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Joost Meyboom

**Institute of Structural Engineering
**

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich

Zurich

November 2002

Foreword

**I came to Switzerland to study structural engineering at the Institute of Structural Engineering
**

(IBK) of the ETH because of its philosophy and tradition of simplicity, clarity and consistency. In

addition to the specific work documented in this dissertation regarding the limit analysis of rein-

forced concrete slabs, I have studied this philosophy.

Simplicity comes only when a fundamental understanding of theory is compared with method-

ically made observations of nature. In structural engineering such observations require the testing

of structures to failure and, in this regard, large-scale tests can be considered to give the most di-

rectly applicable information. Clarity is required for the presentation of simplicity. It requires an

attention to detail and endless revisions. Consistency comes from an understanding that there is

an underlying similarity between apparently different natural phenomena. In structural engineer-

ing, for example, all the effects from an applied load – moments, torsion and shears – can be de-

scribed by the equilibrating forces of tension and compression. In a similar way rods, beams, slabs

and shells can be seen as similar structure types. In this work I have tried to develop a static model

for reinforced concrete slabs that is in keeping with these ideas.

Nobody likes to work in a vacuum and in this regard I enjoyed the many interesting discus-

sions I had with my colleagues at the IBK such as those I had with Mario Monotti with whom I

shared an office for the past two years. In addition, a person needs the occasional diversion from

a work such as this one and in this regard I am grateful for the time I spent with the many friends

I have made in Switzerland – in particular Jaques Schindler and his family – and those that came

to visit me from Canada. I would also like to thank Regina Nöthiger for her help from the start and

Armand Fürst for his translation and comments.

During the last month of my stay in Switzerland I was spoiled by the friendship and hospitality

of Karel Thoma and Janine Régnault and hope that we will meet again in Canada.

My wife, AnnaLisa, has been a source of strong and loving support during this work and to her

I am deeply grateful.

I am especially thankful to Professor Peter Marti for his guidance during this work as well as

his openness in sharing his ideas, understanding and experience of structural engineering. In par-

ticular I would like to thank him for the freedom he has given me over the past four years to pur-

sue this work and to learn. To Prof. Thomas Vogel, my co-referent, I also wish to extend my

thanks for his efforts in reviewing this work.

Zürich, October 2002 Joost Meyboom

Summary

**Plastic analysis and the theorems of limit analysis are powerful tools for modelling a structure’s
**

behaviour at ultimate and gaining an understanding of its safety. The underlying concepts of these

methods are therefore reviewed. In limit analysis, materials with sufficient ductility are consid-

ered such that the stress redistributions required by plastic theory can occur. Although plain con-

crete is not a particularly ductile material, reinforced concrete can exhibit considerable ductility if

failure is governed by yielding of the reinforcement. This can be achieved if concrete’s material

properties are conservatively defined and careful attention is paid to the detailing of the reinforc-

ing steel.

The yield-line and the strip methods as well as other plastic methods of slab analysis are re-

viewed. A comparison is made between the load paths associated with Hillerborg’s advanced strip

method and several alternative formulations. The statics of a slab are reviewed including principal

shears. A sandwich model is presented as a lower-bound model for slab analysis and design. The

effects of a cracked core are considered and the yield criteria for cover layers are discussed. The

use of a sandwich model simplifies calculations, makes load paths easier to visualize and allows

shear and flexural design to be integrated.

**Johansen’s nodal force method is discussed and the breakdown of this method is attributed to
**

the key assumptions made in its formulation. Nodal forces are, however, important because they

are real, concentrated transverse shear forces required for both vertical and rotational equilibrium

and outline the load path in a slab at failure.

**The flow of force through a slab is examined. The term shear zone is introduced to describe a
**

generalization of the Thomson-Tait edge condition and the term shear field is introduced to de-

scribe the trajectory of principal shear. The sandwich model is used to investigate how a shear

field in the slab core interacts with the cover layers. The reaction to the shear field in the cover

layers is studied and generalized stress fields for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments with

uncracked cores are developed. In this way the strip method can be extended to include torsion –

the strip method’s approach to load distribution is maintained while slab segments that include

torsion are used rather than a grillage of torsionless beams. The slab segments can be fit together

like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to define a chosen load path.

**A slab’s collapse mechanism can be idealized as a series of segments connected by plastic
**

hinges characterized by uniform moments along their lengths and shear or nodal forces at their

ends. The uniform moments provide the basis for a uniform reinforcement mesh while the nodal

forces outline the load path for which the reinforcement is detailed. The generalized stress fields

are applied such that each slab segment in the mechanism is defined by a stress field bounded by

shear zones and combined shear zone/yield-lines. Reinforcement is designed using a sandwich

model and a compression field approach. The compression field creates in-plane “arches” that

distribute stresses over the slab’s cover layers and allows a given reinforcement mesh to be effi-

ciently engaged. Using this approach an isotropic reinforcement net is provided that is detailed

and locally augmented to carry the clearly identified load path. Design examples are given.

**The generalized stress fields and the design approach developed in this work are dependent on
**

the validity of the shear zone. Shear stresses are concentrated in shear zones and questions may

arise regarding the ductility of slabs designed using this concept. A series of six reinforced con-

crete slabs with shear zones were tested to failure to investigate the behaviour of such structures.

The experiments showed that slabs with shear zones have a very ductile load-deformation re-

sponse and that there is a good correspondence between the measured and designed load paths.

Die Platten wurden bis zum Bruch belastet. sind von den Eigenschaften der Schubzone abhängig. Um plastische Spannungsumlagerungen und damit die Anwendbarkeit der Grenzwertsätze zu ermöglichen. Die Druckfeldneigung in den Sandwichdeckeln wird so variiert. und dass der experimentell ermittelte Kräftefluss gut mit demjenigen übereinstimmte. die Methode jedoch das Zusammenfallen der Linien maximaler Mo- mente und der Linien verschwindender Querkräfte fordert. Die Knotenkräfte legen ihrerseits den Kräftefluss im Tragwerk fest. und be- liebige Platten können durch Aneinanderfügen solcher Plattensegmente modelliert werden. wie eine isotrope Bewehrung konstruiert werden muss. Es wird gezeigt. Die verallgemeinerten Spannungsfelder und das Bemessungsvorgehen. Jedes dieser Plat- tensegmente wird durch konstante Momente entlang der Ränder und durch Schubkräfte (auch Knotenkräfte genannt) an den Ecken beansprucht.Kurzfassung Die Plastizitätstheorie stellt mit den Grenzwertsätzen hilfreiche Werkzeuge für die Berechnung des Tragwiderstandes und der Tragsicherheit von Tragwerken zur Verfügung. Durch die konstanten Momente kann die Lastabtragung durch ein einheitliches Bewehrungsnetz gewährleistet werden. dass Platten mit Schubzonen ein duktiles Verhalten zeigen. Die Plattenwiderstände werden mit Hilfe des Sandwichmodells anhand eines Gleichge- wichtszustandes ermittelt. vorausges- etzten Kräftefluss abgetragen werden können. konstantes Be- wehrungsnetz möglichst effizient genutzt werden kann. Mit Hilfe des Sandwichmodells kann aufgezeigt werden. die in der vorliegen- den Arbeit entwickelt werden. dass Knotenkräfte am Ende jed- er Schubzone zwar auftreten. auf welche Weise das Schubfeld mit den Spannungen in den Sandwichdeckeln zusammenhängt. Die Schubkräfte werden vom Sandwichkern und die Biegemomente von den Sandwichdeckeln übernommen. Durch das verallgemeinerte Spannungsfeld ist der Spanungszustand im Inneren des Plattensegments eindeutig definiert. damit die Lasten gemäss dem klar erkennbaren. Die Versuche zeigten. Dabei werden die Einflüsse eines Reissens des Kerns berücksichtigt. Aus dem kinematischen Grenzwertsatz abgeleitete Bruchmechanismen und aus dem statischen Grenz- wertsatz abgeleitete Gleichgewichtslösungen werden in der vorliegenden Dissertation dargelegt. Im Weiteren können diese Spannungsfelder in die sich aus dem Verlauf der Fliessgelenklinen eines Bruchmechanismus ergebenden Plattensegmente eingepasst werden. . dass ein gegebenes. und die Fliessbedingungen für die Sandwichdeckel werden diskutiert. Um das Tragverhalten und die Duktilität von Platten zu untersuchen. müssen die Tragwerksteile über ein ausreichendes plastisches Verformungsvermögen verfügen. Bei der Ermittlung der Spannungsfelder wird mit der Verallgemeinerung der Methode von Thomson und Tait zur Behandlung der Drillmomente an Plattenrändern auf Bereiche im Platten- inneren der Begriff der Schubzone eingeführt. und damit verliert die Knotenkraftmethode ihre Gültigkeit. Die Bewehrung der Platte wird unter Anwendung des Sandwichmodells und der Druckfeldtheorie ermittelt. in welcher sich die Schubspannungen konzentrieren. Diese Spannungsfelder ermögli- chen im Gegensatz zur Streifenmethode auch ein Berücksichtigen des Drillwiderstandes. Bemessungsbeispiele zu diesem Vorgehen werden angegeben. Diese Verallgemeinerung ermöglicht die Untersu- chung des Kraftflusses entlang von Hauptschubkraftlinien. Hinsichtlich Johansens Knotenkraftmethode wird aufgezeigt. die nach dem vorgeschlagenen Konzept entworfen werden. wurde eine Versuchs- serie von sechs Stahlbetonplatten mit Schubzonen geplant und durchgeführt. Die Ver- wendung dieses Widerstandsmodells ermöglicht eine vereinfachte Darstellung der Lastabtragung und eine gleichzeitige Bemessung der Querschnitte für Biegung und Querkraft. Zur Ermittlung statischer Grenzwerte der Traglast werden verschiedene Möglichkeiten der Lastabtragung in Platten untersucht und mit jenen gemäss Hillerborgs Streifenmethode vergli- chen. Für trapezförmige und rechteckige Plattensegmente werden aus den Schubfel- dern abgeleitete verallgemeinerte Spannungsfelder vorgestellt. welcher der Bemessung zugrundegelegt wurde. Im Stahlbeton wird dies einerseits durch eine entsprechende Konstruktion der Bewehrung und andererseits durch eine konservative Berücksichtigung der Betonfestigkeit gewährleistet. Die kinematischen Randbedingungen gewisser Platten verunmöglichen dies allerdings.

3 Thickness of the Cover Layers 25 2.3 Generalized Stress Fields for Slab Segments 51 4.2 The Yield-Line Method 11 2.3 Limit Analysis 7 2.1 Shear Transfer in Slabs 37 4.4 Nodes 53 i . Table of Contents Foreword Summary Kurzfassung 1 Introduction 1 1.5.2 Yield Criterion for Membrane Elements 23 2.5.1.4 Reinforcement Considerations 26 3 Nodal Forces 29 3.1.4 Closed Form Moment Fields 21 2.3.1 Plasticity and Limit Analysis 5 2.1 The Nodal Force Method 29 3.3 Lower-Bound Methods 13 2.1 Compression Fields 23 2.5.3 Elastic Membrane Analogy 20 2.1.6 Discontinuities 10 2.1.1 Context 1 1.2 Breakdown of the Method 31 3.3.4 Assumptions 3 2 Limit Analysis of Slabs 5 2.3 Load Paths 32 4 Generalized Stress Fields 37 4.3.5 Reinforcement 9 2.4 Concrete 8 2.1 The Strip Method 15 2.1.2 Stress Fields 47 4.1.2 The Advanced Strip Method and its Alternatives 17 2.5 Sandwich Model 21 2.3 Overview 1.1.2 Plastic Potential 6 2.1 Plastic Solids 5 2.5.2 Shear Fields 43 4.1 Shear Zones 38 4.2 Scope 2 1.4 Exact Solutions 21 2.1.3.

3.2 Corner supported square slab 67 5.2 Conclusions 109 7.2. A2 and A3 99 6.1 Ductility of Slabs 89 6.4 Simply supported square slab with one corner column 81 6 Experiments 89 6.1 Torsion Tests 91 6.1 Equilibrium 56 5.3 Material Properties 97 6.3. A5 and A6 103 6.2 Load Paths in A1.3.2.2 Bending Tests 93 6.3 Recommendations for Future Work 110 References 111 Notation 115 ii .2 Concrete Strength 57 5.3 Simply supported square plate with one free edge 73 5.2 Design Examples 59 5.5 Reinforcement Design 55 5.2.1 Overall Responses 98 6.2.4 Comparison of A4 and A6 104 6.1 Summary 107 7.4 Test Procedure 97 6.1.1 Simply Supported Square Slab with Restrained Corners 60 5.3.2.2.2 Experimental Programme 91 6.2.1 Compression Field Approach 56 5.3.5 Effect of Shear Reinforcement 105 7 Summary and Conclusions 107 7.3 Load Paths in A4.2.3 Experimental Results 98 6.1.

the elastic approach has been popular because it quantifies deflections and stress- es. however. The need for this reinforcement is not initially obvious from an elastic analysis. The assumption of a uniform elastic material is questionable for cracked reinforced concrete. The second criticism is with regard to the assumed material properties. A third criticism of the elastic approach is philosophical in nature. In the first. An investigation into an extension of the strip method to include torsion is therefore of interest. and deflections and stresses are quantified. ductile failure. Because of the mathematical complexity required to describe the behaviour of a slab. however. material properties are described using Hooke’s law and stresses are limited such that the assumed material properties remain applicable. The first point is with regard to its mathematical complexity. Compatibility of deflections and boundary conditions are then used to solve the differential equa- tion of equilibrium. Compres- sion fields are fundamental to reinforced concrete and provide the means by which load can be distributed in the plane of a slab such that a mesh of reinforcing bars can be efficiently engaged. Both are based on equilibrium.1 Introduction 1. In addition. For slabs with complex geometries and load ar- rangements.1 Context Reinforced concrete slabs are one of the most commonly used structural elements. 1 . rigid-plastic material properties are assumed such that an internal redistribution of stresses can take place to enable the statically admissible load path for which re- inforcement has been provided. Its application to reinforced concrete. can be criticized on three points. With an elastic approach. an elastic solution becomes difficult to find although this difficulty has been ad- dressed to a large extent by the finite element method. an inexperienced engineer will be unaware of the load path in a slab and will not be able to provide the required reinforce- ment. the benefits of the interaction between concrete and reinforcing steel are hidden by the assumption of a homogeneous elastic material and the optimal use of reinforced concrete is not automatically considered with this approach. The simplest and perhaps most successful lower-bound method of reinforced concrete slab de- sign is Hillerborg’s strip method [19]. the elastic approach. Although this method is based on a clear load path. therefore. Cracking in the concrete leads to zones of plastic behaviour and the factor of safety and deflections predicted by elastic methods can therefore be wrong. the load path through a slab is typically not known or considered in its design. This leads to a reduced under- standing of the reinforcement details required to ensure a predictable. Two approaches have traditionally been taken to design reinforced concrete slabs. Historically. In the second approach. One example of this is the need for shear reinforcement along an edge subjected to torsion. The absence of torsion makes it difficult to deal with concentrated forces and means that compression fields on the tension face of a slab are not possible. moments are of primary in- terest because they are associated with deflections whereas with the lower-bound approach shears are of primary interest since they define the load path. it is lim- ited by the exclusion of torsion. the lower- bound method of limit analysis. Because shear flow is not of primary interest with an elastic approach.

at ultimate. These methods will be presented in addition to other plastic methods of slab analysis. particularly those at the ETH in Zürich. Simple material and bond models have been developed in the past years to ensure this ductility. the lower-bound methods of beam design can be examined – if one can assume that a beam is a special case of a slab. The refinement of the original truss model and development of the criteria to ensure ductile behaviour is to the credit of the many researchers referenced in this work. The model will be derived from considerations of shear to allow a clear load path to be identified and rein- forcement to be dimensioned and detailed. Johansen’s nodal force method [24] is reviewed as a special case of an upper-bound analysis method for slabs. 2 . the transverse reinforcement require- ments along edges and at columns must be clear from the model. The use of membrane elements to model a cross-section allows the interaction be- tween reinforcement and concrete to be considered using a compression field approach. The underlying assumptions and ideas of the application of the theory of plasticity and limit analysis as well as their application to reinforced concrete are therefore reviewed. discontinuous stress fields and structures with cross-sections comprised of assemblages of mem- brane elements. Reinforced concrete elements subjected to plane stress will be considered since. Limit analysis has traditionally been applied to slabs in the form of the yield- line and strip methods. the Technical University of Denmark and the Uni- versity of Toronto. 1.3 Overview The use of plastic methods and the associated theorems of limit analysis are key to the validity of the static model developed in this work. A three- dimensional model using membrane elements can be considered for slabs in the context of a sand- wich model. the behaviour of members with solid cross sections can be approximated by replacing the solid with an assemblage of membrane elements. Truss models have been advanced over the years to include three-dimensional trusses. In beams a clear load path can be established using a truss model as originally done by Ritter [61] and Mörsch [51].Introduction In searching for a way to extend the strip method to include torsion. The model will idealize a slab as an assemblage of reinforced concrete membrane elements that enclose an unreinforced con- crete core and therefore this work is an extension of the truss model for beams and an application of the compression field approach. This approach to beam design has the benefit that shear and flexural design are integrated. This approach simplifies calculations and makes load paths easier to visualize. 1. In particular. Such a simplification will be discussed in terms of a sand- wich model for slabs.2 Scope In this work a static model for a reinforced concrete slab will be developed such that our under- standing of the design and behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs can be advanced. The use of these static models in beam design is today widely accepted if sufficient deforma- tion capacity can be demonstrated. Even though the nodal force method is not universally applicable. nodal forces are of interest because they are real forces and outline the load path in a slab at failure.

Using this approach an isotropic reinforcement net is provided that is de- tailed and locally augmented to carry the clearly identified load path. The uniform moments provide the basis for a uniform reinforcement mesh while the nodal forces outline the load path for which the reinforcement is detailed. Four design examples are given to illustrate the design approach described above. The compression field creates in-plane arches or struts to distribute stresses over the slab’s cover layers and allow a given reinforcement mesh to be efficiently engaged. Shear stresses are concentrated in shear zones and questions may arise regarding the ductility of slabs designed using this concept. 3 . • Previously established and accepted material models for concrete and reinforcement are used to ensure that the theorems of limit analysis are valid. Assumptions The flow of force through a slab is examined. 1. It is therefore conservative to ignore them.4 Assumptions The slab behaviour and design approach developed in this work are subject to several assumptions and limitations. At these locations load is transferred using struts and ties rather than with shear fields in accordance with the description of a nodal force as a concentrated transverse shear force. In this way the strip method is extended to include torsion – the strip method’s approach to load distribution is maintained while slab segments that include torsion are used rather than a grillage of torsionless beams. • Deformations at failure are small. Shear zones and nodes are used to detail slab edges. A series of six reinforced con- crete slabs with shear zones were tested to failure to investigate the behaviour of such structures. These forces can produce beneficial effects but can not be dependably predicted. The reaction of the cover layers to the shear field is studied and generalized stress fields for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments with un- cracked cores are developed. • The generalized stress fields developed in Chapter 4 are for slabs with uncracked cores sub- jected to a uniformly distributed load and that can be described using an assemblage of square and trapezoidal segments. Reinforcement is designed using a sand- wich model and a compression field approach. corners and column regions. The generalized stress fields are applied such that each slab segment in the mechanism is defined by a stress field bound- ed by shear zones and combined shear zone/yield-lines. The term shear zone is introduced to describe a generalization of the Thomson-Tait edge shears [71] and the term shear field is introduced to de- scribe the trajectory of principal shear. These are: • Axial forces in the plane of the slab are ignored. Reinforcement quantities and details are established such that the calculated compression fields and reinforcement stresses can be mobilized. load is sometimes transferred between slab segments at their common corners. The experiments showed that slabs with shear zones have a very ductile load-deformation re- sponse and that there is a good correspondence between the measured and designed load paths. The slab segments can be fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to define a chosen load path. The sandwich model is used to investigate how a shear field in the slab core interacts with the cover layers. The generalized stress fields and the design approach developed in this work are dependent on the validity of the shear zone. As described by nodal forces. A slab’s collapse mechanism can be idealized as a series of segments connected by plastic hinges that are characterized by uniform moments along their lengths and shear or nodal forces at their ends. In each ex- ample the generalized stress fields are solved to meet the boundary conditions of the slab seg- ments comprising the collapse mechanism.

4 .

also re- ferred to as the incremental plastic strain. Deformations at the commencement of plastic flow are considered to be very small.1 Plastic Solids The theory of plasticity is concerned with the strength and deformation of rigid-plastic or elastic- plastic materials. 5 . This approach simplifies calculations and makes load paths easier to visualize. The yield conditions describe the stress states at which plastic flow commences while the flow rule describes the ratios between the plastic strain rates of the corresponding collapse mechanism. the be- haviour of members with solid cross sections can be approximated by replacing the solid with an assemblage of membrane elements. materials with sufficient ductility are considered such that the stress redistributions required by plastic theory can occur. 2. . This can be achieved if concrete’s material properties are conservatively defined and careful attention is paid to the detailing of the reinforcing steel. Von Mises [74] introduced the concept of plastic potential which requires the flow rule to be derived from the yield condition. respectively. at ultimate. Re- inforced concrete subjected to plane stress is emphasized in this chapter since. is reached after which deformations can occur without an accompanying stress in- · crease. An infinity of strains are therefore compatible with y. the yield condi- tions and flow rule for a structure were established independently from each other. Von Mises’ approach was limited to yield conditions that were strictly convex and Koiter [30] generalized this concept to include yield conditions that are generally convex but in- clude singularities. A rigid-plastic material is defined as one that remains undeformed until a yield stress. The underlying concepts of the application of the theory of plasticity and limit analysis to reinforced concrete are reviewed in this chapter. The plastic strain rate. The strength and deformation of a rigid-plastic structure can be described by its yield condi- tions and the associated flow rule. y.2 Limit Analysis of Slabs Plastic analysis and the theorems of limit analysis are powerful tools for modelling a structure’s behaviour at ultimate and gaining an understanding of its safety. These methods are presented in this chapter in addition to other plastic approaches.1 Plasticity and Limit Analysis 2. reinforced concrete can ex- hibit considerable ductility if failure is governed by yielding of the reinforcement. In limit analysis. The ductile response of reinforced concrete has been dem- onstrated by decades of testing of large-scale concrete specimens.1. In the early formulations of plastic theory. Although plain concrete is not a particularly ductile material. Such a simplification will be discussed in terms of a sandwich model for slabs. can be determined for a rigid-plastic structure but spe- cific strain values can not be calculated. Limit analysis has traditionally been applied to slabs in the form of the yield-line and strip methods.

The term general- ized stresses is used for variables that describe a stress state but do not necessarily have the units of stress. the generalized strains. then the vector describing the plastic strain increment must be normal to the yield surface and therefore from Eq.. n+dn. n.2) such that when 0 there is no deformation and is convex. According to another principle of the theory of perfectly plastic solids. The yield condition of the continuum is defined by ( 1 n) = 0 (2. as discussed above.1..2 Plastic Potential The state of stress in a rigid-plastic body can be described using different types of variables.4) i where is a non-negative factor.. are linearly combined using the positive factors and 1– then the resulting stress state cannot exceed the yield limit [58].. The second stress state is also at the yield limit and defined by 1+d1. a yield mechanism and a state of stress are uniquely related. The second vector is therefore nor- mal to the yield surface and... are the strains corresponding to the general- ized stresses.. Because the strain vector is normal to the yield surface and if the yield surface is strictly con- vex. (2.. The first type corresponds to a sudden change in the curvature of the yield surface and at such a singularity a stress state is defined that corresponds to an infinite number of yield mechanisms. Therefore d = d 1 + + d = 0 (2. The second type of singular- ity corresponds to a region on the yield surface where the normal vector remains the same and in 6 .. (2.Limit Analysis of Slabs 2. such that dW = 1 d 1 + + n d n (2. Because this increment is infinitesi- mally small. (2. The requirement for convexity comes from one of the principles of plasticity which states that if two stress states. In a continuum. Eq.. The convexity of the yield surface means that the origin of the coordinate system is enclosed by .4) represents von Mises’ flow rule.3) d i = (2. stresses in a beam can be expressed by moments and normal forces. The first of these two vectors describes the incremental change of stress from one stress state on the yield surface to another stress state on the yield surface. For example. directed away from it.3) indicates the orthogonality of the vectors d 1 d n and 1 n .3) 1 n n Eq. 1.. 1. this vector must be tangential to the yield surface. the work done by an in- cremental stress on a plastic strain increment is zero [58]. neither of which exceed the yield limit... A yield mechanism is defined by a plastic strain increment that gives the proportions of the components of the displacements that define the mechanism rather than the magnitude of these displacements. The first stress state is at the yield limit and specified by 1..1) defines the work done by the stresses on small increments of strain.n.. n. from the sign of the yield function.. Since the vector representing the stress increment is tangential to the yield surface. A yield surface does not have to be strictly convex and two types of singularities can exist. Two stress states are considered.

8 . Plasticity and Limit Analysis such a case there are an infinite number of stress states associated with the same yield mechanism.e. Von Mises postulated that stresses associated with a given strain field assume values such that the resistance to the deformation or dissipation of energy is maximized and that this dissipation is in- dependent of singularities or generalized stresses – i.

0 = D 1 n (2.5)

**In a rigid-plastic system, stresses can exist to maintain equilibrium without a corresponding
**

deformation. These stresses do not contribute to the dissipation and are considered generalized re-

actions. Shear forces are an example of generalized reactions; shear deformations are normally

small and therefore the work done by shear forces is negligible.

**The theory of plastic potential can be extended from generalized stresses and strains to gener-
**

alized forces and deformations as discussed by Marti [33]. This allows a selected number of sim-

ple load cases to be examined such that a piece-wise yield surface can be developed and an ap-

proximation of all critical load cases on a structure established.

2.1.3 Limit Analysis

**The theorems of limit analysis are used to apply the concepts discussed above to structural engi-
**

neering. The theorems of limit analysis are credited to Gvozdev [17], Hill [18] and Drucker,

Greenberg and Prager [13,14], and Sayir and Ziegler [65]. Limit analysis as applied to reinforced

concrete is attributed to Thürlimann and his students in Zürich [33,52,53] and to Nielsen and his

co-workers in Denmark [57].

**In limit analysis the state of stress in a structure is expressed as a continuous or discontinuous
**

stress field which is in equilibrium with the applied loads. Deformations are described by a strain

rate field that is derived from deformations compatible with the kinematic constraints of the struc-

ture. Examples of kinematic constraints include the geometry and support conditions of a struc-

ture as well as Bernoulli’s assumption that plane sections normal to the middle plane of a cross

section remain plane and normal during deformation.

**A set of generalized deformations, p, correspond to the generalized loads, Q, such that the
**

work done by the loads is

n

W= ¦ Qi p i (2.6)

i=1

**If a set of generalized stresses, 8 , are considered that are in equilibrium with Q, and a set of gen-
**

eralized strains, 0 , are considered that are compatible with p, then the principle of virtual work

gives

n

¦ Q i p i = ³ 8

0 dV (2.7)

i=1

**where Q and p as well as 8 and 0 are not necessarily related and V indicates the volume of the
**

structure. Eq. (2.7) relates a statically admissible stress field to a kinematically admissible strain

field.

