Int. J. Morphol.

,
27(4):1223-1234, 2009.

Anatomy and Histophysiological Changes in Pituitary of
Calotes versicolor During Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

Anatomía y Cambios Histofisiológicos en la Glándula Pituitaria de la Calotes
versicolor Durante las Temporadas de Crianza y la No Reproductiva

Vijaykumar B. Malashetty; A. Sonar & Saraswati B. Patil

MALASHETTY, V. B.; SONAR, A. & PATIL, S. B. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during
breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Int. J. Morphol., 27(4):1223-1234, 2009.

SUMMARY: Calotes versicolor, collected during peak breeding and nonbreeding season were used for the study of anatomy
and histophysiology of pituitary gland. In C. versicolor the pituitary gland is small compact mass attached to the hypothalamus by a
delicate stalk. It is of two basic units, adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis includes pars distalis (PD) and pars
intermedia (PI). The pars tuberalis (PT) which is usually reduced in reptiles, is absent in C. versicolor. The neurohypophysis is composed
of median eminence (MI) and neural lobe or pars nervosa (PN). The anterior PD is rich acidophils than the posterior PD during breeding
season. These cells are differentiated as A1 and A2 cells. The A1 cells are erythrosinophilic and stained purple or red and A2 cells stained
yellow with orange G. The identified A1 cells are regarded as lactophores and A2 cells are regarded as somatotropes. The secretion of
these cells and cell number is reduced during nonbreeding season. The basophils of PD are PAS +, AF + and aniline blue + during
breeding season. These cells are classified as B1 and B2 cells depending on their size and location. The large B2 cells are present in cords
and B1 cells are located closely to these parts. The B1 and B2 cells are regarded as thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs respectively. During
nonbreeding these cells show negative response to the above stain. The PI is large and labulated. The cells are AF+, erythrosine and
secrete highly granular material during breeding season. During nonbreeding season they become AF-, erythrosine- and less secretory.
The secretion present in neurosecretory cells of the neural lobe appears as large granules and they are AF+. These cells take deep blue
stain indicating rich neurosecretory material during both breeding and nonbreeding season. The median eminence (MI) is located at the
anterior part of neurohypophysis and sends portal capillaries to adenohypophysis.

KEY WORDS: Calotes versicolor; Pituitary; Pars distalis; Pars intermedia; Pars tuberalis.

INTRODUCTION

The pituitary gland being the principle gland of by cytological changes in |e cells secreting "these hormones.
internal secretion is the most complex organ of endocrine In seasonally breeding species the changes are extended over
nature. It occurs throughout the vertebrates, in cyclostomes, much greater periods of time. In the vole for Sample, Clarke
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In all of the & Forsyth (1964) found that during breeding season cells
vertebrate classes the gland shows remarkable similarities were filled with numerous PAS positive granules but in the
in its overall morphology; but it is structurally highly nonbreeding (winter) season PAS positive material was
specialized and there are considerable differences between present only in the walls of large intercellular vesicles. Assays
the different classes and even between closely related species. showed a high content of gonadotrophin in the glands of
The change in the functional cytology of the pituitary is to males during the breeding season, but not in winter. Such
correlate the microscopic appearance of the gland with observations provide suggestive if not conclusive evidence
different phases of cyclical activities controlled by pituitary. that the granular of PAS positive cells are gonadotrophs.
Similar cytological changes occur in the pituitary of the ferret
The reproductive cycles, determined by the cyclical (Holmes, 1963). Increase in PAS positive cells in a
release of gonadotrophins from the pituitary are accompanied hibernator, the ground squirrel was correlated with increased

Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Gulbarga University, India.

