INTRODUCTION TO SPACE SYSTEMS

SPACE TECHNOLOGY LIBRARY
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The Space Technology Library Editorial Board

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Editorial Board: Val A. Chobotov, Consultant on Space Hazards to the Aerospace Corporation;
Michael L. DeLorenzo, Permanent Professor and Head of the Dept. of
Astronautics, U.S. Air Force Academy;
Roland Doré, Professor and Director International Space University, Strasbourg;
Robert B. Giffen, Professor Emeritus, U.S. Air Force Academy;
Gwynne Gurevich, Space Exploration Technologies;
Wiley J. Larson, Professor, U.S. Air Force Academy;
Tom Logsdon, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Space Division,
Rockwell International;
F. Landis Markley, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center;
Robert G. Melton, Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University;
Keiken Ninomiya, Professor, Institute of Space & Astronautical Science;
Jehangir J. Pocha, Letchworth, Herts.;
Frank J. Redd, Professor and Chair, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept., Utah State University;
Rex W. Ridenoure, Jet Microcosm, Inc., Torrance;
Malcolm D. Shuster, Professor of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics and
Engineering Science, University of Florida;
Gael Squibb, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology;
Martin Sweeting, Professor of Satellite Engineering, University of Surrey

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Miguel A. Aguirre

Introduction to Space
Systems
Design and Synthesis

in its current version. or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. trademarks. specifically the rights of translation. and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way. etc. even in the absence of a specific statement. All rights are reserved by the Publisher.1007/978-1-4614-3758-1 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2012936646 Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 This work is subject to copyright. whether the whole or part of the material is concerned. Duplication of this publica- tion or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location.com) . neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. express or implied. Aguirre Velazquez 87 Piso 7 Izq (7th Floor Left) Madrid 28006 Spain ISBN 978-1-4614-3757-4 ISBN 978-1-4614-3758-1 (eBook) DOI 10. The use of general descriptive names. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www. service marks. reuse of illustrations. The publisher makes no warranty. electronic adaptation. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. broadcasting. registered names. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system. and transmission or information storage and retrieval. reprinting. recitation. with respect to the material contained herein.Miguel A. computer software. in this publication does not imply. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

Furthermore. Indeed. as well as to cost. Experts in specific engineering disciplines reading this book would gain from understanding the overall flow of design and how the different engi- neering disciplines interact with each other. I have become v . they need to have a synthetic view. analysis and design of the critical elements. and none of them have been specifically dedicated to it. and I have written this book from a generalist perspective. that is. all existing space engineer- ing books focus on analysis. it is necessary to have not only an analytical perspective but also a synthetic perspective. and mission success probabilities. It will also be of interest to managers who require an interdisciplinary understanding of space systems and how each element interacts with the others. The early design of a space system is a small but important phase of space system implementation. focusing on the interactions of the conflicting factors that drive the design. which influence the definition of a space system. The early design also requires understanding how the main space system constituents fit together. but the synthetic perspective is not. with the interrelations between all the elements of the space system. There are only a few texts that cover the early design of space systems. mission objectives. The analyti- cal approach is well covered by many texts. They are responsible for ensuring fulfillment of the identified users’ needs. this book has a single author. It deserves its own text. and coherence between all the sys- tem elements. nevertheless. I am not an expert in any of the specialized engineering areas described in the book. To have this understanding. It will also be of interest to advanced students of space system engineering as an overview of spacecraft systems engineer- ing interactions. Foreword The definition of all space systems starts with the establishment of their fundamental parameters: requirements to be fulfilled. I have devoted most of my professional life to the early design of space sys- tems. overall system and satellite design. development approach. and cost and schedule. The book will be of use to anybody who has some professional experience and is interested in acquiring a generalist perspective over a space system as an end-to-end system with all its richness of interactions. On the other hand. This book is aimed at space system engineers. both technical and nontechnical. end-to-end performance. risk. and they need to have an overall perspective of the space system. this book will not be adequate for students of space engineering who have not gone through a previous course on space systems analysis and technologies. This is the phase where the most fundamental decisions are taken. This emphasis on the “synthetic general perspective” is what justifies the single authorship of the book. through my experience in space system overall design. None of them deal with space system synthesis. This book aims to understand the interaction between all the forces. It is their job to design and then implement the space system. It refers to the entire system: space and ground segments. both technical and pro- grammatic. Books with a synthetic perspective are necessary. Quite exceptionally for a book on space system design.

Earth Observation missions. While often addressing complex scientific issues. For this same reason. written as it is by a single author. included numerous examples from Space Sciences and some from Space Communications missions to illustrate various points of interest. . Meteorological or environmental monitoring missions are clear examples of this. is inevitably biased by my own expe- rience. Hence. I have. This generalist perspective is going to be the perspective of the book.vi Introduction to Space Systems a specialist in generalities and a specialist in the interactions of all the engineering areas. they always involve the delivery of mis- sion products that elucidate or resolve issues of importance to society. manned missions have not been treated. on the other hand. it is richer in examples drawn from Earth Observation missions than from other types of space missions. these kinds of missions must be considered from a myriad of angles beyond those strictly concerned with satellite design. That is. This book. however. arguably provide the best framework for gaining a thorough end-to-end perspective of space systems. End users of these products frequently utilize the acquired data to make decisions of importance to wide sectors of society.

who reviewed the work and provided many valuable suggestions. This allowed me to benefit from his vast experience of space system design. Special thanks must go to all my colleagues at the Future Earth Observation Division – headed by Pierluigi Silvestrin – all of whom provided much needed encouragement and helpful input. Special thanks are also due to David Simpson from Astrium UK (retired). vii . Acknowledgments This book was produced with the help of a large number of European Space Agency (ESA) colleagues. who reviewed the entire text in detail.

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.................................................... 32 2........................................................ Project management....... Interfaces management ....................... 1 1.......4..........4.......3..................... Manufacturing assembly........................................ 28 2................................... 16 2 Space Disciplines ......................................... System analysis .4................................................ 14 1...................................7......................................................... What is a space system? .9............ Electrical power....1. 32 2................................................. 30 2..... 25 2.3.... Propulsion. 27 2.. Architecture definition formalisms... Software...........4........ Engineering support disciplines .......................................2..4........... Design and configuration definition ......1...................... The perspective during the system architecture definition phases....... 20 2.............2...................................2........................... Instruments engineering.6............... 36 2..... 37 2...... 18 2. 24 2................................1..... 35 2........5..1..2............4.......................... Attitude control ................ 23 2...................8....... Space system engineering ..... 31 2.............................................................4............... vii 1 Introduction ................................. Satellite engineering disciplines .... Roles in the architecture definition process ............................................................1.........1......... 8 1........................1..................................................................................... 10 1......................................... 5 1....2...........8............ Recommended supplementary reading ..........................................4.............. 34 2.............3.. Requirements engineering ............. Thermal control .... 19 2..... Integration and control ..1................................. Structure .............................. verification..................................1...........6........................ 27 2.................. Verification ....................... Data handling ................................4...............................................5......2....................... Space system architecting ...........................................................3........................................7............................. Communications....................................................4.............4.. and testing engineering............6.......... Project phases and project reviews .................................. v Acknowledgments ............... 17 2................................ 29 2..6.2............................................................................................................................1..................... 40 ix ...........................................1.................................................... 21 2................... Design and implementation as a evolving process .............4.5..............................6......2.... 22 2.......................... 2 1. integration............... 33 2. 37 2............... 19 2... Mechanisms ....... The architect in the classical role ............. 15 1................... Contents Foreword .......6..............4.....5.............................. Aim of the book .... Product assurance ........................... Terminology ...........................1...... 13 1.... 22 2.......................

