f ‫ﻣـِﻦ ﻓـَﻀﻠـِﻚ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

.com . ٫٫٫‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ mumkin response Yes (it's possible) ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ Thank you Egyptian English shukraan remark ‫ﺷـُﻜﺮًا‬ 'alf shukr remark ‫أﻟﻒ ﺷـُﻜﺮ‬ mutshakir a'wy remark ‫ﻣـُﺘﺸـَﻜـِﺮ ا َ ي‬ Aafwaen don't mention it reply ‫ﻋـَﻔﻮًا‬ you are welcome ilAafw reply you are welcome ‫ا ِﻟﻌـَﻔﻮ‬ Goodbyes PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd... mumkin.. request Please could you/I...

com . Egyptian English maAa issalaema remark with safety ‫ﻣـَﻊ َ ا ِﻟﺴـَﻼ َﻣـَﺔ‬ maAa issalaema reply with safety ‫ﻣـَﻊ َ ا ِﻟﺴـَﻼ َﻣـَﺔ‬ hashufak 'imtae? When will I see you f? ‫ﻫـَﺸﻮﻓـَﻚ إﻣﺘﺎ َ؟‬ hashufik 'imtae? When will I see you f? ‫ﻫـَﺸﻮﻓـِﻚ إﻣﺘﺎ َ؟‬ hashufak baAdyn See you m later ‫ﻫـَﺸﻮﻓـَﻚ ﺑـَﻌﺪﯾﻦ‬ hashufik baAdyn See you f later ‫ﻫـَﺸﻮﻓـِﻚ ﺑـَﻌﺪﯾﻦ‬ Achievement Egyptian English hazz saAyd good luck! ‫ﻆ ﺳـَﻌﯿﺪ‬ ّ ‫ﺣَـ‬ mabruk remark congratulations PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

new year. feasts ramadaan karym remark during ramadan ‫ر َﻣـَﻀﺎ َن ﻛـَﺮﯾﻢ‬ 'allah 'akram response during ramadan ‫أﻟﱠـﻪ أﻛﺮ َم‬ Opinions Egyptian English 'iyh r'ayak? question what do you m think? ‫إﯾﻪ رأﯾـَﻚ؟‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. remark congratulations ‫ﻣـَﺒﺮوك‬ 'allah yibaarak fyk response god bless you m ‫أﻟﱠـﻪ ﯾـِﺒﺎ َر َك ﻓﯿﻚ‬ 'allah yibaarik fyky response god bless you f ‫أﻟﱠـﻪ ﯾـِﺒﺎ َر ِك ﻓﯿﻜﻲ‬ Occasions Egyptian English kul sana wa 'inta tayib every year and you are happy ‫ ﻛـُﻞ ﺳـَﻨـَﺔ و َ إﻧﺖ َ ﻃـَﯿـِﺐ‬birthdays.com .

'iyh r'ayik? question what do you f think? ‫إﯾﻪ رأﯾـِﻚ؟‬ tamaem? question OK? ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َم؟‬ tamaem kidah? question Ok like this? ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َم ﻛـِﺪ َه؟‬ 'aywa response yes ‫أﯾﻮَا‬ mashy It goes response ‫ﻣﺎ َﺷﻲ‬ ok tamaem response good ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َم‬ tayib response fine ‫ﻃـَﯿـِﺐ‬ haadir response right away ‫ﺣﺎ َﺿـِﺮ‬ mayinfaAsh response it's no use ‫ﻣـَﯿـِﻨﻔـَﻌﺶ‬ mish mumkin response not possible ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . laa' response no ‫ﻻ َء‬ laa' 'abadaen response never! ‫ﻻ َء أﺑـَﺪًا‬ 'aha response offensive way of disagreeing ‫أﺣَﺎ‬ Aafwaen? Pardon? response ‫ﻋـَﻔﻮاً؟‬ if you didn't hear 'ana mish 'akyd response I m/f am not sure ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ أﻛﯿﺪ‬ 'ana mish Aaarif response I m don't know ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ 'ana mish Aaarifa response I f don't know ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َر ِﻓـَﺔ‬ 'ana mish faehim response I m don't understand ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻢ‬ 'ana mish faehima response I f don't understand ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻓﺎ َﻫـِﻤـَﺔ‬ Hassle PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

'imshy go away! ‫إﻣﺸﻲ‬ chalaas kidah stop this ‫ﺧـَﻼ َص ﻛـِﺪ َه‬ haraam Aalyk shame on you m! ‫ﺣـَﺮا َم ﻋـَﻠﯿﻚ‬ haraam Aalyky shame on you f! ‫ﺣـَﺮا َم ﻋـَﻠﯿﻜﻲ‬ chalyk muhtaram ‫ ﺧـَﻠﯿﻚ ﻣـُﺤﺘـَﺮ َم‬be respectful! if a man gets 'ihtirim nafsak over-friendly to a woman ‫إﺣﺘـِﺮ ِم ﻧـَﻔﺴـَﻚ‬ Insults humaar donkey remark ‫ﺣـُﻤﺎ َر‬ offensive 'ibn marah your father is a woman remark ‫إﺑﻦ ﻣـَﺮ َه‬ very offensive 'ibn sharmuta son of a whore/bitch PRO version remark Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

remark ‫ إﺑﻦ ﺷـَﺮﻣﻮﻃـَﺔ‬very offensive 'ifandim??? response pardon???? ‫إﻓـَﻨﺪ ِم؟؟؟‬ Negation The word mish ‫ ﻣـِﺶ‬is used to negate a phrase. or wrapped around it. It is either placed in front of the verb or preposition. Structure English Arabic Aandy sagaeyar I have cigarettes ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺳـَﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ‬ maAandysh sagaeyar I don't have any cigarettes ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻨﺪﯾﺶ ﺳـَﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ‬ Preposition fy mayaeh There is water ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣـَﯿﺎ َه‬ mafysh mayaeh There is no water ‫ﻣـَﻔﯿﺶ ﻣـَﯿﺎ َه‬ 'ana kunt hinaek I was there ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻛـُﻨﺖ ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك‬ kaan 'ana makuntish hinaek PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . 'ana makuntish hinaek I was not there ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـَﻜـُﻨﺘـِﺶ ﻫـِﻨﺎ َك‬ 'ana shuft 'ahmad I saw Ahmed ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺷـُﻔﺖ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ perfect 'ana mashuftish 'ahmad I did not see Ahmed ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـَﺸـُﻔﺘـِﺶ أﺣﻤـَﺪ‬ 'ana Aaarif I know ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ participle 'ana mish Aaarif I do not know ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َر ِف‬ aacnaa maAaarifsh Aaeyiz yaekul He wants to eat ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﯾﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ mish Aaeyiz yaekul imperfect He does not want to eat ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﯾﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ mayaekulsh he must not eat ‫ﻣـَﯿﺎ َﻛـُﻠﺶ‬ bahibb ilkitaeb dah I like this book ‫ﺐ ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬ ّ ‫ﺑـَﺤِـ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

mish bahibb ilkitaeb dah ‫ﺐ ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬ ّ ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﺑـَﺤِـ‬ ] hashtiry ilkitaeb I will buy the book ‫ﻫﺎ َﺷﺘـِﺮي ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب‬ Ha-imperfect mish hashtiry ilkitaeb I will not buy the book ‫ﻣـِﺶ ﻫﺎ َﺷﺘـِﺮي ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب‬ go away! iimshy! imperative use mish+you-imperfect don't go! matimshysh ‫ﻣـَﺘـِﻤﺸﯿﺶ‬ Sometimes ma.. Numbers Arabic digits are not the same as Roman digits: PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.. There are no rules about when this can happen.is used on it own.com .the -sh does not appear after the word. mabahibbsh ilkitaeb dah ‫ﻣـَﺒـَﺤِـﺒّﺶ ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬ bi-imperfect I do not like this book less common.

com . Digit English Egyptian 0 sifr zero ٠ ‫ﺻـِﻔﺮ‬ 1 waehid one ١ ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ‬ 2 'itnyn two ٢ ‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬ 3 talaeta three ٣ ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗـَﺔ‬ 4 'arbaAa four ٤ ‫أرﺑـَﻌـَﺔ‬ 5 chamsa five ٥ ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ 6 sitta six ٦ ‫ﺳِـﺘﱠـﺔ‬ 7 sabAa seven ٧ ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ‬ 8 tamanya eight ٨ ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Usage of the first few numbers is complicated. money. There are special rules for: People of a particular nationality (eg one englishman) Quantities. second. and when you are ordering something (eg teas) People in general (men.weight. Example Function Cardinal five used to count things Ordinal fifth used to describe the order. there are two forms of number. Ordinals are used to describe sequence (first. of something Cardinals Cardinals are used for counting and specifying how many of something. but it gets easier after that :-). etc). 9 tisAa nine ٩ ‫ﺗـِﺴﻌـَﺔ‬ 10 Aashara ten ١٠ ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة‬ Cardinals and Ordinals In both English and egyptian.cardinals and ordinals. Cardinals are used to count things (one. three). women etc) Things . two.everything else PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . or position in sequence.

com . The following table gives an overview of the situation: Quantities Things People Nationals weight books Number Form men Egyptians money chairs women tea minutes sifr ‫ﺻـِﻔﺮ‬ wazn kutub mafysh ‫ و َزن‬rigala ‫ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ zero ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫ ر ِﺟﺎ‬karasy ‫ ﻣـَﻔﯿﺶ‬masriyyin filus +plural ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ ‫ ﻓـِﻠﻮس‬sittaet ‫ﻛـَﺮا َﺳﻲ‬ noun shaey ‫ ﺳِـﺘّﺎ َت‬da'aeyi' ‫ﺷﺎ َي‬ ‫د َﻗﺎ َﯾـِﻖ‬ kylw waehid ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫ وا َﺣـِﺪ‬masry ginyh ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬ ‫ﺟـِﻨﯿﻪ‬ +sing noun shaey PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . ‫ﺷﺎ َي‬ wahda ‫ وا َﺣﺪ َة‬masriya one ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾـَﺔ‬ +sing noun kitaeb raagil ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ ‫ را َﺟـِﻞ‬kursy ns on its own sitt ‫ﻛـُﺮﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ ﺳِـ‬di'y'a ‫د ِﻗﯿﻘـَﺔ‬ 'itnyn rigala ‫ إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬masriyyin ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫ر ِﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ sittaet +plural noun ‫ﺳِـﺘّﺎ َت‬ kylw ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ 'itnyn ‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬ gynyh PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . +sing ‫ﺟﯿﻨﯿﻪ‬ two noun shaey ‫ﺷﺎ َي‬ kitabyn ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َﺑﯿﻦ‬ kursiyyin noun-yn ‫ﻛـُﺮﺳـِﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ di'i'tyn ‫د‬ ‫ِقـِقتين‬ kylw masry ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ talaeta ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗـَﺔ‬ ‫ ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬gynyh masrya ‫ﺟﯿﻨﯿﻪ‬ +sing noun ‫ ﻣـَﺼﺮﯾـَﺔ‬shaey ‫ﺷﺎ َي‬ three kutub rigala ‫ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ talat PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Instead. the verb or preposition is negated with mish ‫ﻣـِﺶ‬. As in english. there is no equivalent of no as in no books. you can use or without. same as 3 Zero For zero. Alternatively.min Gyr ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬.com . the noun is a plural. English Egyptian sifr zero ‫ﺻـِﻔﺮ‬ mafysh masriyyin no egyptians (m/f) ‫ﻣـَﻔﯿﺶ ﻣـَﺼﺮ ِﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ wazn no weight ‫و َزن‬ filus no money PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. talat rigala ‫ﺗـَﻠـَﺖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫ ر ِﺟﺎ‬karasy +plural sittaet ‫ﻛـَﺮا َﺳﻲ‬ noun ‫ ﺳِـﺘّﺎ َت‬da'aeyi' ‫د َﻗﺎ َﯾـِﻖ‬ four thru nine.

com . the masculine form only is used. Both forms are used for people of a particular nationality eg an englishman. we would usually say a book rather than one book: the same is true in Egyptian. money and when ordering things. but PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. For weights. In English. no money ‫ﻓـِﻠﻮس‬ shaey no tea ‫ﺷﺎ َي‬ ragala no men ‫ﻻ‬ َ َ ‫را َﺟﺎ‬ sittaet no women ‫ﺳِـﺘّﺎ َت‬ kutub no books ‫ﻛـُﺘﻮب‬ karasy no chairs ‫ﻛـَﺮا َﺳﻲ‬ da'aeyi' no seconds ‫د َﻗﺎ َﯾـِﻖ‬ One The number one has a masculine and feminine form.

eg two englishmen or two egyptians.com . there is no word for a .the noun is simply used on its own. use the number 'itnyn ‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. English Egyptian waehid one ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ‬ waehid masry one egyptian (m) ‫وا َﺣـِﺪ ﻣـَﺼﺮي‬ one egyptian (f) waHdao maSriyao a kilo waaHid kylw a guinea waaHid ginyh one tea waaHid shaay a man raagil a woman sitt a book kitaab a chair kursy a minute diqyqao Two For people of a particular nationality.