1223

They were fed regularly with live because of its phylogenetic position as it resembles quite cockroaches and water ad libitum. The division of the delicate stalk. cytological studies. Eyeson (1970) has reported experimen. As the reptilian fauna of and their secretory nature. The primitive condition is sacrificed by decapitation. MALASHETTY. laboratory conditions for about a week. Dutt & Govindan. chromophilic cells of intermedia. Saint Girons (1970) crania were retained in the fixative for 30 days for has given detailed accounts of pituitary structure and decalcification. B. 1966). intact pituitary was transferred to fresh Bouin's fluid for 24 tal studies of the gland in the lizard Agama. Generally six chromophilic cell types can be embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 6µ thickness for identified in the pars distalis by their tinctorial properties. 1950) proceeded of common garden lizard C. In the lizards pars tuberalis is reduced or retain the pituitary along with brain without cranium. 1978) have revealed regression of the gonadotrophs and decrease in MATERIAL AND METHOD gonadotrophin secretion thereby suggesting the importance of hypothalamic control of the gonadotrophs. Nayar & by acid permanganate oxidation. However. During both breeding strongly the amphibian pituitary on the one hand and the and nonbreeding seasons selected forty animals were avian pituitary on the other. 2009. The acidophilic of carrier substance. turtles and crocodiles. from rare as seen in agamid lizard to abundant Histochemical methods used for cytological studies. 1970). 1970). 1967). the reptilian hypothalamus has not been Calotes versicolor were collected during peak clearly understood.. The animals weighing 40-50g with snout-vent length of 14-15 cms were The reptilian pituitary gland gains importance selected for the study. The granules contain the types of mucoidcells (B1 to B2) and two types of acidophils hormones of the gland probably associated with some kind (A1 to A2) were distinguished in pars distalis. the secretory granules have the affinity towards both basic and acidic stains and it is largely on their On the basis of morphology. 1962. V. sometimes versicolor is connected to the hypothalamus with this containing colloids (Wingstrand. They were Forbes. distribution and tinctorial staining property the differentiation and classification of affinity of five types of granular chromophilic cells. with crania were dissected out along with brain. The absent and never developed in snakes. & PATIL. more remains to be done on the pituitary. The pars distalis hours. amphibians (reviews: Jorgensen. India is much rich and varied. The following However. In as seen in lacertid and iguanid lizards (Saint Girons.. the brain with histology in reptiles. marked. S. 1974). been evolved to study the pituitary cell types. A. 27(4):1223-1234. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. through alcohol grades and cleared in toluene. J. arranged in pseudo-acini (Saint Girons. As opposed to other vertebrates. 1970. as it is not possible to posterior lobe. four various cell types has been made. Int.. adenohypophysis. the studies are still lacking in giving complete standard methods have been applied to identify the cell types information about the distribution. it is of interest to study gonads (Stahl & Heray. SONAR.. but the available evidence points to a breeding (May and June) and nonbreeding (December and stimulatory hypothalamic control of gonadotrophin secretion January) seasons. the secretory pattern of pituitary cell types accompanied by Pituitary transplants in fishes (Batten et al. Apart from chormophils. After removing the cranium. The portion of the brain along with the pituitary was consists of irregular branching cords of endocrine cells. versicolor is a seasonal breeder shows cyclical hypothalamic neurosecretion in regulating the function of changes in the reproductive activities. As C. 1971) and the wild mouse (Madhyastha & Gopal. gonadal and thyroid activity by Hoffman & Zarrow (1958). chromophbic cells occur in varying proportions. as the pituitary of C. There is a scanty of information on the pituitary Aldehyde Fuchsin (AF) (Gomori. Then they were transferred to 70% alcohol pars distalis into cephalic and caudal lobes is usually well for 24 hours and given several changes with fresh alcohol. Dodd et al. .taken out for further processing. B. Mohanty & Naik (1979) Seasonal studies on the hypothalamo-hypophysial complex have reported presence of prolactin secreting cells in pars in teleost fishes have clearly indicated the possible role of distalis. Care was taken to retain always narrow and often only two cells thick interspersed the pituitary intact along with its stalk which is connected with plentiful capillary network. 1983). These animals were acclimatized to the (Holmes & Ball. Morphol. In chelonians the cells are to hypothalamus while taking out. The roof and a well developed pars intermedia and pars tuberalis and pars sides of crania around the brain was slightly exposed and distalis which is fairly distinctly divided into anterior and then they were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Various histochemical techniques have cells of pars distalis exhibit distinct regional localization. Cleveland & Wolfe's 1224 . often by a transverse constriction in addition to a The tissues were processed for dehydration by passing differential distribution of cell types (Saint Girons. using fast green Pandalai (1963) have reported the secretory nature of chromotropes 2R as the counter stain. cyctological changes in its secretary nature. versicolor. The heads were collected and thought to be that in sphenodon. 1968. 1971).

