International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013)

Analytical Method for Velocity Analysis of Simple and
Compound Mechanisms Using Simple Trigonometry
Pravin S. Ghawade1, Nilesh D. Shirgire2
Assistant Professor in Jawaharlal Darda Inst.Of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal(M.S.),India.&
Abstract— The Analysis of Simple and Compound If a number of bodies are assembled in such a way that
mechanisms has been actively studied since the last century. motion of one causes constrained and predictable motion to
The pioneering work in this field was explored by Reuleaux in the others, it is known as mechanism. A mechanism
the 1870’s and continuous to be a field of active research. transmits and modifies a motion. A machine is a
Every time, we cant be dependent totally on graphical
mechanism or combination of mechanisms which, apart
working of any thing in the universe, it leads thing to take
much time with less accuracy. Also Graphical method is from imparting definite motion to the parts, also transmit
inconvenient for Drawing. So we have developed such a and modifies the available mechanical energy into some
Analytical method using Trigonometry for Analyzing the kind of desired work. Thus, mechanism is a fundamental
simple & compound mechanisms which will be helpful for the unit for motion transmission. Generally, mechanism used in
design engineer to carry out the research work in the Industry a machine is responsible for the performance of machine
by reducing the maximum graphical work. Initially this and required output. A mechanism with four links is called
method requires initial position of mechanism or angle of each as simple mechanism. A four bar mechanism is much
links with horizontal Axis which also needed in Graphical preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and
Method. The focus of this paper is to draw manually velocity
control of motion due to its simplicity and versatility.
diagram on X and Y axis without using any drawing
instruments for determining the Linear or Angular Velocities Basically, it consists of four rigid links which are
of links for analysis purpose of four bar, five bar, Six bar, connected in the form of a quadrilateral by four bar joints.
Seven bar linkages etc. When one of the links is fixed, it is known as frame. A link
that makes complete revolution is known as crank, link
Keywords— Four bar, Six Bar, Space Diagram, Manually opposite to the fixed link is known as coupler and fourth
drawn Free Velocity Polygon on X & Y Axis , Triangles etc. link is known as rocker. But values of velocity and
acceleration changes with respect to time for different
I. INTRODUCTION positions of the crank. So analytical approach is an
To study the motion of a simple & compound alternate method and preferable than graphical to save time
mechanism, knowledge of velocity and acceleration and cost.
analysis is required. The analysis of velocity and The graphical method is less accurate than analytical
acceleration depend upon the graphical as well as analytical method. However, Graphical method is preferred as it gives
methods. The graphical approach is suitable for finding out the motion characteristics of all the links. But The
the velocity and acceleration of the links of a mechanism in graphical method restricted for determining velocity and
one or two positions of the crank. However, if it is required acceleration for each and every crank angle of the
to find these values at various configurations of the mechanism. According ,Ron P. Podhorodeski, Scott B.
mechanism or to find the maximum values of maximum Nokleby and Jonathan D. Wittchen [1] , they have
velocity or acceleration, it is not convenient to draw described the work related to QR mechanism design and
velocity and acceleration diagrams again and again. In that analysis. The experiences familiarize the terminology of
case, analytical expressions for displacement, velocity and mechanisms, with concept related mechanism synthesis,
acceleration in terms of general parameters are derived. In with relative motion analysis and with techniques and
this paper a Analytical method using simple trigonometry computer programs for the design and analysis of
is used for getting values of linear velocities & Angular mechanisms. Matt Campbell & Stephen S.Nestinger [2],
velocities of a simple or compound mechanisms at any they have provided a software package for the analysis and
position of the crank. Graphical method is very design of a Whit worth quick return mechanism. This QR
monotonous as compare to Analytical method, because it is class can be used to calculate or plot the position, velocity
not feasible to draw at one rotation of crank angle. & acceleration of the mechanism.


