Running head: Signature Assignment Case Study III

Signature Assignment Case Study III

Eric Nunez

Azusa Pacific University
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 2

Table of Contents

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Pre-Reading Strategies…………………………………………………………………………….3

During-Reading Strategies………………………………………………………………………...5

After-Reading Strategy……………………………………………………………………………7

Comprehension Questions………………………………………………………………………...8

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………...9

References………………………………………………………………………………………..10

Appendix A: Immigration-Part 2………………………………………………………………...11

Appendix B: Short Worthy Passage……………………………………………………….…….16

Appendix C: Generalized Vocabulary…………………………………………………………...17

Appendix D: Verbal and Visual Word Association…………………………………….………..18

Appendix E: Précis Writing……………………………………………………………………...19

Appendix F: Annotation Text Symbols………………………………………….………………20
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 3

Introduction

In Case Study III one new expository passage was selected for administration at the

participant’s pre-determined instructional reading level. A lesson plan was designed to apply

literacy strategies based on assessment data related to vocabulary development, comprehension

skills, and writing. Immigration-Part 2 was taken directly form the QRI-5 and used for

instruction. The student was asked comprehension question directly from the selected passage to

determine if comprehension increased due to implementation of reading strategies. No protocol

or strategies discussed in Case Study I and II were covered in Case Study III.

Pre-Reading Strategies

Pre-reading strategies are significant to comprehension because text is an interpretive

process involving background knowledge and the reader’s interest. Kei Mahara (2011) states

that, “Prior knowledge, which is organized and stored in the reader’s mind, is termed schema.

The reader tries to activate an appropriate schema based on clues provided by the writer in the

text” (p. 51). Therefore, readers can comprehend a respected text by relating previously acquired

knowledge to new information within text. The pre-reading strategies described in this study aim

to activate the student’s prior knowledge and peak their interest in reference to the subject

matter.

Generalized Vocabulary Words

Baldwin, Beane, and Readence (2011) suggest that a morpheme is the “smallest unit” of

language that has an associated meaning, that is, it possess a definite meaning and cannot be

subdivided into smaller units that have meaning (p182). Generalized vocabulary words create

morphological measures that may be used to identify a students reading comprehension level.

Fowler and Liberman (1995) state, “Whereas phonemes distinguish between meaningful
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 4

elements (e.g., p/b distinguishes pat from bat), morphemes are themselves meaningful, thereby

increasing their salience. Thus, electric and electricity share a common meaningful unit in a way

that pat and bat do not” (p. 161). Therefore, the morphophonemic nature of English literature

requires students to identify units of sound and units of meaning from letters in order to

comprehend. Morphology could be a reliable diagnostic tool in the present study because literacy

achievement involves comprehending vocabulary, which, is being measured.

The participant was presented with one generalized vocabulary word and asked to add or

remove prefixes and suffixes. In addition, the student was asked to apply the varying versions of

the generalized vocabulary word in a sentence to validate understanding. Furthermore, the

participant was asked to define varying versions of the generalized vocabulary word. Frustration

was monitored and if necessary probing was implemented to relieve frustration. Answers were

scored as correct or incorrect and used to determine comprehension.

Verbal and Visual Word Association

Students can use verbal and visual word association to retain vocabulary. This strategy

was administered by providing the student with two squares that each contained four empty cells.

A pre-filled word relevant to the respected passage was placed on the top left cell of each square.

The student was asked to define each word and then, instructed to use Dictionary.com to verify

the accuracy of their definition. More importantly, the student was asked to put the definition

into there own words and write in the bottom left cell of each square. On the top right hand cell

of each square the student was asked to place a personal association (i.e. word, picture, symbol,

etc.) for each respected word. On the bottom right hand cell of each square the student was asked

to input an antonym for each respected word.

Table 1
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 5

Verbal and Visual Word Association Example

(personal association)

“WORD”

(definition or description) (antonym)

During-Reading Strategies

Close Reading

During-reading strategies require readers to communicate with text and functions as an

active skill during reading. Accessing complex text requires close reading because it encourages

students to interact with text and it impedes the passive reading experience that leaves many

struggling to find meaning in literature. Close readings should be completed with text that is

both, worthy and significant of detailed investigation. Close reading suffices Anchor Standard

One for reading closely. Close reading is a strategy that aids students in developing critical

thinking in respects to the author’s ideas. Frey and Fisher (2013) state that, “Readers should

develop an understanding of the author’s words and bring their own experiences, beliefs, and

ideas to bear on the text” (p.46). Therefore, close reading aids in students not only

comprehending the author’s idea but it also helps them in developing their own ideas of the text.

In the following section two close reading practices will be highlighted as during-reading

strategies.

Short, Worthy Passages
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 6

Close reading is time consuming and best practice is to select shorter pieces of text for

instruction. Close reading is implemented via short passages from longer text, especially when a

section challenges student comprehension and it is key to understanding the author’s message.

Frey and Fisher (2013) suggest that short, worthy passages are typically between, “Three and

nine paragraphs in length” (p. 46). It is significant to understand that teachers need to consider

the length of the selected passage and the time allotted for instruction. Only passages that are key

to comprehension and complex enough to warrant repeated reading should be selected as short,

worthy passages. The educator can conclude passage selection by analyzing the text for its

complexity and determining what sections require close reading. For the present study a

paragraph summarizing how immigrants assimilated to America was selected. The passage

warranted repeated reading and it was analyzed in following the strategy.

Annotations

Annotations encourage students to interact with the reading and it impedes the passive

learning experience that leaves many struggling to comprehend literature. Close reading can be

implemented via annotations or markings that occur during the first and second pass of the text.