7

Limit Analysis of Slabs

**Before discussing the theorems of limit analysis a stable stress field and an unstable deforma-
**

tion field will be defined. A stress field is considered statically admissible if it is in equilibrium

with the applied loads and stable if these stresses do not exceed the yield condition. A deformation

field is considered kinematically admissible if it conforms to the kinematic constraints of the

structure and unstable if the associated strain rates result in a dissipation less than the work done

by the applied loads.

The first two theorems of limit analysis as stated by Prager [58] are:

**• Upper-bound Theorem – A kinematically admissible deformation field in a rigid-plastic con-
**

tinuum will be unstable when the work done by the applied loads is greater than the energy

dissipated in the yield mechanism. This means that the resistance calculated for a kinematical-

ly admissible mechanism will be less than or equal to the required resistance and plastic flow

will occur.

• Lower-bound Theorem – Plastic flow will not occur in a rigid-plastic continuum with a stable

stress field. The resistance calculated using this stress field will be greater than or equal to that

required for the actual collapse load.

The third theorem of limit analysis is the Uniqueness Theorem which is due to Sayir and Zie-

gler [65]. According to this theorem an exact solution is defined when a statically admissible

stress field and a compatible yield mechanism give the same failure load. The stress field and the

mechanism are compatible if they obey the theory of plastic potential.

2.1.4 Concrete

Plain concrete does not behave like a rigid-plastic material. After reaching its peak compressive

or tensile load, a plain concrete specimen exhibits an unloading curve rather than a yield plateau

and post-peak load redistribution can only be achieved by unloading of the failed parts of the

structure. A conservative material model for plain concrete is therefore required for use with limit

analysis. This is discussed further in the following.

**A typical stress-strain curve for concrete subjected to uniaxial stress is shown in Fig. 2.1 (a).
**

The tensile part of the curve is far from ductile and is therefore discounted. The compression part

of the curve can be reduced to something that resembles ductile behaviour by limiting concrete’s

strength, fcc, to an effective concrete strength, fce, as shown. fce is also affected by other factors

related to the ability of cracked concrete to redistribute load as discussed in Chapter 5.

**A modified Coulomb yield criterion can be used for concrete subjected to plane stress as
**

shown in Fig. 2.1 (b). This yield criterion is defined by three parameters – the internal angle of

friction, , tension strength, fct and compressive strength, fcc. Concrete is considered to be an iso-

tropic material. That is, cracking in one direction does not affect the strength in any other direction

and the modified Coulomb yield criterion is equally valid in all directions.

**The modified Coulomb yield criterion is shown in principal stress space in Fig. 2.1 (c). The
**

side AB corresponds to all the Mohr’s circles in Fig. 2.1 (b) through the point (– fct, 0) that lie

within the failure envelope. According to the flow rule this failure will occur by a separation nor-

mal to the failure line. Line BC in Fig. 2.1 (c) corresponds to the straight part of the Coulomb fail-

ure envelope. According to the flow rule the displacement at failure will have a shear as well as a

normal component and, all failures, even shear failures, result in an increase in the volume of the

concrete specimen. The line CD corresponds to all the Mohr’s circles in Fig. 2.1 (b) through the

point (– fcc, 0) that lie within the failure envelope. According to the flow rule this failure will oc-

cur by crushing normal to the failure line.

8

1 (d) is obtained using the modified Cou- lomb failure criterion for concrete with zero tensile strength. 2. 2. The yield criterion for orthogonal reinforcement is shown in Fig.1 (e).-1) f cc fcc fct σy (e) (f) σ τxy fsy σx ρy fsy’ ε ρy fsy fsy ρx fsy ρx fsy’ σy Fig. 2.1.5 Reinforcement Reinforcement is considered to be rigid-perfectly plastic with a yield stress of fsy as shown in Fig. (e) rigid-plastic stress-strain behaviour of reinforcement. 2. 9 . (b) modified Coulomb failure criterion for plain concrete.-1) 1 . (d) yield criterion for plain concrete without tension. Plasticity and Limit Analysis (a) (b) τ ϕ = 37 o γ σ ε fct ε σ fce fcc fcc fct (c) (d) σ2 τxy ½ fc fct A σ1 fcc (1. and such that average reinforcement stresses with components in any chosen direction are valid. The bars are considered to be spaced such that they can be treated as a thin sheet of steel which is fully an- chored and bonded.1: Material models – (a) stress-strain curve for uniaxially loaded concrete. 2. (c) yield criterion for plain concrete with tension. (f) yield criterion for reinforcement. The yield surface for plain concrete shown in Fig.sin ϕ (0 .1 (f). 0) B f cc σx D C ( 1 + sin ϕ . The reinforcement is only able to resist forces in its longitudinal direction.

as noted in Fig. (a) ½γ θ θ2 x II N 2 1 A II X ¼π.2: Discontinuities – (a) kinematic discontinuity. According to the flow rule and the above observations. Kinematic and statical discontinuities are discussed in the following. Strain discontinuities can exist across the failure zone as in- dicated by the velocity vector. stress and strain fields in plastic analysis are typically discontinuous. / . • Pure shear strain occurs along the failure zone and in the direction normal to the velocity vec- tor.2 (a). 2. In upper-bound solutions. see Fig. This means that at ultimate the failure zone intersects the crack pattern and can form an angle of up to 45o with the crack direction.½α 2 1 b α n ε δ Q Y A’ t=I T=I y I II σt σt (b) σn II σn I Stress Region II Stress Region I τ II tn τ I tn n t Fig.Limit Analysis of Slabs 2. They concluded that • In general. 2. The kinematics of a failure line were discussed by Braestrup [5]. a collapse crack is formed [52]. Because cracks follow the principal compressive stress trajectory. the crack pattern is also inclined to the failure zone. deformations are often localized in failure zones that separate the otherwise rigid parts of the structure. As observed above. Müller [52] and Marti [35]. (b) statical discontinuity. / . the failure zone is acted on by a shear stress and an orthogonal normal stress. in Fig. 2.1. 10 . In the special case where the failure zone and the crack pattern are parallel. the principal strain rates in the failure zone are opposite in sign and bisect the an- gle between the failure zone and the normal to the velocity vector.2 (a) by directions I and II.6 Discontinuities Unlike in elastic analysis. the principal strain directions are generally inclined to the direction of the discontinuity.2 (a). 2.

on the yield-line occurs when the x. as discussed in Chapter 4. This dissipation is used in Eq. Q. (2. while the rest of the slab remains rigid. A stress field is established that represents the sum of the stresses in the concrete and the reinforce- ment such that the applied load is equilibrated.2 The Yield-Line Method A kinematically admissible displacement field can be defined to describe a collapse mechanism. The Yield-Line Method Stress discontinuities are also permissible in plastic analysis. is not considered and does not have to be continuous. (2. As discussed above. Johansen assumed that all deformation occurs along yield-lines. which gives a moment normal to the yield-line of 2 2 mn = m x cos + m y sin + 2mxy sin cos . mtnu = myu – mxu sin cos (2. In accordance with Eq. shear forces are considered generalized reactions and therefore the work equation is given by ³ Q p dA = ³ mxx + 2mxyxy + myy dA (2. mx. The effect of a statical discontinuity in reinforced concrete requires an additional comment. The distribution of load between the concrete and reinforcement can therefore jump across the discon- tinuity giving rise to theoretically infinite localized bond stresses [35]. circular and spiral yield-lines. p. 2. Where curvatures occur they must be normal to the yield surface and energy is dissipated. Eq.10) The applied load creates moments and torsions. nt = nt (2. With reference to Fig. With reference to Fig. 2.direction reinforcement yield to give mxu and myu such that 2 2 mnu = mxu cos + m yu sin .11) 11 .2 (b). mnu. and mxy. however.9) to calculate the collapse load. of the structure.8) In this case t can be discontinuous across the discontinuity line without affecting equilibrium. a statical discontinuity can exist if I II I II n = n . (2.9) correspond to the displacement field while the moments correspond to the applied loads. the ultimate normal moment. This idealization corresponds well with experimentally observed deformations.3 (a). (2.9) where Q represents loads applied to the slab at ultimate at the same location as the deformations in the displacement field. my. This approach was greatly simplified by Johansen [24] by restricting collapse mechanisms to those that can be idealized by certain types of lines – namely linear. Johansen calculated the capacity of a slab at a yield-line using his so-called stepped yield-line criterion. The proportion of this stress that is carried in the con- crete and the reinforcement. 2.and y.8) the total stress normal to a discontinuity line must be continuous. m tn = my – m x sin cos + mxy cos 2 (2. Equilibrium of the mechanism is established by equating the internal energy dissipated in resist- ing deformation and the external work done by the applied load. Where non-coplanar membranes are connected. The curvatures in Eq.8) can be mod- ified such that only the normal stresses are continuous.

(2. 2.3: The normal yield criterion – (a) Johansen’s stepped yield criterion..10) represents the slab’s resistance while Eq. Both equations are plotted in Fig. my and mxy coor- dinate system as shown in Fig. The normal yield criterion over-estimates a slab’s strength when the principal moment direc- tions deviate considerably from the reinforcement directions and high reinforcement ratios are used [41.3 (c). The normal yield criterion is thus derived from bending considerations only. This is discussed further in the following.3 (b).and y-axes on the top and bottom surfaces.13) cd c 12 . and works together with the x. (2.11) represents the resultant from the ap- plied loads. (b) equality of ap- plied and resisting normal moments.= --------------. An isotropically reinforced slab loaded in pure torsion will develop a uniaxial compression field oriented at 45o and –45o to the x. the steel yields and 2m xy 2 As fsy c = -----------.and y-direction re- inforcement to equilibrate the applied load. If the slab is lightly reinforced. 2. This compression field will have a thickness. 2. Solving for the conditions at the point where the two curves touch gives the well known ‘normal’ yield criterion for slabs 2 mxu – mx 2 tan = . respectively.Limit Analysis of Slabs (a) (b) φ m yield line at x m nu = m n m nu (resistance) 1 m n (applied) t n y m nu m xu m1 m yu m nu cos φ m2 m nu sin φ 0 φ ½π π φ t n m xy m xu m xu’ (c) mx m yu’ m yu my Fig. c. This lack of conservatism is particularly evident in the case of a slab subjected to pure torsion in the reinforcement directions. (c) failure surface for the normal yield criterion. fcc (2. Eq.12) myu – my which can also be expressed for negative bending and thus depicted in the mx. m xu – m x myu – my mxy -------------------. (2. 57].

+ -----------.4 (a) and (b).16) vx Solutions according to the theory of elasticity [72] represent a special type of a lower-bound so- lution since equilibrium equations are solved to give compatibility of deformations using the stiff- ness of the structure’s cross-section.+ 2 + -----------.5.+ -----------. Johansen also proposed a yield-line method based on nodal forces.3 Lower-Bound Methods A lower-bound solution requires a statically admissible stress field that is in equilibrium with the applied loads without exceeding the yield criterion. Yield criteria are discussed in Section 2. In this case the yield-line and the compres- sion field are perpendicular and parallel on the top and bottom surfaces.15) x y y x As shown in Fig. the depth of compression is c = 2h . This approach has led to considerable controversy and may be more applicable to the development of lower-bound stress fields since nodal forces give considerable insight into the flow of force through a slab at ultimate. There is no shear perpendicular to the principal direction and the magnitude and direction of the principal shear are given by [38] 2 2 vy v0 = vx + vy . the equilibrium equation for a slab is 2 m xy 2my m -----------x. moments and torsions in slabs are discussed.4 (a) and (c). the orthogonal conditions described above for iso- tropic reinforcement will prevail and therefore a reorientation of the crack pattern must take place as the slab is loaded to failure. the shear in a slab is m x m xy m y m yx vx = ---------.4 (c). 13 . (2. vy = ---------. therefore. 2. 2. 2.. 2. however. This is half of that calculated when torsion is considered and leads to an over-estimate of the internal lever arm. that the normal yield criterion gives an unsafe estimate of the failure load and that this error increases with the amount of reinforcement If the slab is orthotropically reinforced. At cracking. then a depth of compression of c = h is required to equilibrate the yield-line moment. The normal yield criterion predicts the formation of a yield-line at 45o to the x-axis and mnu = mxu = myu for an isotropically reinforced slab. This method is discussed separately in Chapter 3. With reference to Fig. from equilibrium of a slab section taken along one of the coordinate axes. respectively. (2. Lower-Bound Methods If it is assumed that the concrete reaches its effective compression strength and introducing the mechanical ratio = As fsy hfce then.= –q (2. the angle between the yield-line and the compression field becomes skewed. transverse shears are related to each other by a Thales circle and have a principal direction. If a section perpendicular to the yield-line is considered. One concludes. This reorientation leads to a degradation of the concrete’s strength that is not considered by the normal yield criterion and leads to further errors in the estimate of a structure’s safety.14) x 2 xy y2 With reference to Fig. tan 0 = ----. In this section methods for calculating shears.

Limit Analysis of Slabs (a) dx vy dx vx dy m xy dx dy m x dy m y dx m yx dy x z (m y + m y. They argued that the edge disturbance dies out rapidly away from the edge such that the overall equilibrium of the slab is not affected.x dx)dy y (m x + m x. at a simply supported or free edge the exposed vertical edge of the slab must be stress-free. Thomson and Tait [71] showed that there is a local distur- bance along a slab edge due to this statical equivalency of torsions and shears. 2. This means that moments normal to the slab edge must be zero and torsions along the edge must be equilibrated by transverse shear forces in an edge strip.y dy)dx n m tn m tn mn (+) (b) m xy sin θ m xy cos θ m y sinθ m y cos θ X θ x θ x n T m x cos θ n mt 2θ 2θ1 m yx sin θ 2 1 mtn m nt m yx cos θ m x sin θ mn mn 1 t 1 N y t Y Q y vn θ (c) vx v ϕo n vy sin θ vy cos θ vo vy vt θ x θ x vx n n vo vy vx sin θ vx cos θ vn vt ϕo ½ π π 34 π 2π θ 1 t 1 y t Fig.x dx)dy (m xy + m xy. 14 . (b) moments. They based their conclusion on St. The equilibrium equation for a simply supported or free edge was first given by Kirchhoff [29] based on mathematical considerations. Venant’s principle states that the effect of a force or stress that is applied over a small area can be treated as a stati- cally equivalent system which at a distance approximately equal to the thickness of the body. (c) shears. While moments. torsions and shears are not restricted by the conditions at a clamped edge.4: Equilibrium relationships – (a) stress resultants.y dy)dx (vy + vy. The description of a slab’s boundary conditions is an important consideration in the statics of a slab.x dx)dy (vx + vx. Venant’s principle. St.y dy)dx (m yx + m yx.

5. is mn mnt qn = ----------.17)1 and Fig. Lower-Bound Methods corner qt R = Vt + V n Vn Vn n vt Vn Vn + Vt mt n m nt m nt edge strip Vt mt vt mn mn m tn vn mtn+ qn vn vn q v n+ n n 1 m tn m tn v mn vt+ t mn+ t n Vt mt Vt + m t+ t t m nt mnt+ t t 1 Fig. Clyde [7] showed that in a narrow edge strip. Using pure equilibrium.1 The Strip Method In Hillerborg’ s strip method [19] an applied load is distributed according to chosen proportions and directions and carried by beam strips. 2. The torsion in the strips is set to zero and therefore the strip method simplifies slab design to the design of a grillage of beam strips separated by statical dis- continuities. 2.18) the edge reaction. (2. 2.15). the in-plane shear stresses corresponding to torsion must be equilibrated by a vertical shear force.5 the corner reaction is seen to be R = mtn + mnt = 2mtn (2. expressed in n-t coordinates.3.+ 2 -----------. In Hillerborg’s work.= q n (2. (2. qn. the beam strips can be arranged in orthogonal or skew directions. Vertical equilibrium requires V t vn + -------. (2.17)1 and Eq. 15 .19) n t where qn = 0 for a free edge. The edge and corner conditions for a slab with simply supported or free edges are shown in Fig.17) if small values are neglected. (2. From Eq. Rotational equilibrium of the t-direction edge strip requires mtn = V t . causes a uniform stress distribution. (2.18) t By substituting Eq.20) 2. into Eq. m n = 0 (2.5: Boundary conditions for a slab with simply supported or free edges.

Limit Analysis of Slabs By ignoring torsion the equilibrium equation for a slab becomes 2 2 m m -----------x. In cases where strips meet at angles other than 0o or 90o.6: Strip method example – (a) load distribution without strong band. Beam strips span between the supported edges and the free edge. The conti- nuity requirements in the strip method are extensions of those presented in Section 2.= –q (2. Often the reinforcement requirements calculated using the strip method will be less than the minimum reinforcement required to ensure ductility and appropriate crack control.+ -----------y.21) 2 2 x y Based on a chosen load distribution.22) 2 2 x y can vary over the slab and there are statical discontinuities at sudden changes of . 2 2 m m -----------x. with reference to the coordinate system shown in Eq. (b) load distribu- tion with strong band. (2. 16 . mtn = mtn . As mentioned.6 (a). as discussed below.= –q . Such an approach can give practical and economic reinforcement layouts. From this point of view the strip method can be considered a method to calculate the amount of reinforce- ment required to augment a mesh of minimum reinforcement. Such a discontinuity would be relevant where strips join each other at angles other than 0o or 90o. vn = vn (2. -----------y.= – 1 – q (2.23) Hillerborg also discussed the possibility of a discontinuous torsional moment at internal disconti- nuities using the analogy of a simply supported or free edge but considered this too controversial.8) (b) I II I II I II mn = mn .6 and are. as shown in Fig. 2. continuity requirements dictate zero end moments. (a) (b) zero moment strong band zero shear zero moment load distribution Fig. 2. A strip along the free edge known as a strong band is given a finite width and acts like a beam loaded with the shear from the orthogonal strips.6 (b).1. An alternative approach is shown in Fig. 2. strips are defined by a discontinuity along their sides and supports at their ends.

He accomplished this using the distribution element shown in Fig. qr. m r = – ------.7 (a).– r + -----------. The applied load is carried by beam strips in the x. (2.+ --. (2.– x – y – ------ (2. The radial moment goes to infinity at the column and must be equilibrated by the symmetry of the distribution element. along its centreline there is a constant moment without shear and all the applied load is vertically equili- brated by the central support. a ‘distribution load’. The addition of m6 and mxs give the required moments along the slab centrelines. 17 . For the slab octal with x y 0 the moment field is given by 2 2 2 ql y ql y 4xy mx = 0 . ----.and y-directions.27) 16 2 4 16 2 4 16r l respectively. respectively.– y – 1 (2.– r .+ -----. (2. and are given by q l 2 ql x l 2 2 2 x mxs1 = – --. 2. it is found that Eq. -.28) 8 x2 8 x l2 This moment field gives the same boundary conditions as shown in Fig.---. is applied. There are no load effects along the distribution element’s outer edges. qr is also carried by x.--.– y 2 4 The combined effect of these moment fields at the line x = 0 gives 2 ql 4 l 2 2 mxs = ------. To establish equilibrium of the distribution element without changing the shears along its edg- es and centrelines 2qr is applied as shown in Fig. Marti [34] developed a moment field for a uniformly loaded.2 The Advanced Strip Method and its Alternatives The advanced strip method was developed by Hillerborg to focus a distributed load to a concen- trated reaction.– -----. Lower-Bound Methods 2.--. my = ------. The resulting moments in the tangential and radial directions are 2 2 2 2 3 ql ql l 2 ql ql l 2 ql 2r m6 = – ------. When decom- posed into loads.7 (a) for a square element.28) is based on an equal x. square plate with free edges and a central column by combining several exact solutions. mxy = ------. x asin -------------------.and y-direction strips and defined by ql qr = ----------------------------------. Similar expressions can be de- rived for moments in the y-direction.26) 16 l 4 where s indicates that load is carried by torsionless beam strips. To cancel the shears caused by q along the element’s centrelines.and y-direction distribution of the applied load and the superposition of a self-equilibrating load system.– 1 .– x . 2. ----. mxs2 = -----.– -------- (2.asin ----.---.24) 2 2 2 2 l – x – y The x-direction moment fields corresponding to q and qr are mxs1 and mxs2. 2.7 (a) and carried by radial strips. As an alternative to Hillerborg’s distribution element.25) 42 2 2 4 2 --l.3.

32 qa (m x + ∆m x ) δ qa 2 δ (m y + ∆m y ) δ mx δ a=½ l . 32 qa 2 x a C L x δ C L diagonal y 2 .Limit Analysis of Slabs (a) C L ½l central column 2 applied load distribution load 2 ½q qr reaction.x t x or y 32 qa 2 ½ qa2 y A-A (c) C L C L C L C L C L C L C L C L Hillerborg. 18 . (b) alternative using discontinuous moment fields. Marti Morley Clyde Wood and Armer Fig. ∆m x a=½ l .y A A qa 2 my δ .7: The advanced strip method and its alternatives – (a) loading for the advanced strip method. 2. ¼ q l 18 ql C L x z applied load + distribution load 2 ½l 18 ql applied load ½q y y 2q r x qr r z z (b) pure cantilevered moment strip C n L . (c) load paths for the ad- vanced strip method and its alternatives.

Similar to Morley’s alternative. 2. The justification for such a discontinuity is discussed in Chapter 4. --.7 (c).– x . 2. The jump in the moment field corresponds to a discontinuity in mnt across the diagonal.30) 22 2 2 In this case the moments along the element’s centre line are not uniformly distributed. (2. Morley [49] also suggested an alternative to Hillerborg’s distribution element. my = – --.and y-di- rections and are defined by 2 ql qx = – -------. corner supported square slab. If this system is adjusted to give zero edge moments and transformed into the coordinate system shown in Fig. discontinu- ous moment field for the slab octal with x y 0 is given by q l 2 3q l 2 mx = – --. Hillerborg noted that the use of strong bands has disadvantages [19] as is discussed in Chapter 4. 1 – 2- . my = ------ .31) 8 l 8 l 2 can be cut along is centrelines and rearranged with the corners turned to the centre to give a mo- ment field for a centrally supported slab with a uniform moment along its edges. He created a tor- sionless grillage by introducing jumps in the moment field that direct load along the element’s di- agonal and to the column support. mxy = 0 (2. shear is directed to the centre support by a discontinuity in the torsion field but in this case along the slab centre lines rather than along the diagonals.7 (b) and the resulting. Lower-Bound Methods In this case the self-equilibrating loads are applied over the entire element in the x.32) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 is found for the positive quadrant of the plate. my = – -----. y – --- . 2.29) 2 8x The generalized form of this self-equilibrating load system is discussed in Chapter 4.= – qy (2. Load can also be directed using the simple strip method to strong bands that cross the central column. This approach was suggested by Wood and Armer [77]. m xy = --. x – --- . In the introduction to his book. x – --- y – --- (2. This is illustrated in Fig. ------- - 1 – 2 . Clyde offered an alternative to Hillerborg’s distribution element [8] by observing that a uni- formly loaded. m xy = -------- ------.– x . 19 . The load paths corresponding to the Advanced Strip Method and the alternatives discussed above are shown in Fig.7 (a) a moment field defined by q l 2 q l 2 q l l mx = – --. --. for which the exact solution is known to be 2 2 2 2 ql 4x ql 4y qxy mx = ------ .

then 1+ 2 2 2 2 M w w M M – ----. –q = + (2.8 (c). my = –D + (2.3 Elastic Membrane Analogy Marcus [32] observed that a uniformly loaded elastic membrane that has no bending or shear strength can be used as a funicular shape for a plate with the same boundary conditions. He ar- rived at this conclusion by first noting that the deflection of a slab.33) x y 2 2 x y where D is the flexural stiffness of the plate. 2.= --------. The moments in the x.y dy) dx y dx Fig. (b) equilibri- um in x.x dx z x σ y dx σ x dy ( σ x + σ x.8 (a) then the tension in the x.x dx) dy dy ( σ y + σ y. ----------.8: Elastic membrane analogy – (a) uniformly stretched elastic membrane.3.35) D x2 y2 x 2 y 2 If a uniformly stretched membrane is considered as shown in Fig. 20 . w.8 (b) as a section parallel to the x-axis.x dx dx σxv σh σh (c) σxv+ σxv. 2. A small piece of the membrane is shown in Fig.8 (b) it can be seen that w xv 2w xv = h .36) x x x 2 (a) (b) q dx x x z Q w z dw σx Q σ x + σ x.Limit Analysis of Slabs 2. 2.and y-directions.= + . 2. can be expressed as 2 2 2 2 w w D + + =q (2.and y-directions of the membrane will be as shown in Fig.34) x2 y 2 y 2 2 x m x + my and if the invariant of the moments is defined by M = -----------------.and z-directions. (c) equilibrium in x. From Fig.and y-directions are given by 2 2 2 2 w w w w mx = –D + . 2. h (2.

If = 0 then mx + m y = h w (2.8 (b) the following is found 2 2 w w – q = xv + yv = h + (2. (2. 57. xy. 75].and y-directions in the median plane and the last three 21 . The basis and de- tails for this membrane idealization as applied to slabs are discussed below.37) x2 y2 Comparing Eq.38). (2. A slab’s deformation can therefore be expressed in terms of six parameters – x.35)2 shows that the deflected shape of a uniformly stretched elastic membrane is proportional to the moment invariant of a slab with the same boundary con- ditions and loading. (2. The properties of exact solutions and the possible existence of families of exact solutions has been discussed in [44].36) and the corresponding y-direction relationships to express the vertical equilibri- um of the element shown in Fig. 2. This assumption implies that transverse shear deformation is negligible.3. 2. Eq. x. The traditional approach to slab analysis is thin plate theory. Exact Solutions Using Eq.38) and load effects can be distributed through the slab using this relationship. a hyperbolic paraboloid and a logarithmic funnel. moment fields can be found using Eq. (2.5 Sandwich Model The analysis of a cross section can be simplified by replacing it with a number of interconnected membranes to give a satisfactory approximation of the section’s behaviour [35].14) [2]. xy – where the first three represent the strains in the x. 2. These shapes can be arranged for many different column arrangements and by ensuring compatibility of curvatures at the boundaries of the stand- ard shapes.4 Closed Form Moment Fields Closed form moment fields have been developed for rectangular slabs with various boundary con- ditions by expressing mx. A review of many of these is given in [57] and the devel- opment of some exact solutions is described in [15.37) and Eq. 2. y. Saether divides the load into torsionless strips and his ap- proach is the same as the strip method. In the regions defined by parabolic domes and hyperbolic paraboloids.4 Exact Solutions Moment fields that respect the yield criterion and give the same capacity as the upper-bound so- lution are considered as exact solutions. Saether [64] suggested that the deflected shape of an elastic membrane supported along its edges and internally with columns can be approximated with three shapes – a parabolic dome. y. The key assumption in this ap- proach is that normals to the median plane remain straight and normal to the median surface dur- ing deformation. my and mxy as general quadratic equations and solving these expressions for given boundary conditions and the general equilibrium equation. (2.