For weights. use the number 'itnyn ‫ إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬followed by a singular noun. For things. This is equivalent to a couple which can mean exactly two. English Egyptian 'itnyn two ‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ‬ 'itnyn masryyin two egyptians (m/f) ‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ ﻣـَﺼﺮﯾﯿـِﻦ‬ two kilos iictnyn kylw two guineas iictnyn ginyh two teas iictnyn shaay two men iictnyn ragaalaa two women iictnyn sittaat two books kitaabyn two chair kursiyyin two minutes diqiqtyn PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. or approximately two.com . you should use the suffix -yn ‫ ـﯿﻦ‬for masculine nouns and -tyn ‫ ـﺘﯿﻦ‬for feminine nouns. followed by a plural noun. Nouns ending in -y ‫ ـﻲ‬take the ending -iyyin ‫ــِييـِن‬. money and orders.

use the number followed by a plural noun. use the short form listed below followed by a plural noun: Digit English Egyptian English Egyptian 3 talaeta talat kutub three three books ٣ ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻠـَﺖ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ 4 'arbaAa 'arbaAa kutub four four books ٤ ‫أرﺑـَﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫أرﺑـَﻊ َ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ 5 chamsa chamas kutub five five books ٥ ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺧـَﻤـَﺲ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ 6 sitta sitt kutub six six books ٦ ‫ﺳِـﺘﱠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ 7 sabAa sabaA kutub seven seven books ٧ ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـَﺒـَﻊ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ 8 tamanya taman kutub eight eight books ٨ ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻤـَﻦ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. For weights. Three to Ten For People of nationalities. use the number followed by a singular noun. money and when ordering things. For people and things.com .

com . 9 tisAa tisAa kutub nine nine books ٩ ‫ﺗـِﺴﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـِﺴﻊ َ ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ 10 Aashara Aashara kutub ten ten books ١٠ ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة‬ ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ‬ Eleven to Ninety Nine From 11 onwards. the noun must be singular: English Egyptian English Egyptian hidaeshar hidaeshar kitaeb eleven eleven books ‫ﺣـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺣـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ 'itnaeshar 'itnaeshar kitaeb twelve twelve books ‫إﺗﻨﺎ َﺷـَﺮ‬ ‫إﺗﻨﺎ َﺷـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ talatshar talatshar kitaeb thirteen thirteen books ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ 'arbaAtashar 'arbatAshar kitaeb fourteen fourteen books ‫أرﺑـَﻌﺘـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫أرﺑـَﺘﻌﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ chamastashar chamastashar kitaeb fifteen fifteen books ‫ﺧـَﻤـَﺴﺘـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺧـَﻤـَﺴﺘـَﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ sittashar sittashar kitaeb sixteen sixteen books PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. if the number is followed by a noun.

When expressed as words. with wa ‫ َو‬in between: 35 ٣٥ thirty five Kamsao wa talatyn Here are the numbers from 20 to 90: English Egyptian Aasharyn twenty ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮﯾﻦ‬ talatyn PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. however. the two digits are stated as units and tens. as in german not english.com . sixteen sixteen books ‫ﺳِـﺘﱠـﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺳِـﺘﱠـﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ sabaAtashar sabaAtashar kitaeb seventeen seventeen books ‫ﺳـَﺒـَﻌﺘـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺳـَﺒـَﻌﺘـَﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ tamantashar tamantashar kitaeb eighteen eighteen books ‫ﺗـَﻤـَﻨﺘـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻤـَﻨﺘـَﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ tisAatashar tisAatashar kitaeb nineteen nineteen books ‫ﺗـِﺴﻌـَﺘـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ﺗـِﺴﻌـَﺘـَﺸـَﺮ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ The digits in Egyptian numbers are written in the same order as in European numbers.

Note that the short form myt ‫ ﻣﯿﺖ‬is used when hundreds are followed by a noun (which must be singular): short form English Egyptian + singular noun PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . talatyn thirty ‫ﺗـَﻠـَﺘﯿﻦ‬ 'arbaAyn forty ‫أرﺑـَﻌﯿﻦ‬ chamsyn fifty ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴﯿﻦ‬ sittyn sixty ‫ﺳِـﺘّﯿﻦ‬ sabaAyn seventy ‫ﺳـَﺒـَﻌﯿﻦ‬ tamanyn eighty ‫ﺗـَﻤـَﻨﯿﻦ‬ tisAyn ninety ‫ﺗـِﺴﻌﯿﻦ‬ Hundreds Here are the numbers from one to nine hundred.

com . miya myt kitaeb one hundred ‫ﻣـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ mityn mityn kitaeb two hundred ‫ﻣـِﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـِﺘﯿﻦ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ tultumiya tultumyt kitaeb three hundred ‫ﺗـُﻠﺘـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻠﺘـُﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ rubAumiya rubAumyt kitaeb four hundred ‫ر ُﺑﻌـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ر ُﺑﻌـُﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ chamsumiya chamsamyt kitaeb five hundred ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ suttumiya suttumyt kitaeb six hundred ‫ﺳُـﺘﱡـﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳُـﺘﱡـﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ subuAmiya subuAamyt kitaeb seven hundred ‫ﺳـُﺒـُﻌﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـُﺒـُﻌـَﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ tumunumiya tumunumyt kitaeb eight hundred ‫ﺗـُﻤـُﻨـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻤـُﻨـُﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ tusAumiya tusAumyt kitaeb nine hundred ‫ﺗـُﺴﻌـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺗـُﺴﻌـُﻤﯿﺖ ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ Thousands PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

but it is pronounced as below. Five thousand should really be chamsaet 'alf ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴﺎ‬ ‫َت ألف‬.com . English Egyptian alf one thousand ‫ا َﻟﻒ‬ alfyn two thousand ‫ا َﻟﻔﯿﻦ‬ talat talaef three thousand ‫ﺗـَﻠـَﺖ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ 'arbaA talaef four thousand ‫أرﺑـَﻊ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ chamas talaef five thousand ‫ﺧـَﻤـَﺲ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ sit talaef six thousand ‫ﺳـِﺖ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ sabaA talaef seven thousand ‫ﺳـَﺒـَﻊ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ taman talaef eight thousand ‫ﺗـَﻤـَﻦ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Here are the numbers from one to nine thousand.

the cardinal numbers are the same as ordinals. second. English Egyptian ilyum ittaelit the third day ‫ا ِﻟﯿﻮم ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻟـِﺖ‬ taelit yum third day ‫ﺗﺎ َﻟـِﺖ ﯾﻮم‬ ilmarra ittalta the third time ‫ا ِﻟﻤَـ ّﺮ َة ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻟﺘـَﺔ‬ taelit marra third time ‫ﺗﺎ َﻟـِﺖ ﻣَـ ّﺮ َة‬ ilyum ilAaeshir PRO version the tenth day Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. for 1 to 9. From 11 onwards. the ordinal be preceded by il ‫ ا ِل‬and.com . you use the ordinal. must agree with the gender of the noun. It can be either as an adjective or as a noun in the genitive form: As an adjective. third). and are used as adjectives only. tisaA talaef nine thousand ‫ﺗـِﺴـَﻊ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ Aashar talaef ten thousand ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ ﺗـَﻼ َف‬ Ordinals To explain the sequence of things (first.

the tenth day ‫ا ِﻟﯿﻮم ا ِﻟﻌﺎ َﺷـِﺮ‬ Aaeshir yum tenth day ‫ﻋﺎ َﺷـِﺮ ﯾﻮم‬ ilmarra ilAaeshira the tenth time ‫ا ِﻟﻤَـ ّﺮ َة ا ِﻟﻌﺎ َﺷـِﺮ َة‬ Aaeshir marra tenth time ‫ﻋﺎ َﺷـِﺮ ﻣَـ ّﺮ َة‬ ilyum ilhidaeshar the eleventh day ‫ا ِﻟﯿﻮم ا ِﻟﺤـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ‬ ilmarra ilhidaeshar eleventh time ‫ا ِﻟﻤَـ ّﺮ َة ا ِﻟﺤـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ‬ ilyum ilAasharyn the twentieth day ‫ا ِﻟﯿﻮم ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸـَﺮﯾﻦ‬ ilmarra ilAasharyn twentieh time ‫ا ِﻟﻤَـ ّﺮ َة ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸـَﺮﯾﻦ‬ Here are the first ten ordinals: English Egyptian English Egyptian awwil ilkitaeb il'awwil first the first book PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . first the first book ‫ا َ ّو ِل‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻷ ّو ِل‬ 'uula il'utta il'uula the first cat ‫ﻻ‬ َ ‫أ ُو‬ ‫ﻻ‬ َ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻷ ُو‬ tany ilkitaeb ittany second the second book ‫ﺗﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻧﻲ‬ tanya il'utta ittanya the second cat ‫ﺗﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ taelit ilkitaeb ittaelit third the third book ‫ﺗﺎ َﻟـِﺖ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻟـِﺖ‬ talta il'utta ittalta the third cat ‫ﺗﺎ َﻟﺘـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻟﺘـَﺔ‬ rabAa ilkitaeb irrabAa fourth the fourth book ‫را َﺑ َﻊ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺮا َﺑ َﻊ‬ rabAa il'utta irrabAa the fourth cat ‫ر َﺑﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺮ َﺑﻌـَﺔ‬ chams ilkitaeb ilchaamis fifth the fifth book ‫ﺧﺎ َﻣﺲ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺨﺎ َﻣـِﺲ‬ chamsa il'utta ilchamsa the fifth cat ‫ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺨـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

saedis ilkitaeb issaedis sixth the sixth book ‫ﺳﺎ َد ِس‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َد ِس‬ saetit il'utta issaetit the sixth cat ‫ﺳﺎ َﺗـِﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﺗـِﺔ‬ saebiA ilkitaeb issaebiA seventh the seventh book ‫ﺳﺎ َﺑـِﻊ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﺑـِﻊ‬ saebiAa il'utta issaebiAa seventh the seventh cat ‫ﺳﺎ َﺑـِﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﺑـِﻌـَﺔ‬ taemin ilkitaeb ittaemin eighth the eighth book ‫ﺗﺎ َﻣـِﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﻣـِﻦ‬ tamna il'utta ittamna eighth the eighth cat ‫ﺗـَﻤﻨـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺘـَﻤﻨـَﺔ‬ ilkitaeb ittaesiA taesiA ninth ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘﺎ‬ ‫ ﺗﺎ َﺳـِﻊ‬the ninth book ‫َسـِع‬ tasAa il'utta ittaesiAa ninth the ninth cat ‫ﺗﺎ َﺳﻌـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﺘﺎ َﺳـِﻌـَﺔ‬ Aaeshir ilkitaeb ilAaeshir tenth the tenth book ‫ﻋﺎ َﺷـِﺮ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﻌﺎ َﺷـِﺮ‬ Aaeshira il'utta ilAaeshira PRO version tenth Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API the tenth cat pdfcrowd.com .