......................... 72 4. The programmatic framework as constraint ............. 92 ........2........9. 85 4..............1..............2........................................2...........5...................... System effectiveness metrics........5..9......... Requirements versus constraints................................ 42 2...............5............................8.................4.4.....1.... Requirements engineering ....................3............................... Apollo ........ 59 3..................... 78 4..................8........................ Single satellite versus multiple satellites cost ........ 48 3............................... Value engineering ............2...... 58 3........ 82 4.. Requirements for technical specifications .................2........ 74 4...... 76 4........ 73 4....2...1..................1.................2.....3. Advancement of science.............8.x Introduction to Space Systems 2............. Technical readiness and technical development ..........................10..................... 71 4. Levels of system decomposition ............ Cost engineering .........5............... 70 4.................. 65 4................ Cost ............................. 69 4................ The risk of cost estimations ........ Operational ...................2.............. 53 3............... 68 4...............................5.. Qualitative risk management . 86 4................................ Type of projects by projects criticality .......... 66 4............ 88 4. Private versus public communications and Earth observation ......................... 69 4. Requirements types ....1..2................. 75 4.......................... 62 4 Constraints and Design................ 45 3........2.......................9........3........ Technical demonstration............................9...........................6........................ Specification and requirements types ....... 66 4.............. 80 4............. 81 4..................3.......................4.............. and Design ...........2.............6.....8....... The external environment of a space project ...........1..............4......... Capabilities demonstration ..................................... Types of projects by project aims ........6.........7...... Specifications. 55 3..................................7.. Forecasting and scenario analysis .....................4........................................................................................ History of selected past space endeavors..... 45 3...9... Management trends as constraints ................6............ Quantitative risk management .............................4...4. Schedule constraints .........5......5................ 41 2.................... The consumer: the scientist behind the mission ........1........................ 72 4...............3.............................. Types of projects by project size...... The different values of requirements. 55 3..........................................4....... Specification types..........................8............11........................... 82 4................................................... Requirements and verifiability ...................... Risk constraints ..1.... Satellite data output processing ................... STEP analysis .............2.....................................3................................ 72 4................................................ 91 4............ 60 3....................2...............................3.......... 76 4.... 82 4........................................................................1.3........... Top-down cost estimation .... Bottom-up cost estimation . Developmental approach and model philosophy .3...................................... 43 2.....2....................................... 65 4............................... 43 3 Requirements.. 48 3............. Satellite flight operations ...........

....... Phase 0...... 152 7................................................................4.1........................................ Trade-offs and design ...............1......1....... 127 5...................1...... Nonnumerical support to decision making .............. 115 5...................................... The system definition process as recurrent and linear ......1.......1......................................5... The observables and instruments domain ..5........ 144 6........ 121 5.............. The orbit and attitude domain ......... Concurrent engineering ............... Design against constraints ... 133 6.......................4.......... The instrument output data flow domain......1.... 143 6..... 141 6........... Parallel developments .......................... 151 7............................... 119 5...... 109 5............................... 130 6................3.......... Nonprobabilistic numerical approaches in situation of uncertainty............... Review procedure .........1......2............. Reviews during the mission definition stages . 127 5.............................. Design and mission performances .......6............3................. system design...........................3................... 147 7.................... 106 5...........3..................6........... 128 6 System Definition as a Diachronic Process .... The satellite configuration domain .......... System definition as a linear process .. Technical maturity improvement............................................................... Numerical support to decision making ..........2......5............ 135 6................... Space system elements ......4.................... Scientific understanding advancement ........................................ mistakes. 141 6...........5...5......4. 139 6...... The satellite operations data flow domain ...........................................8...................4.......... 147 7........................ 106 5.... 149 7.............. 144 7 Introduction to the Design Domains................... 134 6..5.............................................2............... Effectiveness metrics limitations......3........... 108 5. 122 5.... Dependability .............1......5.........................2.................3.................... Design against requirements ...................................................... 129 6.................2...8....................................................................................Contents xi 5 System Design as a Synchronic Process .............. 137 6.......3............................................... System definition as a recursive process ............................... 127 5...2................... 124 5...2.......... System specification........................... 98 5....4.........2.... 126 5.............................................5............ 105 5........8.................................................... Functional analysis and functional decomposition ........ Design interactions and design domains...................... Schedule .... 96 5...........2...3..........8..................................3..... Mission effectiveness metrics ..................................................1............... 104 5... 129 6.......5.... Probabilistic approaches .............................................1...1.. and system architect ............................................5. 156 ......... 103 5..........................................1........................... Risk........3............. Deterministic approaches ..... Analysis and design ............. Budget allocation engineering ........... Phase A ..... 116 5....... Cost...... 113 5...2..3........................3..1...3........ Tools for design .......................5......... Mission milestones and reviews .... 101 5....7......... and errors ...................... 95 5... Safety margins............................. 154 7.. 100 5...........3............................................................ Phase B1 ..6............6..5.........................................................1.......1........6..

.............................. The end-to-end performance . 171 7................................................... Instruments examples ..............................3...............1. Scanning ................2.................1.............................. 193 8..... Passive microwave .................................. 201 8..6...........................6.. Responsiveness. Instrument interfaces .................. In situ instruments ... Sentinel-3 ... Data quantity and quality versus number of satellites...2..............7....................5..3................................... 158 7....3.............2......................................7.....4.......1.................................2.................................................. Observations and rotation of the line of sight .. 217 8............. Active microwave............................ 193 8....................................3.........................7...........7... Passive optical ..... 174 7....7.................. 213 8................................... 171 7....................................... Systems of systems .....................4..... Solid aperture versus deployable versus synthetic aperture . 185 8.... Multi-satellite design aspects ..... 214 8.......2....6. Comparison of the missions ........3................................................................5......... 180 8...... 223 8....xii Introduction to Space Systems 7....3...........2.3......... 203 8.............................. Ulysses .4. 211 8........ Megha-Tropiques ................. 200 8.......................1........ 206 8...3........ Communication payloads ....... Mission life versus number of satellites .................................... Mission descriptions .......2.............................................................................................................4.............. 187 8..................4......... 198 8........................... Elements and components involved in the observables and instruments domain .... JWST ............................................. 177 8..........4......................... 157 7............................1................... 223 8..... 195 8................... Image distortion................................1............................4....... Allocation of budgets ................3... 217 8.1...................2..... Active optical ....5................ 175 8 The Observables and Instruments Domain .................................... 181 8.....................4.. Internal and external calibration ................. Observation frequency and atmosphere .. 223 8..................... MTF ............4.......... Data quantity ......................................................................3.......3.........2........... 212 8.....2........4.................................6.2.............2..............3....4............................................ Observational needs as design drivers ........ The astronomical observatory missions as an example of space system design............................... Radiometric quality ......................6......... Observables and instrument selection .4...5.........2.................. 207 8..........................3.... 178 8.................. acquisition delay..................................2...............................................3. and latency . Resolution versus altitude ... 221 8............. Allocation of functions ....................2....................................................... Data quality .....2......... Observatory mission highest-level design interactions ................................. End-to-end performance as design driver .... 188 8...........8.................... Aeolus.1................3..4.............................. 196 8....... 193 8..... 221 8..............................2............... 220 8................ 209 8.................2. 163 7........ 201 8........................4....................... 224 .... 192 8. 169 7...6...6........................................... Systematic versus interactive observation..................................