Purohit[3. A. draw a Free Vector for Velocity of Crank by using the same concept of graphical method i. k.  Calculate the Linear Velocity of Crank Link with the given rpm. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. 1(a) Manual method of Free Velocity Polygon on X-Y Axis  Draw manually approximately the position of links on X-Y Axis. Jih--Lian  Select the second pair of link and do the same Ha. for a single position of crank.1 Six Bar Linkage Mechanism (Space diagram with suitable scale complete velocity diagram of a mechanism which is & Showing Angle With Horizontal of each Link) exactly similar to a velocity diagram drawn by graphically. According . In graphical method.  Measure the Angle of Each Link with Horizontal Axis. Volume 3. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. obtained by the Analytical Method are compared with  Now if you overlap all these triangle one on other. If we overlapping the triangles one on other. C. flexible rod of a quick return mechanism is Determine sides. For this method. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FOLLOWING SOME respect to horizontal axis. the vector is drawn perpendicular to position of each link to represent the linear velocity.  Draw X-Y Axis.Calculate Linear as well as Angular velocities We know that.e. Rest of calculation is completely done velocities & Angular velocities of each links.  Select the first pair of link including crank. The Experimental results  Obtain possible number of triangles. Issue 4. Showing the position of free vector at 90° to crank position in a direction of rotation of crank. we must know that position of each link with III. complete position of all other links in a mechanism. For getting Problem No. II.ijetae. METHODOLOGY  Thus .e. Sharma.  Locate the direction of motion of Crank i. they show that  Complete the first right angle triangle & determine the kinematic analysis of the mechanism can be performed the sides of this triangle. manually. we must have to draw first the configuration in fig.01) The position of six bar linkage as shown angles. you will get the complete Free Velocity Diagram for the given configuration diagram. S. Lengths of some sides of triangles gives direct velocity & remaining velocities are determined by summing or adding the sides of two triangles. By using same concept we can obtain right angle triangle for each pair of links in a mechanism. 765 . graphical method and have attained 99 accurate. have procedure and obtain second right angle triangle. we get the of Each Links. Fig. described .  First.4]. Jer. we get Fig. Stepwise Procedure for Determining Velocities.  Now draw another line perpendicular to the position of remaining link of a pair from end point of free vector.  First draw a Space Diagram as per the required dimension by using suitable (ISSN 2250-2459. either graphical or analytical method. Thus we get number of right angle triangles for number of pairs in a mechanism. The position of link is only PRACTICE PROBLEMS known from its Angle with horizontal Axis.Rong Chang & Rong-fong fung [5] . Also show the measured angles. April 2013) According.  Name the links. Now determine all sides of a triangles.1[9] The Following is a complete solution of Linear diagram graphically. modeled by Euler-beam theory. clockwise or anticlockwise.

(degree) Sin10 = yd /od yd = 2. 766 . 2 0.564 m/sec Linear velocities & Angular velocities of each links.79 ωBA 3. 1(b) No. ans ab = ax –bx = 2.659 m/sec Problem No.ijetae. Show position of each link with above 1 0.901 Cos61 = xo /oa xo = 2. Volume 3. 0 No of link rs Velociti rs r s es Velocit (rad/sec ω OA * AB = 18.98 Draw manually free velocity diagram without the scale & Select right angle triangle with known vector oa =2.83 m/sec VAO = (m) (m/sec) ies ) VAO= 2.85 rad/sec From Right Angle Triangle ocy TABLE I Sin35 = yc /oc yc = 2. od V DO 2.86 angles mentioned in table.15 = 2.0.255 ωDC 1.791 m/sec VBA = AB = 1.432 m/sec 4) PC 450 65 V OD = od = 2.24 pb V BP 1. LENGTHS & MEASURED ANGLES OF EACH LINKS WITH HORIZONTAL Cos35 = yo /oc yo = 2.564 ωBP 6.396/cos10 = 2.255 m/sec ……… ans 3) PB 240 65 Cos10 = yo /od od = 2.791 m/sec.678.45.926*cos35 = 2. of Right Angle Triangles with pair of Links oc = 2.432*sin10 = 0. Length Vecto Linear Answe Angula Answer 6) SLIDER ----. Link Length(mm) Angle with Horizontal From Right Angle Triangle oyd No.926*sin35 = 1.415*cos25 = 1. ω = 2 π NAO/ 60 = VCP = pc = 2.83 3 0.516 m/sec.926 m/sec ……….15 oa V AO 2.45 ab V BA 1.4223= 1. April 2013) VPB = bp = ob = 1. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.45 pc V CP 2.432 ωDO --------- From Right Angle Triangle obx Sin25 = xb /ob xa = 1.561*sin25 = 0.926 ωCP 6. OF LINKS.502 Sin61 = xa /oa xa = 2.02) The position of four bar linkage as shown in fig.83*sin61 = 2. From Right Angle Triangle oax 4 0.561 = 450/240 = 1.255 2) AB 450 1 V DC = cd = 1.396 m/sec Sr.926 m/sec Calculation: NAO= 180 rpm.659 = 1.678 m/sec SHOWS NO.564 m/sec …….ans Draw X-Y axis.432 m/sec ……… ans TABLE II 5) DC 660 10 CALCULATED RESULTS Sr.83*cos61 = 1. ans oc /ob = OC/OB oc /1.. ……….85 *0.83 ωAO 18.875 Fig.45 m/sec 5 0.. ans (ISSN 2250-2459.2[10] The Following is complete solution of Cos25 = xo /ob ob = 1..415 m/sec 6 ----.83m/sec …………. Issue 4.4223 m/sec 1) OA 150 30 cd = yc-yd = 1.. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal.66 cd V DC 1.0.