Limit Analysis of Slabs

(a)

x

Top Cover mx

y d

z m yx

c m xy d

1.0

my d

d vy

1.0 d

Core

vx

m yx vx

d

h d my mx d vy

vx

mxy vy

Bottom Cover

mx

d

m yx

c m xy d

my d

d

(b) (c)

½ v0 cotθ

x x

ϕ ϕ d

y y

z v0 d z v0

π

4 θ v0

v0 cot θ

½ v0 cot θ

d cot θ

**Fig. 2.9: Sandwich model – (a) positive moments, torsions and shears (neglecting axial forces
**

in the core); (b) uncracked core; (c) cracked core.

the slab’s curvatures and twist. A solid cross section can therefore be modelled using multiple lay-

ers of membrane elements subjected to plane stress. The sum of the strengths of these layers, as

defined by the yield criterion of a membrane element, approximates the slab’s strength [48] and

the shortcomings of the ‘normal’ yield criterion are avoided.

**As has been discussed in [3,22,35,57] the multi-layered membrane approach can be simplified
**

by dividing a slab section into three layers – two outer or cover layers and a core, see Fig. 2.9 (a).

The core layer converts the applied load to shear forces that create in-plane load effects in the cov-

er layers. At the slab edges, vertical wall elements connected to the cover layers are required to

carry the shear forces generated by edge torsions. The slab is thus idealized as a plain concrete,

load distributing core bounded by reinforced concrete cover and side membranes.

**As shown in Fig. 2.9 (b), shear in an uncracked core has no effect on the cover layers. If the
**

core is cracked, however, an axial tension is required in the top and bottom cover layers to main-

tain equilibrium [38].

22

Sandwich Model

2.5.1 Compression Fields

**The traditional compression field approach is based on Fig. 2.10 (a) and (b). Fig. 2.10 (b) shows
**

that the stresses applied to a membrane element are equilibrated by the combined effects of the

stresses in the concrete and reinforcement. The stress in the concrete is carried as a uniaxial com-

pression field while the reinforcement stresses are carried in the reinforcement directions. The

equilibrium equations required to calculate theses stresses are presented in Chapter 5 as reinforce-

ment design equations. The assumptions made in using the compression field approach are dis-

cussed below.

**Pre-existing cracks caused by shrinkage, temperature, creep and previously applied loads are
**

present in any concrete structure before load is applied. As load is applied, these cracks may prop-

agate or close when a new crack pattern forms. A concrete structure thus consists of an assembly

of concrete bodies with a finite size that are bounded by cracks, are deformable and have a tensile

capacity [35]. The surface of the cracks is rough and because during opening of the cracks there

is an in-plane slip between the crack surfaces, there is contact between the two sides of the crack.

Load can be transferred by in-plane normal and shear forces at these points of contact by the

mechanism of aggregate interlock. Reinforcement across a crack can also carry a limited amount

of load perpendicular to the direction of the bars by dowel action.

**Several simplifications can be made to the above behaviour to give a conservative model for
**

the behaviour of a reinforced concrete membrane element. First, cracks can be smeared over the

concrete surface. This eliminates a variation in concrete stresses perpendicular to the crack direc-

tions related to the tension capacity of the concrete. Secondly, it is assumed that there is no slip

along a crack and that therefore the crack opens orthogonally to its trajectory. This second simpli-

fication eliminates the effects from aggregate interlock and dowel action in the reinforcement. If

the tension capacity of concrete is ignored then a uniaxial compression field results in the direc-

tion of the smeared cracks and the Mohr’s circles shown in Fig. 2.10 (b) can be used to determine

the distribution of stress between the concrete and the reinforcement.

**These simplifications have been addressed by the modified compression field theory [10,73]
**

and the cracked membrane model [27] to improve deformation predictions for membrane ele-

ments. These simplifications, however, do not have a significant effect on equilibrium require-

ments and the simplified compression field model discussed above and in Chapter 5 is an essential

lower-bound design tool for membrane elements.

2.5.2 Yield Criterion for Membrane Elements

**The yield criterion for a membrane element subjected to plane stress was discussed by Nielsen
**

[56] and in the following a qualitative description of this yield criterion is presented. The corre-

sponding equilibrium equations are presented in Chapter 5.

**A concrete membrane element reinforced in the x- and y-directions with
**

x and

y, respective-

ly, is shown in Fig. 2.10 (a). Concrete in tension is assumed to have no strength and the assump-

tions regarding crack spacings and reinforcement distributions discussed above are valid. The

yield criterion for this membrane element is shown in Fig. 2.10 (c) and (d).

**At corner B of the yield surface the reinforcement is yielding in tension in both directions and
**

there are no shear stresses. If the applied stresses, x and y are reduced while increasing the ap-

plied shear stress, xy, the reinforcement stresses can be maintained at yield by mobilizing a con-

23

Limit Analysis of Slabs

τ nt

(a) (b) ρx fsy

XC X

x average

θC concrete applied

2

1 stresses stresses

σx σt

2 θC θC 1

τ yx θ

QC YC Y Q

τ xy

y ρy fsy

σy

τ xy

(c) (d)

N K

C H D

D

L

N K M

G

L M

τ xy

σx σx

B F A

B F A τ xy constant

σy

σy

ρy fsy - σ y τ xy

(e)

fce

τ xy constant

cot θ = ½

cot θ = 2 τ xy

fce ρx fsy - σ x

**Fig. 2.10: Reinforced concrete membrane elements – (a) element subjected to in-plane stress;
**

(b) basis of the compression field approach; (c) (d) yield criterion for membrane ele-

ments; (e) criteria for reinforcement design.

**crete compression field inclined to the reinforcement directions as required for equilibrium. This
**

interaction defines a conical failure surface with its apex at B as shown in Fig. 2.10 (d). The max-

imum shear stress that can be carried by the element is represented by point L. At L the reinforce-

ment yields, the concrete compressive stress is fce and the maximum shear stress that can be car-

ried is fce /2.

If y is decreased and x is kept constant, then line LG in Fig. 2.10 (c) moves to line NC. This

is achieved by a reduction in the y-direction reinforcement stress from fsy to – fsy while the stress

in the concrete and xy remain unchanged. This defines a skewed cylinder on the yield surface as

shown in Fig. 2.10 (d). Similarly, if x is decreased and y is kept constant, then line NC in Fig.

2.10 (c) moves to line KH. This is achieved by reducing the x-direction reinforcement stress from

24

are shown. the torsional resistance of the section 2 is given by M = 2c A0 + c 3 where A0 is the area enclosed by the centre line of the shear flow. as shown in Fig. 2. 2. as discussed in Chapter 5. and therefore the inclination of the compression field is traditionally limited as shown.11 (a) shows a solid cross section subjected to pure torsion.41.= 1 (2. In the conical region of the shear surface defined by FBG the yield surface should be bounded by allowable angles of the compression field as shown in Fig. 25 . The maximum shear stress that can be resisted in this way is at point K and is. The inclination of the compression field affects the ability of cracked concrete to redistribute load.and y-axes.2c 2 1 z + y c - π 4 Fig. Making use of the fact that the mo- ment arm increases in the triangular ends of the stress fields.3 Thickness of the Cover Layers The thickness of the membranes comprising the cover layers and edges of the sandwich model can be investigated using research carried out on torsion in beams and slabs [10.10 (e) for a specified shear stress. 2.10 (d). This interaction defines a conical failure surface with its apex at D.+ -----------------------------------. The reinforcement and stress field that work together to resist the applied torsion. as before. Shear stresses can be resisted by allowing the reinforcement stresses to remain at yield and the compression in the concrete to form a uniaxial compression field with a variable angle to the x.31.42. M. Fig. Sandwich Model fsy to – fsy while the stress in the concrete and xy remain unchanged.39) scfce c a + b – 2c fce (a) a a τ c b M x b z 3π 4 (b) εx εy ½ γ xy ε1 ε2 θ c - - z x y + + χ xy + + θ x h . In this way a second skewed cylinder on the yield surface is defined.5.11: Thickness of membrane elements in solid cross sections – (a) statical considerations [57]. 2. (b) kinematic considerations [41]. Assuming the stress in the concrete is fce the equilibrium of the cross section requires: Fz Fy ----------. fce /2.57]. 2. At corner D the membrane element is in biaxial compression with yielding compression rein- forcement. xy does not change in the area KNLM and is limited to fce /2.

Therefore. The thickness of the top and bottom membranes can also be determined from kinematic con- siderations as discussed in [41]. the centroid of the reinforcement and that of the com- pression field should correspond. the ultimate capacity is not and the conclusion can be made that a small discrepancy between the location of the centroids of the steel and the concrete is not significant. The membrane thicknesses will be strongly influenced by the reinforcement layout. Tests by Collins and Mitchell [10] have shown that whereas the cracking load of a beam is strongly affected by the amount of cover. 2. because concrete’s tensile strength is ignored.4 Reinforcement Considerations In accordance with the sandwich model. particular- ly in the edge membranes where transverse reinforcement should be used [57]. It is also clear from Fig. Torsion tests conducted in Denmark [57] and Toronto [42] indicate that properly detailed edge reinforcement is essential for developing a slab’s torsional strength. as suggested by Thomson and Tait [71].39) can be solved to give the membrane thickness.40) 2 xy The width of the edge membranes that carry the edge shears has traditionally been defined as “small”. 2. Spalling of the cover occurs when the reinforcement becomes highly stressed and the trans- verse tension forces generated by bond can no longer be resisted at an unconfined edge. Spalling is also caused by the tension stresses required where the direction of a compression field changes from horizontal to vertical. as h x y c = --.11 (b) where xy 2 = xy z . If St. c.11 (b) that 1 is always ten- sile while 2 is compressive in the outer parts of the cross section and tensile in the core region. the core of the section carries no in- plane stress and the outer layers have a uniaxial compression field inclined to the y-axis. s is the stirrup spacing and Fy is the sum of the forces in all the longitudinal reinforcing bars in the cross section at yielding. (2. 26 .– -------------. The kinematic relationships for a rectangular section subjected to pure torsion are shown in Fig. 2.5. 2. then the width of the edge zone can be approximated as half the slab depth. such as at an internal section. (2. This is the approach used in Chapter 5. c. In this case the full section is available to generate the required torsional resistance and the correspondence between the centroid of the re- inforcement and the compression field is improved. Spalling can be avoided if an edge is confined. The test results also seem to indicate that shear radiates out from a concentrated corner load before being redistributed and carried as edge shears. Another approach to dimensioning the membranes is therefore to simply assign a thickness [39] and design the rein- forcement such that the concrete strength is not exceeded and a statically admissible stress field is produced.Limit Analysis of Slabs where Fz is the force in one leg of a yielding stirrup. From these tests one can con- clude that transverse edge reinforcement is always required to give a ductile failure and that the top and bottom reinforcement must be fully anchored at the slab edge using bent up bars or hair- pins. Solving the kinematic relationships for 2 = 0 gives the thickness of the compression field. The corresponding principal strains have a hyperbolic distribution over the cross section and a variable direction as shown in Fig. Eq.11 (b). Venant’s principle is applicable. This is not always possible as is the case when the concrete cov- er spalls. or if stresses in the reinforcement are kept low.

ML3. ML8 and ML9 also had additional transverse reinforcement in the corners. In the first series edge reinforcement was provided by continuing the in-plane reinforcement around the edge (ML1. The slabs in the first series failed with abrupt corner failures at the predicted peak loads where- as those in the second series showed post-peak deformations and the two slabs with the additional transverse corner reinforcement (ML8. It can be concluded therefore that the additional transverse reinforcement provided in the second series of slabs ensured a more ductile behaviour and that the additional transverse corner reinforcement was critical to this improved behaviour. ML9) had ductile failures involving yield-lines. Sandwich Model This conclusion can be drawn from the experiments conducted in Toronto which can be divid- ed into two series. ML9). ML5) The slabs in the second series had identical re- inforcement arrangements and similar concrete properties to those in Series 1 but were provided with additional ‘C’-shaped transverse reinforcement along the edges such that an edge strip was defined (ML7. ML8. 27 .

28 .

as shown in Fig.1 (a) shows the re- sultant transverse forces at the common corners of slab segments A. 29 . where the work and nodal force solutions give different solutions and the reason for this lies in the formulation of the nodal force method. The resultant of ma along the yield-line and ma along k’i is mads acting along line b and opposite to mb.3 Nodal Forces The nodal force method was pioneered by Ingerslev [23] and further developed by Johansen [24].1 (c). 3. K. Fig. It was discussed in the 1960’s by Kemp [28]. Even though the nodal force method is not univer- sally applicable. Fig. 3. Nielsen [55]. leaving only a moment acting normal to the yield-line as shown in Fig. A number of breakdown cases have been found.1.1 The Nodal Force Method Johansen developed his nodal force method based on Fig. equilibrium of each slab segment requires shear forces and torsions along its edges in addition to the yield-line moment. A stationary maximum is as- sumed to exist along line a and therefore the moment along the line k’i is also ma. Johansen replaced the shears and torsions with statically equivalent pairs of transverse shears or nodal forces. Nodal forces are concentrated transverse forces located at the end of yield-lines and are required to maintain equilibrium of the segments comprising the collapse mechanism. 3. 3. K C = K b – Kc (3.1 (a) shows three slab seg- ments connected by plastic hinges. KB = Ka – K b . Both the work method described in Chapter 2 and the nodal force method described in this chapter establish equilibrium between the segments of a collapse mechanism and therefore the two methods should give the same result. It should be pointed out that neither method considers equilibrium within the rigid slab segments and they both establish global equilibrium only. how- ever. nodal forces are worth studying because they are real forces [7] and outline a load path in a slab at collapse.2) An infinitely narrow wedge can be cut from segment A in Fig. The aim of the method was to avoid differentiation of the work equation in order to find the critical yield-line arrangement for a given mechanism.1 (b). Johansen formulated the nodal force method by considering the requirements for a stationary maximum or minimum moment along a yield-line and combining this requirement with the ‘normal’ yield criterion to establish equilibrium equations.1 (c) such that it is bounded by two yield-lines with moments ma and mb and a third line. 3. 3.1) and for vertical equilibrium KA + KB + K C = 0 (3. In general. k’i. Wood [76]and Jones [25] and more recently by Clyde [7]. B and C which are given by K A = K – Ka . Morley [47]. 3.

as shown in Fig. in this case KA – KB = K A (3. 3. (d) intersection of several yield-lines. (c) infinitely small slab wedge used to derive nodal force equations.1 (c) These yield-lines need not be consecutive. 3. Three of his most important conclusions are • If the yield-lines in a pattern have the same sign and magnitude.3) KA corresponds to a slab segment defined by two yield-lines separated by the angle as shown in Fig. i. KA.4) Johansen’s conclusions regarding nodal forces and yield-lines stem from Eq.m a ) ds d D K∆A E k K∆A A c ∆A e ∆A C ma ma ∆B b A a a dα B k’ Fig. then there can be no nodal forces at the intersection of the yield-lines.1 (c) and the loads applied to the slab wedge are neglected.Nodal Forces (a) (b) K ’c K ’c K ’c A c Ka A Kc Ka Kc C mc c K ’a ma a Kb Ka a K ’a Kb b K ’b K ’a Kc B K ’b (c) mb (d) α ds b i α i (mb . KB cor- responds to segment B and therefore.1 (d). then the nodal force.1: Johansen’s nodal force method – (a) nodal forces and yield-line arrangement. For example. KA corresponds to the nodal force from the combination of segments A and B. • Not more than three directions are possible at the intersection of yield-lines of different signs. • At the intersection of a yield-line and a free edge there is a nodal force with magnitude Ka = macot 30 . 3. (3.e. If moments are taken about line k’i in Fig. (b) slab segment bounded by yield-lines and nodal forces. 3. at corner k is given by KA = mb – m a cot (3. ma = mb.3).

3. however. • The re-entrant.1. KB = KC = – 2mcot and vertical equilibrium does not exist at the yield-line intersection. (3. 3.e. Using the work method avoids these problems because only the kinematics of the slab are considered to calculate equilib- rium and the problem is not constrained by a preconceived moment distribution. 3.2 (a). supported corner – an admissible yield-line pattern is shown in Fig. 3. Breakdown of the Method 3.2: Breakdown cases for uniformly loaded slabs – (a) re-entrant free corner. moments along the edges of the segments of a kinematically admissible mechanism are stationary maxima or minima – and nodal forces are calculated to equilibrate these moments. unsupported corner – a yield-line arranged as shown in Fig. It can be concluded therefore that the nodal force method is only valid when a slab has sufficient kinematic freedom to allow a collapse mechanism to form that can con- form to Johansen’s assumed moment distribution. The nodal force method is based on an assumed moment distribution – i. Historically three breakdown cases have been used to show the limitations of the nodal force method. 3.3) is not always correct and only the last of the three conclusions listed above is correct [55].2 (b) which results in the intersection of positive and negative yield-lines. KA = KD = 0.2 (c) occurs in a square slab with unrestrained corners. 3. re-entrant corner. 31 . • The Maltese Cross – The yield-line pattern shown in Fig.2 (a) passes through an unsupported. This breakdown case can be avoided by using two yield-lines as is also shown in Fig. (3.2 Breakdown of the Method Eq.3). These are • The re-entrant. according to Eq. (a) (b) (c) +m D A +m -m C α B α +m Fig. If a slab is kinematically restricted then the col- lapse mechanism must form such that equilibrium is maintained regardless of whether or not the moments along the yield-lines are stationary maximums or minimums. This requires nodal forces of the same value on ei- ther side of the yield-line and equilibrium of the corner is not possible. and using notation similar to that in Fig. (c) square slab with unrestrained corners. (b) re-en- trant supported corner. are also required for the vertical equilibrium of a slab segment and must therefore be dictated to some ex- tent by a slab’s kinematics. Nodal forces are required at the centre of the slab for equilibrium of the individual segments. Nodal forces. In this case.

He defined ‘invalid nodal forces’ as nodal forces that are required for equilibrium but are not located at strength discontinu- ities. The last term in Eq. In this work these are both considered nodal forces. He showed that the transverse shear force at a slab edge is a physical reality and therefore “invariant under change of angle of the cutting section relative to the edge.q A qA direction of principal shear y my m xy x Fig. Strength discontinuities can also be found at step changes in the reinforcement as discussed by Jones [25].” Clyde concluded that “real” nodal forces only exist at discontinuities in a slab’s strength such as at an edge or a step change in the reinforcement mesh. concentrated transverse shear forces or nodal forces arise. is shown in Fig. An extreme example of such a discontinuity is a sim- ply supported or free edge where the edge shear forces are required.5) arise from the transverse shear forces caused by torsions along the edges. an understanding of nodal forces is use- ful because they indicate the load path in a slab at failure. (3. 32 .5) The first two terms in Eq.3: Nodal force.3 and given by K = mtn + mxy – q A (3. K. K.Nodal Forces 3. The nodal force. (3. The possibility of direct loading of a corner was not considered by Johansen and this contributes to the breakdown of the nodal force method. At the termination of the discontinuity. 3. A jump in the mo- ment field across the discontinuity gives rise to a transverse shear force in the direction of the dis- continuity. 3. Clyde [7] considered strength disconti- nuities in a slab as the origin of nodal forces.3 Load Paths Although the nodal force method is not generally correct. The above discussion and the discussion in the previous section can be extended to make some observations regarding the load transfer in a slab adjacent to a nodal force and between the seg- ments of a collapse mechanism.5) is caused by direct load transfer and also contributes to the corner reaction. A m tn t n mn K = mtn + mxy . Clyde established that edge shear forces are statically essential and independent of the stress distribution associated with mxy. q applied to shaded area.

3. as shown in Fig.4. (e) Mohr’s circle for (d). 33 . (d) at the intersection of a yield-line with a free or simply supported edge.6) tan + tan ! where Q represents the load applied to the shaded area. Load Paths Various load conditions at the corner of a slab segment are shown in Fig. 3.4 (c). Fig. (b) from torsion. If load is to be consistently transferred in one direc- tion.0 mu m xy = f(y) m xy sin θ θ m u cos θ m x (tan θ + tan φ ) m x sin θ 1. If K is negative and Q is small. Nodal forces indicate if the yield-line moment is exceeded in the adjacent rigid slab segment. 3. 3. the moment. along a line located at a distance of 1 from the corner is equal to Q K + ---- 3 mx = m u – --------------------------.4 (a) and (b) show two possible load paths at a corner.4: Nodal forces – (a) from direct load transfer. at a slab corner defined by the intersection of two yield-lines.0 corner reaction θ m tn m tn (e) X (f) X mu θ mu mn mn θ Q Y Q Y Fig. as shown in Fig. (a) (b) αK mu q mu q shaded area = A K=qA K mu mu x (1-α )K y (c) m u cosφ (d) q φ K Q 1. a negative nodal force will correspond to direct load transfer from the slab segment and a positive nodal force will correspond to edge torsions. 3. then mx will exceed the yield-line moment.4 (b).4 (a). then. 3. see Fig. For example. (c) at the intersection of yield-lines. mx. (f) Mohr’s circle for corner with torsion along the yield-line. (3.

A similar relationship exists if torsion is present along the yield-line as shown by the Mohr’s circle in Fig. These examples are dis- cussed in the following.4 (f).5: Load transfer in collapse mechanisms – (a) yield-line pattern with sufficient freedom and no load transfer between segments. (a) (b) x y direction of load transfer (c) π 2 3π 8 yyl m = mu T=0 yT θ π θ l 4 q line of maximum moment π m = mu 8 q line of load transfer .Nodal Forces The intersection of a yield-line with a simply supported or free edge is shown in Fig. 3.4 (d).5 l 0. From the Mohr’s circle in Fig. 3. For equilibrium. on the other hand. as shown in Fig. depending on the angle of the intersection.4 l 0. (c) trapezoidal slab with load transfer between segments of the collapse mechanism. Equilibrium between the slab segments is established using the work equation and the yield-line arrangement giving the highest yield-line moments corresponds to zero load transfer between the slab’s four segments. If. In this case nodal forces are required at the slab centre to ensure vertical equilibrium and load is transferred between the slab segments. (b) yield-line pattern with insufficient free- dom and load transfer between slab segments.4 (e).6 l yyl . 3.3 l 0.5 (b). 3. m x = mu 1 – cot ! and for values of less than 45o the magnitude of the yield-line moment is exceeded in the x-direction. 34 . 3. A plastic hinge will form in a beam such that the load transferred between the rigid segments of the collapse mechanism is zero. an x-direction moment is required that. may exceed the yield-line moment as shown by the Mohr’s circle in Fig. see Fig. 3. T = 0 0 0. y T Fig. 2 3. 3.4(e).5 (a) shows a slab in which the intersection point of the yield-lines is not fixed. Two examples are considered to illustrate how nodal forces indicate load paths at ultimate and how these load paths are affected by a slab’s kinematics.5. An analogous situation exists in slabs with sufficient kinematic freedom. the point of intersection of the yield-lines is fixed by a support or symmetry. For example. Fig. then there is insufficient freedom in the yield-line pattern to allow the yield-lines to orient themselves to avoid the transfer of load be- tween the slab segments. In this case it is assumed that there is no torsion along the yield-line and therefore the corner re- action is K = mu cot ! .

the slab behaves like a beam and no load transfer occurs between the two seg- ments. 35 . 3. 3. 3. As is increased. In this case. The amount of load transferred between the two segments is described by the nodal force at the inclined edge and is given by mutan The amount of load transferred between the two segments can be represented by the area between the yield-line and the “load transfer line” as shown in Fig.5 (c). the slab shown in Fig.5 (c) is considered. load is transferred between the two segments. When is zero. The rela- tionship between the location of the yield-line and the load transfer line is shown in Fig. the kinematics of the slab dictate that the yield-line forms parallel to the slab’s supports. however.5 (c). Load Paths As a second example.

36 .

1) 2 2 The normal stress in the core. however. 4. Generalized stress fields can be developed that define slab segments rather than slab strips by adopting the strip method’s approach to load distribution and considering torsion. that the principal com- pressive stress direction intersects the plane of the crack at an angle of = ! cr 2 and that the magnitudes of the principal stresses are ! cr ! cr . the distribution of bending effects can be improved and a more uniform reinforcement distribution achieved. be carried across a crack by the interaction of concrete’s tensile strength. 37 . The results of this discussion are used to develop generalized stress fields for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments with uncracked cores. 4. The generalized stress fields will be used in Chapter 5 to examine reinforcement requirements. Fig.4 Generalized Stress Fields The statical indeterminacy of a slab makes it possible to base a lower-bound design on an infinite number of load paths. the resulting distribution of bending moments is often characterized by localized peaks and a correspondingly concentrated reinforcement arrangement is required. v0.1(b). Such segments can be fit together like piec- es of a jigsaw puzzle to define the stresses in a slab for a chosen load path. Because torsion is set to zero in the strip meth- od. for example. The flow of force through a slab is examined in this chapter by discussing the transfer of shear in slabs along shear zones and in shear fields. however. This would allow more effi- cient use to be made of. This freedom is used in the strip method to distribute load in any chosen proportion to a torsionless grillage of beam strips. Uncracked concrete resists shear by equal orthogonal compression and ten- sion fields inclined at 45o to the longitudinal axis of a member.1(b). The normal stress in the slab core is given by n = v 0 cot ! . up to a point.26.59. .1 (a) shows an element of a slab with only longitudinal reinforcement and subjected to a uni-directional shear stress. If the strip method is generalized to include torsion. n. 4. The stress field in the core is described by the Mohr’s circle shown in Fig. The horizontal and crack planes carry only shear stresses. As load is increased. aggregate interlock. dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement and confinement by the surrounding concrete. If transverse reinforcement has not been provided. (4. a mesh of minimum reinforcement. cracks open and shear is increasingly carried by compression in the concrete and tension in the reinforcement. 2 = v0 cot ------ 1 = v0 tan -----. resulting from the shear stress on the crack must be equilibrat- ed by two equal and opposite stresses in the top and bottom cover layers..60]. 4. shear can. The core of the element has cracks inclined at an angle of cr .1 Shear Transfer in Slabs The transfer of shear in concrete without shear reinforcement has been the subject of considerable study [1. It can be seen from Fig.

