III.

THE EQUIPMENT OF BATIK CANTING PROCESS

1. THE EQUIPMENT TO MAKE BATIK CANTING

From time to time the process of making batik traditionally hasn’t changed much up to now. Looking at the forms and functions of batik
equipments are very traditional and unique, suitable with the ways which are still traditional. The traditional batik equipment is a part of the
traditional batik itself, because if the change is done by using modern machines, it will change the name of traditional batik into batik motive cloth.
It shows that the way to make batik has a special characteristic with the result of the traditional batik art. If we see from the time and amounts
produced, they are quite limited and the art creation from the canting drawing onto mori cloth which will produce the relatively expensive and
valuable batik art.

A. Bandul C. Dingklik
Bandul is made from tin, or wood, or Dingklik is the seat of batik
stone which is put in a pocket. the maker,the height is adjusted with
main function of bandul is to hold the height of person sitting when
back the white cloth (mori) in which making batik.
batik is being made in order not to
move blown by the wind, or the
pulling of batik maker by accident.
But without bandul, the making of
batik can be done.

D. Gawangan
Gawangan is made from wood or bamboo which is movable and strong.
The function is to hang and spread out the mori cloth when batik will be
made by using canting.

E. Wajan
Wajan (frying pan) the equipment to melt “malam” (candle to make batik). Wajan is made from steel or loam.
It’s better to have a handle in order to be easy to lift up or get down from the fire without using another
equipment. Therefore wajan that is made from loam is better than that of from metal because the handle is
not hot easily. But wajan from the loam is slower to heat “malam”.

F. Anglo (STOVE)
Anglo is made from the loam, or another material. Anglo is fire equipment to melt “malam”. Stove is made
from iron in which the wick is given. If using anglo,so the material to make the fire is charcoal from wood. If
using fire wood, anglo is changed with “keren” : this keren is much used in the villages. Basically keren is the
same with anglo, but it doesn’t have the upper layer.

G. Tepas (FAN)
Tepas is not used if the fire uses a stove. Tepas is a tool to make the fire bigger depending on the need ; and
is made from bamboo. Besides tepas, ilir is also used. Basically tepas and ilir are the same, only the form is
different. Tepas’ form is square and pointed at one of the width and the handle is at the pointed part.

Small canting carat (tip) . According to the function . This tool is made from the mixture of copper and wood or bamboo which is flexible and light. used for making four dots forming a square as a content. small. Reng-rengan (ngengrengan) is first drawing according to the pattern before it’s done further. used for forming a small circle containing dots . Usually canting reng-rengan is used especially to make its pattern framework. Canting galaran or renteng always has even tips .Canting Reng-rengan Canting reng-rengan is used to make batik reng-rengan. or to fill polan. according to the amounts of the tips. Batik from the result of taking the sample from the batik pattern framework or together with the content is called Polan.Canting Isen Canting isen is canting to make the content. It has three tips with the form triangle. canting cecekan is also used to make small lines.Canting loron. According to the number of carat (tip) Canting can be differentiated into : . . . Canting Canting is a tool to draw or paint with malam candle drawing onto the mori. Kemplongan Its function is to cover and protect the batik Kemplongan is a tool made from wood of which form is maker’s tigh from the drop of malam like table and hammer and it’s used to soften the mori (candle) from canting. J. b. and is used to make small dots (Javanese : cecek). the way to arrange is by pricking. a bed made from bamboo which is formed horizontal.Big canting carat c. arranged from the bottom and up. Canting isen has either singular or double small tip. Canting Can Be Differentiated Into Some Kinds : a. Canting reng-rengan has a singular and middle tip. This canting has five tips to make a small rectangle which is made from four lines and one dot in the middle. Taplak(TABLE CLOTH) I. Canting determines the name of batik that will be produced to become drawing batik. Canting cecekan has one tip. The Pictures of Canting Form . Besides to make small dots for the content. A person who makes dots by using canting cecekan is called “nyeceki”. cloth before it’s given batik motive pattern and made. If canting telon is used for making batik. The pattern is the drawing which is used as a model sample. This canting has double tips. four tips or more : maximally six tips.Canting cecekan. Reng-rengan means framework. Loron derives from the word loro which means two. Canting byok Canting byok is canting that has seven tips or more. a dot or more. -.Canting prapatan Prapatan is from the word four. According to how big is the tip Canting can be differentiated into : .Middle canting carat . . . or how small or big the circle is. up and down to make double lines. The person who makes batik reng-rengan is called ngengreng. So this canting has four tips.Canting liman Liman means five.Canting telon Telon is from the word three. while isen or the content of the part in which batik is made uses canting isen according to the content of the part wanted. so it will be seen triangle which is formed from three dots as a content. -. -Canting renteng or galaran Galaran derives from the word galar. Canting byok usually has odd tips. Renteng is a set of things in lines .H.

