# -. Chopter 3.

the increosein pressure
3.4 Meosuring cousedby the
process
compress¡on

3.4.1 Theoreticclbockground

In additionto causingan increase in pressure,the compressionprocessalsocausesan
increasein the temperature of the gasbeingtreated;the purposeof the testis to measure
this increasein temperature whichis a functionof the deliverypressure. During the test,
the readings can be taken on both the first and the secondstageof the compressor:the
thermometric probes,T1 and Tz, in fact, make it possibleto measurethe temperaturesof
the fluid befo¡e and after the first stage,whilst manometerM¡ makes it possible to
.-' determine the manometriccompressionFr of the first stage,similarly, with probesT3
and T¿ it is possibleto measurethe temperaturesof the fluid before and after the second
stage, whilst manometersMl and Mz make it possible to determinethe manometric
compressionratio F¡ of the secondstage.

) '"'' The increasesin temperatureactuallymeasuredcan be comparedwith the increments
i
calculatedin the assumptionof isentropiccompression.Accordingto this assumption,
it
would be, in fact:

r,r-l)
Tru=T,F,\T)4Tzu -r'=rIo,t?)
-t)

Tou

Finally, we can assessthe favourableeffects of intercooling on the control of the
temperature that would reachedby the gas at the end of an isentropic compression
without intercooling (denotingwith p the total compressionratio, grpu):

f r-') ( (kt\ \
*,
Tnn*=r,fr\o ) =T¡n,i,-7, =t[r, r , -r)

\-
Note

In the foregoingformulas,the temperatures
must be expressedin degreesK.

3.4.2 Testexecution methods

Worning

Before starting the compressor,make sure that the testing bench has been prepared
for start-upaccordingto the procedures
describedabovein E 2.2.In particular,checkthe
settingsof the pneumaticuncoupler(ca 9 bar) and the maximum pressureswitch (ca 10

PN30D- User'sMonuol

t
l \
t-v

Loborotorytests t.
iv
t

bar),andmakesurethatthe deliverypressure insidetank 14,as measuredby meansof
manometerM3, is sufficiently
belowthesesettings pressure -3 bar)so
(e.g.delivery =2
thattheuncouplerandthepressureswitchwill notbetriggeredduringthetests. \..;

a) measurethe pressureand the temperatureof the air in the laboratory.

b) startthe compressorby meansof the starlstopswitch (no. 40 in fig.2.2).

c) open fully the deliveryvalve 16 and any of the shut-offvalves3I-32-33-34-35;
then open adjustmentvalve 17: this will simulatethe presenceof a unit requiring
the compressedair flow producedby the compressor.

d) wait for the time necessaryfor the pressureinside tank 14 to stabilise,then read
the values of the delivery pressuresof the first and second stage by means of
manometersMr and Mz and enterthe valuesobtainedin Table 3.5; by meansof
the ad hoc selector(no. 46 in fig.2.2)displaythe temperatureof the air at the inlet
of the first stage, as measuredby the thermometric probe T1, on the digital )*
I
indicator (no. 45 in fig 2.2) by setting the relative selector on 1; repeat the
operation by displaying the temperatureat the outlet of the first stage, as
measured by the thermometric probe, T2, the temperatureat the inlet of the
secondstage,as measuredby thermometricprobe,T3, and finally the temperature
at the outlet of the second stage,as measuredby the thermometric probe, Ta;
enterall the valuesobtainedin Table3.5. i\,

\--
e) work on adjustmentvalve 17: closeit partly to producean increasein delivery t-\
t-
pressurein tank 14; wait for the time necessaryfor the pressurein the tank to I
-Tta6ilised, ___L*r_
thent
andenterthemin Table3.5. tI " -
t\
tt *-
0 repeat the procedureuntil the triggeringpressureof the pneumatic uncoupler or
the maximum pressureswitch has beenreached;enter the values obtainedfor the
pressureand the temperaturein Table 3.5.