4-11). The camera lucida was fitted in sphenoid bone. PAS positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2). trichrome method (1932) used as differential stain for the appeared that the pencil point was actually moving on the cell types of adenohypophysis. versicolor (Fig. D. MALASHETTY. acidophils 1(A1). Distribution of cell types in pars distalis: half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1). The slide bearing the section of entire delicate stalk. Mid-sagittal section of the pituitary gland of C. The pars tuberalis which is usually reduced away.e. 1225 . aniline blue positive). Once the object. The pituitary gland of C. Then the white paper was kept on the right hand side of the microscope on the a) Pars distalis (Figs. 1963).versicolor showing various parts. 3) study of pituitary gland. Morphol. The the camera lucida. B. B. Int. the light was neither bright nor too dim. erythrosine positive) and pars intermedia (closed circles. versicolor is a compact mass and its lobes are completely covered with Sella turcica of Camera Lucida diagrams. The pars distalis is separated table and sharp pencil was held in right hand. versicolor. Before going for the detailed cytological Anatomy of pituitary gland of C. mucoproteins and glycoproteins (Pearse. Posterior dorsal inflection of pars distalis meets the as well as paper and the pencil point were clearly focused. A. Anterior pars distalis surrounds a part of the outline and detailed anatomical structure of the pituitary upper portion of neurohypophysis and posterior pars distalis was made. AF positive). Distribution of cell types in pars distalis (open circles. half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1). J. reflected on the paper. camera lucida diagram of whole pituitary gland was taken in X100. While looking through the microscope. B.. Artificial light source was used for adenohypophysis includes pars distalis (PD). Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Attempt was anteriorly from the infundibular floor and median eminence made to visualize clearly the object on the microscope by by a cleft filled with connective tissue. in size. pars intermedia. Distribution of cell types of pars distalis and pars intermedia: half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1). The three stains used in this object. and it is attached to hypothalamus by a the microscope. E.. and pars in- focusing and other lights of the room were kept dim and far termedia (PI). & PATIL. RESULTS mucopolysaccharides.. C. it surrounds the lower part of neurohypophysis and also ante- Fig. 2009. The distance of the light source was so adjusted that in reptiles. while in reality the image of the object was being method are aniline blue. S. Camera lucida diagram of mid-sagittal section of the pituitary gland Calotes versicolor to show the distribution of cell types of pars distalis and pars intermedia during breeding season X 100. 1 and 2). AF positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2). V. erythrosine and orange G. Then the sketch was made permanent using India ink (Figs. It is composed of two basic units pituitary gland was focused. viewing through the prism of neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. 1. SONAR. 27(4):1223-1234. aniline blue positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2). PAS positive). 1968). A. Aldehyde thionine (ATh) periodic acid Schiff (PAS) Orange G (OG) procedure of Ezrin & Murray (Dood & Kerr. orange G positive). The cleft is reduced looking into the eye piece of microscope. is absent in C. The PAS reaction will stain polysaccharides. acidophils 2(A2). Distribution of cell types in pars distalis: Anterior to posterior i.

orange G positive). Fig. Distribution of cell types in pars distalis: Anterior to posterior i.e.. D. A. Stained with Cleveland Wolf’s trchrome X 210. erythrosine positive) and pars intermedia (closed circles.versicolor. V. PAS positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2).. J. Distribution of cell types in pars distalis (open circles. Fig. AF positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2). 3. MALASHETTY. E. half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1). Distribution of cell types in pars distalis: half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1). 2009. PI. B. ME. aniline blue positive) and crossed circles (basophils 2 (B2). A. BV. B. Int.Median eminence.blood vessels. 27(4):1223-1234. Mid-sagittal section of the pituitary gland of C. Sagittal section of the pituitary gland of C.Posterior pars distalis. SONAR. aniline blue positive). B.versicolor showing various parts. 2. acidophils 1(A1). acidophils 2(A2). C. PAS positive).. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. & PATIL. AF positive). PPD. 1226 . Distribution of cell types of pars distalis and pars intermedia: half shaded circles (basophils 1 (B1).Pars intermedia. Morphol. Camera lucida diagram of mid-sagittal section of the pituitary gland C. S.versicolor to show the distribution of cell types of pars distalis and pars intermedia during non breeding season X 100.