The need of mori . If you will take some kacu . and the kinds will determine the result of batik painting. if it’s longer.The size of mori Mori which is needed is related to the length of cloth wanted. the following information might be useful : 1. There is also a certain need like udheng or head cover. attach the same length side by folding the mori. it will add the perfection in the usage. But cloth’s size is not certain. so hold the corner of mori by using right and left hand by turns. 2. therefore it cannot be used suitable with the common use.2. The way to measure is only to hold both corners of mori on the wide side and attach one of the corner to the length side across the width of mori. If short. Because the need of mori from some cloth is not the same. MORI CLOTHI Mori is the main material of batik from cotton. Udheng’s size can be more or less than the need . The qualities of mori are various. it will influence the perfection of its usage .

Then mori is lifted and washed to release the dirt when it is boiled. Dodot cloth (batik wraparound worn by courtiers and bridegrooms) needs 7 kacu of mori. mori has to be processed first. and finally becomes stiff. After wantu is hot. but practically it can be just a half kacu. so lines must be made on mori first. any rice is used as long as it is white. it is directly dried. The side cloth needs 2 or 2. The dry mori is put inside tajin all over . then it is hardened with kanji. Therefore udheng lembaran’s batik can be made based on two kinds of batik motive with one of the edges is diagonal. In Blora. without being pressed. Folded here means sewn at the cutting in order that “pakan” thread doesn’t lose. The small or big of the line isn’t same. in order that the thread becomes loose and limp. Actually it just needs a half kacu of cloth. the user is free to choose which motives will be put outside. The hitting is called “dikemplong”. we can determine the batik motive wanted. There are two kinds of udheng. An expert batik maker doesn’t use the lining. then it is washed with water until clean. so the dirt will retain the absorption of candle liquid (malam material to make batik) and retain the colour liquid in the process of washing. In term of udheng . Its water is taken and called tajin. Rice is put in the water for a few minutes . The material of kanji is from rice. The finished head cover (udheng jadi) is already formed. After being hit (dikemplong). If mori is dirty. so the person uses it directly. then rice together with its water are boiled. then it needs to be dried. The last udheng needs one kacu of mori . after being washed. another half is folded inside only as a thickness. Dodot cloth is usually used by the Royal family or the classic dancers. according to the desire or the size of the user. After being folded . The boiling takes a few minutes. Usually the wood ruler shapes rectangle.5 kacu. The way to put mori inside wantu. After being washed. so the candle liquid can be absorbed. clean mori is put inside. In Yogyakarta and Surakarta mori is sun-dried until it’s dry after being washed. starts from the edge up to the end in order. or another motive that needs a certain shape. Udheng needs one kacu of mori. After he finishes. The function of puting lines is to determine the motive place in order to be tidy. The good processing will determine the good cloth. But because the price is expensive. While “udheng lembaran” ( head cover in a sheet form) is formed when using it on the head of the user. If we want parang-parangan motive. then mori is boiled. depending on the batik motive planning. Processing mori before being made into batik Before being made into batik. it is taken off again. But in Blora (Central Java). . 3. Benang pakan (“pakan” thread) is thread that crosses on the weaving. The processing of mori is as follow : Mori that has been cut is folded. Mori gets soft. “udheng lembaran” ( head cover cloth in sheet form) and “udheng jadi” ( finished head cover). so the function of dodot cloth is replaced with the common and long cloth. then it is hit on the certain place with a certain way . After mori is damp. and cuts it diagonally.