the cardinal and ordinal are the same. tenth the tenth cat ‫ﻋﺎ َﺷـِﺮ َة‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻘُـﻄﱠـﺔ ا ِﻟﻌﺎ َﺷـِﺮ َة‬ From the eleventh onwards. Here are some examples: Number Ordinal English Egyptian hidaeshar ilkitaeb ilhidaeshar eleven the eleventh book ‫ﺣـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺤـِﺪا َﺷـَﺮ‬ 'itnaeshar ilkitaeb il'itnashar twelve the twelfth book ‫إﺗﻨﺎ َﺷـَﺮ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻹﺗﻨـَﺸـَﺮ‬ talaetashar ilkitaeb ittalaetashar thirteen the thirteenth book ‫ﺗـَﻼ َﺗـَﺸـَﺮ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘـَﻼ َﺗـَﺸـَﺮ‬ Aasharyn ilkitaeb ilAasharyn twenty the twentieth book ‫ﻋـَﺸـَﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﻌـَﺸـَﺮﯾﻦ‬ thalatyn ilkitaeb ittalatyn thirty the thirtieth book ‫ﺛـَﻠـَﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘـَﻠـَﺘﯿﻦ‬ 'arbaAyn ilkitaeb il'arbaAyn forty the fortieth book ‫أرﺑـَﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻷرﺑـَﻌﯿﻦ‬ miya ilkitaeb ilmiya one hundred the hundredth book ‫ﻣـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ mityn ilkitaeb ilmityn two hundred the two hundredth book PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . two hundred the two hundredth book ‫ﻣـِﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﻤـِﺘﯿﻦ‬ tultumiya ilkitaeb ittultumiya three hundred the three hundredth book ‫ﺗـُﻠﺘـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻟﺘـُﻠﺘـُﻤـِﯿـَﺔ‬ 'alf ilkitaeb il'alf one thousand the thousandth book ‫أﻟﻒ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ا ِﻷﻟﻒ‬ Fractions The following fractions are widely used: English Egyptian nus half ‫ﻧﻮص‬ tilt a third ‫ﺗـِﻠﺖ‬ rubaA a quarter ‫ر ُﺑـَﻊ‬ talaet 'arbaAa three quarters ‫ﺗـَﻼ َت أرﺑَـ َﻊ‬ Questions PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . Type English Egyptian Aandak kam walad? count How many children do you have? ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك ﻛـَﻢ و َﻟـَﺪ؟‬ kam yum hatinizil? count How many days will you stay? ‫ﻛـَﻢ ﯾﻮم ﻫـَﺘـِﻨـِﺰ ِل؟‬ kam zibun bukrah? count How many guests tomorrow? ‫ﻛـَﻢ ز ِﺑﻮن ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه؟‬ nimritak kaem? what What is your telephone number? ‫ﻧـِﻤﺮ ِﺗـَﻚ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬ issaeAa kaem? what What time is it? ‫ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬ il'igtimaeA issaeAa kaem? what What time is the meeting? ‫ا ِﻹﺟﺘـِﻤﺎ َع ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬ sha''ytak raqam kaem? what What is your apartment number? ‫ﺷَـﻘﱠﯿﺘـﻚ ر َﻗـَﻢ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬ Aaeyiz dur kaem? which Which floor do you want? PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. To ask for a sequence or reference number (what or which. you should use kam ‫ ﻛـَﻢ‬before the noun. In all of these cases. To ask how many people or things. the noun is singular. you put the kam ‫ ﻛـَﻢ‬after the noun.

which Which floor do you want? ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ دور ﻛﺎ َم؟‬ Ownership There are several different ways to indicate ownership and belonging. These are: Egyptian Meaning Egyptian English possessive 'ismuh my/your/his his name pronoun ‫إﺳﻤـُﻪ‬ simple ism ilwalad of the name of the boy genitive ‫ا ِﺳﻢ ا ِﻟﻮ َﻟـَﺪ‬ ilbasbur bitaeAy bitaeA ‫ ا ِﻟﺒـَﺴﺒﻮر ﺑـِﺘﺎ‬my passport ‫ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َع‬belonging ‫َعي‬ Aand Aandy biyt ownership I have a house ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺑـِﯿﺖ‬ maAa maAaek kabryt? have with you Do you have matches (on you)? ‫ﻣَـ َﻊ‬ ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َك ﻛـَﺒﺮﯾﺖ؟‬ ly having for a purpose fy busta lyk intended for ‫ﻟﻲ‬ attached ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻮﺳﻄـَﺔ ﻟﯿﻚ‬there is some post for you PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . the most common way of expressing ownership is with a posessive pronoun (my. etc).. In egyptian. Here are some examples: English Arabic 'ismy my name ‫إﺳﻤﻲ‬ 'ismak your(m) name ‫إﺳﻤـَﻚ‬ 'ismik your(f) name ‫إﺳﻤـِﻚ‬ biyty my house ‫ﺑـِﯿﺘﻲ‬ biytuh his house ‫ﺑـِﯿﺘـُﻪ‬ 'abwya my father ‫أﺑﻮﯾَﺎ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. your. milk ilbiyt dah milkuh (my/your/his) property that house is his property ‫ﻣـِﻠﻚ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﺒـِﯿﺖ د َه ﻣـِﻠﻜـُﻪ‬ possessive pronoun In both english and arabic.. this is a suffix attached to the noun.

English Egyptian 'ism irraagil the man's name ‫إﺳﻢ ا ِﻟﺮا‬ ‫َجـِل‬ 'ism irraagil the name of the man ‫إﺳﻢ ا ِﻟﺮا‬ ‫َجـِل‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. simple genitive In english. but when the pronouns are attached to nouns. the simple genitive can take two forms: both are expressed in the same way in arabic. 'abuha your(f) father ‫أﺑﻮﻫَﺎ‬ 'abuh his father ‫أﺑﻮه‬ rabbina our god ‫ر َﺑﱢـﻨَﺎ‬ The posessive pronouns themselves are pretty easy to learn. the vowels do a little dance to make sure that you don't get three consonants in a row. See pronouns for more information.com .

il. but must never be attached to the first noun.com . but must agree in gender and number with the first noun. it must go on the second word (or use bitaeA ‫)ﺑـِﺘﺎ َع‬. If the first noun is feminine. Nothing must be placed between the two nouns. Adjectives go after the second noun.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬can be attached to the second noun if required. the -a ‫ ــَة‬ending changes to -it ‫ــِت‬. Here are some examples: English Egyptian 'ism ilwalad Garyb the boy's name is strange ‫إﺳﻢ ا ِﻟﻮ َﻟـَﺪ ﻏـَﺮﯾﺐ‬ Aandy nimrit tilyfunha I have her telephone number ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﻧـِﻤﺮ ِة ﺗـِﻠﯿﻔﻮﻧﻬَﺎ‬ mahatit il'atr fyn? Where is the railway station? ‫ﻣـَﺤـَﻄـِﺔ ا ِﻟﻘـَﻄﺮ ﻓﯿﻦ؟‬ 'inta Aaarif 'ibn Aammy? Do you know my cousin? (uncle's son) ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف إﺑﻦ ﻋَـﻤّﻲ؟‬ tiAarif 'ibn Aammy? Do you know my cousin? (uncle's son) ‫ﺗـِﻌـَﺮ ِف إﺑﻦ ﻋَـﻤّﻲ؟‬ 'inta shuft Aarabiyit ilmudyr ilgidyda? Have you seen the boss's new car? ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﺷﻮﻓﺖ ﻋـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـِﺔ ا ِﻟﻤـُﺪﯾﺮ ا ِﻟﺠـِﺪﯾﺪ َة؟‬ 'inta shuft ilAarabiya 'illy maAa ilmudyr ilgidyd? Have you seen the new boss's car? ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﺷﻮﻓﺖ ا ِﻟﻌـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ إﻟّﻲ ﻣـَﻊ َ ا ِﻟﻤـُﺪﯾﺮ ا‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. If a possessive suffix is required.

English Egyptian 'ana daayAt ilbasbur bitaAy I have lost my passport ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﺿﺎ َﯾﻌﺖ ا ِﻟﺒـَﺴﺒﻮر ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻲ‬ Aandak kam 'uuda fy ilvyla bitaAtak? PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. ‫ِلجـِديد؟‬ Aaeyiz 'izzaezit mayaeh I want a bottle of water ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ إزّا َز ِة ﻣـَﯿﺎ َه‬ iddyny 'izzaezit ilmayaeh give me this bottle of water ‫ا ِدّﯾﻨﻲ إزّا َز ِة ا ِﻟﻤـَﯿﺎ َه‬ dyh Belonging. to refer to a man's or woman's private parts bitaA ‫ ﺑـِﺘـَﻊ‬is always used for ownership when the noun ends in -yn ‫ ـﯿﻦ‬and for imported words (my villa).com . tyres etc). to indicate ownership noun + bitaA + possessive suffix. as an alternative to a genitive bitaA + product (milk. onions. It is not used for parts of the body (my leg). to indicate somebody who sells the product bitaA + possessive suffix.bitaA ‫ﺑـِﺘـَﻊ‬ bitaA ‫ ﺑـِﺘـَﻊ‬is used in several ways: noun + bitaA + possessive suffix.

Here are all of the possible endings: English m f pl the book the bag the books ilkitaeb bitaeA. ilkutub bituA- ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﺸـَﻨﻄـَﺔ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﺘـ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻜـُﺘﻮب ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋـ‬ bitaAy bitaAty bituAy belonging to me ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API bitaAna bitaeAitna bituAna pdfcrowd. how many rooms does your villa have? ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك ﻛـَﻢ أ ُوﺿـَﺔ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟڤﯿﻼ َ ﺑـِﺘﺎ‬ ‫َعتـَك؟‬ fyn ilmudarrisyn bitwaAak? Where are your teachers? ‫ﻓﯿﻦ ا ِﻟﻤـُﺪ َ ّر ِﺳﯿﻦ ﺑـِﺘﻮ َﻋـَﻚ؟‬ huwwa bitaeA chudaar He is a vegetable seller ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َع ﺧـُﻀﺎ َر‬ He is a milk seller huwwa bitaeA laban means he's a ladies' man ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َع ﻟـَﺒـَﻦ‬ battal tuhrush fy bitaeAak Stop scratching yourself! ‫ﺑَـﻄﱠـﻞ ﺗـُﻬﺮ ُش ﻓﻲ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـَﻚ‬ bitaeA ‫ ﺑـِﺘﺎ َع‬is like a participle. ishshanta bitaAt. so it has to agree in gender and number with the noun.com .