......................2............................... 291 9... 241 9.......2.......... MEO ............2.........1....7................. 273 9................. and pointing corrections ....................3.....5....... Coverage and revisit ........ 281 9........4..4.........4.4.2.4.1.... Orbits around other planets ..................... 239 9....3................... Low Earth Orbit (LEO) ..........4.... image acquisition... 252 9.4..................... pointing perturbing torques.......1.................... Neutral atmosphere..............2................................. 240 9............................... 283 9.............. 272 9........ 264 9...................1.......... Iridium ....................6....................9................1..................................... Longer period Earth orbit ....6...9..............1... 230 9..3...... Gravity-gradient attitude control ........... Attitude selection...........6................................4...........................1.............. Orbit determination and correction ............ 255 9..... Rotating satellites .................................................7........... 291 9.... 249 9.......................................... 247 9.............2. pointing perturbations.......................3..... 286 9.. 245 9.......................................................3.... 270 9.................................. Mission phases and modes and satellite attitude ......8....... The space environment as orbit and attitude design driver ........................2................ Uncontrolled satellite attitude ............................ 268 9............ Sentinel-3 .................... Orbits and orbit types...................3.. Inertially stabilized attitude control.. 293 9.......................4..............2........................1. 229 9....... Launchers .6........... Lagrangian points ...... 284 9........................................... 293 .......... Pleiades..............2.......... Satellite and instruments pointing and pointing perturbations ....... Allocation of functions .......................... 227 9....4..........3.......3.......................................................4........... Pointing control........ 259 9.............. 261 9..................... Attitude determination and control..... 237 9.........................3....Contents xiii 9 The Orbit and Attitude Domain ................................7........................................................... LEO Sun-synchronous orbit .......... 229 9......... Geosynchronous and geostationary orbits....5..... Nadir pointing ............................... The space environment outside the Earth.......................4................. Ulysses .........2.6................................................................... 259 9... 266 9.......................................................2... 257 9....... Elements and components involved in the domain ......... 245 9...5....... 238 9.....9......................8...3.......... 262 9...... Earth’s magnetic field.......7............................................................................ Geometry around the satellite ..............8....2...............................7.............5.... 264 9............. Attitude and attitude types .......................... 248 9......................... 246 9. 242 9........................... and frequency ranges ...... Pointing control...........8. Pointing error types ...........................1........................4............2.......6... Interplanetary orbits ............... 289 9..........................8........ Gravity field........................................... 261 9....3................2..1..............9............3.... Solar radiation ......1................ Inertial satellites ...........................2.............. 234 9......... Orbit and attitude examples ....... Stabilized by rotation attitude control ................................................................. Dual spin and momentum bias attitude control ............. 243 9..... Orbit selection ................ 282 9......................... 237 9...............................................................3....3.................6..........................1............ Ionosphere radiation . 250 9..

331 10.........4..............................4..................4..............10.............................10................................. Ulysses .................... The geometry around the satellite and the configuration...1. Co-registration .............. 320 10..........5.......... 324 10............................ Pointing stability realization and recovery ..........6..2..... Pointing by the instrument versus pointing by the satellite ............2..............1. GOCE ...................3.................... Allocation of performances ................................... 333 10................. 318 10.... 350 10................11............ Delta V and fuel .............3.. 356 10........................3.... Electromagnetic radiation environment . Configuration examples .... Components involved in the domain ..... Launcher .................... Instruments line of sight pointing and recovery ........ Space environment generated external forces and torques ................... 342 10. Earth and deep space .............................4..................4... 330 10...............................................3............2............................. 365 10........ 366 10.......4....................3......... The external environment as configuration driver .........4............... Repointing agility requirements . JWST ........................................3.................. 320 10.....5............... 329 10.......... 369 .3. Other effects of the external environment ..2..........7.................... Allocation of functions ............ 313 10..1...........10..................................... 365 10................ Mass budget ......................... Geo-locating .................................4..3.............1........................................... Load environment ....................... 313 10............................... Satellite location .....5...6...........1..............................3.. 334 10...............1........ Structure .................1...8...............2........10....... Nadir-pointed satellites .......................... 303 9............ Heat budget ............................. 315 10...10............................. Agile satellites ...............................2..1........10.....2..........................2.....................10........... 359 10....2..................................................................................... 355 10..................... 337 10............2.............1............................ 362 10..............................................1....... Standard platform versus dedicated platform ..... 356 10... Deployable structure and mechanisms: Fixed versus deployable .....5................6............................... Mechanisms ..............................4............. Thermal radiation environment: Sun.. 340 10........ Solar array .......5.......... Allocation of budgets ......... 342 10.................5........ 337 10...........5.............1....................... Iridium .............................. Thermal ....... 298 9........................ 311 10................ 317 10............ 334 10.............. Spinning satellites .................................................... 354 10.4....5...... 306 9.. 301 9................. 307 10 The Satellite Configuration Domain. Implementation and maintenance of constellations .............................6.......................................4..........................................10............. Inertially pointed satellites . 300 9...2.......2...........................................................................3.......... Passive versus active thermal control ........xiv Introduction to Space Systems 9................................... 297 9.................... 366 10...........1... 304 9...................................................2.................... Mechanical perturbations............. Primary structural shape ...3.6.....5..... 303 9..................10...............................2.... 297 9..........

Commissioning of the satellite ...... 419 12.................. 372 11 The Operational Data Flow Domain ........2...... 414 12 The Instrument Output Data Flow Domain ......2...... 412 11................... Nominal operation ...... Satellite data handling....6........ 384 11......................4......................2.............. 394 11.......5...........................2.......................... Communications link budgets .......... 400 11....4... Orbit determination and control functions allocation ............................. 415 12..... 418 12.............. Data acquisition delay budget ........ 371 10.................... Cluster ..... Power budget .....2.........4........... 383 11.......... Mission operations control centers . 398 11................. On-ground components involved in the domain ............5................................4.............................................5...... Nominal orbit correction maneuvers ........4..................1............. Operational ground stations and data-relay satellites ............1.....6................. Operational on-board storage . Examples of data handling architectures ..5........... Fast versus slow commanding .....6..... Power production budget .............. 406 11............................ Autonomy versus ground intervention ........2......... 412 11.................. Launch and early operations ....... Instrument data output downlink . SSTL-DMC.6....... Number and location of operational ground station ........5........3...4........................3....2...........2..............3................................................... 405 11......... Computer load budget..1..........................6.............2....5.....6.... Level of service and availability budget .......1.. 381 11........ On-ground components involved in the domain .. 420 ..1................... In-orbit components involved in the domain ............. Alignment budgets .........4............5. Payload data segment .......... 384 11........ Volume budget ..............................5.3... 385 11.... 415 12...................1..................1............. 407 11........... 398 11...........4.......................1......... 413 11.... Safe mode and other dormant modes.................1................... 378 11................... Instrument output data handling .......6..... Sentinel-3 ...1........................... Systematic versus interactive operations .................6....................... 385 11. 409 11...............3..........3.......... Mission phases ...1.............2...6....................... 385 11................. 376 11............................2........ Decommissioning and disposal ................6..................................2........... Allocation of performances ........ Telemetry and telecommand data communications ...........1....................... In-orbit components involved in the domain ................ Allocation of functions ......4... 374 11..................1......................................... 402 11........2.....5.......................3......... 384 11................................ 389 11..........................................................3......................... 395 11... 417 12...... 370 10................3............ Rosetta ..................................5........3.......Contents xv 10.........................3..................................... Instrument downlink ground stations and data relay satellites .....3...... 407 11.... Power ....................... 415 12....................3................................... 381 11.....6.....................................1...............................4..... 382 11....2....1... 385 11..................... 373 11........................ 385 11...............6..... 375 11..........