After all finish. color that can affect mori color . directly doubled with the pattern on the mori face vice versa.  “Malam Timur” is the best “malam”.  “Malam Sedang”(middle malam) the material and origin hasn’t been known.The way to move the wood ruler after the first to the second line is by turning around. So the width of the space between the lines is determined by the amounts of the wood ruler turning. The quality affects on the absorption power.  . But in our usage. Mori in which semen motive batik will be made. without lifting it.  “Malam Putih” (white malam) taken from latung oil made in factory. 3. the softnes of the liquid. In term of “malam”. This type hasn’t been known about the material. doesn’t needs to be lined.  “Malam Klanceng” is “malam” from the nest of Klanceng bee. Actually “malam” isn’t used up (lost). so the batik making process can be started. its prices are different one another. etc. and taken by the same way above. Tolo tawon is separated from the eggs by boiling them. The types of “malam” are : “Malam Tawon” (bee) is “malam” that is taken from bee nest (tolo tawon). CANDLE (“MALAM”) Candle or “malam” is the material used to make batik. because finally it will taken back in the washing process. it can be explained as follows : 1. Therefore.the making process till becoming batik cloth.  “Malam Kuning” (yellow malam) taken from latung oil made in factory. The Kinds of Malam and Its Mixture “Malam” that is used for making batik has various types. it depends on the need.

if it will be made in parang-parangan batik motive or the other motives which need a certain shape and straight. To control the canting tip from the possibility of being clogged up by the dirt of malam. Its color is black and only for mixture. scratched on the mori. Keren. perhaps because of the . The difference is caused by the top of canting tip has curve form and big pipe. b. So the hole of the point tip is pricked using ijuk. c. 3. The person whose job is making batik is called “pengobeng”.  Gandarukem is the mixture material. 1. but the canting handle is horizontal while pencil to write is leaning. the maker starts her work. In order to get out through canting tip well. She is already an expert. Both making batik rujak and making batik using the pattern are usually done by the experts.  Keplak is the mixture material. THE BATIK PROCESS Mori that has been hit (dikemplongi) and lined. The Preparation of Making Batik a. While making batik by using pattern has been explained before. To vanish malam liquid that wets the canting tip . First holding canting. “Malam” must be in good liquid. and “Malam Klanceng” 50 pieces of cent coins. in order that malam inside the container/nyamplungan not to be spilled on the maker’s lips. To return malam liquid back to the tip inside container (nyamplungan). because it is dangerous iflicking malam inside the frying pan. especially when canting is first processed on the mori. the way to blow also uses a certain rule. If it is clogged up. then making batik on the mori. in order not to drop before the tip of canting is attached on the mori. pointed finger. or coconut coarse till it enters along the tip. it’s blown again. as a basis of mori that is being scratched by canting. The way to hold canting is different from holding a pen. canting is blown first. because the air cannot enter. the maker (pengobeng) takes the boiling malam in the frying pan. while pen or pencil are straight. If malam liquid inside the container is used up. besides that malam can be absorbed well into mori. because the beginning level is the determination how good the batik form as the whole is. or doesn’t run well. Canting which is blown is meant: 1. or anglo (fire tool) and frying pan containing “malam” must be prepared to start making batik. Canting in a good condition is then. But for the beginner or learner usually just “nerusi” or “ngisen-ngiseni” (to continue or to fill). or directly made on the mori. Before it is made. 2.  2. d. it is usually made without using the pattern (dirujak). The fire in the anglo or keren should be kept burning. so the liquid inside the container (nyamplungan) doesn’t sound. The left hand is on the other side of mori. but cannot flame. Gawangan stands the left side and keren on the right side of the maker. The specialty of pricking is using the left hand with a certain way quickly. because the canting tip that smeared with malam liquid will reduce the quality of scratch. Holding canting is with top thumb.That position of canting like that is to keep malam in the container not to be spilled. The maker sits between gawangan and keren or anglo. 4. The Mixing Way of Malam The rule to mix malam is as follows: White malam as many as 100 pieces of cent coins (cent money in Dutch period) with black malam (sangkal) 50 pieces of cent coins. 4. With the canting. or “Malam Timur” 100 pieces of cent coins with “malam” from the used batik that has got “wedelan” as many as 50 pieces of cent coins. Mori that has been prepared must be on gawangan near anglo or keren. “Malam Songkal” taken from latung oil made in factory. Usually after being pricked. The person who makes this batikan is called “ngrujak”. and middle finger like holding a pencil to write. or pencil to write. After all are ready. and malam klanceng 50 pieces of cent coins.