A special case of a shear zone occurs along a slab’s free edge and the statics for this case were formulated by Kirchhoff [29].1. 4.1: Stresses in an unreinforced cracked concrete shear panel – (a) loading. In the 1960’s considerable work was carried out on nodal forces by Kemp [28]. (b) Mohr’s circle for core stresses.50]. Cracking of the core may occur in shear zones and these are then analysed using truss models. Venant’s principle to replace tor- sions at an edge with shear forces and give Kirchhoff’s edge conditions a more physical meaning. A simple. Rozva- 38 .Generalized Stress Fields (a) (b) τ vertical plane crack plane vo 2θ cr vo θcr vo σ2 2α σ1 x θcr n σ vo 1 z horizontal plane n (c) vo vo ½ θcr θ cr n σ1 σ2 Fig. Nielsen [55]. Wood [76] and Jones [25]. Hillerborg mentions that a dis- continuity in the torsional moment field can generate a shear flow but he did not pursue this pos- sibility. In his introduction to the strip method. The cracking shear stress defined in [6] is 0. as discussed in Chapter 2. transverse reinforcement is suggested and addition- al considerations are required to determine the corresponding flexural reinforcement.17 fcc MPa. In the absence of such a model. The generalized stress fields developed in this chapter are for uncracked cores. clear model is currently not available to describe the shear that can be carried by a crack.1 Shear Zones A shear zone is a narrow strip of concentrated shear that is created by a discontinuity in the mo- ment field along which load is transferred. Shear reinforcement can be provided according to a truss model analysis. (c) stress field in core. Thomson and Tait [71] used St. a conservative approach is recommended in this work [38] and for shears greater than the cracking stress. 4. Morley [49. More recently Clyde [7] used statics to prove that transverse shear forces are necessary in a slab at the termination of the torsion field. Shear zones arise at changes in the direction of princi- pal shear and at barriers to the transmission of shear such as edges. In these investigations the existence of shear zones was perceived but not developed. Morley [47]. The existence of the more general form of a shear zone was suspected by Johansen [24] and dis- cussed by Hillerborg [19].

however.2: Shear zone – (a) stress resultants acting on the shear zone. that the sum m nt t + vn is continuous in the ab- sence of a line load.15).2)3 and noting that mtn = mnt gives I II m nt I m nt II ------------ . 4. Marti [40] discussed shear zones and the statics of a shear zone were expressed and exper- imentally verified by Meyboom and Marti [45. must be carried by bending and the shear zone becomes a strong band as defined by Wood and Armer [77].3) t t Eq.= ------------. 4.+ 2 -------------- . Recalling that vn is defined by Eq. 39 . Eq. Eq. qt. (4. all stress resultants can be discontinuous across the shear zone.+ v n – qt (4.46].+ 2 ------------. (a) (b) m tn q t II I m tn m2 (+) m nII mn n m2 m1 m1 II m tn v nII Vt mn t m tnI NI Vt II Vt + N t Vt m nI II v nI n I 2 II 2I 1 II 1 I mn t 1 II Q T II I T QI Fig. with the exception of mn.3) can be re-written as I I II II m n m nt m n m nt ----------.2)2 and Eq.2 and described by II I I II Vt II I m n = m n .– qt (4. applied along the discontinuity. (4. If there is no torsion present.2) shows that. Shear Transfer in Slabs ny [63] and Clyde [8] used discontinuities in moment fields to generate lines of shear transfer in slabs. (4.4) is the same as Kirchhoff’s edge condition if qt and the stress resultants in Region II are zero.+ v n = -------------- . (4. then the line load. V t = m tn – m tn . The stress resultants at a shear zone are shown in Fig. qt.2) t Combining Eq. (4. (4. (b) Mohr’s circles for mo- ments on either side of a shear zone. The possibility of com- bining a shear zone with a strong band is discussed further at the end of this section.3) indicates. (2. + q t= vn –vn (4.4) n t n t Eq.

In this discussion. The crack pattern correspond- ing to an advanced yield-line will be inclined to the yield-line direction in accordance with Fig. c.6 in its most general form. As shown in Fig. 4.3 (a). 4.3 (e). the in-plane shear forces. In accordance with Eq. is not considered in this discussion and does not affect the compression field approach. A combined shear zone/yield-line or “advanced” yield-line exists when mn corresponds to a yield-line moment. qt. c. t creates high localized bond stresses and careful attention to detailing at the shear zone is required to ensure proper anchorage of the flexural reinforcement. For example. The directions of the compression fields on either side of the shear zone are determined from equilibrium as shown in Fig. 4. tsx and tsy. tsy and c vary. 4. 4.e. It is also possible to eliminate t in one direction by specifying ei- ther tsx or tsy to be equal on either side of the discontinuity. it is possible to keep c constant across the shear zone by letting tsx.2) these forces add to zero in the n-direction and mtn/d in the t-direction. For plane stress the conditions nI = II n and tnI = tn II must be ful- filled across a discontinuity whereas t can be discontinuous.Generalized Stress Fields The continuity of moments at a shear zone is analogous to the conditions at a two-dimensional statical discontinuity. and the direction of the compression field. mtn/d. The forces in the concrete and reinforcement at the centre line of the shear zone are shown in Fig. 4. A distributed load. stress resultants are resisted by the interaction of concrete and re- inforcement.3 (c) for the bottom cover layer. Alternatively. 4. To make efficient use of the reinforcement it is reasonable to let tsx = tsy as shown in Fig. In the case of a shear zone in a slab modelled as a sandwich. There are three equilibrium equations for an element of a slab’s cover layer and there are four variables – i. resulting from mtn can also be discontinuous because out-of-plane forces are available in the core to equilibrate the imbalance between tnI and tn II .3 (a). tsy and c are allowed to vary. however. The stress resultants shown in Fig. the unit forces in the x.3 (c) and (d). 40 . 4. t.3 (c) thus eliminating one of the variables. If a shear zone is not present along the yield- line then the crack pattern is parallel to the yield-line and the special form of the kinematic dis- continuity. As shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. an isotropic x. mtn/d is resisted by an inclined compression field in the shear zone which may require transverse reinforcement to en- sure equilibrium. a collapse crack. The change in the in-plane shears across the shear zone.3 (b) are resisted by tension in the reinforcement and uniaxial compression fields in the concrete as indicated by the Mohr’s circles in Fig. In a reinforced concrete slab. A compression field approach can be used to describe this interaction by idealizing the shear zone with a sandwich model. tn .direction reinforcement mesh is assumed.1. correspond- ing to an n-directional transverse shear transferred to the shear zone from Regions I and II. If tsx " tsy compression fields that are different than those discussed above are derived and dif- ferent requirements can be met.3 (e) there is a jump in the reinforcement forces across the shear zone. causes both c and c to change. 4. develops. Nodal forces will exist at the termination of an advanced yield-line and torsion must be considered when determining reinforcement requirements. c could be maintained across the shear zone if tsx.and y.3 (d). Detailing require- ments are discussed in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. (4. the unit compression in the concrete.direction reinforcement.and y. Such a crack pattern in a slab’s cover layers corresponds to the kinematic discontinuity discussed in Section 2.

[Note: isotropic reinforcement provided in the x. (b) stress resultants at the shear zone. (e) stress resultants acting at the shear zone. 41 . 4. (d) direction of compression fields.0 (b) m tnI /d mn /d m tn m n /d m tnII /d mn Region II Region I ∆ m tn /d NI d N II ∆ mtn mn Vt I T II TI II t m tnII /d mn /d m n /d m tnI /d CL shear zone (c) reinforcement II I reinforcement t syII = t II sx t syI = t sxI n tn n tn I α c II α c X cI XI II N cI I concrete N cII applied N N X cII θ Ic X II I I 2c II 2 II 1 II 2c I 2 1 nn nn θ IIc Y cII Y II T cII T II applied TI T cI concrete YI Y cI II t syII = t sx t syI = t I sx (d) n x α 1 θc 2 y t t syI sin α (e) II ∆ t sin α α+θc α I I ∆ m tn /d c sin (α + θ c ) II t sx cos α I c sin (α + θ cI ) m tnI /d mn /d m n /d I t sx cos α ∆ t cos α m tnII /d II c sin (α + θ IIc ) ∆ tsx = ∆ tsy II α II II t sy sin α c sin (α + θc ) α+ I θc Fig. (c) distribution of forces between reinforcement and concrete on the bot- tom cover.and y-directions]. Shear Transfer in Slabs (a) 1.3: Sandwich model of a shear zone – (a) sandwich model.

(b) shear zone/strong band. a yield-line generally carries not only a uniform moment but also a uniform torsion.5) n t t When qt = 0. Rather. (4. Fig. if a uniform reinforcement mesh is provided.4: Special shear zones – (a) shear zones along lines of zero shear. This estimated width can be checked with a strut-and-tie model as discussed in Chapter 5. the width of the shear zone should be kept small. 4. 4. one Mohr’s circle per slab segment adjoining the intersection can be drawn and no restric- tion exists to the number of yield-lines that can intersect. For such a shear zone and using the coordinate axes shown in Fig. 4.Generalized Stress Fields The concept of an advanced yield-line leads to the observation that the state of stress at the in- tersection of yield-lines is not restricted to a single Mohr’s circle as assumed by Johansen [24]. to maximize torsional resistance. This is in accordance with St. (a) shear zone parallel to principal shear direction n t mtn n mn mn t mtn direction of principal shear load directed away from shear zone v IIn v nI Mt (b) Vt m tnII m IIn m nI m tnI 1 v IIn v IIn m tnII m tnI m nI m IIn Vt Mt Vt + Mt+ t t II I t Fig.= 0 .+ ----------. analogous to maximizing the enclosed area in prob- lems of circulatory torsion [35]. Venant’s principle and the discussion in Chapter 2 regarding circulatory torsion.4 (a) shows shear zones located along lines of zero shear. h/2 can be used as a preliminary estimate of a shear zone’s width. Lines of zero shear occur where the discontinuity is parallel to the direction of principal shear or if shear is directed away from the line. as is the case at most yield-lines. The centre line of the shear zone is fixed by statical considerations and. If qt is a constant then the torsion is a linear function along the shear zone. –qt = ----------. 42 .4 (a) m n mnt m nt vn = --------. torsion is uniformly distributed along the dis- continuity. Therefore.

hy = ----y. (4. q.7) x y d d A simple shear field is obtained by distributing x of an applied load in the x-direction and y in the y-direction such that x + y = 1. The use of strong bands can lead to heavy concentrations of flexural reinforcement and an incompatibility of curvatures between the shear zone/strong band and the adjacent slab segments which may cause unacceptable cracking.= Vt – m tn + m tn (4.6.and y-direction compo- nents as shown in Fig. The shears that arise from the chosen load distribution describe a principal shear val- ue and a principal shear direction. hx = ----x.5 requires v v v v -------x.5: Shear field components. This has not been done.4). If x and y are constants then the resulting shear field is defined by v x = x q r – x .5. as shown in Fig. Vertical components. as discussed in Chapter 2. is given by M t I II --------. provide rotational equilibrium and load the slab’s cover layers. 4. A shear field is carried in the slab core and can be expressed by its x. as shown in Fig. then bending is required in the shear zone and a combined shear zone/strong band is produced.6) t The shear zone/strong band combination could be used to give a more general formulation of Eq. hx and hy. 4. which together are referred to as a shear field. Mt . 43 . (4. 4. 4. vx and vy. because the effects of this combination have not been experimentally examined and the reliance on a strong band to meet boundary conditions is not recommended. provide vertical equilibrium with the applied load.= –q . 4.. The strong band bending moment. v y = y q s – y (4. however. 4.1.2 Shear Fields An applied load can be distributed in orthogonal or skew directions as done in the strip method.+ -------y. Shear Transfer in Slabs If the jump in the torsional moment field is not sufficient to equilibrate the load transferred from the adjacent slab segments. Equilibrium of the slab core as shown in Fig.8) q dx dy dx dy hy dx dy hx dx dy d x y vx vy (v x + dx ) dy (v y + dy ) dx x y Fig. and horizontal components. This load distribution approach is used in the following discussion using an x-y Cartesian coordi- nate system.4(b).

x) direction of load transfer + x - z Fig. [Note: x + y = 1]. (b) y-direction loads and shears. βx = 0 0 < βx< ½ ½ < βx< 1 βx = 1 βx = βy = ½ βy = 1 ½ < βy< 1 0 < β y< ½ βy = 0 Fig. For such load distributions the slab can be cut along the lines parallel to the coordinate axes and through (r. 4. A slab with a radial shear distribution can be cut along any of its radians to give a straight. 4.Generalized Stress Fields r (a) (b) vy = βy q (s . (4. s) to give straight. the straight trajectories become curved trajectories originating at a common point. [Note: x + y = 1]. The shear field defined by (4.6: Shear field for a uniformly distributed load – (a) load distribution. 44 . If x = y a ra- dial shear distribution centred at (x.7.– 1 ---------.x) x z + s βy q βy q y βx q βx q βy q - βx q y (c) x vx = βx q (r . (r. s) and resemble parabolas.6.= ----. then shear flows in only one direction as in a beam. 4. and the direction of principal shear is defined by y q s – y 1 s–y tan 0 = ----------------------. (c) x-direction loads and shears.7: Basic shear fields. shearless edges. 4. If x = 1 or y = 1.y)=(r. If x and y are both positive but have dif- ferent magnitudes.9) x q r – x x r – x where r and s are defined in Fig. shear-free edge.8) will be referred to as the ba- sic shear field and is the same as would be obtained using the strip method. Shear fields resulting from different load distributions are shown in Fig.s) is obtained.

are added to those from the applied load.h sx hy + hx x = x y y vy vx (vx . ± qs.8 (c). dy vsy x dx y q s dx dy (b) q dx dy (c) q dx dy h y + hsy hx . (c) principal shear trajectory for basic shear field with self-equilibrating loads. (c) adjusted load path.h sx d x + y x y vsx . 4. can be superimposed on the applied loads to change the direction of load transfer and thus adjust the shear along a shear field’s edges as required by the boundary conditions.8 (a).v sx ) dx dy (vy + vsy ) dy y x dx x y Fig. Self-equilibrating loads are included in the basic shear field if either x or y are less than zero. 4. to decrease the shear in the x-direction and increase the shear in the y-direction as shown in Fig.9 (a).8: Re-direction of shear from the x. As an example. Load is distributed in the slab as shown and the edge shears. a quarter of a rectangular slab subjected to a uniformly distributed load is shown in Fig. β y > 1 Fig. 45 .to the y-direction – (a) shear forces from self-equil- ibrating load. q s dx dy (a) dx dy h sy . 4. 4. shown in Fig. Shear Transfer in Slabs A system of self-equilibrating loads. (b) effect of load distribution on edge shear. (b) shear forces from applied load. act along the slab’s edges. To illustrate this. 4. 4. shears from the self-equilibrating loads shown in Fig.8 (b). vxe and vye. (a) (b) l x βx q λl βy q λ l vxe λ l vxe 2 l v ye q λl linear.9: Self-equilibrating loads from the basic shear field – (a) load distribution and edge shears. parabolic and total edge shear l v ye q radial shear fields (applied load) y (c) 0 -1 0 1 βx hyperbolic shear fields hyperbolic shear fields (self equilibrating loads) (self equilibrating loads) β x < 0. ± qs.

. As x is reduced. (c) x-direction loads. 4. 46 . (4. vsy = -----. 4. In this case x and y are of opposite signs and the trajectory of the basic shear field becomes hyperbolic as illustrated in Fig. qs direction of load transfer. The total shear along the edge is shown in Fig. ½q (c) Y λ Y-Y qs= x2 y applied load. ½q x X-X z direction of load transfer. is defined by qs = # ----.9 (c). A suitable self-equilibrating load configuration is shown in Fig. ½q Fig.. vye = 1 – x ql (4. If x < 0. qs x z X X y direction of load transfer.10. ±qs. (b) y-direction loads. A radial shear field can be used to define a load path in a trapezoidal slab segment such that shears occur only along the non-radial edges. ½q −λ qs= a Y x2 b (r.Generalized Stress Fields The edge shears are given by vxe = x ql . 4.10: Adjustment of edge shears for a radial shear trajectory – (a) slab geometry and adjust- ed radial shear field. (4.12) x x 2 x (a) l (b) applied load. If the self-equilibrating load. In this case the self-equilibrating loads available from the basic shear field as discussed above cannot be used to adjust the boundary conditions since they will disturb the desired radial shear trajectory. load is shifted from the y-direction support to the x-direction support.s) = (0.10) where the subscript e indicates that the shear is located along the slab’s edge.0) direction of load transfer. self-equilibrating loads defined by qs = # x q are present and uplift shears exist along the y-direction support. 4.9 (b). 0 = atan -.11) 2 x then the corresponding shear field and the principal shear trajectory are given by y y vsx = --.

Slab segments can be assembled and connected using shear zones and nodes (see Section 4. which is the subject of this section. nxy – and that there is there- fore a redundancy in the slab’s resistance to a shear field. The self-equilibrating loads discussed in the previ- ous section and the pure moment fields discussed in this section are used to conform to the bound- ary conditions. This redundancy in a slab is illustrated in Fig.11 shows the in-plane shear field components. the dimension a defines the location of a line of zero shear at which vsx = – vx where vx is the shear from the basic shear field and is given by – qa/2 for (r. (4. 4. the shear field is integrated over a slab segment to give a continuous stress field.s) = (0. Stress Fields In Fig. In the first approach the cover layers are discretized to give a grid of rectangular in-plane pan- els which are loaded by the horizontal components of the shear field.10.15) x y 47 . (4.0).2 Stress Fields Two approaches were identified in the course of this work for developing stress fields in a slab for a given load path. nyx = nxy (4. for example. and can be expressed by re-writ- ing Eq. hx and hy. 4. concentrated load or concentrated reaction.14) x y y x Eq.12) can be re-written as 2 2 qa qa y vsx = -------.+ ---------.. (4. vsy = ----------. Appropriate panel dimensions must be chosen to give reasonable results. acting on a slab’s cover layer.12) gives = qa 2 and Eq. (4.4) to define a stress field for an entire slab. and one shear force. (4. nx and ny. In the strip method. In the second approach.69] or the stringer-and-panel approach used for walls [21. Fig. Generalized stress fields are developed in this section for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments..14) indicates that the x. 4. h y = -------. This redundancy gives the freedom to choose how much load is resisted by in-plane normal forces and how much is resisted by in-plane shear. In both.14) as hx = x h + 1 – x hx .+ ---------. 4. Using this 2 value in Eq.11 (b) and (c). For translational and rotational equilibrium nx nxy ny n yx hx = -------. (4. This approach lends it- self to hand calculations if the shear field is relatively simple and boundary conditions are easily fulfilled. hy = y h + 1 – y hy (4.13) describes a radial shear field that can be added to the basic shear field to split a uniform- ly distributed load between the edges x = b and x = l at the line x = a and to direct a shear field to a corner.57].. The panels resist the shear field with in-plane shear and normal forces and in-plane tension and compression members along their edges to accommodate the shear field gradient.67. This idealization is similar to the truss model idealization used for beams [54.and y-direction shear field components are equilibrated by three in-plane forces – two normal forces. Hillerborg chose to have all the load carried by in-plane normal forces (moments) by setting in-plane shears (torsions) to zero. a continuous shear field is first established to describe the selected load path and used to define the loads on the cover layers.13) 2x 2x 2 Eq.

If the self-equilibrating load.11) is considered then the horizontal shear field components. (4. (4. (4.7).and y-directions. (4.17b) 2 mxy = 1 – x x q sx + ry – xy + C3 (4. can be expressed in an analogous manner to Eq. (4. Inherent in this derivation is the relationship between x.8) into Eq. however. Often. 4.15) the stress resultants in the cover layer are found to be vx vy vx vy nx = ³ x ----. integrating and replacing in-plane stress resultants with mo- ments the following moment field is defined x m x = x x qx r – --- + C1 (4.18) y 1 – x Eq. 48 .and y-direction moment distributions will be different. (4. hsx and hsy.14).16) By inserting Eq.18) indicates that if x = y then x = y. where x and y give the proportions of load carried by nx and ny. given in Eq. the basic shear field must be adjusted with self-equilibrating loads.15) as hsx = Ahsx + Chsx .Generalized Stress Fields (a) (b) (c) n y dx n xy dx n yx dy hy dx dy hy dx dy ( nx + n x dx) dy hx dx dy x hx dx dy n yx dy dx dy n x dy x nyx nx (nyx + dx) dy dy dx x x n y dy) dx n xy ( ny + (nxy + dy) dx n xy y y dx dy ny y x dy dx y y dx Fig. yxandy given by 1 – y ----x. Eq. This means that radial shear distributions cen- tred at the origin that are completely described by the basic shear field will have the same moment distribution in the x. (c) net x-direction stress resultants. (4.19) where A and B correspond to the proportions of load equilibrated by in-plane normal forces and C and D give the proportions resisted by in-plane shear.dx . respectively. (4.dy = d ³ 1 – y ----. ± qs. (4.dy .direction stress resultants. to meet the boundary conditions and then the x. nxy = d ³ 1 – x ----.17a) 2 y m y = y y qy s – --- + C2 (4.17c) Eq. (4.17) represents the stress field corresponding to the basic shear field. (4.dx d (4.11: Equilibrium of the cover layer – (a) x. From Eq. ny = d ³ y ----.8). hsy = Bhsy + Dhsy (4.16). Eq.and y. (b) net y-di- rection stress resultants.= -----------------. as discussed in the previous section. and Eq.

A self-equilibrating load can. 49 .19)2 from Eq. This ensures that previously adjusted shears are not affected.+ C 3 (4.20) is solved to give C = –D .12 and nbx nbxy nby nbyx hbx = ----------. 4. msxy = D³ ³ qsdx dy (4.20b) For in-plane rotational equilibrium msyx = msxy and Eq.13). (4. (4. hby = ----------. 4.12 for a slab’s cover layer.21).21) 2 Eq. 4. The shear field is zero in Fig.----.-. is integrated in accordance with Eq. (4. The characteristics of such a pure moment field are shown in Fig. Pure torsion would require A=B=0 and according to Eq. however. be carried by pure bending – i.19) is calculated from: msx = – A ³ ³ qsdxdx . (4.11) cannot be re- sisted by pure torsion. C and D would then have to be zero and there would be no load transferred. (4. (4. (4. (4. A = B.+ ------------. Edge moments can be adjusted to conform to boundary conditions by superimposing a pure moment field.+ ------------. Eq.= 0 .12: Stress resultants in a cover layer corresponding to pure moment.e. When the shear field associated with ±qs. (4. (4.22) 2 4 x2 2 x where a is defined in Fig.21) indicates that a self-equilibrating load of the type given by Eq. msy = B -------. 4. Stress Fields The moment field corresponding to Eq.23) x y y x dx h by dx dy = 0 n bx dx dy x x dy h bx dx dy = 0 y n byx dx dy x n bxy dx dy y n by dx dy y Fig. Using this result and subtracting Eq.10. msyx = –C³ ³ qsdydx (4. m sxy = C -------.ln x + C1 .+ C 2 .20a) msy = B ³ ³ qsdydy .= 0 (4.19)1 gives: –A+B C = ---------------.20) the corresponding moment field is found to be 2 2 2 2 a q qa y qa y msx = A -------.

and Eq. 4. 4. q by + qbyx = qb – q b = 0 (4. 4. m bxy = – ³ -----------. as in Fig. A pure moment field can be developed by considering a system of self- equilibrating loads of the form qbx + q bxy = q b – qb = 0 .s). then a pure moment field defined by 50 .6. (b) (c) discontinuous stress fields for top and bottom cover layers. (4. mby = ³³ x 2 dy dy .24) The cover layers of a slab subjected to pure moment can be modelled as wall elements subject to plane stress. 4.13 (b).y) = (r. Such an arrangement is shown in Fig.13 for a trapezoidal slab segment subject- ed to moments along its non-radial edges.dy x (4.25) This system of loads gives vbx = 0 and vby = 0. If the load is distributed from a point (x.Generalized Stress Fields (a) (b) mb d ma mb ma d d (c) Fig. By replacing in-plane forces with moments and recognizing that mbxy = mbyx. Eq. When com- bined the top and bottom discontinuous stress fields give a pure moment field.13: Pure moment field for a trapezoidal slab segment – (a) segment geometry and load- ing. respectively. (4. This load condition can be described by a discontinuous stress field in the top and bottom cover elements of the slab as shown in Fig. Other pure moment fields can also be found as discussed in the following for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments.25) is integrated twice.23) is used to define a pure moment field as 2 m bx mbx mbx = f x y .

m bxy = – qb sx + ry – xy + C3 (4.22) and (4. Generalized Stress Fields for Slab Segments qb x qb y mbx = -------.0) and adding Eqs.. m by = D ----.30a) 2 2 x 2 2 2 2 – y y qy qa y y my = ----------------------.25): x mx = qb + x x q x r – --- + C 1 (4. m by = -------. The variable D can be solved to give the appropriate moment along the non-radial boundaries.+ C 1 (4..18). (4.28c) Recalling that x + y = 1 and using Eq.28b) 2 mxy = – qb + 1 – x x q sx + ry – xy + C3 (4. mbxy = D ----.27) x x 3 x 2 is useful for trapezoidal slab segments because it does not affect pre-existing moments along the radially directed edges.3 Generalized Stress Fields for Slab Segments Based on the shear and moment fields discussed in this chapter.29) 2 Trapezoidal slab segment The generalized stress field for a trapezoidal slab segment is obtained by letting (r. a generalized stress field for a rec- tangular and trapezoidal slab segment can be established.+ B -------.s) = (0. s – y + C2 . (4.26) 2 2 is obtained. These stress fields contain self-equili- brating loads and pure moment fields such that specified boundary conditions can be met. 4.17) and Eq. (4. Using a similar approach as described in this chapter generalized stress fields for slab segments with curved edges could also be developed.+ C 2 (4. The pure moment field given by 2 D y y mbx = ---.----.+ D ----.28a) 2 y my = qb + y y q y s – --- + C 2 (4. my can be re-written as y my = qb + 1 – x 2 – x q y s – --- + C 2 (4.17). Rectangular slab segment The generalized stress field for a rectangular slab segment is obtained by adding Eq. (4.30b) 2 4 x2 x 3 51 .27): 2 2 – x x qx a q D mx = ----------------------. r – x + C1 .+ A -------. The stress fields given below are valid when uniformly dis- tributed loads are applied and when the slab core is uncracked.ln x + ---. (4. (4.

-. This gives x= y= and x= y= 1/2. A rectangular slab element is defined when ! = 0 2 . By transforming Eq.33c) 6 x x 2 The corresponding expressions for the moment and torsion along the radians are: 52 . then A is zero.30) is now further simplified by substituting = 2/3. however. 4. By transforming Eq. A = 0 and B = 2C to give the gen- eralized moment field for a trapezoidal slab segment: 1 2 D mx = – --. 3Ca – x + D ----. see Fig. and solving Eq. is given by: 2 L2 qa 2 2 2 2 2 m = --------. the moment along a radian. 4.31) could also have been solved for qt = 0 with ! = 0 4 2 . (4. 2 qa y y mxy = – 1 – x x q xy + C -------.+ D ----. Eq.sin 2! 3 – 2 1 – 2 sin ! n (4. leads to more equations than unknowns and a solution for the moment field will not be found. This approach to a rectangular slab segment.33a) 6 x 2 2 q y 2 2 y my = --.+ C3 (4. ----. mn. (4.31) 4 If the radially directed edges are unsupported then qt = 0.+ C1 (4.33b) 6 x 2 x 3 q y 2 2 y myx = m xy = --.+ C3 (4. Eq. (4. For this condition Eq.14: x-y.+ C3 (4.Generalized Stress Fields n θ x t y Fig.and n-t-coordinate systems.30) into the n-t-coordinate system.32) 4 a 2 If mn represents a uniformly distributed moment. When ! = 4 a spe- cial case of a trapezoidal element is obtained and need not be considered further. (4. 2A ln t -----. (4.30) to n-t-coordinates and using = 2/3.-.– cos + ln cos sin + sin B – 4C + C1 sin + C2 cos – C3 sin 2 n (4.31) is always true when = 2/3. 3Ca – x + D ----. the reaction along a radially directed support is found to be q 2 qt = --.30) can be simplified by considering only radial shear fields.30c) 2 x x 2 Eq.14.5). (4.q x + ---. (4.