.......... Cost engineering as art and science ..........3... The space mission and cost........... 424 12................7...................... 428 12... 431 12........................... Short versus long data latency .............2..1... 451 13....3............................. 423 12................................. Projects without the duality sponsor/consumer ...................3..2.........5.. projects without customer .....................................................2..... Allocation of functions ..........5......................3............4.......... 453 13. NOAA – POESS . Number and location of ground stations ...4...................... Cluster ..............2..................2......................... Organization and hardware centered: small simple satellites within a lean project organization .................................... 462 13... 443 12.........6........................ Examples of architectures ............................... 443 12.... 456 13................. to-be-acquired and subscribed products ....... On-board storage memory budget ...........4......... 437 12................1.. 442 12....2.....................3. Sentinel-3 . Data downlink budget ............. Allocation of performances ....................... 453 13.................... 425 12... 435 12.......... 465 .3.................2........4...1... Methods of cost reduction .......5.......... Proper architectural definition ........................ 443 12.......................... 451 13.............................. 455 13. Projects with a very low level of novelty.....1..................................... Organization optimization ................. Hardware optimization .................... Science operations separated or as part of overall operations .................3...3......5..................5...4.4.....................................xvi Introduction to Space Systems 12.. In-orbit versus on-ground processing ........................... 431 12......... 445 13 Space Missions Cost and Alternative Design Approaches ................. 433 12.... 462 Index .....................................1..4................. Rosetta .4............................................... 457 13..... Existing.......................................... Centralized versus decentralized processing ..............3............4.......5..4.............................. Data latency budget .............. Large versus small amount of data .................. 461 13.4....... 441 12..........................2........................... 423 12...............4....................................................2..................................................................3................ 438 12..

...................... 3 Figure 1..........3................... Example of Cascade of Higher..... The System Engineering Process (Space Engineering Policy and Principles.... 58 Figure 3. Space System Engineering Interfaces (System Engineering. 47 Figure 3.... OMB............. ESA 1996)... 51 Figure 3....... ................. . ............. .......to Lower-Level Requirements and Resulting Implications on the Satellite and the Mission.. 68 xvii .....3... ... Design as a Recursive Process............. Historical USA Space Budget at 2004 Fiscal Year $ (The USA Government Space Budget.. 20 Figure 2. Verification Approach (System Engineering..........4................. 14 Figure 2. ESA 2009). ECSS-E-10-Part 6C... ESA 1996).... Published by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization...... ESA 1996)... ECSS-E-10........... ....... 12 Figure 1.......... 9 Figure 1.... ECSS-E-10 Part 1B.........1....3......... Double Loop Learning Strategy in an Open System.................................. 40 Figure 3... Department of Defense.2...................... .. Project Phases and Milestones of a Typical Space Project According to the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) (Space Project Management...........2................... 18 Figure 2.. 26 Figure 2............................... 66 Figure 4.... ECSS-E-00.. ESA 1996)......... System Implementation as a V-Process and Areas of Interest to this Text.. ............................ The Responsibility of Each Layer Is the Customer of the Lower Layers and the Supplier of the Upper Ones.. ....... ESA 1996)................................4..... Fundamental Views as per the USA Department of Defense (C4ISR Architecture Framework. ..............................1....4............. 1997)................... October 2008)....1.. ....... 11 Figure 1....... 60 Figure 4.... .. ECSS-E-10.................. Paul Shawcross...... The Consumer at the Highest Level and the Hierarchical Relation Between Customers and Suppliers (System Engineering........ Value and Cost Engineering as Tools of the Customer/Engineer to Reconcile the Needs of the Consumer and of the Sponsor......... List of Figures Figure 1... “Project Phasing and Planning” ECSS-M-30-A Issued.5.......2............. Interactions Between the Key Actors During the Space System Design and Implementation Process............1............. Design Cost Versus Overall Cost (Presentation by Werner Gruhl Office of the Comptroller NASA HQ 1985)....... Architectures Working Group..............2.......... The Path to Derive the Fundamental System Specifications as per ECSS (Technical Requirement Specification.........

1.....1... ........... 153 Figure 7............................. ECCS -E...2...int/images/meteosat/15_O.....6.7... 79 Figure 4............10... Model Philosophy Definition Process (System Engineering...... . Common Mission Effectiveness Parameters....4..... Parametric Cost Estimation for Low Earth Orbit Earth Observation Satellites (Cost Estimations of Sentinel-3...............xviii Introduction to Space Systems Figure 4................................5.......... Highest-Level Space Mission Elements...esa................ CRC 2000).. Performance Versus Cost Curve and Possible Design Strategies................................. 112 Figure 5.4...3. Cyclical Space System Concepts Exploration and Update of Mission Objectives and Requirements............ Image ID:spac0255......... 97 Figure 5................... Resulting Design Interactions and Resulting “Natural” Design Domains................. MSG ESA/Eumetsat Geostationary Meteorological Operational Satellite Configuration (http://esamultimedia.. 122 Figure 5..... Impacts of Mistakes and Safety Margins in Performance Probability Density Functions.......................... ......... 2007).. Trade-Off for Low-Level Design Decision (Courtesy of EADS Astrium Space)...................... 120 Figure 5............ The Parameters Are Divided in “What” “How” and “How Much” Categories............... ................ 148 Figure 7....... 100 Figure 5...2............ NASA 1995)............8................. 155 ................... European Cooperation for Space Standardization..................... ............. 89 Figure 4... Safety Margins Improve the Actual Performance...... .. .....3..... .......... SP-610S.9.... ............. ... ............... NOAA In Space Collection)............... SEN3-ASP-TN-144-2.... ........... Requirements Establishment and Design Implications.....5.... 86 Figure 4............ GOESS NASA/NOAA Geostationary Meteorological Operational Satellite Configuration (Wikipedia Commons.... ESA 1996)... Maier Rechtin...1........ 133 Figure 7... The Thick Arrows Indicate Large Data Flows......3................... 99 Figure 5. 111 Figure 5............. Model Philosophy of a Modern Earth Observation Operational Satellite: ESA’s Sentinel-3 (Sentinel-3 Quotation Executive Summary. 154 Figure 7............................ .............. Thales Alenia Space.. ....... The Four Aspects of System Definition (The Art of Systems Architecting............ Reliability Reduction with Time for One Satellite with a Specified Reliability of 0.....75 After 7 Years of Operation............ Trade-Off Flow (NASA System Engineering Handbook... Technology Readiness Levels and Mission Implementation............. Thales Alenia Space...... Mistakes Increase the Probability of Very Poor Performances and Generate a Zero Performance “Mission Lost” Peak.......... 117 Figure 5.... 2007).............. 125 Figure 6..............4.. Functional Blocks and End-to-End Data Flow for a Space Mission with Indication of the Separation Between Domains and Between Ground and Satellite......................... 91 Figure 5...............................6. Top-Down Requirements Flow...jpg).