B. 3). The pars distalis end of the infundibular stem which is long with finger like is clearly divided into anterior and posterior lobes by a slight projections which extend in the pars intermedia. completely as an enclosing cup. rior region of pars intermedia. 4.. The neural lobe is carried on the the cleft embedded only in connective tissue.Lactotropes. 6. 16). PPD. These cells are abundant in the anterior pars distalis X 250. situated anterior to neurohypophysis with a few pituicytes. the hallow portion extends even into the adenohypophysis. B. 7. B2. Figs. 4-7. It is thick with many cellular layers making a massive glandular structure more or less d) Median eminence (Fig. The pars intermedia layers thick. 2009. J. & PATIL. Int.Posterior pars distalis. lobe is not solid. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. A1 . Enlarged position of anterior pars distalis showing the same cell types as above X 400. The portal vessels run across c) Neural lobe (Fig. B1 –Tyrotrophs. MALASHETTY. The wall of neurohypophysis is 3-4 cell b) Pars intermedia (Figs. Basophils of anterior and posterior pars distalis stained with aniline blue (B1 and B2). 5. 13-15). Enlarged position of pars distalis showing the same cell types as above X 400.Gonadotrophs.. The median eminence is equal to that of pars distalis in size. In many places it is reduced to 1-2 cell layer surround the posterior region of neural lobe more or less thick. and yellow with orange-G (A2) X 250. Morphol. SONAR. 1227 . 27(4):1223-1234. Acidophils of anterior and posterior pars distalis stained purple with erythrosine (A1). S. A. The neural constriction. A2 – Somatotropes. V. APD- anterior pars distalis.

B2. 8-11. 10. The A1cells are erythrosinophilic and stained purple and during breeding season they are deeply stained (Fig.. 6). These cells are also AF positive A2 cells. B. 9. Inset of fig. During breeding season they are more secretory and breeding season. APD- anterior pars distalis. round or secretary materials in the sinusoids (Fig. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. is lets amongst erythrosinophilic (A1) cells. Inset of fig.. The anterior pars distalis is are slightly larger. There are a few elongated with an excentric nucleus.8 showing gonadotrophs devoid of secretory materials X 400. 8) and there is a little or no present in groups of acinus type. 1228 . B. Pars distalis of breeding season showing AF positive at anterior portion. During nonbreeding season these by the trichrome techniques (Fig. Their secretion in the form of granules is collected in the 2). 3). These cells are differentiated as A1 cells and granular (Figs. which shows variation in the staining The pars distalis cells also take aniline blue stain with property. These islets are concentrated at the cephalic region of anterior pars distalis. a) Pars distalis (Figs. The pars distalis is the major portion of the pituitary. Morphol. The A2 cells are stained with orange G (organgeophilic) small sinusoids (Fig. Gonadotrophs are highly secretory X 250. MALASHETTY. 27(4):1223-1234. 8. 11. S. The different cell types are identified depending on trichrome. Pars distalis of nonbreeding season showing AF negative gonadotrophs X 250. These cells are numerous small cells which are unidentified may be termed as B3 cells during breeding season and dispersed in groups like cellular in the pars intermedia (not shown). 2009. or red by Cleveland Wolfe's trichrome staining techniques (Fig. 4-11). Figs. & PATIL. 4 and 5). A1 cells are oval. versicolor. These cells are classified as B1 and B2 cells and the staining property of the cell. Histophysiology of pituitary gland of C. They are distributed throughout the pars rich in acidophils than the posterior pars distalis during distalis. 7).6 showing gonadotrophs showing large number of AF positive granules X 400. Int. A. 9). J. A1 cells are usually cells are faintly stained (Fig. SONAR.Gonadotrophs. V.