C sin ! + C1 sin ! + C2 cos ! – C3 sin 2! (4. D. 4. however. The size and arrangement of a node is chosen such that strut inclinations in the node and mo- ments and shears transferred from the adjoining slab segments are reasonable. 53 . It is important to note that Eq. -------. Normally shear is dominant and bending minimal in a node. The use and dimensioning of nodes is illustrated in Chapter 5.34a) 2 2 1 qa 2 mnt = --. (4. Nodes 2 qa 2 2 2 mn = – -------.C – C1 + C2 sin 2! + C3 2 cos ! – 1 (4. C. This second crite- rion is particularly important when trapezoidal segments are used since moments and shears ap- proach infinity as x approaches zero. and five boundary conditions can be specified. C1. This led Johansen to specu- late that there is a zone adjacent to the yield-line where shear is carried – the shear zone. Two are coupled.4 Nodes A node is often required to transfer load between several slab segments that have been assembled to define a complete slab. The term “node” has been used since the need for nodes is consistent with Johansen’s obser- vations regarding yield-lines [24]. Johansen noted that the yield-line idealization is good along the length of the yield-line but that at the intersection of yield-lines with edges. The be- haviour of the shear zone adjacent to the yield-line is overshadowed by the predominance of a slab’s flexural behaviour in regions where yield-lines are far apart from each other and conse- quently the yield-line idealization is good. A node is a block of slab located at the common corner of several slab segments where the transfer of transverse forces can be achieved with struts and ties or shear zones. Ca2. supports or other yield-lines. three dimensional failure behaviour becomes dominant.33) and Eq. and the resistance to the bending and torsional moments from the adjoining slab segments can be modelled by a discontinuous in-plane stress field in the node’s cover layers.34) apply to a trape- zoidal slab segment in which the radially directed edges are unsupported. the influ- ence of the shear zone becomes stronger relative to that of the adjacent flexural regions and shear- dominated behaviour is observed.34b) 2 2 There are thus six variables – a. C2 and C3. As yield-lines approach each other. The intersection of yield-lines can therefore be considered as nodes where load is transferred by transverse shear in order to hold the adjoining slab segments in equilibrium. (4.

54 .

(a) (b) l 2 0.1: Uniformly loaded square slab with two adjacent simply supported and two adjacent free edges – (a) collapse mechanism.1. Moment fields that correspond to the segments of the collapse mechanism can therefore be used to establish the detailing requirements for an isotropically reinforced slab.02 q l 3 0.1 illustrates how nodal forces indicate a load path at ultimate. 5. The uniform moments can provide the basis for a uniform reinforcement mesh while the nodal forces outline the load path for which the reinforcement must be detailed. 5.5 Reinforcement Design An effective reinforcement solution for slabs provides a uniform mesh of reinforcing bars that is detailed and locally augmented to enable a clearly identified load path.13 q l q K θ 0.28 q l 2 K K 2 K = 0.22 q l 3 l 0. The collapse load is given 2 2 by m u = q l 5. 55 .22 q l 2 K 0. The magnitude and direction of the nodal force indicates that most of the load applied to the middle segment of the slab is transferred first to the free edge and then to the adjacent slab seg- ments and the supports.13 ql where 6 and l are shown in Fig. The reaction to the shear field in the cover layers was studied and generalized stress fields for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments were developed.72 l Fig. 5. Provision of a uniform re- inforcement mesh combined with proper detailing will ensure good crack control and a ductile be- haviour thus validating the use of plastic methods.55 . In this chapter in- plane normal and shear forces in the cover layers are defined using the generalized stress fields and reinforcement is dimensioned and detailed using the statics of the compression field approach and the shear zone.13 q l 0. A slab’s collapse mechanism can be idealized as a series of segments connected by plastic hinges characterized by uniform moments along their lengths and shear or nodal forces at their ends. In the previous chapters it was shown how a slab can be idealized with a sandwich model and how a shear field in the slab core interacts with the cover layers. and the nodal force is K = – mu cot ! = –0. Fig. The concrete compression field creates in-plane arches or struts that allow a stress field to be distributed such that a given reinforcement mesh is efficiently engaged. (b) equilibrium of centre section.

(b) interaction between reinforcement and compression field.. In the first example a simply supported slab is used to show that a uniformly stressed isotropic reinforcement mesh is an efficient reinforcement solution when com- pared with one in which the quantity of reinforcement is minimized.1 Compression Field Approach 5. If both principal stresses in a panel are compressive then reinforcement is not required.1 Equilibrium The sandwich model idealization allows in-plane reinforcement to be determined by treating the cover layers as membrane elements or panels.2: Equilibrium of a panel with three reinforcement directions – (a) stress resultants. a slab with one free edge is investigated and the statics and reinforcing of an internal shear zone are presented.1. each example is used to demonstrate a specific point. In all examples. Otherwise reinforcement can be determined using the com- pression field approach to describe the interaction between reinforcing steel and concrete. The generalized stress fields. 5.Reinforcement Design Four examples are presented in this chapter. A corner supported slab is used in the second example to demonstrate a reinforcement arrangement that mitigates the soften- ing behaviour of concrete under high torsional loads. In the third example. the reinforcement requirements at a corner column are discussed. In the last example. 56 . re- inforcement and compression field directions. In addition. 5. tsy + c cos T + ti sin T i = -----. 5. shear zones and the compression field approach are used to determine reinforcement requirements. With reference to Fig. ti sin T i cos T i – c sin T cos T = --------.. square slabs with uniformly dis- tributed loads are considered.2 2 2 mx 2 2 my mxy tsx + c sin T + ti cos Ti = -----.1) d d d (a) (b) 2 t sx + t i cos θ i x n nt 2 t i sin θi cos θi 1 X m x /d XC applied forces in forces θ concrete m yx /d c sin θ cos θ C nt m xy /d θ y m y /d QC YC x Y Q θi t sx 2 i t sy + t i sin θ i y ti t sy Fig. (5.

my. the in-plane shear forces caused by torsion are resisted only by concrete. to an effective strength.2) d which indicates that the in-plane shear (torsion) can not be resisted without a compression field on the tension face of a slab if an isotropic reinforcement mesh has been provided.5) Hence. (5.+ --------.cot ! (5.3) Rearranging Eq. Under such loading. must be reduced from the cylinder strength. and in the absence of special reinforcement. respectively. a uniaxial compression field in the concrete assists in resisting in-plane shear. When the peak compressive strength of a plain concrete specimen loaded in uniaxial compres- sion has been reached.and y-direction reinforcement and ti represents the force per unit slab width in an additional layer of reinforcement inclined by 6i to the x-axis. has a component opposite to the direction of the in-plane shear. (5. 5. fce.tan ! . fcc. howev- er. Concrete’s softening behaviour can be mitigated. by ensuring that failure is governed by yielding of the reinforcement and by reducing fcc to an effective strength. only the inclination of the compression field can be adjusted to affect the quantity of rein- forcement.2) gives m x mxy my m xy tsx = -----.2 by ti which. Valid solutions exist only when c < 0 and therefore – mxy cot ! + tan ! 0 (5. similar to the compression in the concrete. Supplementary reinforcement.+ --------. however. mx.1.4) d d d d The amount of reinforcement is therefore proportional to mx + m y + mxy cot ! + tan ! (5. 57 .5) indicates that the quantity of reinforcement is minimized when ! = # 4 where the positive and negative signs correspond to negative and positive torsions. the specimen begins to unload due to transverse tensile strains caused by Poisson’s effect. The strength of the concrete in the compression field. This behaviour contributes to making the validity of a rigid plastic material mod- el for reinforced concrete questionable. to account for concrete’s softening characteristics caused by tensile strains transverse to the direction of compression and the deleterious effects of crack re- orientation. mxy are defined by the generalized stress fields developed in Chapter 4. (5. Eq. This rein- forcement can be added when torsions are high and the concrete strength is exceeded as will be discussed in the next section. Compression Field Approach In Eq. Concrete’s softening characteristics become apparent with high torsional loads.1) c is the compressive force per unit slab width in the compression field. inclined to the direction of the iso- tropic reinforcement mesh can be provided in these situations to assist in carrying the in-plane shear as shown in Fig. 5. Typically ti = 0 and the compressive force in the concrete is given by m xy c = – --------. cot ! + tan ! (5. fce. tsx and tsy are the forces per unit slab width in the x. (5.1) and using Eq.2 Concrete Strength As discussed above. tsy = -----.

fce can therefore be expressed as a function of 6 and to ensure the integrity of the concrete in the compression field. • the reinforcement ratio and distribution. The ability of the cover layer of a sandwich model to accommodate crack reorientation is de- pendent not only on the shear transfer mechanisms across the out-of-plane cracks as in a shear panel but also on the in-plane interaction between the cover and the core. although such restrictions are conceivable in slabs. • spalling caused by bursting stresses around reinforcement bars. flatter cracks will open if effective stirrups have been provided and shear transfer is possible across the previously formed cracks. either concrete strength is limited as in the com- pression field theory [9. Restrictions to the orientation of compression fields at failure have not been considered in the following examples.6 fc which is used in the fol- lowing examples. A review of the background to these restrictions is presented here in order to judge if they are also applicable to the cover layers of a sandwich model. • the stress in the reinforcement. • crack reorientation and crack widths. restrictions are placed on fceIn [16] a relationship between average strains orthogonal to the crack direction and strains in the x. 6. In the compression field theory average crack widths are expressed using the principal tensile strain in the concrete which.10] or the inclination of the compression field is restricted as described in Chapter 2 and in [16]. This relationship shows that crack widths are a function of the compression field inclination and that crack widths increase asymptotically as the compression field becomes either very steep of very flat. they would include the beneficial effects of the slab’s core and would therefore be less restrictive than those devel- oped for shear panels. including: • the concrete cylinder strength. The compression field approach has traditionally been applied to shear elements and restric- tions on the angle of the compression field at ultimate have been developed based on such mem- bers. In a concrete shear panel that is reinforced in the x. can be expressed in terms of strains in the rein- forcement directions and the compression field direction. To keep crack widths within a stable range the inclination of the compression field is limited to 0.0 while in [11] 0. 58 . As shear is increased new. The restrictions on the compression field inclination at ultimate for a slab’s cover elements are consequently different than for shear panels and.67 .5 tan ! 2.Reinforcement Design Several factors affect the magnitude of the strength reduction.and y-directions the first cracks open at an angle of approximately 45o to the reinforcement directions. The need to restrict crack widths in the cover layers is therefore not as critical as in a shear panel. To ensure that the required shear transfer is possible in the cracked con- crete such that this crack reorientation can occur.6 tan ! 1.and y-direction reinforcement is developed from kinematic considerations. The resistance of a properly dimensioned member with a low reinforcement ratio is typically not very sensitive to the value of fce and [36] and [62] suggest fce = 0. using Mohr’s circle.

5 3. (d) two free edges and a corner column.3: Uniformly loaded square slabs used in design examples – (a) simply supported with restrained corners. • Determine an isotropic reinforcement mesh using a compression field approach as described by Eq.2 10.1.5 7.7 Fig. 5.1 and the discussion in Section 5. • Fit rectangular or trapezoidal elements into the yield-line pattern and solve the corresponding generalized stress fields for the given boundary conditions. 59 . the compression field equations given in Section 5. • Determine the boundary conditions for each segment of the collapsed slab. Design Examples 5. (5. The following procedure will be followed: • Determine the slab’s collapse load and nodal forces using yield-line analysis.5 2. fsy . (c) simply supported on three edges and one free edge.3 using the gen- eralized stress fields developed in Chapter 4.0 l 2 2 ql ql mu = (c) mu = 24 (d) 8 6. fcc.2 Design Examples Isotropic reinforcement meshes will be determined for the slabs shown in Fig.0 2 2 ql ql mu = mu = 14.0 5. (b) corner supported. • Determine detailing requirements for the shear zones and nodes and augment the isotropic re- inforcement net as required. (a) (b) l = 10.1).2.5 6. The following are assumed: • The concrete cylinder strength. 5. is 460 MPa. [Note: dimensions in m]. is 35 MPa and the yield strength of the steel.0 5.

5.6) The slab segment shown in Fig.4 (c). This is lower than the cracking stress of 1. • Cover layers are assumed to be 100 mm thick and based on an effective concrete compressive strength of 21 MPa.4 (e) and (f). the maximum shear stress is found to be 0. for ex- ample. 5.0 MPa and therefore the assump- tion of an uncracked core used in Chapter 4 to develop the generalized stress field is acceptable. 5. A reasonable shear field is one that radiates from the centre.5y (5. This requires at least Ø16 mm bars at 250 mm which corresponds to a reinforcement force of 370 kN/m. Reinforcement Requirements Two approaches are used in the following to determine reinforcement requirements – in the first a minimized reinforcement arrangement is found in accordance with the discussion in Section 5. The principal moment trajectories and the distribution of m2 are shown in Fig.1 and in the second an isotropic reinforcement mesh will be dimensioned such that everywhere in the slab the x. vy = –17.The large triangular segment in Fig.3 (c) and (d) are closely related to the simply supported square slab with restrained corners shown in Fig. m xy = – 6xy (5.4 (c). can be considered as part of a 13 m simply supported square slab since the collapse load for such a slab is the same as that shown in Fig.31MPa at x = y = 5.17 fcc = 1. as shown in Fig.4 (d).and y-direction reinforcement is equally loaded. 5. (5.6). There is no torsion parallel to the yield-lines and therefore a shear zone is only required along the slab’s edge.3 (a). In this solution m1 = mu everywhere in the slab and m2 varies between mu to – mu. 5.4 (a) [66]. 5. as shown in Fig. 5.7) is found. This shear field is defined by distributing the applied load evenly in the x. 5. • A uniformly distributed load of 35 kPa is applied at ultimate and 20 kPa at service levels.3 (c).7) corresponds to the exact solution developed by Prager [75]. my = 146 – 6y . 5. a moment field given by 2 2 mx = 146 – 6x . simply supported square slab with restrained corners will form a collapse mechanism as outlined by the crack pattern shown in Fig. • The cracking shear stress is given by 0.and y-directions to give vx = –17.4 (c) is a special case of a trapezoidal slab segment and if the generalized stress field developed in the previous chapter for such a segment is solved for the boundary conditions shown in Fig. 5. Eq. If principal shears are calculated from Eq. 60 .1 Simply Supported Square Slab with Restrained Corners A uniformly loaded. The slabs shown in Fig.5 x . a maximum compressive force of 2100 kN/m is achievable in the con- crete.4 (b). Consideration of a segment from the collapse mechanism reveals that there is no load transfer between the segments.5 m and have an internal lever arm of 0.0 MPa.Reinforcement Design • All slabs are 10 m X 10 m X 0.4 m.3 (c). 5. This crack pattern is ideal- ized by the yield-line pattern shown in Fig. • Minimum reinforcement is provided in accordance with [68]. (5. respectively. 5.2.

c = –30 xy (5. (c) equilibrium of slab segment.7) it is seen that mxy is negative when 0 < x < 5 and 0 < y < x and that therefore. Minimized Reinforcement Solution From Eq. (f) distribution of m2.4: Simply supported square slab with restrained corners – (a) crack pattern at failure. [Notes: m1= mu. (d) shear field. 5. (5. (5. (e) principal moment trajectories. tsy = 365 – 15 y – xy . dimen- sions in m]. Inserting this value of 6 into Eq. Design Examples 10. moments in kN.8) 61 .0 m u = 146 kN (c) 146 (d) 1032 875 1167 x 1032 y 146 (e) (f) -50 m1 = m u 0 50 100 m2 Fig. the minimized reinforcement solution for the bottom sur- face is found when ! = – 4 .0 (a) (b) q = 35 kN/m 2 10. ac- cording to the discussion in Section 5.4) gives the force per unit slab width in the reinforcement and the concrete as 2 2 tsx = 365 – 15 x – xy . (b) yield-line pattern.1.

8) is illustrated in Fig.5).Reinforcement Design Bottom Top 300 300 (a) 450 450 200 200 400 400 100 100 0 0 < 300 350 350 < 300 400 400 0 0 100 100 450 450 200 200 300 300 (b) 300 300 < 300 200 200 450 450 400 400 100 100 350 0 0 400 350 400 100 100 450 450 200 200 < 300 300 300 (c) -600 -600 -600 -600 -400 -400 -400 -400 -200 -200 -200 -200 0 0 0 0 -200 -200 -200 -200 -400 -400 -400 -400 -600 -600 -600 -600 (d) Fig. 5. (c) compression field forces [kN/m]. (d) compression field directions. (b) forces in y-direction reinforcement [kN/m]. (5. Along the yield-line. Eq. 5. 62 .5: Minimized reinforcement solution – (a) forces in x-direction reinforcement [kN/m].5.2. tsx = tsy = 365 kN/m and tsy has a max- imum of 459 kN/m at (x.y) = (5.

5. the forces in the reinforcement are found to be 2 tsx = tsy = – 365 + 15 x + y 2 (5.8 using available bar sizes and not less than Ø18 mm bars at 300 mm.9) is also illustrated in Fig. tsy = – 365 + 15 y + xy .9) Eq. (5.4) gives the force per unit slab width in the reinforcement and the concrete as 2 2 tsx = – 365 + 15 x + xy . development and lap lengths and minimum reinforcement requirements.10) y When Eq. (5. 63 . c = –30 xy (5. (5. When Eq.8 shows that the minimized reinforcement solution requires more than the minimum reinforcement requirements whereas for the isotropic reinforcement solution. Comparison of Minimized and Isotropic Reinforcement Solutions If reinforcement is curtailed in exact accordance with the above reinforcement solutions and an- chorage and lap lengths are ignored. (5. however. 5. the minimum reinforcement of Ø18 mm bars at 300 mm is enough. Design Examples When ! = 4 the minimized reinforcement solution for the top surface is found.12) x The in-plane compression field is used to distribute load over the top and bottom slab surfaces such that the reinforcement is everywhere uniformly stressed and an efficient use of materials is achieved. Fig. Inserting this value into Eq. (5.5 and shows that reinforcement is required on the top surface in the x-direction for y 25 x – x and in the y-direction for x 25 y – y . tan ! = -.1) is solved for the top surface for tsx = tsy. (5. make it impractical to follow a minimized reinforcement solution in an exact manner. 5.6. Isotropic Reinforcement Solution A second reinforcement arrangement is found by setting tsx = tsy. then the amount of reinforcement required for the minimized and isotropic reinforcement solutions are similar. A possible reinforcement arrangement for the minimized reinforcement solution is sketched in Fig. Because the minimized reinforcement solution cannot be followed exactly and because a min- imum amount of reinforcement must be provided to control cracking. all bars must be fully an- chored along the slab’s edges by welded anchor plates or hooks with dowels placed in the bend [37]. If the compression field is to be mobilized in this fashion.11) Top reinforcement is therefore required in an area bounded by a circle with radius l/2 and the slab edges as shown in Fig. it seems that the isotropic solution is an equally good solution. The compression field in this area is defined by 2 2 y c = –15 x + y . tan ! = – -. Available bar sizes. 5.1) is solved for this condition it is found that tsx = tsy = 365 kN/m over the entire bottom surface and the compression field is defined by 2 2 x c = –15 x + y .

6: Isotropic reinforcement solution for simply supported square slab with restrained cor- ners – (a) forces in x. As shown in Fig. (b) compression field forces [kN/m].13) The compression fields and reinforcement forces given in Fig.67 kN/m. 5. The shear field terminates at the supported edge and a shear zone is therefore required.and y-direction reinforcement [kN/m]. support reaction and shear along the edge are given by mxy = – 29 x kN. Reinforcement Arrangement for the Isotropic Solution A reinforcement layout for the isotropic solution is presented below along with detailing require- ments.5 kN/m (5. 5.Reinforcement Design Bottom Top (a) 300 300 200 200 100 100 t sx = t sy = 365 kN/m 100 100 200 200 300 300 (b) -200 -400 -400 -600 (c) Fig. as shown 64 .6 are discretized along the slab’s edge to create strut-and-tie models for the top and bottom layers of the edge shear zone. (c) compression field directions. 5. p = –116.9 (a) and (b) the torsion. vy = –87.

To this end.9 (c). If the struts are dimen- sioned to have the same thickness as the cover layers and are stressed to the effective strength of the concrete.9 (e) and corresponds to approximate- ly 60 kg of reinforcing steel per cubic meter of concrete. in Fig. 5. 5. in addition to shear reinforcement. The chord and web forces from the truss model are shown in Fig. s. Addition- al transverse corner reinforcement is also recommended. 5.9 (c) and (d). respectively. [Note: dimensions in mm]. (b) top. 5. and are used to detail the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement along the slab edge. in beams of s h 2 . Design Examples (a) (b) Ø 18 @ 300 Ø18 @ 300 Ø 10 @ 300 Ø 18 @ 300 Ø 18 @ 300 Ø 10 @ 300 2700 Ø18 @ 300 2000 Fig. then the assumed width of the edge shear zone of h/2 or 250 mm is sufficient to enclose all the nodes and is a reasonable width to enclose with the required stirrups. 5. 5. ‘C’-shaped bars are recommended along the inner edge of the shear zones with a spacing of 150 mm. These models show that the isotropic reinforcement mesh must be fully anchored along the edge in order to mobilize the anticipated compression fields. The reinforcement arrangement is summarized in Fig. 5. The slab corners must resist an uplift of 292 kN in accordance with the truss model in Fig. This is within the limit on shear reinforcement spacing. Anchorage can be achieved with bends or welded plates. Shear reinforcement should be provided to ensure confinement of the edge shear zone. The edge bars shown in Fig. 65 .9 (b).9 (b). top and bottom reinforcement is required along the slab edges and that this reinforcement must be fully anchored at the slab corners. Three bars are provided on the top and bottom to assist in confining the edge shear zone as will be discussed in Chapter 6. The core of the shear zone is loaded as shown by the truss model in Fig.9 (b). Such reinforcement allows local redis- tribution of stresses to occur adjacent to the corner such that the designed load path along the slab edge can be mobilized without incurring a corner failure.8: x-direction reinforcement arrangement for minimized reinforcement solution – (a) bottom. as shown in Fig. 5. It is clear that.9 (e) are over-sized to conform to the bars used in the rest of the slab.

9: Simply supported square slab with restrained corners – (a) load resultants along the edge.3 24.3 24. (e) summary of main reinforcement.Ø 18 (top) Ø18 @ 300 A A B-B B B 1500 Ø18 @ 300 (bottom) 1500 Fig. 66 . (b) load transfer in edge shear zone [kN]. 5.3 24.3 304 304 304 304 304 304 305 315 330 352 380 413 Bottom 250 25 75 128 178 228 261 156 102 128 76 50 (c) 20 116 145 cracking shear = 100 kN/m 58 87 (d) 29 shear reinforcement required (e) 1500 14 .Reinforcement Design Slab CL m xy = -29 x v y + p = 29 kN/m (a) x = ½ l = 5000 R = 146 kN y 6 spaces @ 830 = 5000 0 19 76 102 172 261 (b) 25 77 193 250 285 383 Top 250 25 75 128 178 228 261 25 75 128 178 228 261 146 Core d = 400 25 75 128 178 228 280 24. (d) shear in shear zone core [kN/m].3 24. [Note: dimen- sions in mm]. (c) force in truss chords [kN].3 24.Ø18 (top) 1500 Slab CL 1450 Ø18 @ 300 (bottom) A-A 14 .

2βx ) 10 βx q βx q x x (1. 5. The yield-line pattern divides the slab into two rectangular slab segments and the corresponding generalized moment field can be solved for the given boundary conditions. 5. (b) equilibrium of slab segment.β x ) m u = 437. .10 (b) gives the moment field 2 2 x x mx = 437. The reaction along the simply supported edge. pb.15) xx Using the generalized stress field for rectangular slab segments and solving for the boundary con- ditions shown in Fig.10 (a) and is defined by vx = –35 xx . 5.16) 25 25 The effect of the choice of load distribution on the shear field and on the trajectory of principal moments is shown in Fig. are given by pb = 175 1 – x kN/m. 5. vy = –35 y 1 – x (5.2 Corner supported square slab A square slab with restrained corners and two simply supported opposite edges will fail with a sin- gle yield-line along its centre line. (5.5 kN (1. as shown in Fig. The shear field is determined from the choice of load distribution as shown in Fig. .5 1 – -----.14) The corresponding principal shear trajectory is given by y 1 – x tan o = --------------------. For example. Design Examples 5. If the simply supported edges are elim- inated the special case of a corner supported slab is obtained. 67 . if -x = 1 then the slab acts as a beam in the x-direction and the corner reactions are zero. and the corner reactions. Rc = –1750 1 – x kN (5. my = 875 1 – x 1 – -----.βx ) q 4375 1750 1750 (1.10: Uniformly loaded square slab simply supported along opposite edges – (a) yield-line pattern and load distribution. [Note: dimensions in m]. m xy = 35 1 – x xy (5.11.10.β x ) y y Fig. Rc.2. 5. When -x = 0 load is carried first to the free edge and then to the supported edge with torsion and self-equilibrating (a) (b) 5 5 q = 35 kN/m 2 1750 (1 .βx ) q 1750 (1 .17) and these reactions can thus be adjusted by the choice of load distribution.

5. If -x = 1/2 all the load is supported at the corners and the solution given by Bach and Nielsen [2] is obtained. (c) all the load in the y-direction. The shear fields and principal moment trajectories corresponding to these three values of -x are shown in Fig. (b) load split evenly between the x. In this case.and y-directions. Reinforcement Requirements If the effective concrete strength is reduced from 21 MPa to 12. the cracking shear stress and max- 68 .11: Shear fields and principal moment trajectories for different load distributions – (a) all the load in the x-direction.5 MPa then the influence and prac- ticality of the supplementary corner reinforcement mentioned in Section 5.1 can be investigated. loads. 5. Reinforcement will be determined using this reduced concrete strength and a load distribution corresponding to -x = 1/2.Reinforcement Design (a) m2 = 0 βx = 1 m1 = m x m1 = m u (b) m2 βx = ½ (c) m1 βx = 0 m2 Fig. With this strength reduction the force in the concrete that will cause crushing in the slab cover lay- ers becomes –1250 kN/m.11.