ans dc = ac = 0.385 m/sec VCD = 0.385 m/sec Fig.367-0. Degree) 1) AB 40 60 2) BC 150 17 3) CD 80 80 4) AD 150 0 Fig.503 m/sec … ans and Showing Horizontal Angle of each Link) 767 .ans TABLE IV CALCULATED RESULTS Sr. OF LINKS. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.385 m/sec bc = xb. N BA = 120 RPM(clockwise) ωBA =2πNBA/ 60 1 0.xc = 0. Draw manually free velocity diagram without the scale & Select right angle triangle with known vector ab =0. From Right Angle Triangle axb Sin47= xb /ab xb= 0.174 m/sec Cos27=xa /ac ac = 0.273 V BA =? VCB =? VCD =? 3 0. Len vect Linea Answe Angular Answers No gth ors r rs Velocitie .3[11] The Following is complete solution of Linear Horizontal(in velocities & Angular velocities of each links.385*sin27 = 0.503 m/sec.343*cos27 = 0.192 m/sec VCB = bc = 0. of Right Angle Triangles with pair of Links (m) ties (m/sec) Caculation: BC = AD .03) The position of six bar linkage as shown Sr. Volume 3.81 TABLE III SHOWS NO.367 m/sec Cos47=xa /ab xa=0. Veloci s (rad/sec) Fig.57 rad /sec 2 0. Issue 4.385 ωCD 4.04 = 0.192 m/sec …………….57 * 0.08 dc V CD 0.343 m/sec Fig.174 = 0.385 m/sec …………….503*cos47 = 0.2(a) Manual method of Free Velocity Polygon on X-Y Axis VCD = dc = 0. 2 Four Bar Linkages Mechanism (Space diagram with suitable scale and Showing Horizontal Angle of each Link) From Right Angle Triangle axc Sin27 = xc /ac xc = 0.04 ab V BA 0. No.575 = 12.503*sin47 = 0. 2(b) No. Link Length(mm) Angle with in fig.15 bc V CB (ISSN 2250-2459. 3 Six Bar Linkage Mechanism (Space diagram with suitable scale V BA = ωBA * AB = 12. April 2013) Draw X-Y axis. LENGTHS & MEASURED ANGLES OF EACH LINKS WITH HORIZONTAL Problem No. Show position of each link with above angles mentioned in table.503 ωBA 12.192 ωCB 1.