g) using the equationsgiven in \$ 3.4.1,completeTable3.6, calculatingthe valuesof
the isentropic temperatureand then plotting them, together the values of the j
L-:_-
temperaturesmeasured,in the chartshownin fig. 3.5.
''
t
!\

t.-

1\-

\J

I_!-

3ó Didocto ltolio

ratio temp. p... Manom. I't stage 1't stage 2ndstage 2ndstage 1" stage 1" stage 2ndstage 2ndstage T¡ T" Ta Mr F' Mz F" (bar) (bar) ("c) ("c) ("c) ('c) Ambientpressure:. ratío.is.. 3.. temp. PN30D.respectívely.5 . temp. Chopter 3.Fluid temperaturesmeasuredas a function of the manometriccompressíonratio fu of theJírst stageand pn of the 2nostage.is. Ambienttemperature: Table 3.....4.. Delivery ratio temp.3 Testresults Delivery Manom. temp. Input Delivery Manom.6 .. ('c) ('c) ('c) ('c) ('c) ("c) .Userrs Msnuol ól .. ratio pressure ratio pressure temp. ratio temp.¡. without intercooling. Ft T1 Tz¡.. Input Delivery Input Delivery pressure.'. . Input Delivery Manom. Fu T3 T¿¡ 9=FtFu Tr*... Delivery Manom..is...Isentropic ftuíd temperaturescalculated as a fanction of the manometric and total manometríc compressionratios fu anit fro for the 1" and 2"d stage. non interr... 1" stage l't stage 1" stage 2odstage 2odstage 2odstage compl.*- Table 3..

This is due to the fact that during the actual compressionprocess. \-. and total manometricratio.respectívely.Y 2AO 150 t- 100 It- 50 1.1.Fluid temperaturesmeasuredanil isentropictemperaturescalculatdas a function of the manometríccompressíonratios py and Fn for the I't and 2"dstage.4 Anolysisof the results On the basis of the analyticalrelationshipsgiven in \$ 3. the entity of this heat transfer dependson the temperatureof the fluid and the averagetemperatureof the cylinder v walls. it is possible to observe appreciable deviations from the calculatedvalues. and hence the greater is the transfer of heat from the fluid to the walls and the deviation from the valuescalculatedin the assumptionof the compressionprocessbeing isentropic.4. -v 10 11 I p v Fig.\-. it is obvious that the increasein temperaturecausedby an isentropiccompressionincreaseswith increasing j t\ manometric ratio: the evolution of calculateddelivery temperatureswill thereforebe a t_ monotone increasing function of B. without intercoolíng. p. it is greatly affected by the manometric ratio: the greater is the delivery pressure.the greater is the temperaturereachedby the fluid.4. 3B Didocto ltolio . accordingly. ¡ tv Loborotorytests r i\_ 250 Temperature ('c) -.the fluid exchangesheat with the walls of the cylinders. . As for the evolution of delivery temperatures measured experimentally.5 . 3. i\- i 3.

".'' measurethe specific deliveryflow-rate ¡tr from the compressor(coincidingwith the air ' flow going through the heat exchanger. \_- 3. by meansof the ad hoc flowmeter 9 (seefig. and the specific coolant flow-rate.By meansof the thermometricprobesT2 and Tr we can measurethe temperatureof the compressedair before and after the first cooler.The experimentalmeasurements can be made both on the intermediatecooler installed betweenthe first and the second compressionstage.which are usually negligible). The thermalpower Qu.ti- Chopter3. Tz is the temperatureof the air at the inlet of the first cooler (oC) of theair at the outlet of the first cooler(oC) Tz is the temperature \*. .2. ñrrer. receivedby the coolant. tj 2.. and hence it proves necessary to providesomemeansto cool down the compressed air.in our case).4.removed from the compressedair in the first cooler thereforewill be: *r r Q.after the losses. this power must coincide with the thermal power Q.Tr ) Qnt = where: Q" is the thermal powerremovedfrom the compressedair in the first cooler (kW) rnis the specific flow of compressedair (kg/h) co is the specific thermalcapacityof the air at constantpressure(= I kJ/kgK).whilst flowmeter 18 (seefig.¡(T6-T6) Vat=Qlref = 3óm PN30D. whose value is determinedby measuringthe temperaturesof the coolant before and after the coolantby meansof thermometricprobesT6 and T6 respectively. .User'sM'onuol 39 .furthermore.5. for each cooler the measurementof the thermal power transferredcan be both on the compressed air and on the sideof the cooling fluid (water.and on the final cooler located after the secondstage. \a_.2): A A rh¡r.1 Theoreticolbockground The increasein the temperature of the gas broughtaboutby the compressionprocess is generallyunacceptablefor the reasonsillustratedin \$ 1.3.5 Meosurementof the thermslpowerto be removedfor compressed oircooling 3.¡cr. As a rule this is done by meansof water/airheatexchangers. The purposeof this testis to measurethe thermal power to be removedas a functionof delivery pressure. Needlessto say.2) makesit possibleto J .