Neurosecretory granules. 27(4):1223-1234.. SONAR. X 400. 12. MALASHETTY. 13-15). 12 and 13). These neural cells are arranged 3-4 cells thick layers on the walls on neural lobe. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. & PATIL.. Portion of the pars intermedia showing AF positive melanotrophs during breeding season. They are AF positive and also take deep stain with erythrosine during breeding season. 13. 2009. Figs. b) Pars intermedia (Figs. Neurosecretory material of neural lobe is AF positive neural lobe take deep blue stain because of its storage of secretory material present in the form of thick granules. NSG. 14. Fig. Highly secretory neurosecretory material is seen during both breeding and nonbreeding season. Int. 12-15. 1229 . B. A. Portion of neurohypophysis showing thick AF positive neurosecretory granules during both the season stained with AF- Fast green. 15). J. 16). Portion of the pars intermedia showing erythrosine positive melanotrophs during breeding season stained with Cleveland Wolf’s trichrome X400. 16. Morphol. S. The pars intermedia is large and lobulated with neural plexus penetrating with capillaries. c) Neural lobe (Fig. 14). MLT-Melanotrophs. During nonbreeding season they are AF negative and less secretory (Fig. B. Portion of the pars intermedia showing weak AF positive melanotrophs during nonbreeding season stained with AF -Fast green.chromotropes 2R X 400. V. 15. Parts of pars intermedia showing poor erythrosine positive melanotrophs during nonbreeding season stained with Cleveland Wolf’s trichrome X400.chromotropes 2R X 400. When stained with trichrome they become erythrosine negative as they are less secretory (Fig. The cell secretion migrates towards the anterior end of the cell and collected at the central place of the cord (Fig. The pars intermedia cells are arranged in cords.

pars distalis. In C. species (Green. V. & PATIL. versicolor the neural lobe extends from is attached to the ventral surface of the median eminence on the infundibular stalk as a compartment in between pars distalis one side and other side to the anterior pars distalis. the tuberalis cells invading into the pituitary gland as well as on the hypothalamo hypophyseal hypothalamic and median eminence tissues to a greater or complex in reptiles are much fewer compared to other lesser degree (Saint Girones. during breeding season which may be due to the fact that termedia lies posterior to the solid pars nervosa in the sea MSH secreting cells are more active during this period as C. DISCUSSION Anatomy of pituitary gland of C. 1984). It is 2-3 cell layers thick in many places. They usually undergo remarkable Morphological. 1970). Uromastix. The pars in. almost completely isolated bed of neural lobe. the pars tuberalis (Holmes & Ball). S. 2009. SONAR. have marked capacity for adaptive in relation to neurosecretion and angioarchitecture. the studies on the anatomy as well as neural lobe. In H. versicolor may be due to the regarding hypothalmic control of pituitary function (Callard same reason. The pars intermedia is particularly large in has described pituitary gland of some Indian reptilian species iguanids. Psammophilus blanfordanus. A. The capillary 1230 . The vertebrates. the pituitary gland of reptile is composed of two but it forms a thick glandular structure in Varanus. pars in. the pars tuberalis develops in the embryo as typical lateral lobes of the hollow Rathke's pouch. eg. However. versicolor. In reptiles there is a little evidence available absence of pars tuberalis in C. Hemidactylus in Varanus niloticus. but paired juxta neural plate. However. Anterior pars distalis surrounds a part of into median eminence and neural lobe. flaviviridis the upper