ans Fig.0343m/sec …….9*cos33 = 1. trigonometry for the analysis of simple & compound Draw manually free velocity diagram without the scale mechanism is quite easy & simple for doing calculation for & Select right angle triangle with known vector ab =1.9*sin33 = 1.. 12 Cos12= ca /ad ad=2.518 ab’ V B’A 1. of Right Angle Triangles with pair of Links TABLE VI CALCULATED RESULTS Caculation: AB = 150mm =0. April 2013) From Right Angle Triangle abb’ Sin33= bb’/ab bb’=1. Volume 3.74 oc= ac =2. ωBA = 2 π N BA / 60= 12.593/oc =518/700 =0. OC =700mm =0.593 m/sec V B’A = ab’= 1.57 rad/sec (m) Veloci (m/sec Velociti (rad/se ties es V BA =? V B’B =? V B’O =? V CO =? V DC =? VDO =? ) c) TABLE V SHOWS NO.075 & vertical 4 07 oc V CO 2.455m/sec………. 0 The Results in the Above table are compared with the Graphical Method and found 99% Accurate.57 *0.593 ωB'A 3.034 ωB'B ------- Sr.9 m/sec …… ans IV. CD = 200mm = 0.15/cos33 = 2.593m/sec…. Leng vecto Linea Answ Angula Answer No. 3(b) No.7m. th rs r ers r s N BA = 120 RPM.15 ωCO 3. Link Length(mm) Angle with Horizontal 3 0. Issue (ISSN 2250-2459.9 ωBA 12.455 m/sec V DC = dc = 0. bb’ V B’B 1.15 m/sec -----------ans From Right Angle Triangle abb’ Fig.071 1) OA 400 90 5 0.15 = 1. LENGTHS & MEASURED ANGLES OF EACH 1 0. ans Cos33= b’a /ab b’a=1. 768 . International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.275 2) AB 150 45 6 ---. OF LINKS. CONCLUSION Draw X-Y axis.19 ωDO --------- 3) OC 700 12 4) CD 200 4 Sin12= dc/ad dc = ad*sin12 = 0. od V DO 2. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal.3(a) Manual method of Free Velocity Polygon on X-Y Axis ob’/oc=OB/OC 1.2m Sr.15m.0343 m/sec V B’B =1. Show position of each link with above This analytical method developed on the basis of angles mentioned in table.15 ab V BA 1. No.455 ωCD 2. V BA = ωBA * AB = 12. complex algebra.ans 5) SLIDER1 ---.19 m/sec 6) SLIDER2 ----.9 determining of velocity & acceleration instead of using m/sec.15 m/sec = V B’B bb’ =2.57 LINKS WITH HORIZONTAL 2 --.2 dc V CD 0.

Computer aided Mechanism Design. \Synthesis of Planar. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www. International journal of Mechanical Engineering Education. ISBN-81-203- 2901-5. upper saddle River.L. University of California Davis. [11] Dr. August 1955.110002. Podhorodeski. 1st Jan 2000.Jeevan Prakash Hsg.44. Jagdishlal. Acceleration diagram and easy for developing software. Mechanical And Areonautical Engineering." ASME Journal of Mechnaical Design. and Kota. graphical method. design parameters which also results in saving of time.. CA 95616 769 .(2005). Volume 3. S. 123(4):535-13541. Subhash Marg. New Delhi. Jer-Rong Chang & Rong. 1997. 2001. no. Delhi-110006. 2- are eliminated by this present method which gives better B. S. In concluding statements it can be claimed that this ―Analytical Method For Velocity Analysis [4] Myszka. the basis of result of analysis. Scott B.LIC Colony. vol 77. Also errors due to the graphical method [9] P. Sharma. Nai Sarak. Ballaney. complexity in design and analysis of mechanisms. Theory of Machine-I. ―Dynamic trigonometry‖ is successful in great extent to reduce the Analysis of a flexiblequick return mechanism‖. Khama Plublishers. [6] F (ISSN 2250-2459.Theory of Machine. it is seemed that this present [8] Saggere. ―Effect of Link Length on Kinematics of Further extension of this work will be based on Mechanisms‖. Approximate Synthesis of Four-bar Linkages. Stephen. Vol. Theory of mechanisms and Machines. Nath Market. [1] Ron P. K. Compliant method is less laborious and very efficient than only Four-Bar Mechanisms for Compliant-Segment Motion Generation.. Bungalow No. April 2013) Formulae derived in complex algebra are difficult & [3] C.NJ.‖ computer Aided Design and Analysis of the whithworth Quick Return Mechanism‖.Fong Fung.ijetae. Technova Publications. Nene.Purohit-Hall of India private limited. Pune- REFERENCES 411009. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal. M. 2006. Nestinger. Indian Institute of Technology.D.Nokleby and Jonathan D. hard to remember. on Bombay. [7] Hrishikesh V. Wittchen. 32/2 [2] Matt Campbell. S.H. L. Machines and mechanisms(3rd ed. Prentice Hall. Soc.. Netaji ―Quick –return mechanism Design and Analysis Project‖. of Simple and Compound Mechanisms using simple [5] Jih-Lian Ha. Oct 1996. pp 853-861.). [10] Passi M. obtaining accurate and faster results in terms of getting the Transaction ASME. Tech Thesis. ISBN 91-200-0272-5. Issue 4. result.