now take the reading of the air flow by means of flowmeter 18 (and furtherrnore.. delivery pressure= 2 ..¡is the specificflow of coolantin the first cooler (kg/h) L.186kJ/kgK for water) i i'- To is the temperatureof thé water at the inlet of the first cooler('C) of the waterat the outletof the first cooler('C) Ts is the temperature Similarly.3 bar) so I that the uncoupleror the pressureswitch will not be triggeredduring the tests. rh¡.2 Testexecufion method i'\.g.7.r(T9 Qa¡ = In co(T4 tr- 1 3.. whilst thermometricprobesT7 and Te { make it possibleto measurethe temperaturesof water before and after the final cooler: i the specificair flow can be measuredby meansof flowmeter 18..2.make su¡e that the testing bench has been prepared . as measuredby means of :( manometerM3.enter the I readinssin Table 3. Worning Before starting the compressor.¡is the specificthermalcapacityof the coolant(which is 4..5.1). i- c) open fully the delivery valve 16 and any of the shut-off valves 3l-32-33-34-35..In particular. while the specificflow of water rrlurercan be measuredby means of flowmeter (see fig. by means of probes T¿ and T5 we can measurethe temperaturesof the compressedair before and after the final cooler. is the thermalpowerreceivedby the coolantin the first cooler(kW) '\-.2.7.. I\- b) start the compressorby meansof the start/stopswitch (no.rc. c. d) wait for the time necessaryfor the pressureinside tank 14 to stabilise.2). then open adjustmentvalve 17: this will simulate the presenceof a unit requiring l\- the compressedair flow producedby the compressor. 2. and make sure that the delivery pressureinside tank 14. 1r ^^ Didocto ltolio L .check the j\ settingsof the pneumaticuncoupler(ca 9 bar) and the maximum pressureswitch (ca 10 bar). Hence for the l- cooler we get: sqcof.r.then read the values of the delivery pressuresof the first and second stageby means of manometersMl and Mz and enter the values obtainedin Table 3.v Loboroioryfests I lr i where: i \__- Q.2.accordingto the method describedin \$ 3. 40 in fig. is sufficiently below thesesettings(e.rd \- -T7) -T5) = Q¡rrrr= rn.2). i: a) measurethe pressureand the temperatureof the air in the laboratory. I .take the \_ readingsof the air pressureand temperaturein the proximity of the flowmeter by means of manometerM5 and thermometric probe Tlr to be able to make the necessaryconections. for start-up'accordingto the proceduresdescribedabovein 9 2.