It can also be used about members of your family. An object pronoun can be added to indicate who owns something. bitaAna bitaeAitna bituAna belonging to us ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـِﺘﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋﻨَﺎ‬ bitaeAak bitaAtak bituAak belonging to you(m) ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـَﻚ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﺘـَﻚ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋـَﻚ‬ bitaeAik bitaAtik bituAik belonging to you(f) ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـِﻚ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﺘـِﻚ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋـِﻚ‬ bitaAkum bitaeAitkum bituAkum belonging to you(pl) ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻜـُﻢ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـِﺘﻜـُﻢ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋﻜـُﻢ‬ bitaeAuh bitaAtuh bituAuh belonging to him ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـُﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﺘـُﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋـُﻪ‬ bitaAha bitaeAitha bituAha belonging to her ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـِﺘﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋﻬَﺎ‬ bitaAhum bitaeAithum bituAhum belonging to them ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋﻬـُﻢ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﺎ َﻋـِﺘﻬـُﻢ‬ ‫ﺑـِﺘﻮﻋﻬـُﻢ‬ Ownership .Aand ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬ Aand ‫ ﻋـَﻨﺪ‬means that you own something but don't necessarily have with you. Here are some examples: English Egyptian PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

English Arabic Aandy I have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي‬ Aandina we have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ِﻧَﺎ‬ Aandak you(m) have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك‬ Aandik you(f) have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ِك‬ Aandukum you(pl) have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُﻛـُﻢ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Aanduh pdfcrowd.com . Aandy Aarabiya I have a car ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﻋـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ‬ Aanduh waladyn he has two children ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُه و َﻟـَﺪﯾﻦ‬ Aandak kutub? do you have any books? ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك ﻛـُﺘـُﺐ؟‬ Here are all of the possible forms.

It takes an object suffix to say who it is with.com . Aanduh he has ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُه‬ Aandaha she has ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َﻫَﺎ‬ Aanduhum they have ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُﻫـُﻢ‬ Having with you maAa ‫ﻣَـ َﻊ‬ maAa means that you have something or somebody with you. English Egyptian maAak ilmafatyh? Do you have the keys? ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻚ ا ِﻟﻤـَﻔﺎ َﺗﯿﺢ؟‬ 'ana haaruh maAaak I will go with you ‫أﻧﺎ َ ﻫﺎ َروح ﻣـَﻌَــَﻚ‬ maAak fakka? Do you have any change? ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻚ ﻓَـﻜﱠـﺔ؟‬ Here are all of the possible forms: English Egyptian PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

ly. and PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.‫ﻟﯿـ‬ ly ‫ ﻟﻲ‬can be used for parts of the body. maAaeya I have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﯾَﺎ‬ maAana we have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﻧَﺎ‬ maAaek you(m) have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َك‬ maAaky you(f) have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﻛﻲ‬ maAaekum you(pl) have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﻛـُﻢ‬ maAaeh he has ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َه‬ maAaha she has ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﻫَﺎ‬ maAaehum they have ‫ﻣـَﻌﺎ َﻫـُﻢ‬ intended for .com . for something that is attached. members of your family.

for something that is intended for somebody or something. It is also used when an inanimate object
has something. Here are some examples:

English Egyptian
lyh rigl wahda bas
he has only one leg
‫ﻟﯿﻪ ر ِﺟﻞ وا َﺣﺪ َة ﺑـَﺲ‬
lyha waladyn
she has two children
‫ﻟﯿﻬﺎ َ و َﻟـَﺪﯾﻦ‬
fy busta lyky
there is mail for you (f)
‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻮﺳﻄـَﺔ ﻟﯿﻜﻲ‬
I owe you five pounds Aandy chamsa giny lyk
Lit: I have five founds for you(m) ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ ﺟـِﻨﯿﺔ ﻟﯿﻚ‬
ilhidaya dy lykum
this present is for (all of) you(pl)
‫ا ِﻟﻬـِﺪ َﯾـَﺔ دي ﻟﯿﻜـُﻢ‬
I want a garden seat Aaeyiz kursy lilginiyna
A seat intended for the garden ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﻛـُﺮﺳﻲ ﻟـِﻠﺠـِﻨـِﯿﻨـَﺔ‬
ishsha''a lyha garaaj
the flat has a garage
‫ا ِﻟﺸَـﻘﱠـﺔ ﻟﯿﻬﺎ َ ﺟـَﺮا َچ‬
the flat has two bedrooms ishsha''a fyhae'uudtyn
use fy ‫ ﻓﻲ‬because rooms are inside ‫ا ِﻟﺸَـﻘﱠـﺔ ﻓﯿﻬﺎ َأ ُوﺿﺘﯿﻦ‬
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Here are all of the possible forms:

English m
liya
I have
‫ﻲ‬
َ ‫ﻟِـ‬
lyna
we have
‫ﻟﯿﻨَﺎ‬
lyk
you(m) have
‫ﻟﯿﻚ‬
lyky
you(f) have
‫ﻟﯿﻜﻲ‬
lykum
you(pl) have
‫ﻟﯿﻜـُﻢ‬
lyh
he has
‫ﻟﯿﻪ‬
lyha
she has
‫ﻟﯿﻬَﺎ‬
lyhum
they have
‫ﻟﯿﻬـُﻢ‬

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Possession property milk ‫ﻣـِﻠﻚ‬

Ownership of real estate - houses, land etc, can be expressed with milk- ‫ ﻣـِﻠﻜـ‬plus a suffix.

English Egyptian
Aanduh biyt milkuh
He has his own house
‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُه ﺑـِﯿﺖ ﻣـِﻠﻜـُﻪ‬
Aandy 'ard milk fy ilGarda'a
I own land in Hurghada ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪي أرض ﻣـِﻠﻚ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﻐـَﺮد‬
‫َقـَة‬

Quantities
You can specify a quantity in several ways:

measures - metres, kilos etc
numbers
containers - packs, bottles etc
approximate amounts - a little, a lot etc

Measures

For weights, lengths and other measurements, you use a number followed by a singular noun.

'ahmad tuluh mitr 1 wa 90 santy
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'ahmad tuluh mitr 1 wa 90 santy
Ahmed is 1m90 tall
‫ ﺳـَﻨﺘﻲ‬٩٠ َ ‫ و‬١ ‫أﺣﻤـَﺪ ﻃﻮﻟﻮه ﻣـِﺘﺮ‬
ishshanta dih bi Aishryn ginyh
this bag is 20 pounds
‫ا ِﻟﺸـَﻨﻄـَﺔ د ِه ب ِ ﻋـِﺸﺮﯾﻦ ﺟـِﻨﯿﻪ‬
'itnyn kylw bataatis, law samaht
2 kilos of potatoes, please
‫ ﻟـَﻮ ﺳـَﻤـَﺤﺖ‬،‫إﺗﻨﯿﻦ ﻛﯿﻠﻮ ﺑـَﻄﺎ َﻃـِﺲ‬
Aaeyiz myt garam salamy
I want a hundred grams of salami
‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﻣﯿﺖ ﺟـَﺮ َم ﺳـَﻼ َﻣﻲ‬
mihtaeg rubaA kylw zibda
I need a quarter kilo of butter
‫ﻣـِﺤﺘﺎ َج ر ُﺑـَﻊ ﻛﯿﻠﻮ ز ِﺑﺪ َة‬
ilAarabiya gaebit tamanya tun mayae
the truck brought eight tonnes of water ‫ا ِﻟﻌـَﺮ َﺑـِﯿـَﺔ ﺟﺎ َﺑـِﺖ ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ ﻃـُﻦ ﻣـَﯿﺎ‬
‫َة‬

Numbers

See the section in numbers for more information about this.

Containers
If you want something in a container of some sort: carton, bottle, etc, you use the genitive of the
container. The main effect of this is that words ending in tee-marbuta -a ‫ ــَة‬are pronounced -it ‫ــِت‬.
Here are some examples:
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law samaht a bottle of water. laezim tachuz maAla'it dawaa' you must take one spoonful of medicine ‫ﻻ َز ِم ﺗـَﺨـُﺬ ﻣـَﻌﻠـَﻘـِﺔ د َوا َء‬ Aaeyiz Aalbit sagaeyar I want a pack of cigarettes ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﻋـَﻠﺒـِﺔ ﺳـَﺠﺎ َﯾـَﺮ‬ 'izzaezit maeya. please ‫ ﻟـَﻮ ﺳـَﻤـَﺤﺖ‬،‫إزّا َز ِة ﻣﺎ َﯾـَﺔ‬ Approximate measures shaey myn Gyr sukkar tea without sugar ‫ﺷﺎ َي ﻣﯿﻦ ﻏﯿﺮ ﺳُـﻜﱠـﺮ‬ normal tea shaey mazbut (with three sugar) ‫ﺷﺎ َي ﻣـَﺰﺑﻮط‬ shaey chafyf weak tea ‫ﺷﺎ َي ﺧـَﻔﯿﻒ‬ shaey ti'yl strong tea ‫ﺷﺎ َي ﺗـِﻘﯿﻞ‬ shuwayit laban a little milk ‫ﺷـُﻮ َﯾـِﺔ ﻟـَﺒـَﻦ‬ maAandysh filus kifaeya I don't have enough money PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

you can turn a statement into a question by putting do in PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .courteous question and whether Confirmation . The ones you need to watch out for are: sentences with 'do' where you are not doing anything sentences with 'got' where you are not getting anything sentences with how followed by an adverb or adjective (see adverbal question) For all english verbs except is and have.what. when.you are making a point and don't expect an answer English quirks In english. I don't have enough money ‫ﻣـَﻌـَﻨﺪﯾﺶ ﻓـِﻠﻮس ﻛـِﻔﺎ َﯾـَﺔ‬ Aanduh filus kityr he has a lot of money ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ ُه ﻓـِﻠﻮس ﻛـِﺘﯿﺮ‬ you have a lot of friends Aandak 'ashaeb yama informal ‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك أﺻﺤﺎ َب ﯾﺎ َﻣَﺎ‬ Questions There are four main groups of questions.isn't it so? Rhetorical. Direct. some of these translate easily into Egyptian: others require a little thought. it is possible to ask a question in many different ways. why Indirect.

For example where are you going? raayiH fyn? PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. so inflection is used Direct questions It is possible to frame a direct question in several ways: using a query word at the end of the sentence preceding a sentence with huwwa ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ by inflection Query words In english. In egyptian. you know John do you know John? . There is no equivalent in egyptian. and English speakers often reduce the risk of confusion by saying have you got rather than the older form. you can either add huwwa ‫ ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬at the start of the sentence or use inflection you know john? The word have is somewhat overused in english. do you have. a query word normally start the sentence: in egyptian it is normally at the end of the sentence. front of it. still used by most americans.com ..?..

The following query words can be used: English Egyptian 'iyh what ‫إﯾﻪ‬ 'imta when ‫إﻣﺘﻰ‬ fyn where ‫ﻓﯿﻦ‬ minyn where from ‫ﻣـِﻨﯿﻦ‬ 'izzay how ‫إ ّز َي‬ 'anhw which ‫أﻧﻬﻮ‬ kaem how many ‫ﻛﺎ َم‬ followed by singular noun kaem PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Here are some examples: English Egyptian 'izzayak? how are you? ‫إ ّز َﯾـَﻚ؟‬ how are you? 'aAamil 'iyh? lit. what are you doing? ‫أﻋـَﻤـِﻞ إﯾﻪ؟‬ bitaAamil 'iyh? what are you doing? ‫ﺑـِﺘـَﻌـَﻤـِﻞ إﯾﻪ؟‬ 'ashufak 'imta? PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. yiruh ‫ ﯾـِﺮوه‬،‫ ﺗـِﻌﻮز‬،‫ أﻋـَﻤـِﻞ‬is often used in questions. kaem what (number) ‫ﻛﺎ َم‬ 'add iyh how much (of something) ‫ﻗَـ ّﺪ ا ِﯾﻪ‬ bikaem how much (money) ‫ﺑـِﻜﺎ َم‬ lyh why ‫ﻟﯿﻪ‬ The simple imperfect ('aAamil. tiAuz.com .