(a) Bottom Top (a) tsx = t sy = 1094 kN/m 0 500 (b) (b) -500 -1000 -1000 -1500 -1500 (c) (c) Fig.12 and discussed below. The resulting reinforcement requirements and compression fields are shown in Fig. 5. 69 .80 MPa and 0. respectively. (b) compression field forces [kN/m]. (5. an isotropic reinforcement net can be di- mensioned by setting tsx = tsy everywhere in the slab.12: Reinforcement requirements for corner supported square slab – (a) forces in x. Using the same approach as in the previous example.14)) are 0.44 MPa.and y-direction reinforcements [kN/m]. 5. (c) com- pression field directions. and therefore cracking of the core does not occur within the shear field. Design Examples imum shear field stress (Eq.

13. (5. [Notes: compression field force is uniformly –1250 kN/m.Reinforcement Design When Eq.13: Supplementary corner reinforcement – (a) force in the isotropic reinforcement net [kN/m].18) y When Eq.20) x As shown in Fig.4) is solved for the top surface. The magnitude of the compression field in this zone is the same as on the bottom but its direction is given by –y tan ! = ----. To mobilize this com- pression field the reinforcing steel along the slab edges must be fully anchored with anchor plates.19) which indicates that top reinforcement is required in the zone bounded by a circle with radius l/2 and the slab edge as shown in Fig. 70 . If the slab depth or concrete strength cannot be changed. The extent and orientation of this supplementary reinforcement is shown in Fig. (5. 5. 5. If the compressive force in the concrete is maintained at the (a) (b) (c) reinforcement direction 0 200 Top 3.35 1000 200 800 Bottom 600 400 400 600 200 800 Fig. respectively.12 (c). tan ! = -.12 (c) it is seen that the critical concrete compressive force of –1250 kN/m is ex- ceeded in the corners and concrete crushing will occur on the top surface before the yield-line can form and the unloading caused by the softening of the crushing concrete can lead to a brittle cor- ner failure. (b) force in the supplementary corner reinforcement [kN/m].1 400 150 600 800 3. (5. dimensions in m]. supplementary corner reinforcement inclined at 45o and –45o to the x-axis on the bottom and top surfaces. 5. (5. can be provid- ed to prevent premature crushing of the concrete. From Fig. (c) compres- sion field direction. hyperbolic in-plane compression fields distribute the load over the bottom surface such that the reinforcement is everywhere evenly loaded. bends or hairpins. the forces in the reinforcement are found to be 2 tsx = tsy = – 1094 + 44 x + y 2 (5. 5.1 edge of crushing 0 r = 5. 5.12 (a).4) is solved for the bottom surface it is found that tsx = tsy = 1094 kN/m and the compression field is defined by 2 2 x c = –44 x + y .

Along the edge the torsion and y-direction shear are shown in Fig. This quantity of reinforcement is quite high for two reasons – namely. then as the corner is approached. This would reduce the reinforcement content to 130 kg of steel per cubic meter of concrete. The isotropic reinforcement is essentially elimi- nated on the top surface by the presence of the supplementary corner reinforcement.14 (a) and (b) and defined by: mxy = 87. There is no sudden change in the compression field orientation between the corner area and the rest of the slab as a result of the additional corner reinforcement. Additional transverse corner reinforcement is also recommended. 71 . 5.14 (c). 5. The forces in the isotropic reinforcement and the supplementary reinforcement are shown in Fig.13 (a) and (b). Three bars are provided on the top and bottom to assist in confining the edge shear zone as discussed in Chapter 6. This arrangement cor- responds to a reinforcement content of about 160 kg of reinforcing steel per cubic meter of con- crete. then hairpins would be avoided and a bar length of 3200 mm per bar would be saved. s.14 (f). respectively and are used to detail the longitudinal and transverse rein- forcement along the slab edge. the concrete strength is in- creased such that the supplementary corner reinforcement is not required. respectively. then as shown in Fig. vy = –87. ‘C’-shaped bars are recommended along the inner edge of the shear zones with a spacing of 150 mm which is within the limit on shear reinforcement spacing. 5. A summary of the reinforcement arrangement is shown in Fig. If the bars from the isotropic mesh were bent up at their ends as done in the previous example. 5. The direction of the compression fields in the corner are shown in Fig. the reinforcement con- tent would not be further reduced because minimum reinforcement would be required in a band along the edges of the top surface. the use of hairpins and the supplementary corner reinforcement. The highest forces in the supplementary corner reinforcement occur along the slab edge and welded anchor plates are recommended to develop these bars. top and bottom reinforcement is required along the slab edges and this reinforcement must be fully anchored at the slab corners. 5. In addition to shear reinforcement. in beams of s h 2 .5 kN/m (5.14 (f). Anchorage can be achieved with bends or welded plates. mxy increases and load is shifted from the isotropic reinforcement mesh to the supplementary corner bars. If. the isotropic reinforcement mesh should be developed along the edges us- ing hairpins to facilitate construction. This will reduce congestion in the reinforcement layout and can be used to construct prefabricated triangular corner reinforcement elements that can be placed on the isotropic net.14 (d) and (e). shear reinforcement should be provided to ensure confinement of the edge shear zone. 5.13 (c). Design Examples critical level of –1250 kN/m. To this end.5x kN. In the corner all tension is carried by the supplementary reinforcement. see Fig. As in the previous example. 5. If prefabri- cated reinforcement mats with welded anchor plates are used for the corner reinforcement. in addition to eliminating hairpins. The forces in the edge shear zones’s cover layers and core are shown in Fig. Such re- inforcement allows local redistribution of stresses to occur adjacent to the corner such that the de- signed load path along the slab edge can be mobilized without incurring a corner failure.21) These load effects follow a load path along the edge as indicated by the truss model of the edge shear zone.

Reinforcement Design 437. 72 . -843 73 73 73 73 73 73 (c) 76 228 380 530 685 835 d = 400 76 228 380 530 685 835 437.5 (b) 6 spaces @ 830 = 5000 maximum compression. (b) edge shear [kN/m]. [Note: dimensions in mm]. (d) forces in edge shear zone cover layers [kN]. (c) truss model of edge shear zone.5 456 304 380 (d) 76 152 228 350 438 cracking shear = 80 kN/m (e) 175 263 88 (f) shear reinforcement required Slab CL 3100 Ø 22 @ 150 with hairpins 1600 3100 Ø 22 @ 150 A-A Ø 22 @ 150 Ø 22 @ 300 * with hairpins Ø 22 @ 150 * A A top bottom see detail for * with welded anchor corner reinforcement plates at either end Ø 22 @ 150 * Detail Ø 22 @ 300 * Fig.14: Reinforcement for corner supported square slab – (a) torsion along edge [kN]. (e) forces in edge shear zone core [kN/m]. 5. (f) summary of main reinforcement.5 Slab CL (a) -87.

15 (b). S2 and S3a.00 2.3 Simply supported square plate with one free edge A simply supported square slab with one free edge.74 546 237 -759 1617 476 5. restrained corners and subjected to a uniform- ly distributed load can form the collapse mechanism outlined by the crack pattern shown in Fig. is required to provide the transition from S1 to S3. 5.55 190 284 -755 -232 0 0 -479 2.5 kN 128 123 109 -98 -146 935 S1 1282 S2 S3b 194 23 18 23 116 935 -109 98 1.00 1.00 490 546 1617 476 2. This segment cannot be fit into an equivalent square slab with the same yield moment. This descretization is based on the following: • The triangular segment. S3a and S3b.0 S2 S3b S3a (c) q = 35 kN/m 2 -134 863 mu = 246.18. 5. This is avoided by providing a node. S2. forces acting on the node are shown in Fig. 5.24 1. dimensions in m]. are used to permit beam-like behaviour in this region of the slab. the moments and torsions in S2 approach infinity according to the generalized stress field for a trapezoidal slab segment.0 1.75 Fig. • A triangular segment. • The slab spans in the y-direction adjacent to the free edge and therefore the rectangular seg- ments.15 (b) to connect S1. 5. S1. (c) equilibrium of slab segments. 5.5 S2 S3b node 5. [Notes: moments and torsions in kNm. 73 . The dimensions of the node are established from the following considerations: (a) (b) 6.0 S3a 10. as shown in Fig.3 4.0 S3a 1. (b) yield-line pattern and segment numbering.0 S1 2.15 (a) [66]. Design Examples 5. This crack pattern can be idealized by the yield-line pattern shown in Fig. corresponds to a simply supported square slab with a 13 m span and the exact solution presented in the first example can be used.15: Simply supported square slab with one free edge – (a) crack pattern at failure.2. reactions and loads in kN.15 (b) and moment fields that respect mu along all the yield-lines can be developed by dividing the slab into the segments in Fig.5 3. 5. As the intersection of the yield-lines is approached.

5x – 17. In this case the 2. The moment between S2 and S3b can be freely chosen and was selected to eliminate the bottom left-hand corner reaction in S3b as shown in Fig.5 y + 38y + 246 17. The yield-line moment in S2 cannot be equilibrated by the applied load and additional load must be transferred from S3a to ensure equilibrium of S2.16 (a) shows how load applied to S3a is directed to S2 by direct transfer in the shear field and by shear zones along the segment edges. This means that moments greater than mu occur in S3 or in S3a and S3b. Segment vx [kN/m] vy [kN/m] tan M0 y-- 1 – 17.5y x y 2 – 17.5 x + 27x + 119 – 17.15 (c).– 116 x x 3 x 2 2 2 3a – 17.5xy – 2x – 14y + 55 Table 5.5x 19 – 17.0 m plan dimension of the node corresponds to side dimen- sion of S3a and the location of the line of zero shear in a segment resulting from the combination of S3a and S3b.5 x + 25x + 128 – 17.16. 5. then the transfer of load to S2 would give a line of zero shear about 1 m away from the yield-line. 5.5y -- x 1–y 3a 12 – 17. If S3a and S3b were combined to give S3.+ 119 – 6 xy + -------- . Solving the generalized stress fields for the given boundary conditions gives the shear and mo- ment fields in Table 5.1 and Table 5. 5.1: Shear fields for square slab with one free edge (in local coordinates).5y | ----------- 1–x Table 5. The shear fields. Segment mx [kN] my [kN] mxy [kN] 2 2 1 247 – 6x 247 – 6y – 6 xy 2 2 2 11 2 11 y 11 y – 6 x + -----. • Moments and torsions from the adjacent segments should have reasonable values to avoid heavy local reinforcement at the node. 5. Load is transferred between the two segments at the yield-line intersection and the required corner reaction of 134 kN in S3a is shown in Fig.5 y + 3y + 267 17.2: Moment fields for square slab with one free edge (in local coordinates). higher moments along the common edge with S2 would be required as defined by the requirements at the node. In this example the location of the line of zero shear in S3a and S3b was also considered in di- mensioning the node. If S3 was used rather than S3a and S3b. The shear field in Fig.+ 144 – 6 y + ----------- .15 (c).5xy – 19x – 12y + 67 2 2 3b – 17.5y | ----------- 1–x –y 3b 13 – 17.Reinforcement Design • Load is transferred within the node by direct struts between the node’s edges and the plan di- mensions of the node should therefore ensure that struts do not have inclinations less than 25o. principal moment trajectories and princi- pal moment distributions are shown in Fig.2.5x 2 – 17.5x – 17. 74 .

2. 5.17 (a) it can be seen that the forces in the reinforcement are relatively constant over the bottom surface.17. The compression field force increases towards the slab edge and fully anchored reinforcing bars along the slab edge are required to mobilize this compression. (d) distribution of m2 [kN]. This requires a numerical solution and the results are shown in Fig. Design Examples (a) (b) node. 75 .17 (a)) and alternating Ø22 mm and Ø26 mm bars at 250 mm should be provided. These forces increase slightly in S3a and S3b where mu is exceeded. (c) distribution of m1[kN].7 (c) (d) 200 -200 200 -100 -100 0 -100 0 300 100 200 100 247 250 300 0 0 -100 -100 0 -100 200 -200 200 Fig. 5. 5. subject to the details described later in this section. This is expected since considerable torsion is necessary in S2 to provide a transition between the other two segments whereas S1 and S3 behave similar to the slabs in the previous two examples. The relatively constant force in the bottom reinforcement is made possible by the compression field shown in Fig. see Fig.75 m wide strip along the x-direction edges where higher tensions occur (see Fig. Reinforcement Requirements An isotropic reinforcement mesh that is equally loaded in the x. From Fig. (5.1) for the moment fields in Table 5. [Note: di- mensions in m]. An isotropic reinforcement net of Ø16 mm bars at 250 mm is suggested for the entire top surface except in a 1.0 0. as shown in Fig. An isotropic reinforcement net of Ø22 mm bars at 250 mm that are fully anchored along the slab edges gives an acceptable solution.17 (a). Tension occurs in the corners of the top surface and over most of S2.18 1. (b) principal mo- ment trajectories.0 1. 5.16: Simply supported square slab with one free edge – (a) shear field. 5. 5.and y-directions is found by solv- ing Eq. This occurs because in S3a and S3b the line of zero shear does not occur at the yield-line and therefore this yield-line does not correspond to a maximum.17 (b) and (c). 5.

18 (a). 76 .and y-direction reinforcements [kN/m].18 (c) and (d).18 (b). (c) direction of compression fields. The reinforcement required in addition to the isotropic reinforcement net is shown in Fig.Reinforcement Design Bottom Top (a) 600 500 400 600 400 400 200 0 600 200 600 0 200 700 0 616 600 700 0 600 200 600 0 200 200 0 400 400 400 500 600 600 -600 -900 -1200 (b) -1200 -900 -1200 -900 -900 -900 -300 -600 -600 -600 -300 -100 -600 -600 -300 -600 -600 -600 -900 -900 -900 -1200 -900 -1200 -600 -900 -1200 (c) Fig. 5. The top surface is in biaxial compression and does not require reinforcing.17: Reinforcement requirements – (a) forces in the x.18 (e). 5. 5. The node at the intersection of the yield-lines is loaded as shown in Fig. The out-of-plane equilibrium of these forces is considered with the detailing of the shear zones later in this section. The in-plane equilibrium of the bottom surface is shown in Fig. 5. (b) compression field forces [kN/m]. The compression in the concrete does not exceed the critical value of –2100 kN/m and supple- mentary corner reinforcement is not required. 5. Vertical forc- es are transferred by compressive struts that have in-plane components as shown in Fig.

moments and torsions along the shear zone are shown in Fig.3 S2 146 S3b (a) (b) 18 194 116 18 23 116 23 237 58 290 23 S3a 54 S1 91 128 75 2.19 (b). Critical to the shear zone’s ability to function is therefore its ability to mobilize T and the transverse shear.19 (c). (c) (d) stress field and corresponding truss model on bot- tom surface. the in-plane compression struts are equilibrated at their intersection by a jump in the torsion field. dimensions in m]. 5. C. As shown in Fig.0 46 268 2 x 134 237 23 54 S3a 58 290 23 128 18 194 116 18 23 116 S2 146 S3b (c) (d) (e) 207 219 452 -97 kN in all struts 4 . The transverse shear and t-direction tensile forces arise from this interaction as shown in Fig.Ø10 365 501 213 424 213 266 278 452 59 2. 5.20 are designed to achieve this and are discussed fur- ther below.19 (b) it can be seen that the width of the shear zone must be dimensioned to include the nodal zones from the strut-and-tie models and that in this case a width of 250 mm is adequate. the moment is continuous across the shear zone whereas the torsion and shear are not and must be equilibrated by transverse shear. 5. [Notes: moments and torsions in kNm.19 (a).19 (b). and a jump in the reinforcement forces.Ø 22 470 367 470 213 266 278 452 424 213 501 213 365 207 219 452 Fig. From Fig. 5. The shears. The shear zone between S2 and S3b is discussed in the following. The width of the struts is determined by assuming a concrete stress of 21 MPa over the full 100 mm depth of the cover layer. Design Examples 1. 77 . 5. forces in kN. The reinforcement details shown in Fig. T. (b) horizontal components of out-of- plane compression struts. As discussed in Chapter 4. (e) additional bottom reinforcement. 5. The compression fields on either side of the shear zone can be discretized to give in-plane compression struts acting along the shear zone as shown in Fig.18: Node – (a) stress resultants acting on the node. 5.

13.5 kN/m t 62 kN 116 kN S2 m n 2 = 119 kN m tn 2 = 116 kN (b) (b) 333 5 panels @ 667 333 215 209 205 202 199 198 111 * 126 * 141* 158 * 178 * 194* Top 250 (c) 277 277 282 298 317 320 111 126 141 156 171 186 59 66 73 80 87 Core 71 80 89 98 107 116 400 59 66 73 80 87 97 62 111 126 141 156 171 186 9 9 9 9 9 9 116 281 248 194 117 43 202* 223 * 141 * 164 * Bottom 250 124 * 131* 287 277 266 254 242 231 (c) 117 117 164 * = ∆ C = 156 254 254 ∆ T = 54 Fig. C. T on the bottom cover layer. and jump in reinforcement forces. [Notes: * indicates the resultant of the com- pression fields on either side of the shear zone. (c) detail showing jump in torsion field.19: Shear zone between S2 and S3b – (a) forces acting on the shear zone.5 t m n 3b = 119 kN S3b CL of shear zone v n 3b = 13. (b) shear zone forces. dimensions in mm]. 78 .Reinforcement Design n (a) 4000 slab edge m tn 3b = 54 . 5.

20 (b). [Note: dimensions in mm]. (b) load transfer between hairpins and isotropic reinforcement mesh. 5.Ø 10 fully anchored ( n-direction isotropic reinforcement not shown) splitting reinforcement in-plane shear zone reinforcement n t (b) n n-direction resultant of compression fields = ∆ T t shear zone ∆T Ø 16 hairpins V 8 V ∆T 4 V V 8 8 Ø 22 bar from V isotropic mesh 4 V + B B ∆T 8 1 c = 100 ∆ T ( V + ∆ T) τbØh 8 B-B Fig. creating addi- tional tension in the in-plane legs of the hairpins.Ø 10 3 . The hairpin is also loaded by transverse shear. smaller diameter bars across the splices as shown in Fig. Design Examples T is mobilized using hairpins arranged as shown in Fig.20 (b). Splitting forces arising from this load transfer can be mitigated by including closely spaced. as shown in Fig.20 (a). T is therefore transferred by bond shear from the hairpin to the n-direction bars of the isotropic mesh.20 (a). The compression field re- acts against the t-direction bars enclosed by the bends in the hairpins and against the hairpin bends themselves to mobilize bond shear forces along the legs of the hairpins as shown in Fig. (a) shear zone Ø 22 @ 250 shear zone isotropic reinforcement mesh 250 S2 S3b Ø 10 Ø 16 hairpins Ø 16 hairpins @ 250 A A Ø 22 @ 250 A-A 3 . 5.20: Shear zone between S2 and S3b – (a) reinforcement arrangement. 5. 5. 79 . 5. V.

excluding al- lowances for splices.3fcc which in accordance with [70] is conservative. out-of-plane compression field is mobilized. 80 . however. a total reinforcement content of 90 kg of steel per cubic meter of concrete is required. This reinforcement can be determined as in the previous examples and will consist of ad- ditional top and bottom bars as well as ‘C’-shaped transverse bars spaced at 250 mm. [Note: dimensions in mm]. The transverse shear is resisted by the interaction between the t-direction reinforcement in the shear zone and the vertical legs of the hairpins. 5. Using the details discussed above and Ø16 mm ‘C’-shaped transverse bars at 250 mm along all the edges. a minimum transverse reinforcement spacing of not less than h/2 is recommended. In this example the max- imum value of T and V give 46 kN per hairpin and therefore the hairpin legs need to be 750 mm. 5. 5.21. The density of this reinforcement arrangement is important to ensure that the required inclined. b = 0. Fig. Although not shown. to increase the efficiency of the load transfer required to generate T. V and the bond shear 0. The main reinforcement discussed above is summarized in Fig. If the hairpins are associated with the inner reinforcement layer. As in beams [6]. Ø16 mm hairpins have been provided. alternating Ø22 and Ø26 @ 250 Ø 16 @ 250 1750 1500 for Ø 24 alternating Ø22 and 1000 for Ø 16 Ø 26 @ 250 or Ø 16 @ 250 Ø 16 @ 250 top Ø 22 @ 250 bottom Ø 22 @ 250 Ø 22 @ 250 Ø 16 @ 250 750 Fig. 5.19 (b) indicates that the maximum force in the shear reinforcement is 116 kN or 174 kN/m. In Fig.20 (a). 5.20 (a) the hairpins are associated with the outer reinforcement layer and can therefore enclose the t-direction bars.67 strength.21: Summary of major reinforcement for simply supported slab with a free edge. then the outer layer of t-direction bars should be moved into the slab in the shear zone to allow them to be enclosed by the hairpins. This could be carried by the 2 vertical legs of Ø8 mm hairpins at 250 mm arranged as shown in Fig. shear reinforcement is required along the edges and in the corners where significant edge shears occur.Reinforcement Design The length of the hairpin leg can be calculated from the value of T.

S1a and S1b can be considered as part of the same 15 m square slab which is described by an exact solution similar to that presented in the first example. dimensions in m. The slab can be discretized as shown in Fig. S1b and S2 is transferred to the corner.2.3 10. 5.22 shows a square slab that is simply supported along two adjacent edges and column sup- ported at one corner.42 Fig.25 K = 196 S1b (c) 2. (b) yield-line pattern. The nodal forces indicate that about 12% of the load applied to the segments S1a. the equilibrium of the corner segment is shown in Fig. A collapse mechanism can form as outlined by the crack and yield-line patterns shown in Fig.0 328 2 q = 35 kN/m m u = 328 kN S1a Node S3 437 0. [Notes: mo- ments and torsions in kNm. see Fig. forces in kN.22 (b). (c) equilibrium of slab segments.4 Simply supported square slab with one corner column Fig.22 (a) and (b).89 788 638 -1006 -219 22 3. 5.51 1840 638 4 164 1840 96 2296 280 S2 S1b 1968 328 13 0 0 0. 5.47 12 638 3247 437 -1312 32 13 S4 8 618 12 184 980 8 618 62 -96 2.19 350 788 8 58 0.94 184 744 263 525 88 -88 273 1.0 0.5 2. segment numbering and nodal forces. 5.22: Square slab with a corner column – (a) crack pattern at failure. Nodal forces are not required at the intersection of the yield-lines but are required at the intersec- tion of the yield-lines and the free edges as shown in Fig.22 (c). All corners are restrained against uplift.0 4. 5. 81 . Restraint against uplift is required along the simply supported edge of S2 because mu is applied opposite to the free edge. 5.5 1. respectively [66]. This introduces considerable torsion into S2 which is (a) (b) 7.25]. Design Examples 5. 5.3 S1a S2 node 1.0 S1a K = 196 S3 S2 S4 corner segment.48 6.

see Fig. 5. 5.1) for the moment fields given in Table 5.23.+ 328 – 6 y – -------3.4: Moment fields for square slab with a corner column (in the local coordinates). The shear fields. and the moment field for S3 closely resembles this exact solution.– -------3- 3x x 2 3x 3 x 3x Table 5. 5. re- spectively.5x – 17.5y 1b x 2 1+y 65 – x – 29 1 + y – 5 ------------ 5–x 3 y – 17. Because the exact solution for a square slab was used for S1a and S1b.4. the reinforcement forces in these segments are gen- erally constant over the bottom surface.5x – 17.24 (a). Reinforcement requirements are sum- marized in Fig.+ 371 – 6 y + -------------- . In these segments the Ø22 mm isotropic reinforcement mesh must be augmented with Ø16 mm bars at 200 mm.24. This requires a numerical solution and the results of these calculations are presented in Fig.3: Shear fields for square slab with a corner column (in the local coordinates). 82 .Reinforcement Design equilibrated by the vertical reactions along the simply supported edge.22 (c) to give the shear and moment fields listed in Table 5. Reinforcement Requirements The reinforcement requirements for an isotropic reinforcement mesh with tsx = tsy are found by solving Eq.– --------. The generalized stress fields developed in Chapter 4 can be solved for the boundary conditions shown in Fig. Segment mx [kN] my [kN] mxy [kN] 1a 2 2 – 6x + 328 – 6y + 328 – 6xy 1b 2 2 2 – 17.5y -- x 4 7 7 y-- – 17. 5. (5.5 y 1 – ----2- x x x Table 5.5 x 1 – ----2- – 17. An isotropic reinforcement mesh of Ø22 mm bars at 200 mm can be used in these areas.27 and are developed in the following discussion. Segment vx [kN/m] vy [kN/m] tan M0 1a y-- – 17.4. A node is used at the inter- section of the yield-lines to allow the moments in S3 to be adjusted to correspond to those in S1a and S1b. principal moment trajectories and distribution of principal moments are shown in Fig.3 and Table 5. 5.5 x + 157x – 29 y – 58y + 328 29xy + 29x – 131y – 175 2 3 2 1 2 y y – 6 x – -----. In S2 and S4 the reinforcement forces on the bot- tom surface increase as a result of the high torsion in S2 and the column reaction in S4.– 254 – 6 xy + ------------.+ 328 – 6 xy – -------2- 3x 3x 3x 2 2 4 2 2 2 117 y 2y 117 y 2y – 6 x – -----.

25 (c) (d) -200 450 -100 0 100 400 200 328 350 300 300 -200 200 -250 450 350 200 400 350 -250 -100 0 -200 -400 -300 -200 Fig. could be provided to prevent the concrete from crushing at these locations.24 (b) and (c) is be mobilized. 5. is to specify fcc = 45 MPa.24 (a).1.27. 5. 5. The compression in the concrete exceeds the critical value of –2100 kN/m in the corner of S2 adjacent to the free edge and some supplementary corner bars. 5. (b) principal moment trajectories. Shear zones can be investigated and reinforced as discussed in the previous example. The force in the compression field increases to- wards the slab’s edges where the reinforcement must be fully anchored. tension occurs in the corners and along the edges as shown in Fig. and on the top surface between S3 and S4.0 corner segment. In the slab corners ad- ditional Ø22 mm bars at 200 mm are required. The node at the intersection of the yield-lines is loaded along its edges with a moment slightly less than mu and with small shears and torsions. see Fig. 83 .23: Load resultants – (a) shear fields. however. (c) distribution of m1 [kN]. [Note: dimensions in m]. 5. In S2 the additional Ø16 mm bars can be bent such that the required shear reinforcement is combined with the flexural steel rather than using hair- pins. Although a complete mat of top reinforcement is not required. No additional reinforcement is required for the node. minimum reinforcement require- ments and bar curtailment will result in much of the top surface being reinforced and therefore a mesh of Ø16 mm bars at 200 mm over the entire top surface is suggested. as discussed in Chapter 6 and shown in Fig. as discussed in Section 5. On the top surface. A better solution. The relatively constant force in the reinforcement is possible because the compression field shown in Fig. (d) distribution of m2 [kN]. Design Examples (a) (b) node 1. The most significant jump in reinforcement forces occurs on the bottom surface between S2’s long edge and S1a.