2)on the digital indicator (no.8.8. enterthe readingsobtainedin Tables3. then take the reading of the water flow-rateby meansof flowmeter9. 46 in fig.9.7 and 3.1. repeat this stepby displayingthe temperature of the air at the outletof the first cooler.1 work on the adjustmentvalve. then the temperatures of the water at the inlet (T7) and the outlet (Tg): if the difference(Te-T7)turns out to be particularly small. e) andf). 3. i) using the equationsgiven in \$ 3. close the valve partially to obtain an increasein the delivery pressurein tank 14. o) ó. take the readingof the water flow by meansof flowmeter 10.8. calculatingthe thermal powervaluesand plotting theminto the chartshownin fig.2) display the temperatureof the air at the inlet of the first cooler as measuredby thermometricprobe Tz. and enter the data obtained in Table3.as measuredby thermometricprobe T3. then wait for the time necessaryfor the pressure inside the table to becomestageand repeatthe operationsdescribedat points d). _ h) repeat the proceduregntilQg_pt"ssur" t. reducethe flow of water circulating through the heat exchangerby means of adjustment valve 12.completeTable 3. and enterthe dataobtainedin Table 3. 45 in fig 2. Chopter 3.8.5.User's Monuol 41 \_ . the temperatureof the water at the outlet of the first cooler (Ts):if the difference(Ta-To)turnsout to be particularlysmall.2.- maximum pressure switch is reached and enter the valuéi of temperatureand flow-rate into Tables3.reducethe flow of water going through the heat exchangerby meansof adjustmentvalve 11. by settingthe relative switch on 2.6 -_ PN30D-. by meansof the ad hoc switch (no. until you get a difference in temperatureof ca 10o. until you get a difference in temperatureof ca l0o.7 and 3. then.in q_gnlelp_leror the -tr"ssú¿.igge. the temperatureof the water at the inlet of the first cooler (T6). take the readingsconcerningthe secondcooler by the same proceduredescribed \_ for the first cooler at point e): measurethe temperatureof the air at the inlet (T¿) and the outlet (T5).

of 1"... rrr Lef Znd c...\ 3... temp. Actual air 1" stage 1" stage 2ndstage 2ndstage measured meter. ll¡ pressure ratio pressure ratio Air flow at flow...c..c. flow at inlet outlet at inlet outlet ltt c.c.plfor the I't stageand pn for the 2'dstage.. temp.at flowm.. zc..... of 1".. 2nd. T2 T^ T6 Ts T¿ ^J (ks/h) T5 Tt Tq rhII..8 .....5.r loc) ("c) ("c) ('c) l"c) ('c) loc) l"c) /l¿clh\ Table3... flow temp. temp. i.Measurementof pressureand aír flow as a function of the manometric compressíon ratios. ml Pressure Temp. Tlt flow M¡ I' Mz F" (xm3ltr) M5 ("c) (kslh) (bar) (bar) (bar) AmbientDressure:. Ambienttemperature: .. temp. Loboroiorytesls i- I . *)> Air Air Water Water Water Air Air Water Water Water temp. Table3..c.Measurementof coolanttemperatureandflow : A' 4Z Didocto ltolio .3 Testresults Delivery Manom... at inlet outlet at inlet outlet in2"d and of 1"... 2"dc.c. cooler.7 . temp... temp. Delivery Manom. of 1".

5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 10 11 . PN30D.-- rn the reading of the temperaturef the water produces an error of ca I0Vo in the \.User'sMohuol 43 .Values of thermal power removedin the ftrst and second cooler as afunction of manometric compression ratios fu for the 7'tstage and frn for the 2"d stage 3. determination of the thermal power subtractedfrom the coolant.5.v It should also be noted that even minor effors in the reading of the temperaturesmay v result in appreciableerrors in the determinationof the thermal power removed.- Chopter 3. 3. for example. as discussedin connectionwith the incrementsin the temperatureof ! the fluid brought aboutby the compressionprocess. I 1' I Fig.if the incrementin the temperature of the coolantis of only 10o. ¿ o (kw) ¡.4 Anolysisof the resulis \*__''.c 0.an error of 1" \.6 . i . The thetrral fowet to beremo¡¿edto cool down fhe compressedair is seen-to-incrense with increasingp. ':¡1 '. thus.