portion of neurohypophysis and posterior pars distalis neurosecretory axon of SON and PON unite to form a surrounds the lower part of neurohypophysis and also ante. the juxta neural tuberalis plates on the floor of the infudibulum and the pars tuberalis interna. versicolor as pars tuberalis is absent it is linked The preopic nuclei of the hypothalamus is divided into anteriorly to the infundibular floor and median eminence by supraoptic nuclei (SON) and para ventricular nuclei (PON). in blind burrowing lizards. Agama basic units adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. A nonglandular versicolor is characterized by crimson red color at the pas tuberalis containing portal veins which pass into the pars cephalic region specially in males. Wingstrand. In C. Int. such as Anolis. Unlike other The pars intermedia which usually surrounds the classes of vertebrates. on Hypothalamo-hypophyseal interrelationship. in the present The neurohypophysis or neural lobe is the end of an study it is very clear that the pars tuberalis is totally absent infundibular stem varies in thickness depending on the species. Chainleon zeylanicus and the pars intermedia of C. MALASHETTY. However. Hasegawa. Lacerta. 1970. J. Nonhouayi-Besnard partition of pars distalis into anterior (cephalic) and poste. versicolor it is pars distalis. 1969). 27(4):1223-1234.. (1966) has reported the large cleft sending diverticuli into rior (caudal) lobes has been described in several Indian the caudal pars distalis. with a portal zone joining to the the upper part is thickened with 4-6 cell layers. 1969. experimental and seasonal studies on the changes in the adult. 1951. Morphol. snakes and covered largely by pars distalis. The neural lobe is never solid. Median eminence is present anterior to the which grows forward and contacts the median eminence and neurohypophysis and with pituicytes.. The and Chameleon (Wingstrand). Anguis and Xantusia. varies greatly in size being only one or a few cytology of reptilian pituitary are sparse and sporadic. into two structures. the cephalic pars distalis. Mabuya carinata. in Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolor. as well as into the pars intermedia lizards. 1960. common tract anterior to median eminence is reported to be rior region of pars intermedia. a cleft filled with connective tissue and posteriorly it meets AF positive fibres orginating from these centres terminate the pars intermedia. Erys and Ptyas is reported by Jacob (1965) and Ramaswami. Meurling & Willstedt. In and pars intermedia and extends finger like projections into crocodiles it is attached to the median eminence as a thin pars intermedia. In lacertilia. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Holmes & Ball). however large but always contains at least short extension of the infundibular recess In primitive reptiles like sphenodon. In most of the adults pars tuberalis is separated filled with extensive portal capillaries. cell layers in some lizards. It is observed in the present study that flavivihdis. Amphisbaenids and termedia (PI) and pars tuberalis (PT). the presences of median eminence and well defined The pars distalis which is an important part of pituitary hypothalrmo-hypophyseal portal system regulating the in all the reptiles occupies major portion which links activity of pituitary gland have been described in reptilian anteriorly with pars tuberalis and posteriorly with pars inter. media. Ramaswami (1980) Trogonophids. versicolor is large and glandular Varanus flavescens (Mohanty & Naik. B. The colour change controlled by MSH. B. distalis in Varanus. & Willard. In C. This is completely atrophied adenohypophysis is divided into pars distalis (PD).