never called“rentengan”. to cover the stages of giving color into the cloth. Nerusi is the same with mola and the first batikan process functions as pattern. Canting tembokan has a big tip. or will be given various colors at the finishing to be cloth. d. It is done till the end. while the result is always called “galaran”. Making nerusi is making batik which follows the first batikan motive on the track of pricking. the name is based on the canting name used. for example “nyeceki” (making motive consisting of dots). although the members of makers are many. turned the surface. The parts that will be covered with malam usually among the main motives. the parts that will not be given color. canting is dipped up to malam liquid in the frying pan. So it means to give content or to fill. The way to cover it is the same with making batikan at other parts by using canting tembokan.Batik with complete content is called “reng-rengan”. the result is called telon. The maker (pengobeng) who makes from the first till finishes nerusi is called “ngengreng”. That’s the first finishing. Its canting is used the same with that of for ngengreng nerusi especially to thicken the pricking of the first batikan making process and also to clear the finish batikan at this stage. Nembok usually uses the low quality of malam. e. The first is canting can be used in turn for a group of “pengobeng” (makers of different work). b. is always called ngalari. The second advantage is to reduce the numbersof canting in the same type. Besides that. 2. malam functions are toform motives. covered parts are big and thick enough. but depending on the motive that will be made. The way to use canting from one type to another has many advantages. c. Because the name isreng-rengan so the maker who makes since the first time till the end is called “ngengreng”. this part should be finished all. Those steps are: a. Batikan in the form of ngengrengan is then. If twopersons want to use the same canting at the same time. while there is only one canting. It is still called “ngengrengan”. The Steps of Making Batik The steps of making batik on the mori must be done step by step. either after using the pattern or “ngrujak” is called “batik kosongan”. The doer is called “Nembok” or “Nemboki” and the result is called “tembokan”. The return of cold malam liquid doesn’t have a big effect to malam in the frying pan. Basically. But using canting galaran or canting renteng. so one of them can delay it and change another work with differentcanting. Nembok A batik is not all given color. that is using canting cecekan. while without the pattern is called “ngrujak”. Nembok is only in the front face of mori. but canting that has big tip doesn’t have a problem. The activity of doing the parts has its own name . in which actually color is to form batik motive. they have different step of work.Ngisen-iseni by using small tip canting is also called “canting isen” which is various. Making the framework Making the framework by using the pattern is called “mola”. Although malam is full with dirt. Mori in which batik is already made in the form of framework. For instance it needs various kinds of canting isen because of the variety. and each part must be finished before another part is done with another canting. Neloni is using canting talon. the result is cecekan. The names are: nyeceki. and made again on the second surface. So. The process of giving the name is by changing the canting name into verb. But a piece of mori doesn’t always use all kinds of canting isen. while the result of the work is taken from the name of canting used. etc. coldness. Each step can be done by different person but a piece of mori cannot be done by different person in the same time. and includes covering the certain parts with malam. and never called “ngrentengi”. or “klowongan”.(nemboki). Nerusi Nerusi is the second finishing. Canting that is used is middle tip canting (canting cucuk sedang). or will be given color after other parts must be covered with malam. that is also called canting klowongan. So“ngengrengan” is the unity of motive from the whole wanted. Bliriki . ngisen-iseni Ngisen-iseni is from the word “isi” (content). so the bad malam used to cover can be overcome. But making batik must be one by one. so malam should put back into the frying pan . Mrapati is using canting prapatan.