'ashufak 'imta? when will I see you? ‫أﺷﻮﻓـَﻚ إﻣﺘﻰ؟‬ ilmahatta fyn? where is the station? ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﺤَـﻄﱠـﺔ ﻓﯿﻦ؟‬ mumkin 'ashtiry ward min fyn? where can I buy flowers from? ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ أﺷﺘـِﺮي و َرد ﻣـِﻦ ﻓﯿﻦ؟‬ minyn mumkin 'ashtiry ward? where can I buy flowers from? ‫ﻣـِﻨﯿﻦ ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ أﺷﺘـِﺮي و َرد؟‬ 'inta minyn? where are you from? ‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻣـِﻨﯿﻦ؟‬ 'ashhan ittilyfun dah 'izzay? how do I charge this phone? ‫أﺷﺤـَﻦ ا ِﻟﺘـِﻠﯿﻔﻮن د َه إ ّز َي؟‬ Aaewiz ilkitaeb 'anhw? which book (m) do you(m) want? ‫ﻋﺎ َو ِز ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب أﻧﻬﻮ؟‬ 'anhw ilkubaeya bitaAitak? which glass (f) is yours(m)? ‫أﻧﻬﻮ ا ِﻟﻜـُﺒﺎ َﯾـَﺔ ﺑـِﺘـَﻌـِﺘـَﻚ؟‬ Aaewiz laban 'add iyh? how much milk would you like? ‫ﻋﺎ َو ِز ﻟـَﺒـَﻦ ﻗَـ ّﺪ ا ِﯾﻪ؟‬ ishshanta dy bikaem? how much is this bag? ‫ا ِﻟﺸـَﻨﻄـَﺔ دي ﺑـِﻜﺎ َم؟‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

huwwa raayih lyh? why is he going? ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ را َﯾـِﺢ ﻟﯿﻪ؟‬ Here are some common answers to questions English Egyptian 'add iyh? 'add kidah How much? This much ‫ﻗَـ ّﺪ ا ِﯾﻪ؟ ﻗَـ ّﺪ ﻛـِﺪ َه‬ lyh? Aalashaen Why? Because. To ask for a sequence or reference number (what or which. you should use kaem ‫ ﻛﺎ َم‬before the noun.com . you put the kaem ‫ ﻛﺎ َم‬after the noun. In all of these PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. ‫ﻟﯿﻪ؟ ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬ lyh? kidah Why? It's like that ‫ﻟﯿﻪ؟ ﻛـِﺪ َه‬ lyh? 'ahsan kidah Why? Better like this ‫ﻟﯿﻪ؟ أﺣﺴـَﻦ ﻛـِﺪ َه‬ lyh? lyh laa'? Why? Why not? ‫ﻟﯿﻪ؟ ﻟﯿﻪ ﻻ َء؟‬ To ask how many people or things.

cases, the noun is singular.

English Egyptian
Aandak kaem walad?
How many children do you have?
‫ﻋـَﻨﺪ َك ﻛﺎ َم و َﻟـَﺪ؟‬
hatinizil kaem yum?
How many days will you stay?
‫ﻫـَﺘـِﻨـِﺰ ِل ﻛﺎ َم ﯾﻮم؟‬
kaem zibun bukrah?
How many guests tomorrow?
‫ﻛﺎ َم ز ِﺑﻮن ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه؟‬
nimritak kaem?
What is your telephone number?
‫ﻧـِﻤﺮ ِﺗـَﻚ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬
issaeAa kaem?
What time is it?
‫ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬
il'igtimaeA issaeAa kaem?
What time is the meeting?
‫ا ِﻹﺟﺘـِﻤﺎ َع ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬
sha''itak ra'am kaem?
What is your apartment number?
‫ﺷَـﻘﱢـﺘـَﻚ ر َﻗـَﻢ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬
sha''itak 'anhw?
Which is your apartment?
‫ﺷَـﻘﱢـﺘـَﻚ أﻧﻬﻮ؟‬
Aaeyiz dur kaem?
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Aaeyiz dur kaem?
Which floor do you want?
‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ دور ﻛﺎ َم؟‬

Pronoun questions

In english, it is possible to make a question by swapping the subject and verb. For example,

he is english
is he english?

The equivalent in Egyptian arabic is to put the query pronoun huwwa ‫ ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬at the start of the
sentence. You should think of this as "Is it so that..."

huwwa iicnta gaay maAa-naa?
Is it so that you are coming with us?

Inflection

In english, you can make a statement by saying she is coming. or turn it into a question, she is
coming? just by the tone of your voice: the pitch rises a little at the end of the sentence to indicate
a question. You can do exactly the same thing in Arabic. hiya gayya ‫ ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺟـَﯿﯿـَﺔ‬is a statement nd hiya
gayya? ‫ ﻫـِﻲ َ ﺟـَﯿﯿـَﺔ؟‬is a question.

Indirect questions (whether)

An indirect question is made up of two clauses: the first clause is often a courtesy clause "Could
you possibly..." and the second clause is the real question. Here are some examples of direct and
indirect questions.
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Direct Indirect
where is the station? Can you tell me where the station is?
what is the time? Do you know what the time is?
is he coming? Do you know whether he is coming?

The query-word whether is used only in indirect questions: in egyptian, 'iza ‫ إذَا‬is used for this.

English Egyptian
mumkin ti'uly fyn ilmahatta?
Can you tell me where the station is?
‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ ﺗـِﻘـُﻠﻲ ﻓﯿﻦ ا ِﻟﻤـَﺤَـﻄﱠـﺔ؟‬
'inta Aaarif issaeAa kaem?
Do you know what the time is?
‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ ﻛﺎ َم؟‬
'inta Aaarif 'iza huwwa gayy?
Do you know whether he is coming?
‫إﻧﺖ َ ﻋﺎ َر ِف إذا َ ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺟـَﯿﻲ؟‬

Confirmation questions

If you are pretty sure about something but want to check, you can use one of the following methods:

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English Arabic
huwwa mish gaey?
he's coming, isn't he?
‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﻣـِﺶ ﺟﺎ َي؟‬
huwwa gaey, mish kidah?
he's coming, isn't that so?
‫ ﻣـِﺶ ﻛـِﺪ َه؟‬،‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺟﺎ َي‬
huwwa gaey, sahh?
he's coming, right?
‫ ﺻَـﺢّ؟‬،‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ﺟﺎ َي‬

Rhetorical questions

A rhetorical question is used to make a point: you don't expect an answer. Any of the above
methods can be used to ask rhetorical questions.

English Arabic
mish tiskut 'ahsan?
wouldn't it be better if you(m) shut up?
‫ﻣـِﺶ ﺗـِﺴﻜـُﺖ أﺣﺴـَﻦ؟‬
bithazzar, mish kidah?
you(m) must be kidding!
‫ ﻣـِﺶ ﻛـِﺪ َه؟‬،‫ﺑـِﺘﻬَـ ّﺰ َر‬
'inta 'ahbal, sahh?
you(m) are an idiot, right?
‫ ﺻَـﺢّ؟‬،‫إﻧﺖ َ أﻫﺒـَﻞ‬
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usually so that you are asking for a number. weeks etc parts of the day . gym? ٫٫٫‫ﻛﺎ َم ﻣَـ ّﺮ َة ﻓﻲ ا ِﻷ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع‬ ilharraara kaem How hot is the oven? what is the temperature? ‫ا ِﻟﺤَـﺮّا َر َة ﻛﺎ َم‬ huwwa il'imtihaen kaen How difficult was the exam? was the exam difficult saAb? ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ ا ِﻹﻣﺘـِﺤﺎ َن ﻛﺎ َن ﺻـَﻌﺐ؟‬ Time Time can be expressed in several different ways: units of time ..days. how many times a week.morning/afternoon PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Here are some examples: English re-phrased Egyptian how many kilometers an kaem kylumitr fy issaeAa How fast were you driving? hour.. Adverbal and adjectival questions In english.. ‫ﻛﺎ َم ﻛﯿﻠﻮﻣـِﺘﺮ ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﺴﺎ َﻋـَﺔ‬ How often do you go to the kaem marra fy il'usbwaA. There is no similar construction in Egyptian. it is possible to ask a question using how followed by an adjective or adverb.. so it is necessary to re-phrase the question..com .

6.com . time of day .today/yesterday etc days of the week dates Units of time English Egyptian Plural lahza lahzaet moment ‫ﻟـَﺤﻈـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻟـَﺤﻈﺎ َت‬ thanya thawany second ‫ﺛﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺛـَﻮا َﻧﻲ‬ di'y'a da'aeyi' minute ‫د ِﻗﯿﻘـَﺔ‬ ‫د َﻗﺎ َﯾـِﻖ‬ saeAa saAaet hour ‫ﺳﺎ َﻋـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎ َﻋﺎ َت‬ yum 'ayaem day ‫ﯾﻮم‬ ‫أﯾﺎ َم‬ 'usbuA 'asaebiyA week ‫أ ُﺳﺒﻮع‬ ‫أﺳﺎ َﺑـِﯿﻊ‬ shahr shuhur month PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.30 relative time (before/after) .

com . month ‫ﺷـَﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺷـُﻬﻮر‬ sana sinyn year ‫ﺳـَﻨـَﺔ‬ ‫ﺳـِﻨﯿﻦ‬ Aumr 'aAmaar lifetime ‫ﻋـُﻤﺮ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺎ َر‬ Parts of the day The main events in the day are sunrise and sunset. noon and the six prayer times can also be used to specify an approximate time. English Arabic illyl last prayers till dawn ‫ا ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ issubh dawn until sunset ‫ا ِﻟﺼـُﺒﺢ‬ masaa' after sunset ‫ﻣـَﺴﺎ َء‬ fagr dawn ‫ﻓـَﺠﺮ‬ idduhr PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Midnight.

In addition. idduhr noon ‫ا ِﻟﻀـُﻬﺮ‬ baAd idduhr after noon ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ ا ِﻟﻀـُﻬﺮ‬ ilmaGrib sunset ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﻐﺮ ِب‬ nus illyl midnight ‫ﻧـُﺺ ا ِﻟّﯿﻞ‬ Time of day In English. thirds are used. Here is a list of the words that can be used: English Arabic nus half ‫ﻧـُﺺ‬ tilt a third ‫ﺗـِﻠﺖ‬ rubA a quarter ‫ر ُﺑﻊ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. in Egyptian. it is normal to use half and quarter hours to describe time.com .