A corner segment is shown in Fig. A clear load path can be established to allow reinforcement to be dimensioned and detailed at the column. (c) direction of compression fields.Reinforcement Design Bottom Top (a) 600 800 400 200 0 0 600 400 200 820 500 0 1100 1000 900 900 600 500 1200 800 600 400 200 (b) -1500 -1500 -1200 -1800 -1200 -1800 -900 -900 -1500 -1500 -600 -900 -1200 -1200 -600 -300 -300 -1400 -1400 -300 -600 -1500 -1500 -900 -1400 -1400 -1800 -1500 -1200 -1800 -1500 -1200 (c) Fig. This load path and its associated re- inforcement are discussed further below. 5. 5. vx from S4 is 100 kN/m (seeTable 5. 5. (b) force in the compression fields [kN/m].25 that is comprised of shear zones and in-plane top and bottom membrane elements. In addition.24: Reinforcement requirements – (a) forces in the x.25 (a).and y-direction reinforcements [kN/m].3) at the corner segment and is applied to the corner segment’s distribution shear zone as two symmetrically placed 100 kN loads. as shown in Fig. two 254 kN concentrated edge 84 . 5.25. S4 is terminated at a distance of 1 m from the column as shown in Fig.

from S4 are con- tinuous across the shear zone and are therefore effectively applied as in-plane forces to the mem- brane elements. (a) S4 0.2.41 V V 254-V 743-2V 254 V V V V 743 (c) V-183 V-183 351 0. mx. 5. [Notes: moments and torsions in kNm. 85 . myx from S4 is summed and applied to the distribution shear zone as two con- centrated torsions.5V .V 247 248 1.620 Bottom 2.5V 2. 35 kN 254-V 56 center shear zone V 100 56 254-V 0. (c) loading of bottom and top membrane elements.5V 915 .620 Top 3.25 B 100 254 722 A in-plane membrane element applied load.54 V Fig.707 351 620 915 620 915 915 . dimensions in m].25 254 column 743 100 366 366 B edge shear zone V y x 354-V V-248 (b) 354-V 354-V 708-2V 1. 5. Design Examples forces resulting from the torsion along S4’s free edge are transferred to the corner element.5V .54 V 3. The load applied directly to the corner segment is applied at its centroid as a concentrated load.41 V 56 366 354-V 248 708-2V 366-V 100 35 V R-248 366-V 366 254 . each with a magnitude of 56 kNm. The normal moments. (b) distribution of load between shear zones and in-plane membrane elements. forces in kN.25 (a). as shown in Fig.25 Corner segment distribution shear zone 254 56 1.2.25: Load transfer at the column – (a) loading and geometry of the corner segment.0 0.

This reinforcement must be fully anchored along the edges by bending it up and continuing it over the top surface for an appropriate distance.26 (a). This produces a uni- formly distributed stress field in the top and bottom membrane elements. The load effects in the shear zones are shown in Fig. At the distribution shear zone. 5. the centroid of the in-plane normal force at the centre shear zone coincides with the centre of shear zone. These loads are resisted by the reinforcement and compression field forces shown in Fig. 5.25 (c). 5. 5. ‘T’- headed bars can be provided along the centre shear zone as shear reinforcement. when V = 248 kN.26 (c). as shown in Fig. The Ø22 mm isotropic reinforcement mesh used throughout the slab can be used if.25 (b) the loads applied to the distribution shear zone can be distributed to the edge and centre shear zones in any chosen proportion. when the shear in the edge shear zones is V = 306 kN. it is better to carry more shear along the outside edges than to have the load evenly distributed between the three shear zones. The value of the moments across the shear zones is independent of this choice whereas the value of the torsions is not. Along one edge this reinforcement must be moved into the slab to lie inside the inner layer of iso- tropic reinforcement. as in the adjacent seg- ment. 5.e. it is augmented on the bottom surface with Ø16 mm bars at 200 mm. For example. The in-plane bars along the centre shear zone should be anchored with welded plates to minimize congestion at the column. To avoid interference with the edge reinforcement at the column. jumps in the reinforcement forces of 98 kN/m and 12 kN/m are required in the top and bottom iso- tropic reinforcement meshes. There is no jump in reinforcement forces across the centre shear zone and re- inforcement must be fully anchored along the slab’s edges as indicated in accordance with Fig. respectively. There are two reasons for this: • A uniform stress field can be achieved in the top and bottom membrane elements thus ensur- ing a simple in-plane reinforcement layout. for example. 5. This can be achieved using hairpins as discussed in the previous example. It can be concluded.Reinforcement Design As shown in Fig. followed by a discussion of the shear reinforce- ment. When V is other than 306 kN the stress field in the membrane elements is no longer uniformly distributed and a more complex top and bottom reinforcement arrangement will be required. • The in-plane reinforcement can be bent up along the edge to provide shear reinforcement and this can be used to reduce the amount of the more complex shear reinforcement required in the centre shear zone. Shear reinforcement and the associated. These bars must be fully anchored behind the column and continuous into S4 where they are also required. This is true. Three Ø16 mm bars are provided along the top and bottom surfaces of the edges. The in-plane reinforcement is discussed first.26 (d). 5. the in-plane reinforcement for the centre shear zone should be the inner-most layer. properly anchored in-plane reinforcement are required in the edge and centre shear zones as defined by the truss models drawn for the core in Fig. This allows the in-plane edge reinforcement to be enclosed by the required shear reinforcement. when the load is equally distributed between the edge and centre shear zones. therefore that at a corner column. S4. When V = 306 kN the membrane elements are loaded as shown in Fig.26 (b). Two additional reinforcement layers are introduced when providing in-plane reinforcement for the distribution and centre shear zones. i.26 (c). 86 . The location of the normal in-plane force resulting from the moment across the centre shear zone varies with the choice of load distribution.

5 148 148 B C. (d) detail of strut-and-tie model on the bottom surface of the edge shear zone. (b) reinforcement and compression field forces in the membrane elements. [Notes: forces in kN. dimensions in mm]. 87 . 5. Design Examples (a) (b) t sx = tsy = 634 kN/m A 915 Top 620 o 1563 kN/m 39.5 148 148 B C. (c) forces in shear zones.26: Load effects at the column – (a) loads applied to the top and bottom membrane ele- ments. column 1087 t sx = tsy = 930 kN/m A 915 Bottom 620 1563 kN/m o 50. column 1087 (c) Distribution Shear Zone Edge Shear Zone Centre Shear Zone B A B C A C Top -713 -762 299 299 299 175 175 214 214 -468 -468 -468 299 299 149 149 -99 -49 99 250 30 38 362 362 362 -99 198 -49 224 224 224 299 299 149 149 -778 -778 50 50 35 Core 30 38 362 362 362 198 99 181 181 78 43 4 305 305 305 96 131 400 307 181 181 96 181 118 55 52 30 38 48 362 362 362 307 198 99 131 63 67 Bottom 438 438 438 -1037 -519 335 335 326 326 -568 -568 -568 438 438 219 219 -105 -35 198 99 250 -75 362 362 362 -75 329 329 329 329 438 438 219 219 -1037 -519 250 500 250 236 2 @ 470 236 333 500 167 (d) 438 230 -568 145 362 shear zone width = 250 slab edge Fig.

If the yield-line moment. In order to enclose the nodes from the in-plane strut-and-tie model as detailed in Fig. including an allow- ance for transverse reinforcement along the edges. however. 651 kN/m of shear resistance is required along the edge and a maximum of 393 kN/m is required along the centre shear zone. mu = 328 kN.26 (c) shows that the core of the distribution shear zone has an inclined tension tie of magnitude 4 kN.26 (d). is used to design a top and bottom reinforcement mesh. (c) corner detail. The reinforcement arrangement is summarized in Fig.Reinforcement Design Fig. Sufficient shear reinforcement is already provided along the edge if the in-plane Ø22 mm bars at 200 mm are bent up at their ends and continued over the top surface. 5. 5. 88 . then Ø22 bars at 200 mm would be required everywhere. It is assumed that this can be carried by the concrete and no transverse reinforce- ment is provided for this shear zone. [Note: dimensions in mm]. Ø10 mm bars at 200 mm should be provided along the inner edge of this shear zone. This corresponds to 145 kg of steel per cubic meter of concrete.27 (a). as shown in Fig.27 and corresponds to a reinforcement content of 175 kg of steel per cubic meter of concrete. 5.27: Summary of main reinforcement – (a) top and bottom reinforcement arrangements. additional ‘C’-shaped. 5. 5. (a) Top 2500 Bottom 2500 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø16 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø 16 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 A A Ø 16 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 2500 Ø 16 @ 200 Ø 22 @ 200 Ø 16 @ 200 Ø 16 @ 200 (b) 1300 Ø 22 @ 200 (c) 3.Ø16 Ø 16 @ 200 Bottom Ø 22 @ 200 Top Ø 16 @ 200 A-A Ø 16 hairpins @ 200 Ø16 ’T’-headed bars @ 200 50 x 50 x 10 plate Ø 16 @ 200 Ø 16 Fig. (b) section showing top and bottom bars.

• Geometric variables including shape. Anchorage of the reinforcement also plays an important role in a structure’s ductility. reinforcement ratios. is a new concept. energy is dissipated by plastic deformation. bond is destroyed and there can be a consequent reduction in anchorage and ductility. however. In a system that can be modelled as a series of springs [53] hardening behaviour is necessary for load redistribution and a ductile failure to occur. shear stresses are concentrated and questions may arise regarding the ductility of a slab designed using this concept. mem- ber size and shear span. Poor an- chorage leads to a premature failure and reduced ductility. In shear zones. In this case stored elas- tic energy is released suddenly and failure is explosive. To verify the validity of this concept a series of six reinforced concrete slabs were tested to failure. • Type and distribution of loads. 89 . 6. load redistribution also occurs with softening behaviour [12]. This deformation is character- ized by either a hardening or softening behaviour. The ductility of a reinforced concrete structure is influenced by the following: • Material variables such as the mechanical properties of concrete. In slabs where cracking occurs along the length of the reinforcement.6 Experiments The generalized stress fields developed in Chapter 4 and the design approach described in Chapter 5 are dependent on the validity of the shear zone. however. steel and their interaction.1 Ductility of Slabs In limit analysis it is assumed that a structure has enough deformation capacity to allow an inter- nal redistribution of stresses after first cracking such that a pattern of hinges can develop to form a collapse mechanism. A brittle section is one in which failure occurs without deformation after the peak load has been reached and no energy is dissipated by plastic deformation. The details of the experi- mental programme are given in [46] and the key ideas and results are discussed in this chapter. The deformation capacity of hinges in beams has been studied recently [70. The shear zone in its simplest form occurs at a free or simply supported edge and has been recognized for some time. This is an important consideration in the use of a shear zone where a sudden jump in reinforcement stresses can occur as discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. confinement reinforcement. In general reinforced concrete slabs are ductile because shear stresses and reinforcement ratios are typically low. In a system that can be modelled by parallel springs. A hinge must be ductile whereas regions away from the hinge only need to be able to deform sufficiently to co-exist with the hinge.4] as well as the deformation capacity of yield-lines [12]. In a ductile failure. The generalized form of the shear zone presented in Chapter 4.

Such zones include sections that are over-reinforced for flexure. The last of the above zones is analogous to beam behaviour. It is simpler. the combined flexure/shear reinforcement shown in Fig. The need for proper anchorage of transverse reinforcement is clear from a strut-and-tie consideration of a stirrup. Such zones in- clude sections with less than minimum flexural reinforcement and sections without shear re- inforcement subjected to high shear stresses.1 was used in the experiments to reinforce the shear zones.Experiments To ensure energy dissipation by plastic deformation. then the extra load carried by strain hardening may reveal a more dangerous. and to enhance this anchorage. dowels should be placed in the bends of stirrups [39]. • Softening zones where strength is dependent on concrete’s behaviour in compression. Reinforcement can be provided to avoid the first type of zone. if all regions have the same ductility characteristics and one step in this direc- tion is to provide shear reinforcement in slabs at locations of concentrated shear such as at the end of shear zones and at concentrated loads and reactions. Conversely if a plastic hinge is characterized by softening behav- iour. Such zones include all regions where the reinforcement yields before the concrete crushes. of course. As with column ties. Stirrups confine an inclined compression field and thereby control the development of the corresponding inclined cracks. Three zones can be identified in a concrete slab: • Brittle zones where strength is dependent on concrete’s behaviour in tension.43. 6. Even with an increase in ductility by confinement. the confining effect of stirrups is increased with a denser spac- ing. ductility is required at locations where hinges can develop to form a mechanism. For the reasons discussed above. 90 . The provision of transverse re- inforcement in regions where concentrated shear is anticipated will ensure that a slab’s behaviour is consistent with the assumptions of limit analysis. For this reason. brittle failure modes may occur. For example if the reinforcement at a yield-line has a steep hardening curve. brittle failure mode. • Hardening zones where the properties of the reinforcement in tension or compression govern the failure. assessment of a load path after the ultimate load has been reached should account for variations in the ductility characteristics in different parts of the structure. The ductility of the second type of zone can be improved by the confinement of the compres- sion zone as discussed in [70]. the ties must be closely spaced and sufficiently stiff to be effective [70].70] and are well understood from the yield criteria for mem- brane elements presented in Chapter 2. The requirements for a ductile be- haviour have been discussed in [4. load may be shed to other parts of the slab and again more dangerous. The ductility characteristics of a hinge affect the load path after plastic deformation has commenced. the softening behaviour of the concrete remains influential. Stirrups have an analogous ductility-enhancing effect to that of column ties. shear panels in which the shear re- inforcement does not yield at ultimate and generalized failure mechanisms with double curva- ture. If such confinement is provided with reinforcing ties.

6. (b) typical reinforcement arrangement. From Fig. The first three tests.2 (b) and (c). forcement per Slab [mm] Thickness [mm] slab [kg] forcement [kg] m3 of concrete [kg/m3] A1 1580 X 2600 150 1473 82 133 A2 1580 X 3800 150 2146 74 82 A3 1580 X 3800 150 2152 98 109 Table 6. 6.1. experimental results are discussed in Section 6.2 (a). 6. n A1 was 1 to give –m tnI = m tnII and in A2 and A3 was to give –m tnI = 2m tn II . 6. investigated torsion across a shear zone.2. A discontinuous torsion field was applied using corner loads as shown in Fig.3 and details of the experiments are given in [46]. This loading generated shear along an internal shear zone as shown in Fig. Experimental Programme (a) (b) shear zone s < ½h A A shear zone A-A Fig.2 (a) and (c) it can be seen that the magnitude of the torsional discontinuity was adjusted by var- ying .1 Torsion Tests Torsion tests were conducted on corner and edge supported rectangular slabs. 6. whereas A4 to A6 investigated combined torsion and bending. 6. Mass of rein- Plan dimensions Total mass of Mass of rein.1: Shear zone reinforcement – (a) reinforcement detail showing combined shear and flexural reinforcement at the shear zone. 91 . A summary of the experimental programme is given in this section. A1 to A3.1: Key slab properties for torsion tests. The key slab prop- erties are summarized in Table 6.2 Experimental Programme A series of six slabs were designed and tested to failure to investigate the behaviour of slabs de- signed with shear zones.

X IIt force in concrete T bII .2: Torsion tests – (a) loading. N IIt T IIb . 6. (d) moments corresponding to applied loads. T IIt N IIb . [Note: dimensions in mm]. (e) reinforcement design for A1 and A2. N IIt force in concrete Q Q c=t t= t= C 2 λd C 2 λd L L shear zone shear zone (g) (h) I II I II 1200 (A1) 1200 2400 (A2) 1200 2400 Fig.Experiments C (a) L shear zone (b) Q l λl (1 + λ ) Q 2λ 2 λd Q (1 + λ ) Q 2λ Q λ Q λ n I II d -m ntI m ntII Q A A 2d II Q (1 + λ ) Q I 2 λ t z z n Q Q y x mtn λ (1 + λ ) Q t Region I λ direction of load transfer (d) TI (c) mtn N II Q Q + 2λ 2λ n mn . (g) reinforcement layout for A2 (A1 similar). Q ½Q 2 T II NI l λl Region II A-A (e) (f) ntn ntn Q force applied to force applied to c=2t= λd cover layers cover layers N IIb . (c) discontinuous torsion field. (h) reinforcement layout for A3. (b) detail of load path at origin of coordinate axes. 92 . load path and coordinate axes. Y IIt 2 λd nt nt Y IIb . T IIt Q Q 2 λd X IIb . (f) reinforcement design for A3.

2 (g) and (h). 6. 4Q. 6. Mass of rein- Slab Plan dimensions Thickness [mm] Total mass of Mass of rein. 6.2: Design strengths and reinforcement quantities for torsion tests.2. Whereas A1 and A2 were reinforced in their principal directions using the combined flex- ure/shear reinforcement described in Section 6. and tension in the reinforcement.2 and fsy. c. Slabs A4 and A5 Slabs A4 and A5 were designed such that a centrally applied load. Reinforcement [mm2/m] Design torsion [kN] Q Slab Region I Region II Region I Region II [kN] x y x y mu mu top – 693 top – 0 top – 0 top – 693 A1 – 46 46 92 bottom – 0 bottom – 693 bottom – 693 bottom – 0 top – 656 top – 0 top – 0 top – 315 A2 – 43 21 86 bottom – 0 bottom – 656 bottom – 315 bottom – 0 top – 619 top – 628 top – 437 top – 335 A3† – 41 26 82 bottom – 619 bottom – 628 bottom – 437 bottom – 335 † reinforcement quantities given for the n-t-axes. Experimental Programme The moment fields corresponding to the applied loads are represented by the Mohr’s circles shown in Fig.3 (b) and (c). 6.3 (a).e. The reinforcement arrange- ments are shown in Fig. The ultimate capacities of the three slabs were calculated as given in Table 6.3: Key slab properties for bending tests.1. Table 6. 6. A3 had an orthogonal top and bottom reinforce- ment mesh without shear reinforcement along the internal shear zone. The interaction of the adjacent moment fields and the shear zones is shown in Fig. Reinforcement was designed using a sandwich model with d = 114 mm which corresponded to a clear cover of 10 mm and four layers of Ø8 mm bars (i. 93 . forcement per [mm] slab [kg] forcement [kg] m3 of concrete [kg/m3] A4 2300 X 2300 180 2285 56 59 A5 2200 X 3600 180 3453 74 52 A6 2300 X 2300 180 2284 79 83 Table 6.3. The key slab properties are summarized in Table 6. two top layers and two bottom layers).2 Bending Tests The bending tests were conducted on corner supported rectangular slabs with a centrally applied load.2 (d). The applied loads were resisted in the cover layers by compression in the concrete. t. 6. A constant moment resulted adjacent to the shear zones.2 by using the re- inforcement quantities given in Table 6. A jump in the moment field was used to establish this load path as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.3 (c) and (d). was carried in shear zones located along the slab diagonals as shown in Fig.stat = 545 MPa.2 (e) and (f). 6.

(f) reinforcement design. (b) moment fields. load paths and coordinate axes.Y X II YI YI X II mn nn Q 2 Q cos α Region II TI Region I N II Q tan α Q tan α A ty = d Q cot α tx = (g) d l tan α = 2140 (A4) 2020 (A5) l = 2140 (A4) A-A 2940 (A5) A Fig. 6. (d) truss model along shear zone. (c) detail of load path. [Note: dimensions in mm].Experiments (a) Y CL of shear zones (b) CL of shear zones l Q Q m xI direction of l load transfer 4Q I x X-X CL of shear zones X α X II Q m yII Q t l tan α n Y y element in shear zone Y-Y (c) (d) α II m Iy cos α α I Cy Cx shear zone x I m tn V=Q y m nI V=Q sin α θ V=Q II m tn α m nII I x sin α m II x V=Q II Tx I t II 1 y Ty d d cot θ cosα m nt n nt (e) Q cot α (f) c x = tx force in top cover c y = ty force in bottom cover Q sin α cos α T II NI Q sin α 2 I II YI X II X . 94 . (g) reinforcement lay- out for A4.3: Combined bending-torsion tests – (a) loading. (e) Mohr’s circles for applied loads.

qy = – ----.– ----- . 6.3 (e). (6. mxy = ---.4 (a). Slab A6 A6 was designed to have a radial shear field. m y b = m y + m xy . m y t = – my + m xy (6. m tn = Q sin . m tn = –Q cos (6. Reinforcement was arranged under the loaded area and developed outside of the punching region also in accordance with [68].2) The moment fields corresponding to the applied loads are represented by the Mohr’s circles shown in Fig.3 (g).3 (f). 0 = -. two top layers and two bottom layers). Reinforcement was designed using a sandwich model with d = 144 mm which corresponded to a clear cover of 10 mm and four layers of Ø8 mm bars (i. 6. (b) and (c). 6. 6.– -- (6. 2 – -------. 1 – -------- . 6. 95 .4 (d).4) 2 2 x x Integration of the shear field defines the moment field in the first octal as 2 2 2 Q 4x Q 4y y Q 8xy y mx = ---. Reinforcement was curtailed in accordance with the associated moment field and bars that were not required over the full width of the slab were an- chored using an appropriate development length.6) Since mx and my are typically larger than mxy.1) This produced moments and torsions across the shear zone as follows: I II I 2 II 2 m n = Q sin cos = m n . m x = Q cot . Experimental Programme The moments applied to the slab are shown in Fig.x + y . m x t = –m x + mxy .e.3 (e) and are given by I I II II m x = 0 . The resulting reinforce- ment layout is shown in Fig. (6. top reinforcement was required only near the edges. -------. Punching shear was checked using the provisions in [68].1 was used and arranged as shown in Fig. m y = 0 (6. 6. as shown in Fig. The applied loads were resisted in the cover layers by compression in the concrete and tension in the reinforcement.5) 2 2 l 2 l 2 x 2 2 l2 x The principal moments and their trajectories are shown in Fig.3) 2x 2 x which corresponds to the applied load and a system of self-equilibrating loads defined by Q Q qx = ----. Reinforcement was determined in accordance with [68] and using mx b = m x + mxy . m y = Q tan . The shear field was defined by Q 2 2 y v0 = -------. my = ---.. Shear reinforcement was provided along the edges in accordance with [42]. The combined flexure/shear reinforcement described in Section 6.

(d) re- inforcement layout. (c) trajectories of principal moments. 4 .8 m bars each way 2140 25 - 2140 x x stirrups along edges 25 - y y Fig. (b) m2 [kN].1. 96 . Reinforcement [mm2/m] Design moments [kN] Q Slab Region I Region II Region I Region II [kN] x y x y myu mxu top – 0 top – 0 top – 0 top – 0 A4 84 84 84 bottom – 0 bottom – 1049 bottom – 1049 bottom – 0 top – 0 top – 0 top – 0 top – 0 A5 40 83 55 bottom – 0 bottom – 480 bottom – 1023 bottom – 0 mxu = 83 at centreline A6 variable variable variable variable 89 myu= 83 at centreline Table 6.1.4: Design of A6 – (a) m1 [kN].4: Design strengths and reinforcement quantities for bending tests. Moment Capacities The ultimate moment capacities of A4 to A6 were calculated as given in Table 6.stat = 545 MPa.4 m . 6. [Note: dimensions in mm].4 using the rein- forcement quantities given in Table 6.4 and fsy.Experiments (a) (b) (c) 90 x x x 40 m1 80 30 m2 20 20 y 60 y 10 y 40 0 -10 -20 (d) Bottom Top 8 .

The support hangers were Ø 40 mm steel bars. Effective diameter [mm] 8.2 3.2 mm2. Load was measured with load cells on the support hangers and hydraulic cylinders. 0sv [‰] 4. fsy. Ten standard Ø150 mm X 300 mm cylinders and three 150 mm cubes were cast and vibrated with each slab. the force applied by the cylinder and the reaction forces gradually decreased as the slab continued to deform slightly until the deformations stabilised. four double-punch tests.dyn [MPa] 594 Static ultimate strength fsu. Hinges were provided at the points of load application and support.03 Dynamic yield strength. 3 20/s for the cube tests and 0.5 summarises the results of these tests. Steel was supplied in 20 m lengths and bars had a cross-sectional area of 50. 97 .4 Test Procedure Load was applied with hydraulic cylinders using 240 mm X 240 mm X 30 mm steel loading plates. Es [GPa] 205 Table 6.7 3. fct [MPa] 3.6.9 31. Table vibrators were used as well as hand held vibra- tors to ensure proper consolidation. 0cu [‰] 1.4 29. fsu. Table 6. fcc [MPa] 43 40 41 45 47 59 Tensile strength.72 2. At this point load stage measurements were taken.3 Material Properties Concrete was batched using a cement content of 300 kg/m3 of concrete.stat [MPa] 498 Dynamic ultimate strength.1 Table 6. and from the oil pressure in the pump.38 2.stat [MPa] 543 Strain at beginning of strain hardening. Experimental Programme 6. Slab A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Cylinder strength.6.3 Strain at peak load. Ø16 mm maximum ag- gregate size and a water-cement ratio of 0.86 1.02 20/s for the double punch tests.2.2. Ec [GPa] 27. Vertical strain rates of 2 20/s were used for the cylinder tests. Steel properties are summa- rised in Table 6.02 2. All tests were displacement controlled. When the pressure in the cylinder was locked-off. The corners of the slabs were suspended from a steel reaction frame consisting of 600 mm deep steel beams bolted to columns prestressed into the laboratory strong floor.0 31.6 3. Ø8 mm TOPAR reinforcing bars were used.6: Mechanical properties of Ø8 mm reinforcing steel (based on nominal bar diame- ters).0 28. three standard cube tests and three modulus of elasticity tests were performed. For each slab four standard cylinder tests.8 4.5: Mechanical properties of concrete. Correspondence between these three measurements was good.7 3.00 Ultimate strain. Direct tension tests were performed on 6 coupons with a free length of 770 mm using a strain rate of 50 20/s before yielding and 500 20/s after yielding. At each load stage a key deflection was kept constant by allowing the deformation of the slab and the force in the cylinder to equilibrate. 6.50 Modulus of elasticity.dyn [MPa] 502 Static yield strength fsy.22 2. 0su [‰] 100 Modulus of elasticity.4 32. The steel had a well defined yield plateau followed by strain hardening.

a measuring grid of aluminium targets was glued to the top and bot- tom surfaces of the slabs to allow deformations to be measured with demountable deformeters. The stiff response of A1 was confirmed by an independent set of deflection measurements using a de- mountable deformeter. 6.1 Overall Responses Reactions and deformed shapes were in accordance with the applied loads.7. All slabs designed with shear zones failed by the formation of a flexural mechanism while A6 failed with a punching cone after the initiation of a yield-line. The measuring grid included redundant readings to allow errors to be identified and distributed. A5. A2 and A3 and the centre deflections of A4. The maximum loads were re- corded using LVDT’s and therefore Qd is based on fsu. (b) centre deflections for bending tests. Corner deflections of A1. (a) (b) 125 A1 A2 A4 A6 100 A5 75 Q [kN] A3 50 25 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 deflection. It can be seen that slabs with shear zones (A1 to A5) had great- er deflections than the slab without the shear zone. Maximum loads and deflections are summarized in Table 6.3.3 Experimental Results 6. All slabs showed a ductile response.5 (a) and (b). 98 . The demountable deformeter readings were taken after deflections had stabilized. and A6 are shown in Fig.5: Load-deflection responses – (a) maximum corner deflections for torsion tests. 6. and mounted on the slabs’ top and bottom surfaces.Experiments The slabs’ deformations were measured continuously using linearly variable displacement transducers (LVDT’s) located at the slab corners and centres. A6. respectively. w [mm] Fig. 6. Correspond- ence between the continuous measurements and the demountable deformeter readings was also good.dyn = 594 MPa. In addition.

the in-plane shear deformation measured on the top and bottom surfaces remained similar in magnitude up to LS*. no gradient existed in the moment field and shear transfer could only occur along its edges. A gradient in the moment field and therefore a shear field could develop in the second of these two regions by a rotation of the principal moment direction. rather than the calculated value. In the first of these two regions. A2 and A3 A qualitative assessment of the load paths in A1.ye was reached everywhere in A1 and in the regions of A2 and A3 where a yield-line formed. 6. The load stage at which plastic deformation.y. In regions where the reinforcement did not yield and tn ye mo- ments were as described by a Mohr’s circle that was proportional to the measured curvatures and bounded by the Mohr’s circle shown Fig.6 (b). 6. In these last three regions a gradient in the mo- ment field and therefore a shear field could develop by both a rotation in the direction of principal moment and a change in the value of the moments and torsions. curvatures greater than . 6. This is reflected by the limited or non- existing yield plateaus for these regions.ye occurred locally in A2 and not at all in A3. In regions where the top and bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye . Experimental Results Q max Slab Qd [kN] Qmax [kN] ------------.6 (a) that.7: Summary of loads and deflections at ultimate. 6. .2 Load Paths in A1. .07 137 A3 89 92 1. yc . commenced is marked LS*. At any given load. will be used in the following discussion. 99 . In regions where the bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye or where the top reinforce- ment yielded and tn ye moments were as described by the Mohr’s circles shown in Fig. It can be seen from Fig. stiffer. The torsion-twist responses of the three slabs are shown in Fig. Simple tri-linear approximations of these tor- sion-twist responses were calculated in accordance with [70] and are also shown. There is a rea- sonable correspondence between the measured and calculated responses although the measured responses are.03 141 A4 92 93 1. moments were as described by the Mohr’s circle shown in Fig.01 131 A5 60 64 1. wmax [mm] Qd A1 100 100 1. A2 and A3 can be made by considering the cor- respondence between regions where the reinforcement yielded and the distribution of the twists. In regions away from the yield-lines. In the following discussion it is assumed that the direction of principal curvatures and moments coincided up to commencement of plastic deformation.6 (c) and (d). Experimental results confirm this as- sumption. as expected. curvatures and reinforcement strains can be used to give an indication of the moment in the slab.3.6 (b). 6.98 79 Table 6. In each test.00 86 A2 94 101 1. ye . 6. or where the top and bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye . on average. The measured curvature at onset of plastic deformation.07 147 A6 90 88 0.6 (a). respectively.