The freezing of malam like this is not good. Bliriki is to continue the covering (nemboki) so that the some certain parts are really covered. batikan should be lifted carefully in the cool place. But if it is dried. Besides that. The materials for mbabar are : a. f. usually called “tembokan”. The differences influence the quality of cloth produced by every area. for the mixture. There are some persons using the certain duration. TAJIN It is boiling water when cooking rice. The expanding process strengthen the sticking of malam that starts to melt. Since the ancient period. and malam is lost easily. The difference is only the comparison of the material used. the way to do mbabar is basically the same. because between mori and malam strengthen the sticking each other. d. before it is melt. 5. but some others only use the estimation. 1. TEBU(sugar cane) Sugar cane is taken from the sugar or its drops. Because “malam” (boiled) when it was used to make batik and stick with cold mori would freeze suddenly because of the quick process. because batikan is sometimes broken. Nila was used to make batikan with other materials. And this stage is to release“malam”. The Material for Mbabar Generally to process batikan to be cloth (mbabar). we come to the next work. NILA Nila is from tarum plant. after the stages finish. that is to process it to be cloth. batikan will freeze throughout. there is a chemical process. b. while ‘time’ has a big effect on the chemical process. batikan was dried till “malam” almost melt. But this process hadn’t been known deeply by the persons who did mbabar long time ago. Then the batikan work is done. c. The result of bliriki is called “blirikan”. so batik finishes before covering. Actually making batik is called finish if the last process finishes. It is possible because on the mbabar stage. e. tarum was used to make the clothes color. or if the batik doesn’t need covering. we use the natural material with simple process. and mori is also heated. If the last stage has finished. This cooling process has an advantage. SAREN Saren is from the word sari which means core or essence. . There is one area in which the comparison of the mixed material has been fixed suitable with the cloth wanted. In Java there is a word “saren” which means the cow blood that is cut and cooked. Drying was meant in order that candle in mori wasn’t easily lost. After batikan is really covered. the heating process will happen throughout. Mori that gets sunlight will expand and can absorb. saren is a materialor mixture from several materials to dip batikan after soga. SOGA Soga is the name of plant from papilionaceae family and has a yellow color. In some areas. but it is rarely called like that. ENJET(lime for chewing with betel leaves/ kapur sirih) It is used for the mixture. or or get close to the finishing. Here. But there is also an area that doesn’t use the fixed comparison and only uses estimation based on the experience. Bliriki uses canting tembokan and the way is the same as nemboki. the difference is also on the duration needed for each mbabar stage. MBABAR Mbabar is the finishing process from batikan to be cloth. (Java tom). it means that the process finishes as well. Indonesia is rich with the natural resources. Long time ago in Surakarta. In the cool place.