.......9..... Interface with the Launcher Is at the Bottom of the Structure...................4. 162 Figure 7.... JWST Deployment Sequence............. IUE Satellite (http://www.....8.......... 159 Figure 7........ 164 Figure 7.......... 178 Figure 8.... John Nella.gif)........ JWST Area of Observation Limited by Sun and by the Satellite Configuration... ....... ..... Hubble Space Telescope...... Megha-Tropiques Satellite (http://132........ This Alternative Was Actually not Selected for the Instrument............. Instrument (Italic)...................... Interrelation of Requirements....7.................. and Satellite Attitude (Underline)........................... ..................int/images/iue_2_l..List of Figures xix Figure 7...3...............7.... Herschel Configuration (http://esamultimedia....... 163 Figure 7.149......... and Step-and-Stare Sensing Schemes Used for Frequency and One-Dimensional or Two-Dimensional Spatial Coverage. .int/ images/spcs/herschel/herschel_8_high........10.............. 199 .... SAR and RA Functional Block Diagram.... 196 Figure 8.... External Interrelations of the Observables and Instruments Domain...... 181 Figure 8................... ... ESA 2005) .............. Passive Optical Components Functional Block Diagram.. 197 Figure 8..15.........13....... Derived Requirements on: the System (Regular).........................................11.................... ISO Configuration ..............................9.................. ........ Consumer’s Needs (Bold)............... Six Sentinel-3 Satellites Are Necessary to Provide an Availability Higher than 80 % During the Specified 20 Years of Life (Courtesy Thales Alenia).................... 174 Figure 8.............. 161 Figure 7................. 170 Figure 7.................14. Sentinel-3 In-Orbit Configuration (Courtesy Thales Alenia Space).11.. XMM-Newton Configuration (ESA achievements BR-250........................ .......... AIAA-2004-5986.................8......... Configuration of “Telescope” Satellites and Cone Where the Sun Will Be Always Located...........................................1.........................5..jpg)........... Single and Multielement Whiskbroom............... John Nel........ ESA 2005).. 162 Figure 7.... American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2004).jpg)... ..... ....... Charles Atkinson..................... (James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Observatory Architecture and Performance...... JWST Configuration (From James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Observatory Architecture and Performance............................12................esa.......esa................ 158 Figure 7.......... Single Band Pushbroom.. ... Instrument Pointing Alternatives: Satellite Versus Mechanisms (Courtesy of EADS Astrium). .....5... 173 Figure 7..... Sentinel-3 OLCI Cameras Are Assembled Fanned over the Optical Bench to Provide the Overall Swath Whatever the Sun Illuminating Conditions (Courtesy Thales Alenia )........................ 189 Figure 8................... 184 Figure 8.............. 167 Figure 7....... 183 Figure 8.. 194 Figure 8............ AIAA-2004-5986.................. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Space Conference 2004)..... . Aeolus Configuration (ESA’s Achievements............2.. BR-250...........177/IcMEGHAT/ megha_tropiquesp.6.......6.......................

..................... P-Band (Biomass) (a) and X-Band (Cosmo-SkyMed) (b) SAR Satellites (Cosmo-Skymed Figure Courtesy ASI... 206 Figure 8................... Biomass Figure Courtesy Thales Alenia)......... The Image of the Right is Clearly Blurred With Respect to the Image of the Left....................................17........... ....... A Geostationary Satellite Observing With an Instrument Able to Provide a field of View of 300 km by 300 km Over the Equator Will Produce Progressively More Distorted Images When Observing Nearer the North Pole........xx Introduction to Space Systems Figure 8.......11........... 208 Figure 8......... ........... Timeline Events and Figures of Merit in the Acquisition of Observables.esa........... 202 Figure 8... 218 Figure 8.......................... Megha-Tropiques Instrument Observing Geometry of the Surface of the Earth (CNES http://132...10...... 207 Figure 8..... Real Aperture Microwave Radiometers CMIS in Coriolis Satellite (a) and Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometer MIRAS in SMOS Satellite (b) (CMIS Instrument in Test Chamber Image from USA Navy NRL.15................. Radiation Spectrum and Instruments Observing at Different Frequencies..... 200 Figure 8..... Factors Affecting the Level of the Ocean..... High Definition Observation of the Earth With the Same Instrument at the Same Distance and With 0° (Left) and 60° (Right) Line of Sight Incidence Angles.14........................ The Lattice of Dark Lines Depicts the Progressive Distortion of the Area Seen by the Instrument When Observing at High Latitudes............ a Large Swath Instrument Will Have Progressively More Distorted Images as the Observing Area Moves Away From the Nadir Sub-Satellite Direction. Two Possible Scanning and Frequency Bands Implementation Concepts for an Instrument Flying in a Geostationary Satellite (Courtesy EADS Astrium)..23.............. This Illustrates the Degradation of Quality Produced by the Large 60° Incidence Angle.. ...................... ......11............ Radar Altimetry End-to-End Modeling Steps and Know-How Involved in Each Step..... .........................................................22... SAPHIR and SCARAB Have Across-Track Scanning.. SMOS in Orbit Image from ESA).. 216 Figure 8..................htm)..................177/MEGHAT/ GP_satellite..... . 206 Figure 8................... 222 ..........................13............19................int/)......... 219 Figure 8. 201 Figure 8... MADRAS Has Conical Scanning........18........ Being the Earth a Sphere. Ulysses Satellite (Image from ESA http://www... SHAPIR and SCARAB Images Are Distorted at the Edge of the Swath. 220 Figure 8...........16....................... .... MADRAS Images Are Not...................................... ............ ..... Size of the Instrument Aperture with Respect to the Size of the Pointing Mirror.20................. ................. .... The Distortion Will Produce Also a Progressive Degradation of Space Resolution and Image Quality.. 218 Figure 8...................21..... .... ........12................ Relationship Between Spatial Sampling Distance (SSD) at Nadir and at Different Off-Nadir Angles (ONA) for an Orbit at 800 km Altitude.....................149.... 211 Figure 8...........

.......22............... 260 Figure 9............ and Orbit Track of Jason..... 239 Figure 9............ .png)...... . 256 Figure 9.......... Constellation with Three Well-Distributed Solar Times: NOAA NPOESS 16 at 17:30.. and NOAA 18 at 13:30.....................esa........................................... Uncontrolled Attitude Gravity-Sensing Satellite Starlette (http://directory.................24.......14............... 246 Figure 9.......... ... Orbcomm Gravity-Gradient Stabilized Satellite (http://www..... .....11.........org/get_announce....... Orbit and Track over the Earth and Orbit of a Molniya (12 h of Period) Satellite......... Orbital Plane....... . Meteosat Second Generation Orbit and Its Geometry with Respect to the Ecliptic Plane........................jpg).int/ science-e-media/img/ba/Ulysses)... 254 Figure 9.......... 255 Figure 9. Earth and Sun-Centered Inertial Reference Frames..... ............... 241 Figure 9..5........... The Gray Umbra Area Indicates the Direction Opposite to the Sun............15..........1...13........... 262 ......... Solar Radiation Spectrum at the Top of the Atmosphere and at Sea Level (Wikipedia Commons Image Solar Spectrum..9.. Atmospheric Density as a Function of Altitude and of the » 11 Years Cycle of Solar Activity (Space Engineering Space Environment.................. 260 Figure 9.... ........10..... Ground Track of the Geosynchronous IUE....... ............21.............2..................... ............. Orbits of the Four Cluster Satellites...................... Orbit...................... ............. Orbit and Track over the Earth of a GPS Satellite....... XMM Orbit and Ground Track of the Satellite over the Earth.........................17...................php?an_id=9867)..... .............. ....................................... 243 Figure 9................... 258 Figure 9.............. ..12...........4....... 251 Figure 9.... 252 Figure 9..................... 245 Figure 9............ 257 Figure 9. The Ecliptic Plane Is also Provided... ... 244 Figure 9.... ....................... DSP Configuration (http://upload...... Satellite Altitude Variation Along the Frozen Sun-Synchronous Sentinel-3 Orbit......... ...................svg)............. Van Allen Belts (Wikipedia commons)..6...........satnews... ECSS-E-10-04............... Nine Days of Orbital Tracks of Mars Express (Figure Courtesy of GMV).......wikimedia. org/wiki/Image:Orbit1....................... 249 Figure 9.......com/cgi-bin/display_image. Spin-Stabilized Satellite ISEE-2 (ISEE-B Executive Summary of He Phase C/D Proposal by Dornier System and the STAR Consortium 1974).. .............. 242 Figure 9........... NOAA 17 at 21:30............................ 228 Figure 9.......... ................. Satellite Local Orbit Reference Frame and Satellite Attitude.... Ulysses Second Solar Orbit (http://ulysses...........List of Figures xxi Figure 9.............. External Interrelations of the Orbit and Attitude Domain..........................16...........8......wikipedia.eoportal...... 247 Figure 9...............20.........18..3...... org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/DSP_Phase3........23.... Sentinel-2-1 Orbit......19.. 248 Figure 9................cgi? 1908629056)...... Sun-Synchronous Orbits and Sun Geometry Along the Year........... ESA 2000)....................... Orbital Parameters Definition (http://en.. 256 Figure 9...... 253 Figure 9..... 261 Figure 9.......7............... The Orbital Period Is such that the Orbital Tracks over the Earth Repeat Every 10 Solar Days and 143 Orbits......