χ n mn . 6.6 (b) could not change after LS*. χ n mn . The load path in A1 is discussed in detail in the following. whereas after LS* the cen- tre of the Mohr’s circle for curvature shifted away from that for moments. however. χ tn mu . χ u mu . χ u mu . The circles shown in Fig. 6. could expand after LS* to coincide with that in Fig. 100 . χ tn m tn .6 (b). Because the slab’s strength was reached with the yielding of all the reinforcement. The load path at LS* is examined first. χ u A1 χ tn [mrad/m] A2 χ tn [mrad/m] A3 χ tn [mrad/m] (e) 60 60 60 -120 40 -120 40 -120 40 χn χn χn [mrad/m] [mrad/m)] [mrad/m] -60 -60 -60 increasing load increasing load increasing load Fig. as shown in Fig. 6. Up to LS*.Experiments (a) A1 A2 A3 100 measured (e) LS* LS* LS* 80 at yield line calculated (c) away from yield line m tn 60 EI II II EI II [kN] EI 40 χ yc χ yc χ yc χ ye 20 χ ye χ ye 0 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 χ tn [mrad / m] χ tn [mrad / m] χ tn [mrad / m] (b) (c) (d) m tn . χ u mn . χ n mu . This confirms the assumption that the direction of principal curvatures and moments coincided up to LS*. (e) Mohr’s circles for curvatures and twist with increasing load. (d) moments and curvatures for yielding of the bottom reinforcement. the Mohr’s circle for moments shown in Fig. The discussion is focused on com- paring regions where reinforcement yielded with the measured twists in order to identify the mo- ment field gradients discussed above. χ tn m tn . χ u mu .6 (c) and (d). 6. 6. (c) moments and curvatures for yielding of the top reinforcement. (b) ultimate moments and curvatures at onset of plastic deformation. χ u mu .6: Moments and curvatures – (a) measured and calculated torsion-twist responses.6 (e). the centres of the Mohr’s circles for curvatures and moments were similar.

• Regions D1 and D2 – reinforcement did not yield and tn ye . 101 . 6. • Region C1 – bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye . • Regions B1 and B2 – top and bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye . The measured surface deformations indicate that the direction of principal curvature varied in this region as shown in Fig. Fig.the direction of principal moment was 0o or 90o and the measured principal curvature and its direction do not reflect the moment field. 6.8 (e). 6. The regions of the slab where tn ye and tn ye are shown in Fig. 6. It can be seen that the load path at the internal shear zone was quite narrow at failure and approximated the width of the shear reinforced area.ye as failure was ap- proached. This change describes the gradients shown in Fig.8 (d) which correspond to the load path shown in Fig.8 (b) where the five regions described above are shown: • Region A – top and bottom reinforcement yielded and tn ye .7 (a). however.8 (a). the measured curvatures can be used to evaluate the moment field and corresponding load path. The diagrams in Fig.8 (g) shows the progression of steel yielding and the spread of . In the regions where tn ye . 6. t and tn were small in the t-direction and these gradients have therefore been ignored in assessing the load path. 6. Fig. 6.e. The measured deformations [46] showed that the gradients of n . The extent of yielding of the reinforcement as indicated by the measured surface strains is shown in Fig.8 (c) shows the change in the moment field as the centreline of the slab is approached – i.7 (b). In the region where tn ye . 6. as n decreases. • Region C2 – top reinforcement yielded and tn ye . (b) distribution of curvatures.7 can be idealized and combined to give Fig. 6. 6.7: A1 at LS* – (a) distribution of yielding reinforcement. Experimental Results (a) C L (b) n χ tn > χ ye χ tn < χ ye χ tn > χ ye y x t yielding of top and bottom reinforcement yielding of bottom reinforcement only yielding of top reinforcement only reinforcement does not yield Fig.

Experiments (a) (b) θ = 90 135 -45 θ =0 θ 1 C2 n B2 D2 θ = 90 90 0 θ =0 A y x B1 D1 t 2 C1 θ = 90 45 45 θ =0 600 600 600 600 (c) Region A Region C1 Region C2 m tn m tn m tn mu T A T C1 T C2 mu mu 2 1 2 1 2 1 mn mn mn mu decreasing n decreasing n NA N C1 N C2 mu mu (Region B1 similar but m 1 . (e) load path at the internal shear zone at LS*. m2 = mu ) (Region D1 similar but m1 . (g) spread of region where tn ue .8: Load path in A1 – (a) direction of principal curvatures at LS*. (c) Mohr’s circles for the regions shown in (b). 102 . 6. m2 < mu ) (Region D2 similar but m1 . (b) distribution of yielding reinforcement and tn at LS*. C2. (h) load path at internal shear zone at Load Stage 8. (d) moment gradients. (f) spread of region where top and bottom reinforcement yielded. C1. m2 < mu ) (d) (e) Regions B1. [Note: dimensions in mm]. D1 Regions B2. D2 ∆ m tn ∆ m tn ∆ mn ∆ mn ϕ0 ϕ0 v0 v0 600 600 (f) LS5 LS6 LS7 LS8 (h) 100 100 (g) LS5 LS6 LS7 LS8 270 270 Fig. m2 = mu ) (Region B2 similar but m 1 .

103 .3. twisting curvatures and load paths shown in Fig. Region II in A3 had slightly more reinforcement than in A2 and therefore less yielding occurred in A3. 6. (b) distribution of curvatures and load path.9: Load paths in A2 and A3 at final load stages – (a) distribution of yielding reinforce- ment. 6. Moment field gradients could therefore only have existed in accordance with the provided reinforcement and the design load path was followed. Con- sequently the widths of the shear zones in A2 and A3 were wider than in A1 as shown in Fig. A radial shear field was. the re- gions of yielding reinforcement.10 (a). 6.9 are found. present in A6 as indicated by the cir- cular punching cone. If the above analysis is carried out for A2 and A3 at their respective final load stages. 6. This allowed a moment gradient to exist at failure in Region II of A3 and therefore the load path in this region was less concentrated than that in A2. however.9. 6. The extent of yielding of the reinforcement in both A2 and A3 was less than in A1 and therefore it was possible for a moment gradient to exist over a wider area in these two slabs at failure. This leads to the conclusion that the actual and designed shear fields were not identical. A5 and A6 The distributions of surface strains in A4 and A5 indicate that yielding of the reinforcement spread from the centre of the slab to its edges as failure was approached and that at failure all re- inforcement had yielded. Not all the reinforcement yielded in A6 and the extent of yielded reinforcement did not change significantly after Load Stage 5.3 Load Paths in A4. Experimental Results (a) n (b) y x χ tn > χ ye χ tn < χ ye χ tn > χ ye t A2 χ tn > χ ye χ tn < χ ye A3 yielding of top and bottom reinforcement yielding of top reinforcement only yielding of bottom reinforcement only reinforcement does not yield Fig. see Fig. The deformation of the bottom surface of A6 also indicates a radial shear field by its circular and relatively symmetrical shape.

see Fig. 6. 104 . With anchorage loss.Experiments 6. As fail- ure was approached crack widths widened and this loss of anchorage became more pronounced. A difference in the crack patterns in the two slabs is evident from Fig.10 (b).10 (b) and (c). The load distribution required to engage all the reinforcement as intended in the design could not be achieved in A6 because of the loss of anchorage of the centre bars and not all reinforcement yielded.1 whereas in A6 only the bars that extended over the full width of the slab were anchored with hooks.8 m region at the slab centre whereas the reinforcement along the edges had yielded only in the direc- tion parallel to the edge. Yielding of the reinforce- ment in A4 commenced at the slab centre and spread to the edges as load was increased and even- tually all bars yielded. in particular. on the other hand. an alternate load path had to develop. The extent of this punching cone is indicated by the spalled region in Fig. Fig. bond was disturbed and. 6. the ability of these bars to assist in flexure was reduced with a corresponding degradation of the moment field gradient required to carry transverse shear. an orthogonal grid of cracks opened to reflect the location of the reinforcement. In A6. The direction of the yield-line was perpendicular to the direction with the smaller internal moment arm. A6 failed with a punching cone. therefore. All bars in A4 were anchored as described in Section 6. Both slabs had similar load-deflection responses.6 m from the centre. Such a load path would induce bending along the slab edges and explain the yielding of the reinforcement parallel to the slab edges. Concrete crushing on the top surface and extensive yielding of the reinforcement along the bottom surface were observed. In A6 limited concrete crushing was observed along the x-axis on the top surface. bond cracks were observed on the bottom surface of A6 about 0. At Load Stage 5 reinforcement had yielded in both directions in a 0. The deformation of the bottom surfaces of the two slabs is shown in Fig.4 (d). This alternate load path can be described by a compression shell in the concrete with its apex at the slab centre and its base supported along the shear-reinforced slab edges. 6. 6.3. Because the cracks in A6 ran along the length of the reinforcing bars. were anchored using an appropriate development length. For the slab to carry additional load. Whereas A4 was designed using a torsionless grillage with shear zones along its diagonals. These deformations reflect the load paths discussed above. in particular the short bars provided in the centre re- gion of A6. In A4 cracks in each quadrant opened in one direction only – perpendicular to the reinforcement direc- tion. In A6 the extent of yielded reinforcement did not change significantly after Load Stage 5. The deformation of A4’s bottom surface can be described with orthogonal lines whereas that of A6 is better described using radial lines and circles. In A6 the x-axis corresponded to the direction perpendicular to the direction with the smaller internal moment arm. see Fig. Near failure.10 (b) and (c) show A4 and A6 after failure. Other bars. In A4 a yield-line formed along the x-axis. A6 had a slightly stiffer re- sponse with correspondingly smaller crack widths. The extent of yielded reinforcement was different in the two slabs. 6. Failure was gradual in both slabs and both held together after failure. 6. An alternative load path must have developed in A6 as the anchorage of the short. Both slabs reached their design capacities and behaved in a ductile manner. A6 was designed to have a radial shear field and a corresponding moment field that included torsion.8 m X 0.10 (a).4 Comparison of A4 and A6 A4 and A6 were designed to have similar ultimate flexural capacities.5 (b). the anchorage of the short centre bars was adversely affected. centre bars deteriorated.

(c) crack pattern on top surface. A punching failure with a cone corresponding to this postulated failure mechanism then occurred as shown in Fig.5 Effect of Shear Reinforcement A2 and A3 behaved similarly even though shear reinforcement was only provided along the inter- nal shear zone of A2. the contribu- tion to shear resistance from a moment field gradient continued to decrease because of anchorage loss and therefore the amount of load carried by the compression shell increased. As the applied load continued to increase. (b) crack pattern on bottom surface (seen from above). 6. Near failure the inclination of the compression shell had to steepen to carry this additional load and this steepening moved the base of the shell away from the strengthened slab edge. 6. 6. however. 105 .10 (b). a flexural failure was achieved.3.10: Comparison of A4 and A6 at failure – (a) deformation of bottom surfaces. Experimental Results A4 A6 (a) deformed shape deformed shape undeformed shape undeformed shape (b) (c) x y Fig. provided at the ends of the internal shear zone in both slabs. Shear reinforcement was. The loss of anchorage did not occur in A4 because the flexural reinforcement was positively anchored and consequently. The inclination of this compression shell was proportional to the amount of load that could not be carried by the moment field gradient.

106 .

7 Summary and Conclusions

7.1 Summary

A static model for reinforced concrete slabs is presented in this dissertation to add to our under-

standing of the design and behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs. The model is derived from con-

siderations of shear and therefore it allows a clear load path to be identified that allows reinforce-

ment to be dimensioned and detailed. In particular, transverse reinforcement requirements along

edges and at columns can be clearly identified from the model. A slab is idealized in this work as

an assemblage of reinforced concrete membrane elements that enclose an unreinforced concrete

core. The membrane elements are loaded in their planes with normal and shear stresses while the

core is loaded with transverse shears.

The validity of this model is based on the lower-bound theorem of limit analysis. Conservative

material properties for concrete are therefore assumed to ensure a ductile failure governed by

yielding of the reinforcing steel and thus to allow internal stress redistribution to occur in accord-

ance with the assumptions of limit analysis. Because the theorems of plasticity and limit analysis

are important to the validity of this work, the key concepts behind these theorems and their appli-

cation to reinforced concrete are reviewed.

Limit analysis has traditionally been applied to slabs in the form of the yield-line and strip

methods. These methods are reviewed in addition to other plastic methods including a funicular

shape-based approach. A comparison is made between the load paths associated with Hillerborg’s

advanced strip method and several alternative formulations to illustrate the considerably different

load paths associated with different, accepted approaches to the same problem.

The behaviour and statics of reinforced concrete panels subjected to plane stress is reviewed

since the behaviour of members with solid cross sections can be approximated with an assem-

blage of membrane elements. This approach simplifies calculations, makes load paths easier to

visualize, and flexural and shear design to be integrated. This approach is used in the sandwich

model for slabs.

The nodal force method is also reviewed. Nodal forces are concentrated transverse shear forc-

es located at the end of yield-lines and required to maintain equilibrium of the segments compris-

ing a collapse mechanism. Johansen formulated the nodal force method by first assuming that mo-

ments along yield-lines are stationary maxima or minima and then applying nodal forces to give

equilibrium.

Although the work method and the nodal force method both establish equilibrium between the

segments of a collapse mechanism and therefore should give the same results, a number of cases

have been found where the work and nodal force solutions give different solutions. It should be

pointed out that neither method considers equilibrium within the rigid slab segments and they

only establish global equilibrium. The reason for the discrepancy in the results from the two meth-

ods lies in the formulation of the nodal force method. As mentioned above the formulation of the

nodal force method is based on an assumed moment distribution and nodal forces are calculated

to correspond to these moments. The assumed moment distribution is only possible if there is

107

Summary and Conclusions

**enough kinematic freedom in a slab such that a collapse mechanism can form to correspond to the
**

assumed moments. In some slabs the formation of the collapse mechanism is kinematically re-

strained and nodal forces are required for vertical as well as rotational equilibrium. This was not

considered in the formulation of the nodal force method. Although the nodal force method is not

universally applicable, nodal forces are of interest because they are real forces and outline a load

path in a slab at failure.

The statical indeterminacy of a slab makes it possible to base a lower-bound design on an in-

finite number of load paths. This freedom is used in the strip method to distribute load in any cho-

sen proportion to a torsionless grillage of beam strips. Because torsion is set to zero in the strip

method, however, the resulting distribution of bending moments is often characterized by local-

ized peaks and a correspondingly concentrated reinforcement arrangement is required.

If the strip method is generalized to include torsion, the distribution of bending effects can be

improved and a more uniform reinforcement distribution achieved. This would allow more effi-

cient use to be made of, for example, a mesh of minimum reinforcement. Generalized stress fields

are developed that define slab segments rather than slab strips by adopting the strip method’s ap-

proach to load distribution and considering torsion.

To develop the generalized stress fields mentioned above, the flow of force through a slab is

examined. The term shear zone is introduced to describe a generalization of the Thomson-Tait

edge shears and the term shear field is introduced to describe the trajectory of principal shear. A

sandwich model is used to investigate how a shear field in the slab core interacts with the cover

layers. In particular, shear fields corresponding to self-equilibrating loads are developed such that

shear-related boundary conditions can be fulfilled. Pure moment fields are also developed to meet

moment-related boundary conditions. The reaction to shear fields in the cover layers is studied

and generalized stress fields for rectangular and trapezoidal slab segments with uncracked cores

are developed. In this way the strip method is extended to include torsion – the strip method’s ap-

proach to load distribution is maintained while slab segments that include torsion are used rather

than a grillage of torsionless beams. The slab segments can be fit together like pieces of a jigsaw

puzzle to define a chosen load path. A node is often required at the common corner of adjoining

segments to allow load to be transferred between the slab segments. At a node, load transfer is

achieved by strut-and-tie behaviour rather than a shear field.

An effective reinforcement solution for slabs provides a uniform mesh of reinforcing bars that

is detailed and locally augmented to enable a clearly identified load path. Provision of a uniform

reinforcement mesh combined with proper detailing will ensure good crack control and a ductile

behaviour thus validating the use of plastic methods. In-plane normal and shear forces in the cover

layers are defined using the generalized stress fields and reinforcement is dimensioned and de-

tailed using the statics of the compression field approach and the shear zone. The concrete com-

pression field creates in-plane arches or struts that allow a stress field to be distributed such that a

given reinforcement mesh is efficiently engaged.

A slab’s collapse mechanism can be idealized as a series of segments connected by plastic

hinges that are characterized by uniform moments along their lengths and shear or nodal forces at

their ends. The uniform moments provide the basis for a uniform reinforcement mesh while the

nodal forces outline the load path for which the reinforcement must be detailed. Moment fields

that correspond to the segments of the collapse mechanism can be established using the general-

ized stress fields.

Four design examples are presented. In all examples, square slabs with uniformly distributed

loads are considered. The generalized stress fields, shear zones and the compression field ap-

proach were used to determine reinforcement requirements. In addition, each example demon-

108

Conclusions

**strates a specific point. In the first example a simply supported slab is used to show that a uniform-
**

ly stressed isotropic reinforcement mesh is an efficient reinforcement solution when compared

with one in which the quantity of reinforcement is minimized. A corner supported slab is used in

the second example to demonstrate a reinforcement arrangement that mitigates the softening be-

haviour of concrete under high torsional loads. It is further shown with this example that in some

cases it may be more economical and practical to increase the concrete strength rather than to pro-

vide this special reinforcement. In the third example, a slab with one free edge is investigated and

the statics and reinforcing of an internal shear zone are presented. In the last example, the rein-

forcement requirements at a corner column are discussed and quantified.

The generalized stress fields developed in this work and the corresponding design approach

are dependent on the validity of the shear zone. In general reinforced concrete slabs are ductile be-

cause shear stresses and reinforcement ratios are typically low. In shear zones, however, shear

stresses are concentrated and questions may arise regarding the ductility of a slab designed using

this concept.The shear zone in its simplest form occurs at a free or simply supported edge and has

been recognized for some time. The generalized form of the shear zone presented in Chapter 4,

however, is a new concept. To verify the validity of this concept a series of six reinforced concrete

slabs were tested to failure. The key ideas and results of the experimental programme are dis-

cussed. The experiments showed that slabs with shear zones have a very ductile load-deformation

response and that there is a good correspondence between the measured and designed load paths.

7.2 Conclusions

By following the flow of shear in a slab a clear static model was developed that extends the strip

method to include torsion. Because the strip method is comprised of beam strips, this conclusion

can be generalized to say that the static model developed in this work is a generalization of the

well established truss models for beams. Key to the formulation of the current model is the con-

cept of the shear zone. The traditional criteria for continuity of moments and torsions in slabs have

been modified to develop shear zones and the validity of this concept has been experimentally

verified.

Torsion in a slab is equilibrated by in-plane shears in the cover layers of a sandwich model.

These shears are resisted by compression fields in the concrete which, in turn, provide a load path

by which reinforcement stresses can be controlled. The distribution of load between concrete and

reinforcing steel can be adjusted using the angle of the associated compression field and therefore

the inclusion of torsion allows the bars in a reinforcement mesh to be uniformly stressed in both

directions. Other stress distributions in the reinforcement can also be chosen and implemented by

varying the characteristics of the compression field. Because torsion is not included in the strip

method, compression fields do not exist in slabs designed using the strip method and an engi-

neer’s ability to control reinforcement stresses is consequently limited.

The model developed in this work has been presented in terms of generalized stress fields for

square and trapezoidal slab segments. Design examples were presented to show that these stress

fields can be combined to describe the complete state of stress in a slab at failure. Reasonable re-

inforcement quantities were calculated in these examples and the required reinforcement details

are practical. In cases where the supplementary corner reinforcement discussed in Chapter 5 is re-

quired, it may in some cases be more economical to increase the strength of the concrete when this

results in a practical concrete mix design.

109

This conclusion is based on the observation that there was no substantial difference between the behaviours of the slabs with and without shear rein- forcement along their shear zones.Summary and Conclusions Three conclusions can be drawn from the experiments carried out over the course of this work: • A slab with properly detailed shear zones will fail in a very ductile manner. • Shear reinforcement is only required at the ends of a shear zone if the shear zone is confined along its sides by the interior of a slab. If this anchorage had been improved. A discontinuous stress field approach was attempted using hand calculations and the stringer and panel method described in Chapter 4. To establish similar restrictions for slabs. This crack pattern disturbed the an- chorage of some of the bars required at the yield-line and consequently. the approach given in this work could be simplified and carried out with hand calculations. The presence of torsion and moment in A6’s moment field re- sulted in cracking along the length of the reinforcement bars. the interaction between the cov- er layers and the core needs to be studied. discrete com- pression fields could be formulated that are loaded by a discretized shear field then the associated reinforcement could be determined. the width of the shear zone approaches the design width. Using the approach given in this work.3 Recommendations for Future Work In this work continuous stress fields have been developed by integration of a shear field. Such an approach may lead to concentrated reinforcement layouts but would provide a very clear load path. with hooks for exam- ple. a punching failure occurred rather than a flexural failure. 7. 110 . The failure of A6 revealed the importance of providing positive anchorage for flexural rein- forcement required at a yield-line. If this could be achieved. and its reinforcement arrangement simpler. was only suitable for slabs with simple boundary conditions. The stringer-and-panel approach discussed in Chapter 4 lends itself to a computer application. If. the basis for a computer program to simulate the behaviour of slabs can be envisaged. A simple example of this approach was given in Chapter 4 for a pure moment field. An alter- nate approach would be to take the horizontal components of a shear field and use them to develop discontinuous stress fields in the cover layers in an analogous manner to the development of dis- continuous stress fields in walls and deep beams. This approach. the stringer and panel approach discussed in Chapter 4 and the cracked membrane model [27]. In this work it is assumed that the limitations on the angle between a compression field and the associated reinforcement as established for beams are not directly applicable to slabs modelled with a sandwich model. • The width of a shear zone becomes narrower as load is increased. If all the reinforcement ad- jacent to a shear zone yields. At service levels A6’s response was stiffer than A4. A corresponding experimental programme based on the four examples given in Chapter 4 would allow parts of such a prediction tool to be verified. however. A6 may have behaved as well as A4. rather than discretizing the slab into panels. Some factors that may influence such limitations in- clude the angle between the direction of principal shear and the compression field as well as the mechanism of in-plane shear transfer across a flexural crack.

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coefficient. distributed d design reaction e edge. coordinate E modulus of elasticity y coordinate axis.Notation Roman capital letters r polar coordinate. thickness yield function of cover layers. bottom. slab stiffness. displacement X point on Mohrs’ circle strain Y point on Mohrs’ circle ! angle. reaction coefficient. calculated p generalized deformations. unit tensile force C coefficient. experimentally measured. slab segment. coordinate K nodal force M moment. pure n number. pole in Mohrs’ circle. point t coordinate axis parallel to a B coefficient. distance stress b dimension shear stress c thickness of stress field. angle R radius. unit normal force. moment invariant Greek letters Q load. positive factor coefficient Roman small letters Poisson’s ratio & geometric reinforcement ratio a dimension. integration v unit shear force. angle T tension force. volume $ difference W work % small dimension. coordinate axis normal to moment field. q distributed load effective h horizontal 115 . load transfer shear strain V shear force. point discontinuity. generalized load coefficient. polar coordinate. c yield-line identification. point w deflection D dissipation. bond discontinuity. normal stress concrete. coordinate s spacing. coordinate F force z coordinate axis. slab segment. unit hori- zontal shear force Subscripts i coordinate axis l length a yield-line identification m unit moment b yield-line identification. cylinder. unit compression angle force angle d internal moment arm curvature e edge mechanical reinforcement ratio f material strength h height. shear stress constant. point x coordinate axis. slab thickness. coordinate A area. slab segment.

i number in a series n end value. cracked condition characteristic direction Special symbols Ø bar diameter * load stage where plastic deformation commenced ' negative bending · rate clamped edge simply supported edge free edge shear zone positive yield-line . negative yield-line centre line force. coordinate axis r radial s reinforcing steel. up restrained corner 116 .1. coordinate axis. uncracked condition. characteristic direction II stress region. yield cr crack dyn dynamic max maximum stat static ! angular coordinate 0. down force. top u ultimate v vertical x coordinate axis y coordinate axis. self-equilibrating load system.2 principal directions Superscripts I stress region. beam strip t tension.

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