The difference in pressurecan be determinedwith the aid of a differential manometer (no.1 Theoreficol bockground In the study of reciprocatingcompressors. see the instructions giVenin \$ 3. or too costly. tests Loborotory of compressedqir flow with norrowsection 3. therebycausingan increasein the velocity of the fluid and hencea decreasein pressure. as pointed out in connection with the experimentsdescribedso farr In someinstances.which is not difficult at all. 18 in fig. but enable it to be determined indirectly. depending on the geometry of the diaphragm and the physical characteristicsof the fluid.27 in fig. The measurementof the flow can thereforebe reducedto the measurement of a pressuredifference. such as diaphragms and nozzles. rFor the measurementof flow-rates with the aid of a flowmeter. To work out the flow-rate. and then compare the results obtained with the different types of measuringinstruments. the K factor has to made explicit: according to the conventionsusedby Italian (CNR-UNI 10023) and intemational standards(ISO 5167) .1.1) createsa narow section along the passageof the fluid. 2. These narrow section devices do not provide an immediate and direct visualisationof the flow being measured.19- 20-2I in fig.1) and with the aid of diaphragmsof different sizes(nos.flowmeters are too large. the procedureis asfollows. and other devices are used instead. with the aid of anal¡ical relationships. as in the study of pneumaticcircuits.1).ó. *"=K^IL. 2. By applying Bernoulli's theorem we can demonstratethat the specific flow rnoof the fluid current is directly proportional to the square root of the difference in pressureap betweenthe narrow sectionand the environmentupstream: rn" = K. 2.ó Meosurement devices 3./Ap where K is a proportionality factor.it should be noted that: A diaphragm (see fig.=ae9'fLP Tl'v where: cr is the flow-rateor efflux coefficient e is the compressibilitycoefficient d is the diameterof the diaphragm 44 Didocto ltolio .it is often necessaryto measure the flow-rate. 3. as for the use of diaphragms.The purposeof this test is to make measurementsboth by means of a flowmeter (no.2.1).

in its turn. + 0.584 The evoiution of d as a function of Re is given in the diagramin fig.0.User'sMonuol 45 . 4 1 +0 .4for air) p is the pressureof the fluid upstreamof the diaphragm The flow coefficient q is also a function of the seometriccontractionratio m and the Reynoldsnumber of the current: Ú R. p is the densityof the fluid upstreamof the diaphragm The compressibilitycoefficient. for pressures similar to ambient pressure. Chopier3.t .184m8 " with c = 0.In the case of air.03r2m". can be determinedwith this formula: .= v where: u ís the velocity of the fluid upstreamof the diaphragm(m/s) D is the diameterof the pipe containingthe diaphragm(m) v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (mzls). 3.( 0 . 1 5 0 2 9 1 . v can be expressed (denoting with T the temperatureexpressedin K) as: 0 .5959 + 0. 3 5 m " ¡ : r Kp where: m is the geometric contractionratio of the diaphragrn(m=dlD where d is the diameter f the diaphragm and D is the diameter of the pipe containing the diaphragm) k is the exponentof the isentropicof the fluid (k=1..0029m"'[--t5l PN30D.AN r = 1 . 1 0 -55 r ' T +L23.8 for different valuesof m and can be expressedanalyticallythanksto the following relationship: r-j .

. I i-v tests Loborotory I As can be seen. 3.for the sake of simplicity. o turns out to be virtually independentof Re: in this case. and the calculation of flow-rate is not difficult.then cxn+crl.8) it is necessaryto adoptan iterative procedure.if Re<Re¡¡. we list below the main characteristicsof the diaphragmsthat can be used with the PN30D testingbench. .in turbulent motion conditions.8.since cr turns out to be a function of Re.instead (Re<Reri. until we find: q. Then calculate the number of Reynolds and. and henceit will be necessaryto re-calculatethe flow on the basis of the new value c[r.o.knowing the contractioncoefficient m. 3. Ref. for instance by assuming. If the motion is not turbulent. Proceedas follows' ur. and calculatethe correspondingflow and velocity of the fluid upstreamof the diaphragm. at ). no.7 Scheme of a díaphragm of díameter d contained ín a pipe of diameter D _v 46 Didocio ltolio .628 5. (now denotedwith crtr)and compareit with crl:if the initial assumptionRe>Reri. of schemeinfis.329 5. 3. in its turn..05 Geometric contraction ratio m 0.o*l=q.is denotedwith crl). its determinationis immediate.J this point wee shall determine again the number of Reynoldsand the new value of ct (qI). on the other hand.05 19. determineagain the value of o.for valuesof Re greaterthan a limit value Re¡n representedby curve LL in fig. Re>Re¡-. To facilitate the execution of the test.28 0.o=c/.8. and the calculatedvalue of the flow-rate is right. using the formula given above or the diagram shown in fig.24 0. which. and so on. is confirmed.05 19. a tentativevalue of a (which.then: cx.989 Pipe diameter D (mm) 19.31 \ i>- Q=f(P1-P2) Fig. for the first attempt. is a function of the velocityof the fluid and henceof the unknownflow-rate. points to the left of curve LL in fig. 3.u*.2.2 r9 20 2T I Diaphragm diameter d (mm) 4.