wa and ‫َو‬ 'ila less ‫ﻻ‬ َ‫إ‬ Here are all the times at five minute intervals: English Arabic sabAa seven o'clock ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ‬ sabAa wa chamsa five past seven past ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ sabAa wa Aashara ten past seven ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة‬ sabAa wa rubA quarter past seven ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ر ُﺑﻊ‬ sabAa wa tilt twenty past seven ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﺗـِﻠﺖ‬ sabAa wa nus 'ila chamsa twenty five past seven ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﻧـُﺺ إﻻ َ ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

sabAa wa nus half past seven ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﻧـُﺺ‬ sabAa wa nus wa chamsa twenty-five to eight ‫ﺳـَﺒﻌـَﺔ و َ ﻧـُﺺ و َ ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ tamanya 'ila tilt twenty to eight ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ إﻻ َ ﺗـِﻠﺖ‬ quarter to eight tamaanyao iiclaa rubaA tamanya 'ila Aashara ten to eight ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ إﻻ َ ﻋـَﺸـَﺮ َة‬ tamanya 'ila chamsa five to eight ‫ﺗـَﻤﺎ َﻧﯿـَﺔ إﻻ َ ﺧـَﻤﺴـَﺔ‬ Relative time English Arabic 'awil 'imbaarih the day before yesterday ‫أو ِل إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ 'imbaarih yesterday ‫إﻣﺒﺎ َر ِح‬ innahaarda today PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

today ‫ا ِﻟﻨـَﻬﺎ َرد َة‬ bukrah tomorrow ‫ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ baAd bukrah the day after tomorrow ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﺑـُﻜﺮ َه‬ English Arabic iluusbwaA 'ily faet last week ‫ا ِﻻ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع إﻟﻲ ﻓﺎ َت‬ iluusbwaA dih this week ‫ا ِﻻ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع د ِه‬ iluusbwaA 'ily gaey next week ‫ا ِﻻ ُﺳﺒﻮ َع إﻟﻲ ﺟﺎ َي‬ English Arabic dilwa'ty now ‫د ِﻟﻮ َﻗﺘﻲ‬ soon baAd shuwayao baAdyn later ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪﯾﻦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

lissah not yet ‫ﻟِـﺴﱠـﻪ‬ badry early ‫ﺑـَﺪري‬ wachry late (at night) ‫و َﺧﺮي‬ Days of week English Arabic yum ilaahad Sunday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻻ َ َﺣـَﺪ‬ yum il'ithnyn Monday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻹﺛﻨﯿﻦ‬ yum ittalaet Tuesday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻟﺘـَﻼ َت‬ yum il'arbaAa Wednesday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻷرﺑَـ َﻊ‬ yum ilchamys Thursday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻟﺨـَﻤﯿﺲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

‫ ا ِﻟـ‬to the front of the noun. we attach il. There is no equivalent of PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. or talking about. In arabic. Indefinite article If we don't want to refer to any man in particular. Definite article To talk about a particular man. we say 'the man' in english. we say 'a man' in english. yum ilgumaAa Friday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻟﺠـُﻤـَﻌـَﺔ‬ yum issabt Saturday ‫ﯾﻮم ا ِﻟﺴـَﺒﺖ‬ Dates Which one? This section explains how to specify which of several things we are interested in.com .‫ ا ِﻟـ‬to a word affects the pronunciation if it begins with a sun letter. the man is reading his book iil-raagil biyiqraac kitaab-uh Note that adding il.

com . you place it after the noun.il. the noun still retains its il- ‫ ا ِﻟـ‬prefix. you can use an adjective to specify which one you are interested in: you simply put the . in Egyptian. I want (just) one dog aacnaa Aaayiz kalb waaHid You also use it with nationalities to indicate that you are talking about a person. an English man (or woman) waaHid iingilyzy waaHdao iingilyziyao Adjectives In both English an Egyptian.one. rather than (for example) the language. When used for emphasis like this. Note that. you just use the noun on its own.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬in front of the adjective. a in arabic. you can use the word waaHid. I want a dog aacnaa Aaayiz kalb If you want to make it clear that you are talking about just one. PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . this man iil-raagil dah The demonstrative adjectives are: English Arabic irraagil dah this (man) ‫ا ِﻟﺮا َﺟـِﻞ د َه‬ ilkitaeb dah PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. English Egyptian Aaeyiz kura hamra describe I want a red ball ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ﻛﻮر َة ﺣـَﻤﺮ َة‬ Aaeyiz ilkura ilhamra specify I want the red ball ‫ﻋﺎ َﯾـِﺰ ا ِﻟﻜﻮر َة ا ِﻟﺤـَﻤﺮ َة‬ 'araa't ilkitab ilkibyr specify I have read the big book ‫ﻗـَﺮا َءت ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘـَﺐ ا‬ ‫ِلكـِبير‬ Demonstrative adjectives One particular type of adjective is a demonstrative adjective. These are almost the same as the demonstrative pronouns.

com .m) ‫ا ِﻟﻜـُﺘﻮب دي‬ ilhagaet dy these (things. m) ‫ا ِﻟﻜـِﺘﺎ َب د َه‬ ilhaga dah this (thing. f) ‫ا ِﻟﻬـَﺠـَﺔ د َه‬ issitt dy this (woman) ‫ﺖ دي‬ ّ ‫ا ِﻟﺴِـ‬ irragala dul these (men) ‫ا ِﻟﺮ َﺟﺎ َﻻ َ دول‬ irragala dy these (men) nearer ‫ا ِﻟﺮ َﺟﺎ َﻻ َ دي‬ issittaet dul these (women) ‫ا ِﻟﺴِـﺘّﺎ َت دول‬ ilkutub dy these (things.f) ‫ا ِﻟﻬـَﺠﺎ َت دي‬ 'ahw over there (m) ‫أﻫﻮ‬ 'ahy over there [f] ‫أﻫﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. ilkitaeb dah this (thing.

com . 'ahum over there (pl) ‫أﻫﻮم‬ Comparatives You can use a comparative in the same was as an adjective to specify which one you mean: English Egyptian muhammad 'atwal taalib mohammed is the tallest student ‫ﻣـُﺤَـﻤﱠـﺪ أﻃﻮ َل ﻃﺎ َﻟـِﺐ‬ huwwa 'asGar walad he is the youngest boy ‫ﻫُـ ّﻮ َ أﺻﻐـَﺮ و َﻟـَﺪ‬ ittaalib il'atwal tuluh mitr 1 wa 90 santy the tallest student is 1m90 ٩٠ َ ‫ و‬١ ‫ا ِﻟﻄﺎ َﻟـِﺐ ا ِﻷﻃﻮ َل ﻃﻮﻟﻮه ﻣـِﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳـَﻨﺘﻲ‬ ilmashrab il'aGla 20 ginyh the most expensive drink is 20 pounds ‫ ﺟـِﻨﯿﻪ‬٢٠ ‫ا ِﻟﻤـَﺸﺮ َب ا ِﻷﻏﻠﻰ‬ dih 'ahla fustaen fy ilmahal this is the prettiest dress in the shop ‫د ِه أﺣﻠﻰ ﻓـُﺴﺘﺎ َن ﻓﻲ ا ِﻟﻤـَﺤـَﻞ‬ kaen 'ahsan yum fy hayaty it was the best day in my life ‫ﻛﺎ َن أﺣﺴـَﻦ ﯾﻮم ﻓﻲ ﺣـَﯿﺎ َﺗﻲ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

initial.com . and the majority of arabic letters join onto the following letter and so there are therefore four forms of each letter: solitary. which doubles the length of a consonant. some write in Modern Standard Arabic and then pronounce it the Egyptian way. there may some variation in the way things are spelt. Writing goes from right to left. others write it as an Egyptian would say it. and about a dozen modifiers.solitary and final. Arabic script There are 28 basic letters in Egyptian arabic. are PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. For the six letters that do not join. and how it can be written using roman letters. As a result. i and u and shadda . Please remember that Egyptian Arabic is an oral language. there are just two forms. position normal letter non-joining letter solitary ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ initial ‫ﺟـ‬ middle ‫ـﺠـ‬ final ‫ـﺞ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬ The three short vowels a . middle and final. then goes on to explain the general pronunciation rules of the language. When people are asked to write it. Arabic Writing and pronunciation This chapter describes the arabic alphabet.

but written it after the consonant. If they are used. Transliterated arabic The transliterated form is an exact representation of the arabic script in roman letters: this is not always straightforward.for example. you need to be able to read either arabic or the transliterated form. so that you can see the difference between syn and saad. they are written above a consonant but pronounced after it: for the convenience of non-arabic readers. If you want to be able to say words accurately.com . as there are a lot more letters and modifiers in arabic than there are in the roman alphabet. I have included the tashkyl. Tashkyl is not normally used in written arabic apart from in the Quran. Here is a summary of the less obvious features of the system: Letter Transliterated Pronounced/arabic aeiu short vowel a [e] i u َ ُِ a 'e i uu long vowel (alif) aa ee ii uu ‫ا َ آ ا ِ ُا‬ 'a 'i 'u alif with hamza aac iic uuc ‫أ إ ُأ‬ yw PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. collectively called tashkyl ‫ ﺗـَﺸﻜﯿﻞ‬or vowellization.

PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. yw other long vowels yw ‫يو‬ 'y 'w other long vowels with hamza yc wc ‫ئ‬ ' gluttal stop qaf q ‫ق‬ q voiced qaf Q ‫ق‬ dhstz soft consonant dhstz ‫دهستز‬ dhstz hard consonant DHSTZ ‫ضحصطظ‬ z sh th double-letter consonants dh sh th ‫ذشث‬ -a t-marbuta o ‫ــَة‬ -a alif-layena Y ‫ـﻰ‬ It is readable if you ignore hamza ' ‫ ء‬and tee-marbuta . and read atif-layena a ‫ ى‬as a.‫ـﺔ‬.com .

com . Pronounced arabic The pronounced form is supposed to be how an english person would write a word or phrase. For ease of reading. and how they are written in roman letters throughout the dictionary. the pronounced arabic in this document does not follow the rules that join words together. the alphabet This table shows how to read and pronounce the arabic letters. trans name arabic pronounced examples Notes literated 'aywa ‫أﯾﻮَا‬ alif ‫أ‬ mas'ala aac 'a hamza above ‫ـــــﺄ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺴﺄﻟـَﺔ‬ bad'a ‫ﺑـَﺪأ‬ 'intaeg ‫إﻧﺘﺎ َج‬ ae as in luGaet after soft consonant aeroplane ‫ﻟـُﻐﺎ َت‬ makaen ‫ﻣـَﻜﺎ َن‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. for example sun letters and consonant clusters.

com . alif ‫َا‬ ‫ﻣـَﻜﺎ َن‬ aa fatha ‫ـــــَﺎ‬ hamraa' ‫ﺣـَﻤﺮا َء‬ faar after hard consonant aa as in hard ‫ﻓﺎ َر‬ before r Gata ‫ﻏـَﻄَﺎ‬ alif ‫ِا‬ ilwalad ii i kasra ‫ـــــِﺎ‬ ‫ا ِﻟﻮ َﻟـَﺪ‬ 'ism ‫إﺳﻢ‬ alif 'istanna ‫إ‬ iic 'i hamza below ‫إﺳﺘَـﻨّﻰ‬ 'itfaehim ‫إﺗﻔﺎ َﻫـِﻢ‬ 'umm alif ‫ُأ‬ uuc 'u ‫أ ُ ّم‬ damma 'ustaez ‫أ ُﺳﺘﺎ َذ‬ 'esif ‫آﺳـِﻒ‬ alif ‫آ‬ mut'ekil ee ee PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API ‫ﻣـُﺘﺂﻛـِﻞ‬ pdfcrowd.