. Sage & Bern. In pituitary secretes only one gonadotrophin with both FSH C. spherical in Agama and elongated in many investigators (Saint Girons. SONAR. 1967a. These cells tend to reduce in number and separating the neural lobe and pars intermedia and might be become chromophobic during nonbreeding season in C.b) and very small in media is massive with the cells arranged in regular cords in lacertids and snakes (Saint Girons. In many reptilian species PAS of cephalic and caudal fragments of pituitary of a turtle positive and AF positive cells have been identified as B3 (Pseudemys). Licht & Nicoll. As described Pandalai. & PATIL. They are located mainly along the cords. Acidophils type 2 (A2). During nonbreeding season they become closer like structure of the entire pars distalis (Wingstrand). V. responsible for controlling the pars intermedia. their secretory nature. 1970). versicolor as seen in the present study pars distalis is consisting the cells arranged in pseudo-acini with plenty of capillary Basophils type 2 (B2). 1967b). Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Int. J. 1967b. 2009. These cells are adenohypophyseal function. AF negative and aniline blue as they become carminophilia (Wingstrand. Unlike in mammals it seems that reptilian also AF negative (Saint Girons. 1969b) have described various cell types in the pars are scattered throughout the pars distalis. AF positive and aniline blue positive. Morphol. 1967b). The individual cell is larges cubiodal to columnar. Portal vessels are cells are confirmed as somatotropes by disc electrophorsis largely known to be responsible for controlling and by bioassay in turtle (Licht & Nicoll). In C. However. In C. 1972) Therefore. and the degree o1 PAS negative. depending positive. 1970. A1 cells have been described in many versicolor they are present throughout the pars distalis in reptilian species. They (1969a. In C. A1 degranulated and marked with vacuolization with large cells are erythrosinophilic and are totally PAS negative and rounded nuclei. In general. unlike the cords of A1 cells. snakes and lizards (Iguanidae and Varanidae) and concentrated in the cephalic lobe in Agamidae. The similar type of massive pars intermedia 1231 . to B2 cells. In all probability the blood less tends towards chromophilic during nonbreeding season. As the identified the A1 cells as lactotropes (Licht & Rosenberg. Licht & Pearson other snakes (Saint Girons. By bioassay Basophils types 3(B3). Soon after the breeding the cells become variation in the granular cell size. they tend to be organized in pseudo-follicles (Saint large and more active during breeding and loaded with Girons. Electron microscopic study shows the secretory material. B. differentiated from B2 cells which have the same staining interspersed with capillary vessels. Histophysiology of the pars distalis. electro microscopic study may help for identifying these cells. Eyeson). Eyeson).. the reptilian pars these cells are small and are strongly PAS positive. These cells are generally scattered vessels during breeding season. 1967a. 1967a. 1967a. 1970). versicolor.versicolor A1 cells are erythrosinophilic stained red or and LH properties. entering the neural lobe from the median eminence might The A2 cells tend to enlarge and slightly degranulate during also be exposed to releasing hormones. it is not possible to identify these cells and of C. The A2 cells are often large cells in Agama and Viper and present at the caudal pars distalis Histophysiology of the pars intermedia.Wolfe's trichrome technique and negative to PAS and AF as reported in Anolis. The releasing hormone drained from by Eyeson in Agama these cells and orange G + and such the median eminence into pars distalis. Histophysiology of Basophils type 1 (B1). Acidophils type 1 (A1). versicolor distalis of Anolis carolinensis. present study has been undertaken by the help of light 1969. purple by Cleveland . They may be numerous or The secretory granules are typical basophilic and PAS scarce. These cells on species and physiological state. Saint-Girons. S. A. AF distalis as usual in tetrapods consists of irregular branching positive and aniline blue positive B1 cells can be cords of endocrine cells generally with two cells thick. capillaries in the cephalic lobe. well granulated or sparsely granulated. Like other reptiles the evenly throughout the pars distalis in many reptiles (Anolis following five chromophilic cell types could be identified in and Sphenodon) and concentrated mid ventrally in most the pars distalis depending on their staining property and size. versicolor. 1970. identified as thyrotrophs by thyrodictomy in Agama sometimes containing colloid material resulting in a thyroid (Eyeson). 1965/1966). In chelonians the cells are properties by their size and dispersment. C. lizard (Anolis) and snake (Thamnophis) it is cells and identified as adenocorticotrophs (ACTH). plexus of neural lobe are reported to give rise to bundles of versicolor A2 cells are small like those of lacertids and capillaries which supply to pars intermedia (Sheela & present in groups. These cells are often arranged in pseudo-acini (Saint Girons. B. In C. the identified A1 cells microscope only. These principles early stage of vitellogenesis and sexual activity in female might reach the blood vessels of the vascular septum Agama (Eyeson). versicolor may be regarded as Lactotropes. These cells are usually large in some the reptilian pars distalis have been reviewed by a few lizards and snakes. MALASHETTY. The B2 cells are Lacertids. 27(4):1223-1234. The pars inter- (Eyeson. Eyeson). In Sphenodon and some are universally accepted as gonadotrophs.