g o.o za ui g 0.User'sMonuol 47 .3.85 6É tL 0) IL IIJ ]J Oo oE tu . DIAPHRAGMS DIAFRAMMI l-.effluxuas a function of the Reynolds number Re and 1 the geometriccontractionratio m PN30D.Chopter3.8Evolutionof the coefficíentof.-.-:r-J.9 trE TO 6o o ñ -.-- 10' 10' 10' Numerodi Reynolds Re NUMBER REYNOLDS Fig.

2.\ flow measuredby means of the diaphragms and entering them in the diagram I showninfig. \ i b) open fully the delivery valve 16 and the shut-off valve situated after the chosen \ diaphragm (28.make sure that the testing bench has been prepared \- for start-up according to the proceduresdescribed above in 9 2. i- li. then. compressed air will flow through flowmeter 18 and through the chosen -:r \r diaphragm.\ pressure and the temperature of the air in the proximity of the flowmeter by meansof manometerM5 and thermometricprobe T11so as to be able to make the \ necessarycorrections. 40 in fig. 2.2). according to the method described in \$ 3.3.2 Teslexecution method \_ Worning ! Before starting the compressor.6.7. andpressurisethe tank a ! 14 until the triggering pressureof the pneumatic uncoupler or the pressureswitch is \_ reached. t\ i i \ 48 Didocto lfolio . :.2. then \ measurethe pressuredrop at the diaphragmby meansof manometer2'7as well as \ the air pressureand temperatureconditionsupstreamof the diaphragmby means of manometerlv{aand thermometricprobeTro. and repeatthe operationsperformed at step c).6. to obtain appreciablevariations in the flow-rate.: 'c) take the reading of the air flow by means of flowmeter 18 (and measure the ._ \ e) repeatthe procedurefor the other diaphragms. I ¡L t". \ a) connect the differential manometer27 to the chosen diaphragm to perform the "\ measurements. \ 0 using the equationsgiven in \$ 3. calculatingthe values of . 29 o 30). enter the values obtainedin Table i\ ) I ?-9 _i*\ \ d) work on adjustmentvalve 17. Then start the compressorby meansof the start/stopswitch (no. l. ].9. open the adjustment valve 17: as a result.completeTable 3.J \- Loborotorytests r* lr I ¡ \- 3.1.1).

Ap ma press.9 . rn¡ Deliv.Comparísonbetweenthe measurements taken with a flowmeter and those taken wíth the aí"dof díaphragms t__ PN30D.ó. '.tc 30 25 20 15 10 c 0 0510152025303540 m (kgih) Fig. \-.m.User'sMónuol 49 .9 .-. Table3. flowmeter Ttt diaphragm diaphragm drop at through florv from (Nm3/h) M5 Ma Tro diaphr. . 3. rh Pressure Temp.m. diaphragm fl.3 Risultoti sperimentoli _:-.m. Pressure Temp. 3. Chopter 3.Measurementof compressed air flow by meansof aflowmeter and diaphragms !:- - ma 40 (ks/h) . (bar) ('c) (k/h) (bar) ('c) (mmHg) (k/h) Y.ti" .from from at fl. before before Pressure Delivery Actual fl.

. that both types of measurementare subject to errors of the order of 2 - 3Vo.4 Anolysisof the results Needless to say.' 50: . it should be kept in mind." :Didocts ltolio. the flow-rates determinedby means of the diaphragmsshould be identical to those determinedwith the flowmeter. however...9 should thereforefall along the bisector of the diagram. ..). and the test points shown in the chart in fig. Loborotorytests 3. . 3.6.