ee ee madda ‫ـــــﺂ‬ ‫ﻣـُﺘﺂﻛـِﻞ‬ 'echir ‫آﺧـِﺮ‬ baAd ‫ب‬ ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺑـــــ‬ kibyr by b b ‫ـــــﺒـــــ‬ ‫ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ـــــﺐ‬ gawaeb ‫ﺟـَﻮا َب‬ taht ‫ت‬ ‫ﺗـَﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺗـــــ‬ 'aktar ty t t ‫ـــــﺘـــــ‬ ‫أﻛﺘـَﺮ‬ ‫ـــــﺖ‬ kursaet ‫ﻛـُﺮﺳﺎ َت‬ thabbit ‫ث‬ ‫ﺛَـﺒﱢـﺖ‬ ‫ﺛـــــ‬ mathal thy th th ‫ـــــﺜـــــ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺜـَﻞ‬ ‫ـــــﺚ‬ bahth ‫ﺑـَﺤﺚ‬ gaeb PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . ‫ج‬ ‫ﺟﺎ َب‬ ‫ﺟـــــ‬ magmuAa gyn g g ‫ـــــﺠـــــ‬ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ﻣـَﺠﻤﻮ‬ ‫ـــــﺞ‬ churraag ‫ﺧﻮرّا َج‬ jaekit ‫چ‬ ‫ﭼﺎ َﻛـِﺖ‬ ‫ﭼـــــ‬ 'ajinda not arabic jyn j j ‫ـــــﭽـــــ‬ ‫أﭼـِﻨﺪَا‬ borrowed from farsi ‫ـــــﭻ‬ byj ‫ﺑﯿﭻ‬ haedith ‫ح‬ ‫ﺣـَـ ﺪ ِث‬ ‫ﺣـــــ‬ 'ihna ha H h ‫ـــــﺤـــــ‬ ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـــــﺢ‬ yiruh ‫ﯾـِﺮوح‬ chaaf ‫خ‬ ‫ﺧﺎ َف‬ ‫ﺧـــــ‬ ch achaz kha K ‫ـــــﺨـــــ‬ as in loch ‫ا َﺧـَﺬ‬ ‫ـــــﺦ‬ taarych ‫ﺗﺎ َرﯾﺦ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

daem ‫دا َم‬ ‫د‬ nady dal d d ‫ـــــﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َدي‬ zaed ‫زا َد‬ zaekar ‫ذا َﻛـَﺮ‬ ‫ذ‬ z kizb thal dh ‫ـــــﺬ‬ th as in there ‫ﻛـِﺬب‬ 'ustaez ‫أ ُﺳﺘﺎ َذ‬ raah ‫را َح‬ ‫ر‬ tary' ray r r ‫ـــــﺮ‬ ‫ﻃـَﺮﯾﻖ‬ 'iftakar ‫إﻓﺘـَﻜـَﺮ‬ zayy ‫ز َﯾﻲ‬ ‫ز‬ gazar zyn z z ‫ـــــﺰ‬ ‫ﺟـَﺰ َر‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

gahhiz ‫ﺟَـﻬﱢـﺰ‬ sitt ‫س‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ّ ‫ﺳِـ‬ ‫ﺳـــــ‬ masaa' syn s s ‫ـــــﺴـــــ‬ ‫ﻣـَﺴﺎ َء‬ ‫ـــــﺲ‬ dars ‫د َرس‬ shaef ‫ش‬ ‫ﺷﺎ َف‬ ‫ﺷـــــ‬ rashwa shyn sh sh ‫ـــــﺸـــــ‬ ‫ر َﺷﻮ َة‬ ‫ـــــﺶ‬ mish ‫ﻣـِﺶ‬ sanf ‫ص‬ ‫ﺻـَﻨﻒ‬ ‫ﺻـــــ‬ 'asad saad S s ‫ـــــﺼـــــ‬ ‫ﻗـَﺼـَﺪ‬ ‫ـــــﺺ‬ chaalis ‫ﺧﺎ َﻟـِﺺ‬ dahr ‫ض‬ ‫ﺿـَﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺿـــــ‬ hadritak PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

‫ﺿـــــ‬ ‫‪hadritak‬‬ ‫‪daad‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪d‬‬ ‫ـــــﻀـــــ‬ ‫ﺣـَﻀﺮ ِﺗـَﻚ‬ ‫ـــــﺾ‬ ‫‪'abyad‬‬ ‫أﺑﯿـَﺾ‬ ‫‪taba'a‬‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ﻃـَﺒـَﻘـَﺔ‬ ‫ﻃـــــ‬ ‫‪batal‬‬ ‫‪taa‬‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬ ‫ـــــﻄـــــ‬ ‫ﺑـَﻄـَﻞ‬ ‫ـــــﻂ‬ ‫‪Galat‬‬ ‫ﻏـَﻠـَﻂ‬ ‫‪zarf‬‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ﻇـَﺮف‬ ‫ﻇـــــ‬ ‫‪yizhar‬‬ ‫‪zaa‬‬ ‫‪Z‬‬ ‫‪z‬‬ ‫ـــــﻈـــــ‬ ‫ﯾـِﻈﻬـَﺮ‬ ‫ـــــﻆ‬ ‫‪hazz‬‬ ‫ﻆ‬ ‫ﺣَـ ّ‬ ‫‪Aala‬‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋـــــ‬ ‫‪baAd‬‬ ‫‪ain‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪A .com‬‬ .nasal a‬‬ ‫ـــــﻌـــــ‬ ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ‬ ‫ـــــﻊ‬ ‫‪taebiA‬‬ ‫ﺗـَـ ﺒـِﻊ‬ ‫‪Galab‬‬ ‫‪PRO version‬‬ ‫‪Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API‬‬ ‫‪pdfcrowd.

gargling noise ‫ـــــﻐـــــ‬ ‫ﺻـُﻐـَﯿـَﺮ‬ ‫ـــــﻎ‬ baeliG ‫ﺑﺎ َﻟـِﻎ‬ fiAlaen ‫ف‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ً ‫ﻓـِﻌ‬ ‫ﻓـــــ‬ mifalis fah f f ‫ـــــﻔـــــ‬ ‫ﻣـِﻔـَﻠـِﺲ‬ ‫ـــــﻒ‬ nidyf ‫ﻧـِﻀﯿﻒ‬ vyla ‫ڤ‬ ‫ڤـــــ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ َ ‫ ڤﯿ‬not arabic veh v v ‫ـــــڤـــــ‬ borrowed from farsi nuvimbir ‫ـــــڤ‬ ‫ﻧﻮڤـِﻤﺒـِﺮ‬ 'udaem ‫ﻗـُﺪا َم‬ ' nu'ta q as in cockney bottle (bo'le) ‫ﻧـُﻘﻄـَﺔ‬ sadda' ‫ق‬ ‫ﻗـــــ‬ ‫ ﺻَـ ّﺪ َق‬cannot tell from arabic qaf whether qaf is pronounced ‫ـــــﻘـــــ‬ qana PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . ‫غ‬ ‫ﻏـَﻠـَﺐ‬ ‫ﻏـــــ‬ suGayar gin G G .

com . ‫ـــــﻘـــــ‬ qana upper egyptians say g ‫ـــــﻖ‬ ‫ﻗـَﻨَﺎ‬ k raqam q sounds swallowed ‫ر َﻗـَﻢ‬ sadyq ‫ﺻـَﺪﯾﻖ‬ kaen ‫ك‬ ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻛـــــ‬ 'aktar kef k k ‫ـــــﻜـــــ‬ ‫أﻛﺘـَﺮ‬ ‫ـــــﻚ‬ hadritak ‫ﺣـَﻀﺮ ِﺗـَﻚ‬ lakin ‫ل‬ ‫ﻟـَﻜـِﻦ‬ ‫ﻟـــــ‬ Aala lem l l ‫ـــــﻠـــــ‬ ‫ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬ ‫ـــــﻞ‬ ful ‫ﻓﻮل‬ mumkin ‫م‬ ‫ﻣـُﻤﻜـِﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـــــ‬ Aaemil mym m m ‫ـــــﻤـــــ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﻣـِﻞ‬ ‫ـــــﻢ‬ naem PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

com . ‫ﻧﺎ َم‬ nashaat ‫ن‬ ‫ﻧـَﺸﺎ َط‬ ‫ﻧـــــ‬ 'ihna nwn n n ‫ـــــﻨـــــ‬ ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـــــﻦ‬ sinyn ‫ﺳـِﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ه‬ hina hey ‫ﻫـــــ‬ h h ‫ﻫـِﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـــــﻬـــــ‬ zahar ‫ـــــﻪ‬ ‫ز َﻫـَﺮ‬ sura ‫ــــــَة‬ _ah a ‫ﺻﻮر َة‬ tee-marbuta 'izzaezit zyt genitive ‫ــــــِة‬ _it it ‫ إزّا َز ِة زﯾﺖ‬bottle of oil wishsh ‫ش‬ ّ ِ‫و‬ ‫و‬ yum wow w w ‫ـــــﻮ‬ ‫ﯾﻮم‬ Audw ‫ﻋـُﺪو‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

s'wael wow-hamza wc 'w ‫ﺳ ا َل‬ ‫ـــــ‬ mas'wliya ‫ﻣـَﺴ ﻟـِﯿـَﺔ‬ ‫وا‬ 'intu unusual pronunciation wow-alif oo u ‫ـــــﻮا‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ for verb endings yizhar ‫ي‬ ‫ﯾـِﻈﻬـَﺮ‬ ‫ﯾـــــ‬ taarych yeh y y ‫ـــــﯿـــــ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ َرﯾﺦ‬ ‫ـــــﻲ‬ zayy ‫ز َﯾﻲ‬ ra'yys ‫ئ‬ ‫ر َﺋﯿﺲ‬ yeh-hamza ‫ـــــﺌـــــ‬ yc 'y daf'y ‫ـــــﺊ‬ ‫دا َﻓﺊ‬ Aala alif-layena ‫ى‬ Y a ‫ ﻋـَﻠﻰ‬used at end of words ‫ـــــﻰ‬ nada ‫ﻧﺎ َدى‬ alif-layena muthannae ‫ ى ـــــﻰ‬Ye e madda ‫ﻣـُﺜَـﻨّﻰ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

com . short vowels dawla ‫د َوﻟـَﺔ‬ basal ‫ﺑـَﺼـَﻞ‬ fatha a a 'inta ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ 'arbaAa ‫أرﺑَـ َﻊ‬ madda e e short e rarely used min ‫ﻣـِﻦ‬ kibyr kasra i i ‫ﻛـِﺒﯿﺮ‬ 'inti ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ sufrah ‫ﺳـُﻔﺮ َه‬ tulaeb damma u u ‫ﻃـُﻼ َب‬ 'anhuh PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

wow ‫ـ‬ wc ‫رﺋـَﺔ‬ ' s'wael hamza as in cockney bottle ‫ا َل‬ ‫ﺳ‬ (bo'le) hawaa' ‫ء‬ C ‫ ﻫـَﻮا َء‬full size. on its own laa' ‫ﻻ َء‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. yeh.com . ‫أﻧﻬﻮه‬ sukun silent means that there is no vowel other symbols sadda' shadda ‫ ﺻَـ ّﺪ َق‬doubles the letter hadd it is above ‫ﺣَـ ّﺪ‬ fathatan daeymaen used on alif N n tanwyn ‫دا َﯾﻤًﺎ‬ at end of word tatwyl ‫ـ‬ used for spacing 'ana ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫أ‬ aac r'ya ‫ـﺌـ‬ yc small above alif.

yeh) or ends with a double consonant. Remember that the letter AIN is treated as a consonant. the second to last syllable is usually stressed. Feminine endings When a word ends in _aaCiC (where C is any consonant) has a feminine ending attached. 'iftakar ‫إﻓﺘـَﻜـَﺮ‬ kitaeb ‫ﻛـِﺘﺎ َب‬ mudachan ‫ﻣـُﺪ َﺧـَﻦ‬ The stress moves to the last syllable if it contains a long vowel (alif.com . Stress In most words. wow. waehid ‫ وا َﺣـِﺪ‬-> wahda ‫وا َﺣﺪ َة‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. the i disappears and the aa is pronounced as an a. taAbaen ‫ﺗـَﻌﺒﺎ َن‬ maftuh ‫ﻣـَﻔﺘﻮح‬ yidu'' ‫ق‬ ّ ُ ‫ﯾـِﺪ‬ This means that the stress will move if suffixes are added to a word. ©Copyright Mike Green 2010-2012 You can print out this table and keep it handy for reference.