.....................149... 270 Figure 9.................... Vertical Axis is in Minutes of Eclipse per Orbit......................... Sun to Orbital Plane Angle over 1 Year for Two Local Times: 10:00 (a) and 18:00 (b)..... Sun Satellite Geometry in a Satellite-Fixed Reference Frame Along Two Sun-Synchronous Orbits with Local Times 10:00 (a) and 18:00 (b)............................. 276 Figure 9........ ................ 274 Figure 9.......... S3-RP-AAF-SC-375.... so that the Side Marked by the Green Vector Is Always Facing the Sun (Yellow Vector)...... Sentinel-3 A and B Orbit and 1 Day of Ground Track of both Satellites.... 271 Figure 9... Orbit-Earth-Sun Geometry in an Earth-Centered Inertial Reference Frame............. The Face Marked by the Red Vector Changes from Facing Velocity to Antivelocity......htm).33...............35......177/ PLEIADES/Fr/index..........11..............32........... ...26.................. 269 Figure 9...................... AOCS Technical Justification...... .. 280 .37............................... ................ 277 Figure 9..28................ Seasonal Yaw-Flip Maneuver in a Non-Sun-Synchronous Orbit to Avoid the Sun Shining over One of the Faces of the Satellite.. Example of On-Ground and In-Orbit Satellite Modes and Mode Transitions (Sentine-3 Definition Phase.......................39..... .................. The Sun Describes a Cone in each Orbit................................. Eclipse Duration for a Sun-Synchronous Orbit at 800 km Altitude and with Two Different Local Times (a) at 10:00 and (b) at 18:00. Orbit-Earth-Sun Geometry in a Satellite-Centered Reference Frame............ 276 Figure 9. Eclipse Duration During the Year for an Orbit with an Inclination of 90°..25....... Alcatel Alenia Space 2006).............30...................... ............................................40........ 279 Figure 9.................................31..... Pleiades Satellite (CNES http://132.............38....... ........ 264 Figure 9........... 265 Figure 9...... The Figure also Provides the Footprint of the L-Band Antennae Array over the Ground (Image Courtesy from Iridium).... .. 278 Figure 9..........36b....... 275 Figure 9.. .. 267 Figure 9. Relative Rotation of the Sun Direction and of the Orbital Plane for an Orbit at 800 km Altitude..... ....... Ulysses on Top of the IUS and PAM Stages (ESA achievements................. The Figures Display the Cones of the Two Extreme Angles..... ....................... . Orbit-Earth-Sun Geometry in an Earth-Centered Inertial Reference Frame for a Satellite with a Local Time of 10:00 and Orbiting at 800 km Altitude........... The Satellite Rotates Seasonally Around Nadir (Light Blue Vector).xxii Introduction to Space Systems Figure 9..............29.......................... as Depicted by Figure 9... Vertical Axis Is in Minutes of Eclipse per Orbit............ ........ 273 Figure 9...................34.36................... ESA 2005)....... One Day of the Track of Both Pleiades Satellites... BR-250.......27... Iridium 66 Satellite Constellation... Earth Solid Radius Angle in Degrees as a Function of Satellite Altitude in Kilometer.... The Inner Cone for 18:00 has b » 0° near the Solstices............... ........ 279 Figure 9.

.49........ It Is Necessary to Limit the Attitude Rate of Change of the Line of Sight...11... 285 Figure 9........List of Figures xxiii Figure 9.......... 304 Figure 9.... ........... Combined Tracks 27 Days of Track of Two Sentinel-3 (More Dense Thinner Net of Measurement Lines) and One Jason (Less Dense Thicker Net of Lines) Satellites.......................... (Courtesy Thales Alenia). Which Is Slow with Respect to the Dt Instrument Integration Interval......................... Satellite Attitude and Orbit Control Loops......000 km (b) also in a Single Path (CNES http://132.55...100 km...........177/ PLEIADES/Fr/GP_systeme... 294 Figure 9.... 295 Figure 9. The Optimal 2 and 3 Days Orbit Positions Can Be Used to Provide Optimal 1 Day Coverage with Two or Three Satellites...........53............. ..43................ The Sun Blinds the Earth-Observing Instrument When Pointing near the Edge of the Earth............41..... (a) Drift Perturbations Have a Frequency f... (b) Jitter Perturbations Have a Frequency f....51...52...................................... The Sun Entering into Eclipse in a Geostationary Orbit on 16 September near the Autumnal Equinox................. 305 Figure 9...... . Strategy of the Agile Satellite Pleiades to Produce a Mosaic of Images in a Single Path (a) and To Cover a Large Number of Images over an Area of 1.... During the Instrument Integration Interval Dt...47......... ............................ .... Orbit-Earth-Sun Geometry in a Satellite-Centered Reference Frame for Satellites with Decreasingly Small Orbit Inclinations... ........................ 281 Figure 9................ 288 Figure 9..... and Then It Will Be Necessary to Limit the Attitude Change Amplitude Dq of the Line of Sight..................54..56............htm)..... 302 Figure 9......45..... ... 284 Figure 9.............44..... 307 ...... ...................... 282 Figure 9.... One Day of Coverage with Two Sentinel-2 Satellites.......... 296 Figure 9............000 × 1...................50...149................. 297 Figure 9....... .......... 287 Figure 9.42.. Eclipse Duration for 10° Inclination Orbit..46............ 1 Day More Will Fill the Gaps and Ensure Full Earth Surface Coverage........ Image Geo-location as an Interactive Space and Ground Process..... Four Days of Coverage with Two Sentinel-2 Satellites.. Repeating Orbits with a Cycle Lower than 40 Days in the Altitude Range Between 700 and 1... Pointing Control Pointing Perturbations and Instrument Integration in the Frequency Domain (Courtesy Thales Alenia). Which Is Fast with Respect to the Dt Integration Interval.......... 280 Figure 9...... Template for Allowed Mechanical Perturbations as a Function of the Frequency..... Sentinel-3 Co-registration Geometry... ................ Ground Incidence Angles Allowing Full Earth Coverage Between 1 and 5 Days and for Altitudes Between 700 and 900 km.............48....... the Mean Pointing Error (MPE) Combines with the Relative Pointing Error (RPE) to Provide the Instantaneous Absolute Pointing Error (APE)............................... .... .... ... ... 296 Figure 9.......