10. 3. thepressuredrops taking place in pipes of different types as a function of the flow passing through tñe T J pipes themselves.make sure that the test bench has been prepared for i start-up accordingto the proceduresdescribedIn E 2. the head T that must be suppliedby the compressor. { d) work on adjustment valve 77.33.to obtain appreciablevariations in the flow-rate: '-J then repeatthe operationsperformedat step c).2. c) take the reading of the air flow throughflowmeter 18 (and measurethe pressure T ¡i and the temperature of the air in the proximity of the flowmeter by means of manometerM5 and thermometricprobeT11so as to be able to make the necessary corrections. measure the pressuredrop in'the chosén pipe by means of the manometer 2'l: enter the ¡ readingsin Table 3. { 3.1 Theoreticolbockground a To be able to dimensiona compressed air distribution network it is necessaryto know the pressuredrop-soccurringin the pipes:the purposeof this test is to measure.7. i. t d PN30D. for each value of flow required by the equipment. then. In this manner it is possible to identify the so-called characterístic curve of the circuit.34 o35).according to the instructionsgiven in \$ 3.1). Z. until the pressuretriggeringthe pneumaticuncoupleror the pressureswitch is reached.7.7 Meosurement of pressure dropsin differentfypesof circuit ¡ i 3.the headnecessaryto have the flow circulate.e.10. 2. open adjustmentvalve 1T: as a result. 40 in fig.this curve is usedto identify the type of compressorideally suited for the ¡ requirementsof the system. I 3.as measuredby meansof a flowmeter (n" 18 in fig. 32. 2.by d meansof a mercury tyóe differentialmanometer(no. J Chopier 3.2.. relected-forthe- i f b) openfully the delivery valve 16 and the shut-off valve situateddownstreamof the chosenpipe (31. 27 in fig.2).User'sMonuol 5t ¡ 5 . then. Then start the compressorby meansof the start/stopswitch (no.sinceit makesit possibleto identify. d compressedair will flow throughflowmeter 18 and through the chosenpipe.2) and pressurisesthe tank 14. Y f) enter the pressuredrop values measureas a function of flow-rate in the diagram I shownin fig. I e) repeatthe procedurefor the otherpipe sections.Z). 5 -----'----afconneeFthe-differential-manometer2h.s-the-pipe-length executionof the measurements. representedby the evolution of the pressuredrops as a function of the flow of fluid in circulation.2 Testexecution mefhod d Before starting the computer.

10._ 52 Didocto ltolio \- L . ii i 3.¡ Loborotorytests t:. 3.10. pipe (Nm3¡tr) (bar) ('c) (ks/h) (¡nmHe) 1\'-' J .!- ml Pressure at Temperatureat ñ Ap Y Flow measured flowmeter flowmeter Actual flow Press..3 Testresults i ..Measurementof pressuredropsín pipes havíng dffirent geometríesas a function of compressed air flow i\- I I f ! -_L-v Ap 40 \- (mmHg) i""' 35 1\- i- 30 t- 25 fv 20 ¡ Ir L_- 15 ft" 'l \-. :\- Table3. l\.Pressuredropsín pipeshaving dffirent geometriesas afunctíon of compressed air flow r- i t.dropin with flowmeter Ms Ttr from fl.. It. r"-. 10 t I \-i I t\ 10 tc 20 25 30 35 40 I m (ks/h) Fíg.m.7..

C C e C L L (' L i- Y L. I ) l L: C L i'\ ¡'-l r. pressure C dropsincreasewith decreasing cross-sectional areaof thepipe). . lril j L t_ Chopter 3.4 Anolysisof the resulls C Pressuredrops in pipes increaseswith increasingflow-rate: moreover. 3.Userrs Mciñuól 53 .7.j (-. and with the velocityof the fluid (i..-f PN30E.r n í' . U."^.the numberandabruptness of changes in the directionor sectionof the pipe. L. .they : C increasewith the lengthof the pipe. ( ( cj -+ ( I a .e.1 ' " L C ( C'' ¡. r! .

Loborotory tests I i l qA Didocto ltclio . {.