com . baAd kidah ‫ ﺑـَﻌﺪ ﻛـِﺪ َه‬-> baAdakidah ‫ﺑـَﻌﺪ َﻛـِﺪ َه‬ Sun letters If the definite article. is attached to a word that begins with a sun-letter (t t d d l r n s s z z ‫ت ط‬ ‫ )د ض ل ر ن س ص ز ظ‬the l is dropped and the sun-letter is doubled: il. the words are run together (elided) and the i or u omitted. a shwa (which sounds like a short a) is inserted between the words. 'inta minyn? ‫ إﻧﺖ َ ﻣـِﻨﯿﻦ؟‬-> 'intamnyn? ‫إﻧﺘـَﻤﻨﯿﻦ؟‬ This also happens if you attach an object suffix that begins with an i.shams ‫ ا ِﻟـ ﺷـَﻤﺲ‬-> ishshams ‫ا ِﺷﱠـﻤﺲ‬ Pronunciation exceptions PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.‫ ا ِﻟـ‬. Elision If a word ends with a vowel and the first vowel of the next word is either an i or a u. il. consonant clusters If putting two words next to each other makes more than two consonants in a row.

kul ‫ﻛـُﻞ‬ take .wi'iA ‫و ِﻗـِﻊ‬ stop . Irregular verbs There are very few irregular verbs in Egyptian: here are all the ones that I know of: be/was . For the you(pl) 'intu ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ subject pronoun and for you(pl) and they in the verb perfect.idda ‫ﱠِد‬ fall . English Pronoun Perfect Ha-Imperfect PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The word because is written Aalashaen ‫ ﻋـَﻠـَﺸﺎ َن‬but pronounced Aashaen ‫ﻋـَﺸﺎ َن‬.gih ‫ﺟـِﻪ‬ give .wi'if ‫و ِﻗـِﻒ‬ Be .kaen ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ The verb 'to be' does not exist in the present tense.chud ‫ﺧـُﺪ‬ come .com . the ending is written -w a ‫ ـﻮ َا‬but pronounced -uh ‫ــُه‬. It is used only in the perfect and Ha-imperfect forms.kaen ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ eat . The word orange is written burtu'ael ‫ ﺑـُﺮﺗـُﻘﺎ َل‬but pronounced burtu'aen ‫ﺑـُﺮﺗـُﻘﺎ َن‬. The pronunciation of some pronoun and verb endings is a little unusual.

com .kul ‫ﻛـُﻞ‬ kul has irregular imperfect froms PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 'ana kunt hakun I ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻜﻮن‬ 'ihna kunna hankun we ‫إﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻛُـ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻫـَﻨﻜﻮن‬ 'inta kunt hatkun you (m) ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮن‬ 'inti kunty hatkuny you (f) ‫ﺖ‬ ِ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮﻧﻲ‬ 'intu kuntuh hatkunuh you (pl) ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـُﻨﺘـُﻪ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮﻧـُﻪ‬ huwwa kaen haykun he ‫ﻫُـ ﱠﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎ َن‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮن‬ hiya kaenit hatkun she ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻛﺎ َﻧـِﺖ ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﻫـَﺘﻜﻮن‬ humma kanuh haykunuh they ‫ﻛﺎ َﻧﻮه ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻫـَﯿﻜﻮﻧـُﻪ‬ Eat.

Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana kalt akul ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺖ‬ ‫ا َﻛـُﻞ‬ ihna kalna naekul ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ 'inta kalt taekul kul ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـُﻞ‬ 'inty kalty takly kuly ‫إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻟﻲ‬ 'intu kaltu kalu kulw ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﻮا‬ ‫ﻛـُﻠﻮ‬ huwa kal yaekul ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ hiya kalit taekul ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠـِﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ َﻛـُﻞ‬ humma kalw yakluh ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﻛـَﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﯾـَﻜﻠﻮه‬ Take.com .chud ‫ﺧـُﺪ‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

Kud has irregular imperfect froms Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana chudt achud ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﺧـُﺪت‬ ‫ا َﺧـُﺪ‬ ihna chadna naechud ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺧـَﺪﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َﺧـُﺪ‬ 'inta chudt taechud chud ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﺧـُﺪت‬ ‫ﺗﺎ َﺧـُﺪ‬ ‫ﺧـُﺪ‬ 'inty chady tachdy chudty ‫إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺧـَﺪي‬ ‫ﺗـَﺨﺪي‬ ‫ﺧـُﺪﺗﻲ‬ 'intu chadtw chadtw chudw ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺧـَﺪﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺧـَﺪﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺧـُﺪو‬ huwa achad yaechud ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫ا َﺧـَﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ َﺧـُﺪ‬ hiya chadit taechud ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﺧـَﺪ ِت‬ ‫ﺗﺎ َﺧـُﺪ‬ humma achadu yachduh ‫ا َﺧـَﺪوا ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﯾـَﺨﺪ ُه‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com .

Come.com .gih ‫ﺟـِﻪ‬ Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana gyt 'egy ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺖ‬ ‫آﺟﻲ‬ ihna gyna nygy ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﯿﺠﻲ‬ 'inta gyt tygy taAaela gaey ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﯿﺠﻲ‬ ‫ل‬ َ َ ‫ﺗـَﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ َي‬ 'inty gyty tygy taAaly gaeya ‫إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﯿﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗـَﻌﺎ َﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ َﯾَﺎ‬ 'intu gytu tygu taAalu gayyin ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺗﯿﺠﻮا‬ ‫ﺗـَﻌﺎ َﻟﻮا‬ ‫ﺟـَﯿﯿـِﻦ‬ huwa gih yigy ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫ﺟـِﻪ‬ ‫ﯾـِﺠﻲ‬ hiya gaet tigy ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ َت‬ ‫ﺗـِﺠﻲ‬ humma gum yigu ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻮم‬ ‫ﯾـِﺠﻮا‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.

idda ِ‫ّدى‬ Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana 'idyt addy ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫إدﯾﺖ‬ ‫ا َدّي‬ ihna 'iddyna niddy ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫إدﱠﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧِـﺪّي‬ 'inta 'iddyt tiddy 'iddy ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫إدّﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺗِـﺪّي‬ ‫إدّي‬ 'inty 'iddyty tiddy 'iddit ‫إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫إدّﯾﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗِـﺪّي‬ ‫إ ّد ِت‬ 'intu 'iddytu tiddu 'iddu ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫إدّﯾﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺗِـﺪّوا‬ ‫إدّوا‬ huwa 'idda yiddy ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫إدّى‬ ‫ﯾِـﺪّي‬ hiya 'iddyt tiddy ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫إدّﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﺗِـﺪّي‬ humma 'iddu yiddu ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫إدّوا‬ ‫ﯾِـﺪّوا‬ PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Give.com .

wi'iA ‫و ِﻗـِﻊ‬ Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana wi'iAt a'aA ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻌﺖ‬ ‫ا َﻗـَﻊ‬ ihna wi'iAna nu'aA ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻌﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧـُﻘـَﻊ‬ 'inta wi'iAt tu'aA wae'iA ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻊ‬ ‫وا َﻗـِﻊ‬ 'inty wi'iAty tu'aAy wa'Ait ‫و ِﻗـِﻌﺘﻲ إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻌﻲ‬ ‫وا َﻗﻌـِﺖ‬ 'intu wi'iAtu tu'aAu wa'Ayn ‫و ِﻗـِﻌﺘﻮا إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻌﻮا‬ ‫وا َﻗﻌﯿﻦ‬ huwa wi'iA yu'aA ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻊ‬ ‫ﯾـُﻘـَﻊ‬ hiya wi'Ait tu'aA ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫و ِﻗﻌـِﺖ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻊ‬ humma wi'Au yu'aAu PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . fall.

wi'if ‫و ِﻗـِﻒ‬ Active Pronoun Perfect Imperfect Imperative Participle 'ana wi'ift a'af ‫أﻧَﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻔﺖ‬ ‫ا َﻗـَﻒ‬ ihna wi'ifna nu'af ‫ا ِﺣﻨَﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻔﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻧـُﻘـَﻒ‬ 'inta wi'ift tu'af uu'af wae'if ‫ﺖ‬ َ ‫إﻧ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻒ‬ ‫ا ُﻗـَﻒ‬ ‫وا َﻗـِﻒ‬ wi'ifty wae'ifty 'inty tu'afy uu'afy ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻔﻲ‬ ‫ا ُﻗـَﻔﻲ‬ ‫ِقـِفتي‬ ‫َقـِفتي‬ wi'iftu 'intu tu'afu uu'afu wae'ifyn ‫و‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻮا‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻔﻮا‬ ‫ا ُﻗـَﻔﻮا‬ ‫وا َﻗـِﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫ِقـِفتوا‬ huwa wi'if yu'af ‫ﻫُـ َﻮ‬ ‫و ِﻗـِﻒ‬ ‫ﯾـُﻘـَﻒ‬ hiya wi'fit tu'af PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗﻌﻮا‬ ‫ﯾـُﻘـَﻌﻮا‬ stand.

AIN is treated a consonant. A B C D E 1 KVT KvTv KvTT KvTvB KvTBvL 2 KvVVvT KvTTv KvTTvT KvTTvB 3 KaaViT KaaTi KvTT KaaTiB KvTBvL KTBL=root consonants v=aiu V=wy From any of these main stems.com . write. There may be more than one verb derived from the same root.for example. For words with four consonants. There are five main roots. Note that. as per the following table. Here are PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. as in kitab ‫ﻛـِﺘـَﺐ‬. it is possible to derive more stems by adding prefixes. so Airif is of the form KiTiB. you can make fihim (to understand) and fahhim (to make somebody understand). Most roots have three consonants: it is conventional to describe this type of verb using the letters K. in arabic. starting with fhm. the letter L is used as well. T and B. ‫ﻲ‬ َ ‫ﻫِـ‬ ‫و ِﻗﻔـِﺖ‬ ‫ﺗـُﻘـَﻒ‬ humma wi'fu yu'afu ‫ﻫُـﻤﱠﺎ‬ ‫و ِﻗﻔﻮا‬ ‫ﯾـُﻘـَﻔﻮا‬ Verbs: Root and Stem A verb is made up of a root (a set of consonants) and a stem (a prefix and the vowels between). A small number of roots have two or four consonants. and each of these can make three main stem types.

and the imperfect with yu-. Suze Labib and Rana el Hindy for helping me to make this possible. PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . each other yiKTvB yitKaaTiB iiKtvTvB iiKt. KvTvB consider or seek yistaKvTvB There are also some verbs that are derived from classical arabic. KvTvB as iit- yinKvTvB iistaKvTvB iista. KvTTvB yitKvTTvB reflexive (* oneself) KaaTiB iitKaaTiB iit. KvTvB as iit- yiKtvTvB iinKvTvB iin.the perfect genarally begins with aa-. About this document I would like to thank the residents of the White House. some examples: Prefix Main stem Derived stem Meaning iitKvTvB passive (be *-ed) iit. KvTvB yitKvTvB reflexive (* oneself) iitKaTTaB passive (be *-ed) iit.

The web and android versions of this document use cookies to remember your preferences for transliterated. Copyright This material is Copyright © 2007-2012 Mike Green. It was developed and revised over several years as a study aid for my own use: It has been extensively checked. No personal data. Cookies You were probably wondering about cookies. nothing sinister. Or maybe not. and: either the material is supplied complete and in its existing form PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. The logo was designed by Khaled Adel of Absolute Studios.com . you can contact me using the Contact us page. but I am sure that there are still mistakes and omissions. injury or embarrassment that may result from their use. The dictionary and grammar are supplied 'as is': you are welcome to use them on condition that you do not hold me responsible for any loss. You may distribute the documents and applications free of charge if it is strictly for non-commercial use. pronounced and show arabic. This document is a work in progress. If you notice any errors or omissions or have suggestions for improvements. See the copyright notice if you wish to publish any part of this document.

lisaanmasry.com and carry the original copyright details of the document If you need to access the entire dictionary database for any reason. please ask and maybe I can supply it in a more convenient form. Mike Green PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. or extracts from the material are attributed to www.com .

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