....10............ 314 Figure 10.. Emission and Absorption at Different Temperatures (ESA ECSS)...............2.. 322 Figure 10..................... Ulysses Sun-Earth Side Configuration (http://www.....17.. ........fr/ PROTEUS/Fr/..............cnes... Deploying (b) and in the Deployed Configuration (c). BR-250 2005)................ GPS Antenna Accommodation on Topex-Poseidon (a) and Jason (b) (Figures from CNES Space Site: http://132...... 323 Figure 10.... Accommodation of Iridium (Figure Courtesy Iridium) in Delta II (Five Satellites) and Proton (Seven Satellites)......... ................ 323 Figure 10....... 321 Figure 10...................1......... ............... ESA SP-550.................................................. 325 Figure 10.... .......3)..3......6....9..... Variation with Time of the Longitudinal Static Acceleration During Rockot Flight (Eurockot Users Manual Eurockot 1999)...................4. Eight Radar Altimeter Satellites Constellation Accommodated in a Single Launch Using a Central Support Structure (Figure Courtesy SSTL)............ GOCE Anti-Sun Face Configuration (http://www................... ................... ...... Primary Structure (Lighter Gray) and Radiator (Darker Gray) (ESA Achievements.....13.... Primary Structure of Proteus Platform (http://smsc.11...........16....... Possible Configuration for a Mission Carrying a P-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar for the Monitoring of Forest..... Sentinel-3 Stowed Configuration with the Location of the Main Configuration Drivers and Launcher Envelope (Courtesy of Thales Alenia Space)....) Planar Array Satellite...12............... Ulysses........ Ariane-5 Accommodation for Two Satellites (Ariane-5 Users Manual........ Rockot Guidelines for Dimensioning of Secondary Structure (Rockot Users Manual Figure 6.......... 327 Figure 10..............7.......... Snapdragon (The TerraSAR-L System and Mission Objectives Manfred Zink Proceedings of the Fringe 2003 Workshop. 326 Figure 10... Each One on an Independent Envelope: Upper and Lower................ GOCE Configuration Sun Looking Side (http://www. 333 Figure 10....int)..........................int/).....5.11........ 312 Figure 10.. 338 Figure 10.. GOCE Internal Configuration (Figure Courtesy Thales Alenia)........esa...18...esa... External Interrelations of the Configuration Domain............esa....... Inside the Launcher (a)....... 338 .......14...................... ...........................8...........177/)........... ..... 336 Figure 10. ............... Edouard Perez Arianespace 2004)...... Internal Arrangement. . 335 Figure 10........... 322 Figure 10...... 332 Figure 10.......15. .......... .......... Figure Copyright of CNES and Thales) Provides Easy Access to the Satellite Components.. 330 Figure 10................................. ............ 336 Figure 10.... and Vega Users Manual Edouard Perez Arianespace 2002..xxiv Introduction to Space Systems Figure 10......................149... ........ Configuration Courtesy of Thales Alenia).......... Atmospheric Monitoring Satellite Accommodation on Two Possible Launchers.int)..... The Green Dot Indicates the Desired Orbit (Rockot Users Manual...........

20... In Each Season.. Iridium Stowed and Deployed Configuration (Figure Courtesy of Iridium and Celestrak....11..... ...................... 351 ............ 339 Figure 10..... Cryosat Configuration (ESA www........... Galileo Configuration (ESA Achievements........... ESA 2005).....jpg)........ ESA 2008.......List of Figures xxv Figure 10..........24.. The Large Yellow Arrow Indicates the Sun Direction and the Yellow Cones the Sun Direction Evolution Along the Orbit and Along the Seasons....22...... Sentinel Cant Angle is 30°......... 346 Figure 10............... Spot 5 Configuration and Flying Geometry (CNES http://132.... ESA Bulletin................ ................. ... and Radiators Face (Deep Space) (Sentinel-3 Phase B-C/D Quotation Executive Summary Thales Alenia Space 2007).. View of the Stowed Geometry of JWST Inside Its Ariane 5 Launcher (James Webb Space Telescope..25..... Drawing Courtesy of Northrop Grumman)... 341 Figure 10............................esa. MeghaTropiques Sun-Earth Geometry............30........... Jakobsen........... 348 Figure 10.............. (a) In a Season with the Sun Close to the Orbital Plane... Solar Array-Sun Geometry (a) and Possible Configuration (b) for a Meteorological Geostationary Satellite (Image b) (Courtesy from Thales Alenia).... 348 Figure 10....... (b) In a Season with the Sun Close to the Perpendicular to the Orbital Plane.........149.............. ESA 2008.............. AIAA-2004-5986... .. 344 Figure 10............... Jakobsen.. P. Sentinel-1 Configuration and Flying Geometry (Thales Alenia Image)..... (a) For Local Times at 8:00 (Sun Never Far Away from Perpendicular to Orbital Plane) and (b) for Local Times at 10:00 (Sun Never Far Away from the Orbital Plane). Drawing Courtesy of Northrop Grumman)............. ......... 347 Figure 10...................... Iridium Sun and Earth Geometry Along the Seasons........................... John Nel...... . American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)....................... This Configuration Has an Optimal Solar Array but the View of Cold Deep Space Is Hindered by the Solar Array...... Sentinel-3 Deployed Configuration with an Instrument Face (Nadir).....26. Optical Solar Array Cant Angle for Different Local Times.......28..177/IcSPOT/spot5.................... BR-250.......27......... 339 Figure 10.... Solar Array Face (Sun)... 347 Figure 10................................... the Solar Array Cant Angle Is Adjusted for Optimal Solar Array Illumination.31........23.............. 343 Figure 10........ ..... JWST Configuration (James Webb Space Telescope.... Structure of the JWST Satellite (James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Observatory Architecture and Performance.....19............ 345 Figure 10............... Image Obtained Using AGI-STK).. ................ ESA Bulletin.... ........................ 340 Figure 10... ............ P..... ..21....int)...29..............

...gsfc.. Proceedings of EuCAP 2006...... 364 Figure 11..... Stowed and Deployed... Aura on T 430 Standard Platform......................41................. ESA SP-626)..................33............html). The antenna has 12 m of diameter.......... ESA 2000)...... Large 12 m Diameter Parabolic Antenna Deployment Test Under Its Gravity Compensation Ground Support Jig (European Large Deployable Antenna................... 358 Figure 10.........38..... (b) In Orbit Configuration of Aura (Configuration (a) NASA http://aura................... .... Y.42........org/presentations/ 6166/7466...gsfc.. Possible Configuration for the Future European Meteorological Geostationary Operational Satellite MTG (Courtesy of Thales Alenia).................gov/spacecraft/index......... .. Anik C Configuration (http://www...... 356 Figure 10....eoportal...html.................esa............. Communication Satellite with “Short” Cubic Shape Optimize for Shared Launch to the Geostationary Orbit (ESA Achievements....html).... .... RapidEye: Example of Small Agile Satellite Configuration (http://directory...............39................xxvi Introduction to Space Systems Figure 10........ (a) Details of the Payload and Satellite Subsystems Accommodation Inside and Outside the Standard Platform.... .............. ....37.............. 357 Figure 10.nasa......... ........ 360 Figure 10..... MARECS......... 352 Figure 10....nasa... ...177/html-images/HomeGB................. 353 Figure 10.............. Two Cluster Satellite Carried by the Fregat Upper Stage (The Cluster-II Mission.. Communications Satellite Alphasat Configuration (Courtesy of EADS-Astrium)......... 352 Figure 10. ............... Drawing Courtesy of NPO Lavotchkin....................11.. Thales Alenia Space 2007).. Exploded view (b) NASA http://aura.... 351 Figure 10.32.....149............ This Configuration Has an Optimal View of the Deep Space for Cooling and Uses Three Fixed Solar Arrays................. BR-250...40.... F..35.. 359 Figure 10.........com/ defense-space) in Orbit... 374 ...... Baillion..... ESA 2005)......boeing.36... Exploded Views of Sentinel-3 Configuration with Lower Service Module (SVN) and Upper Instruments Module (PIM) (Sentinel-3 Definition Phase Final Report....int and image (b) CNES from http://132......... ......1...34....... Front View (right) and Back View (left) of the Structural Arrangement for a SSTL Mini-Satellite (Courtesy of Surrey Satellite Technology Limited).. Operational Data Flow Design Domain Components and Connections. ..gov/ spacecraft/images/equip_config......... 363 Figure 10. Mini et al.......... SMOS (a) and Jason (b) Satellites Using Proteus Platform (Image (a) ESA www............. ESA Bulletin 102........html Courtsy SSTL).....

