The Danish delegation of the NATO Training Working Group on September 2003

Individual Training and Education Developments.

COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY

AND TEACHING

BY

THE DANISH DELEGATION OF

THE NATO TRAINING WORKING GROUP
ON
INDIVIDUAL TRAINING AND
EDUCATION DEVELOPMENTS

These documents are intended to summarise development and. abbreviated to (NTG WG/IT&ED). 4. First issue SEP 2003. Having accumulated considerable experience in the field. The Working Group in now normally known by its title: The NATO Training Group Working Group on Individ- ual Training and Education Developments. to report on difficulties encountered and successes achieved and to offer advice and guidance. the Working Group decided to compile a series of papers and publications on various aspects of training systematics and technology. . Included in the Working Group’s terms of reference are responsibilities for promotion a common under- standing of training philosophies and terminology. Publications are formally agreed NTG WG/IT&ED docu- ments and represent the combined view of all delegates. Publications will be reviewed annually and updated when necessary and all additions and amendments remain the responsibility of the NTG WG/IT&ED. Furthermore. However. and reporting on the success of innovations. 3. but each has been written by an individual nation delegation and may reflect purely national perceptions. 2. exchanging information on applications of training technology. Papers are documents covering a topic formally agreed by the Working Group. This document is a paper. 2 PREFACE 1. It should be noted that the NTG WG/IT&ED produces two types of documents: Publi- cations and Papers. The NATO Training Group Joint Services Sub-Group established the Working Group on Training Technology in 1971 in order to foster the development and application of train- ing technology within the armed forces of the members of the Alliance. where appropri- ate.

The human being is not regarded as a computer even if the brain can be compared to one.are gradually giving way to the cognitive paradigm.how to unearth knowledge again. 1 The model has served as foundation of the modern instructional design and teaching in the Danish Armed Forces. The behavioural learning theories . fear and anxiety etc. In other words the model deals with how knowledge gets into the human brain. how it is stored. including knowledge of the way in which these theories are reflected in teaching principles and -methods. when necessary? The model also includes the interaction between the knowledge base and so-called “cognitive abilities” and “thinking strategies”.which is most important . 3 Cognitive learning theory and teaching. including the following topics:  The cognitive paradigm  Implementation of cognitive theories  How to store new information  How to retrieve new information  Retention  Conclusion Since the early 1970s the growth in cognitive psychology has brought about a significant change in learning theory as foundation of instructional design and teaching. Introduction In order to become a capable teacher it is necessary not only to be a subject expert.1990. The basic idea of the model is an addressing of acquisition as well as employment of knowledge. The model presented here is based upon a basic idea firstly described by Robert D. How do teachers create situations in which students learn as much as possible at a minimum oblivion? These questions will be dealt with during the next pages. The teacher also has to possess extensive knowledge of learning theories.normally employed in instructional design models and from which the most known teaching methods have been developed . The human being is in possession of emotions. The following is a brief description of the components and the interaction in the model (see Annex). and finally . which is not the case as far as the computer is concerned. These emotions such as likes and dislikes. Tennys- son (1981.1993). . are normally described in the affective domain. Therefore it is important for teachers and planners to be fa- miliar with the cognitive theories. The model also includes this domain. attitudes.

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