the color will get green. The sediment of mixtured latak is added with new latak as many as 2 pikul and sugar drop for one batok ( batok is meant coconut shell divided into two. parts that need blue color are given blue (dibironi). Now nila is yellow. The way to cover is the same with making tembokan and bliriki batik. batikan is lifted and washed into plain water and dried in the cool place.5 kacu. A container is filled with 21 pikul and another is empty. . so the water above the sediment is taken and moved to the empty container. The lifting from the soaking and the placement till subsiding (atus) is called “kasirep” (“kasirep” is taken from the word sirep which means “subside”).5 big bowls (pinggan). batikan is dried again. prepare water 24 pikul. and the flesh is taken). Before it. Now batik is completely black. The second lifting and sun-drying is called “kageblogi” (it is from the word “geblok” which means a way to hit. The dyeing takes about 2 hours. The amounts of latak are 3 pikul. Batik that has been rubbed is then washed again (dibilas) till the washing water is clean. In the afternoon it is added with black nila for 1. one pikul is about 40 liters. after that they are lifted from soaking and put on the hangers without being spread. After it is enough. If batikan is already black. After it has finished. To return the color to be yellow. Nila after the dyeing is added with the sediment of nila 1. then give kanji (layer) by using “spoiled tajin” with cane sugar.2. “malam” in reng-rengan and terusan batik are rubbed down by using a special tool till clean: while “malam” in blirikan and tembok aren’t rubbed. This addition is called “nglawuhi” (it is from the word lawuh which means side-dish for eating). Latak is the sediment of nila liquid. each 2. The next morning at about 6 am. In the morning of the third or fourth day. parts that don’t need blue color are covered with “malam”. while malam function on mori hasn’t finished. The comparison of the mixture is 3 glasses of tajin and sugar as weight as 3 pieces of cent coin.5 big bowls soon. Batikan that has been dry is soaked in water till “malam” bluduk. A container that contains water is then given latak. If batikan has been covered completely. If it is too yellow. till batik gets black. till there is no water drop (atus). enter batik into nila mixture like mentioned above. if the condition of latak in the mixture has looked black. then it is entered into nila again for two hours. Nila in such amount is for 30 pieces. cannot make batikan black. But if there are too many enjet. (bluduk is like a condition to drop off). After batikan is dry. If it’s not yellow. we come to the third stage that is “soga”. If it subsides (atus). The color of the mixture will get yellow. After being given kanji. it is entered again into nila. then lifted and sun-dried until dry. the work improves to the first step of changing batikan into cloth. and dried again in the cool place. But the meaning and function of nglawuhi in the process to change batik into cloth (mbabar) is as a perfection. Medel And Mbironi The main material for medel is nila (tarum). After being dry. it is enough to be given Java vinegar or sugar drop. the work stops. First. Being too yellow is caused by the lack of enjet (lime for chewing with betel leaves/kapur sirih). give sugar drop and vinegar till the color becomes yellow according to the need. steered in the morning and afternoon for 2 or 3 days. This work is done several times. The steps are s follows: A. it will be dangerous because it can drop off “malam”. batikan can already be entered into the black nila in the container (jambangan). After that. After batikan is dry. or a group measurement). The Process of Batikan into Cloth This process is devided into several stages and must be finished in order.

Then batikan is given blue color. steer until shattered. That is perhaps the defeat in wedelan stage. Batik reng-rengan must be rubbed till clean like the way above. this is still the first step of giving soga. The difference from the previous way is without the first drying. Besides that. After batikan is hit in hot water. After finishing nyoga. then it is washed and dried. If it is dry. the process of mbabar batikan has finished. Till this stage is called “ambabar”. enter into a container which contains warm soga. or without being dried. After settling. After that. Up to here. B.then dried. batikan is given saren (nyareni). Then it is lifted. Hitting in hot water is called “nglorot” or “nglungsur”. but directly dipped into “tajin” (disekuli). then press the whole. After being rubbed. then lifted till subside. and spread on that container in order that soga can drop to that container again. the usage of each soga will be different on the level. batikan is given soga. The steps are: batikan is folded spirally (diwiru). Nyoga After being given blue color (mbironi) and dry. Every morning batikan in the form of cloth is condensed. it is then given blue color. soaking water is poured into kenceng (a kind of container). Chalk and sugar mix with water in a container. then washed and sun-dried. The sun-drying of batikan is called “dikemplang”. the comparison of nila mixed with other material isn’t certain. If soga doesn’t drop again. Now. but depending on the estimation of the maker. moved to a cool place till completely dry. DAFTAR PUSTAKA . then sun-dry till half dry. Batikan is entered into kenceng till the whole parts. After subsiding. hit in hot water in order that “malam” will lose.

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