Frey and Fisher (2013) state that, “Marking up the text allows them to witness their own growing

understanding, and it encourages them to put into words what they do no yet understand” (p.57).

In the present study the student was presented with a system of annotations that defined a

marking/ symbol with meaning and asked to mark anything they taught was significant in the

short worthy passage. For example, the student was instructed to underline a term or mark a key

word that was significant to comprehension for the respected message. Furthermore, the student

was asked to circle a term that was unfamiliar and return later to define it. Annotations
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 7

encourages students to re-read text, it deepens comprehension of the passage, and it allows the

reader to develop their own ideas of what they do not yet understand.

Table 2

Description of Annotation Text Symbols

Annotations

Symbol Meaning

* Important

______ Key word

/ I understand

O Unfamiliar

? I do not understand

! I am surprised

“words and comments” I am thinking

After-Reading Strategy

Précis Writings

After-reading strategies should require students to return to the text rather than, taking

them away form the text. Post-reading strategies promote higher level learning by deepening a

student’s comprehension of the text and isolating the meaning within the reading. Frey and

Fisher (2013) state that, “Précis writings are summaries of a text or passage that require students

to distill the main points but also involve them in the process of selecting, rejecting, and

paraphrasing ideas” (p. 60). This after-reading strategy only contains information discussed in

the text and summarizes the student’s understanding of the literature. Educating students in how
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 8

to compose précis writings and asking them to practice the strategy develops their ability to

comprehend the respected subject matter. With implementation of this strategy it will suffice

Anchor Standard Ten for Reading Complex Text. As educators we have to ensure that students

practice strategies worthy of their time and encourage them to comprehend meaning within the

text via interactive strategies.

In the present study the student was asked to write a short summary of about 50-75 words

that accurately described the passage. The student was provided with a blank sheet of paper only

containing instructions for the précis reading assignment.

Comprehension Questions

The comprehension questions were composed of five narrative and five expository

questions. Explicit questions had answers directly from the passage. Implicit questions

demanded the participant to make inferences from the passage in order to answer correctly. First,

the participant was asked the comprehension questions with out being able to refer back to the

reading material. Then, the participant received back the passage and was asked the same

comprehension questions. The questions were marked as right or wrong and scored out of ten.

Without look-backs the student scored five out of five explicit questions correct and three

out of five implicit questions correct. Also, with look-backs the student scored five out of five

explicit questions correct and four out of five implicit questions correct. It can be argued that the

student can understand text at the independent or nearly independent reading level because

comprehension was evident in the scores. Furthermore, it can be argued that the implemented

reading strategies increased student comprehension. Contrary, in the previous case studies these

respected reading strategies were not implemented and the data shows that student could only
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 9

comprehend at the instructional level. The reading strategies benefited the student by increasing

their comprehension.

Conclusion

The respected strategies were chosen to activate the student’s prior knowledge, encourage

active learning, and aid in retention. Multiple factors were taken into consideration when

selecting these literacy strategies. Ultimately, the student became interested in the subject matter

and increased comprehension. The student stated, “These activities are way more fun and they

are easier.” The data implies that these strategies work and I personally will implement these

activities with my own child.
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 10

References

Baldwin, R. S., Bean, T. W., & Readence, J. E. (2011). Content Area Literacy An Integrated

Approach (10th ed., pp. 1-373). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Dictionary.com LLC (2015). In Dictionary.com . Retrieved October 29, 2015, from google.com .

Fowler, A., & Liberman, I. (1995). The role of phonology and orthography in morphological

awareness. In L. Feldman (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 131–154).

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2013). Rigorous Reading 5 Access Points for Comprehending Complex

Texts (I ed., pp. 1-231). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Mahara, K. (2011). Effects of Pre-Reading Strategies on EFL/ESL Reading Comprehension

[Electronic version]. TESL CANADA JOURNAL, 28(2), 51-53.
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 11

Appendix A: Immigration-Part 2
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 12
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 13
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 14
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 15
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 16
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 17

Appendix B: Short Worthy Passage (Immigration-Part 2)

Becoming Americans
Often newcomers were torn between the old traditions and American
ways. Still, many struggled to learn the language of their new nation.
Learning English was an important step toward becoming a citizen. The
process of becoming part of another culture is called assimilation. Many
Americans opposed the increase in
immigration. They felt the newcomers
would not assimilate because their
languages, religions, and customs
were too different. However, they
were wrong. STOP
Children assimilated more
quickly than their parents. They
learned English in school and then
helped their families learn to speak it.
Because children wanted to be seen as
American, they often gave up customs
their parents honored. They played
American games and dressed in
American-style clothes. STOP

Appendix C: Generalized Vocabulary Word
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 18

Generalized Vocabulary

In this passage you read about immigrants.

1) What word would you use to describe a group of people that have already left their homes and

have already begun a new life in a different country?

Answer: “Immigrated”

2) What word would you use to describe a group of people who are in the act of leaving their

homes and are in the act of moving to a new country?

Answer: “Immigrating”

3) Do you know someone that could be described as an immigrant?

Answer: “My grandma was an immigrant. She left Guatemala because she was too poor and

looking for a better life.”
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 19

Appendix D: Verbal and Visual Word Association

Verbal and Visual Word Association

(personal association)

IMMIGRANT

(definition or description) (antonym)

(personal association)

CULTURE

(definition or description) (antonym)
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 20

Appendix E: Précis Writing

Name: _______________

Date: ________________

Précis Writing Summary

Instructions: Write a short summary of about 50-75 words that accurately describe the passage.

Also, use annotations to guide your writing.
SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY III 21

Appendix F: Annotation Text Symbols

Annotations

Symbol Meaning

* Important

______ Key word

/ I understand

O Unfamiliar

? I do not understand

! I am surprised

“words and comments” I am thinking