11....................................... ......... Paper to SpaceOps Workshop 2000).... Y................... Thin Lines Indicate Operational Data Flow and Thick Lines much Higher Throughput Instrument Data Flow..... Bremen 2003)........3........... a Unique Production Line.. 396 Figure 11........................... Thales Alenia Space 2007)...... ESA 2005)....... Cluster Scientific Data Distribution (The Cluster Mission Operations Concept. Instrument Data Flow Design Domain Elements and Interactions. Sentinel-3 Overall Data Flow (GMES Sentinel-3 A Long-Term Monitoring of Ocean and Land to Support Sustainable Development........... 390 Figure 11............ 425 Figure 12...... ... ... Allowing Testing of Different Parts of the Magnetosphere During the Different Seasons.... DMC Satellite Configuration (Courtesy of Surrey Satellite Technology)........ .. ............13............... Small Satellites Systems and Services Symposium 2008...... Cluster Constellation Satellites Configuration (ESA Achievements................................... 395 Figure 11....... 416 Figure 12........ 397 Figure 11....... 389 Figure 11............. Baillion...................2...6.............3.. Varying Rosetta Satellites Distances to the Sun and to the Earth (Mission Operations for the New Rosetta...................... BR-250.. Cluster Mission Orbit (The Implementation of the Cluster II Constellation.... BR 250. Elsevier 2004).................... 391 Figure 11...........10................... Acta Astronautica 54 (2004) 657–669..... Rosetta Configuration Is Dominated by Its Long Solar Arrays and Large Parabolic Antenna..................List of Figures xxvii Figure 11. 393 Figure 11... Avionics of a DMC Satellite from SSTL (Utilization of DMC Experience and the Potential Usage of DMC Services to Provide Additional Support to an European Global Monitoring System... Rosetta and the Sub-satellite Philae Approaching the Targeted Comet (ESA Achievements............ ESA 2005)............ Avionics of Sentinel-3 (Sentinal-3 Definition Phase Final Report.................. .............. .. .........12................ P.. Paper to CNES Mission Operations Workshop 1995).......... Rosetta Data Flow...5. (ESA Achievements...................... Paolo Ferri.. IAC-03-Q. ................ Baillion.....9...................... Aguirre.. ESA Bulletin........ Ferri et al... ...........................4............ Cluster Avionics (The Cluster Spacecraft...... 387 Figure 11... 405 Figure 12............................. 390 Figure 11........ ESA SP-660.... M... ......... IAC 2007)...... International Astronautical Congress.......01.. Y.. ESA 2005)..... Ferri.......... Gustav Mecke.. M.5.....7....8...............................4.. J..... ESA 2008)............ BR 250. LEO Data Flow Using Data-Relay Satellites..................... ESA 1996).................. .. Rosetta Instrument Data Flow and Science Data Distribution (Science Operations Implementation for Rosetta P...... .... 403 Figure 11.................. Cutter et al... 426 .. 386 Figure 11........1......... Data Acquisition Timeline...2.............. .......... Dow et al........................... 424 Figure 12............ ...

.................................................... 447 Figure 12........ 436 Figure 12.. Malindi....... Latency in Minutes for a Single Station in Svalbard (Image Courtesy Astrium and GMV)................. Data Latency in Minutes Using a Single GEO Data Relay Satellite (Image Courtesy Astrium and GMV).xxviii Introduction to Space Systems Figure 12.................st...... 449 Figure 13.html#). 433 Figure 12...................................... .................. 440 Figure 12....... 429 Figure 12.... ........14....12... 448 Figure 12...................... One Cluster Orbit Visibility from Madrid (green)..........11........................... ........................ Use of Artemis Data Relay Satellite in Envisat Data Downlink (Image Courtesy ESA).............com/ media/presskits/mediaGallery/npoess/photos/ media1_4_16358_16359.........5................................ ........ .............................. ........... One Day 40° Inclination Earth Orbit and Visibility from Madrid (green)..... ...17........ Latency in Minutes for a Single Station in Svalbardand with Three Stations Guayaquil................1...... 447 Figure 12. Data Latency in Minutes for NOAA’s SafetyNet Network of 15 Distributed Automated Ground Stations (Image Courtesy Astrium and GMV). ........15...... ........ Different Users Will Be Served by Different Downlink Ground Stations with Different Antennae Size......... 429 Figure 12.......................10....16..... Data Delivery Timeline......... ........ Data Transfer Speeds from Possible Ground Stations to a Central Processing Centre for a European Polar Low-Earth-Orbit Meteorological Mission (Image Courtesy of Astrium).....7.....8......... Step-by-Step Image Acquisition and Delivery Process..... ERS 1 Day Orbit and Visibility from Svalbard (green).... It Includes the Steps Related to the Uplink/Operational Timeline and to the Downlink/Instrument Timeline. 448 Figure 12...13...... 441 Figure 12....... 442 Figure 12...... ............ NPOESS Instruments Data Flow....................6................................. NOAA POESS (http://www...... 458 .......... Due to the Large Number of Ground Stations the Waiting Time Needed to Download the Data Is Shorter than 20 min over the Whole Earth............. The Aerospace Corporation 2001 MAPLD International Conference)....... 434 Figure 12..northropgrumman.................. Faster Cheaper Better Mission Track as a Function of its Complexity as Expressed by a “Complexity Index” Depending of Mission Requirements (When Is a Satellite Mission Too Fast and Too Cheap? David Bearden..........9.. Singapore (Image Courtesy Astrium and GMV)................. The Use of One Data Relay Satellite Allow Very Brief Latencies for the Part of the Earth Covered by the Data Relay Satellite...

.... 368 Table 10.................... Altimetry Error Budget....2...1...1.. Maximum Longitudinal and Transversal Accelerations as Specified By Two Launchers........................................ Typical Satellites Mass Allocation per Subsystem........ Level of Risk Criticality........................ 368 Table 11............. 368 Table 10............................... List of Tables Table 1...... .. 83 Table 8........................... 379 Table 11... ..... Maturity Factors. 10 Table 4.................................. Frequency Bandwidth Allocation for Science and Earth Observation Satellite Communications (Radio Frequency and Modulation..1..................... ECSS-E-50-05......1..........1................................2.....................4.... 327 Table 10..... 408 xxix . NASA Projects Criticality Classification............. .. 75 Table 4....... .. .. System Architect Versus System Engineer Perspectives.........2................. AIAA Recommended Minimum Power Contingency %.3....... ........ ESA 2003)....................... 224 Table 10............... ..................................................... Mass of Propellent in Typical Satellites..........