only one positive evidence is available on Kalubernia. Se trata de dos unidades básicas. E. F. Pituitaria. I. The neural lobe is AF positive and the axon contains thick In chameleon the rapid colour changes are entirely under AF positive granules. 13(3):460-7. Rodriguez & La pointe. La secresión presente en las células neurosecretoras del lóbulo neural aparece en forma de gránulos grandes y es AF+. La PD anterior es más rica en acidófilos que la PD posterior durante la temporada de reproducción. N. eritrosina. La pars tuberalis (PT). usualmente reducida en reptiles. G. J. 1969. V. the situation which is similar in Anolis Histophysiology of the neural lobe. The fibrous layer contains AF positive melanophores may be helping to display crimson orange pictuicytes are rare and appear to be simply ependymal cells color during breeding season. S. Las células identificadas A1 se consideran lactóforas y las células A2 se consideran somatotropas. surrounded Therefore it is not clear whether size of pars intermedia is by pars intermedia in Sphenodon. Anolis. Agamids in general and dehydration and increased after injection of pitocin (Philibert diurnal geckos. The neural lobe is thin walled and not change colour (eg. versicolor.. 2009. Estas células se diferencian como células A1 y A2. Int. 1232 . MALASHETTY. A. So 1969). pars intermedia is lobulated because of presence of neural lobe in C. Estas células toman una profunda tinción azul indicando el rico material neurosecretor durante las temporadas de cria y la no reproductiva. Nayar & Pandalai). versicolor.. 1970). In Sphenodon the neural highly granulated during breeding season and gradually lobe contains three layers. 3rd. B. In C.. Effects of intrahypothalamic Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei) pituitary in vitro: rostral betamethazone implants on adrenal function in male pars distalis and proximal pars distalis. 1965). & PATIL. Estas células se clasifican como las células B1 y B2 en función de su tamaño y ubicación. The ependymal cell display basal become degranulated during nonbreeding season. Young. 51(1):113-30. Comp. B. Las células son AF+. The secretion (Rodriguez. Las basófilas de la PD son PAS+. Pars intermedia. Morphol. adenohipófisis y neurohipófisis. durante la temporada de cría. & Ball. 1970). Secretory activity of Callard. La eminencia media (EM) se encuentra en la parte anterior de la neurohipófisis y envía capilares portales hacia la adenohipófisis. secretion during both the seasons. En C. & PATIL.. related to the power of adaptive integumentary color change. but it is also large in some lizards which do & Kamemoto. occurs as a outpocketing of the infundibular reces. Comp. but this type of study is still lacking in Indian garden far. Las células A1 son eritrosinofílicas y se tiñen de color púrpura o rojo y A2 son teñidas de amarillo con anaranjado G. eritrosina+ y secretan material altamente granular. nocturnal geckos). B. AF+ y azul anilina + durante la temporada de cría. 27(4):1223-1234. A. SONAR. It is of interest to note which have sunk into the neural tissue (Rodriguez & La pointe. It is difficult to note the difference nervous control. Durante la temporada no reproductiva se convierten en AF-. is found in crocodilians. during breeding & Goldman. MSH seemingly playing no role (Hadley between the secretory pattern of these cells. 1983. versicolor the and nonbreeding season as it contains thick neurosecretory pars intermedia cells are AF positive and erythrosine positive. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. V. Int. This processes which cross the neural lobe to end on the walls of secretion (MSH) which is the main controlling factor of the plexus intermedius. Endocrinol. versicolor la glándula pituitaria es una masa compacta y pequeña unida al hipotálamo por un tallo delgado. recolectadoss durante el peak de la temporada no reproductiva y la reproductiva fueron utiliza- dos para el estudio de la anatomía e histofisiología de la glándula pituitaria. 27(4):1223-1234. Las grandes células B2 están presentes en cordones y B1 se encuentran localizadas cerca de estas partes. Pars tuberalis. At the Transection of the infundibulum caused degranulation of other extreme the pars intermedia is reduced or totally absent secretory cells suggesting the role of hypothalamus in MSH in borrowing snakes and lizards (Saint Girons. sceloporus cyanogenys. J. & Willard. lizard C. está ausente en C. RESUMEN: Calotes versicolor. PALABRAS CLAVE: Calotes versicolor. MALASHETTY. Calotes. La secreción de estas células y el número de células se reduce durante la temporada no reproductiva. Varanus and Chameleon. 1969. Endocrinol. REFERENCES Batten. Pars distalis. Las células B2 y B1 se consideran tirotrofos y gonadotrofos respectivamente. J.y de menos secreción. It is reduced in response to eg. Acanthodacytlus. Anatomía y cambios histofisiologicos en la glándula pituitaria de la Calotes versicolor durante las temporadas de crianza y la no reproductive. Gen. chelonians and most snakes. SONAR. The neural lobe is & Varanus (Wingstand. versicolor. La PI es grande y labulada. 1971). T. 2009. B. Durante la temporada no reproductiva de estas células muestran una respuesta negativa a la tinción anterior. Morphol. Chameleons. Gen.. regarding the hypothalamic control of MSH secretion. La neurohipófisis está compuesta por una eminencia media (EM) y el lóbulo neural o pars nerviosa (PN). S. La adenohipófisis incluye la pars distalis (PD) y la pars intermedia (PI). The generally packed with neurosecretory materials in reptiles intermedia is large in lizards capable of rapid colour change and Diadophis punctutus... P.

pituitary homotransplant in the wild rodent Mus platythrix Bennett. 7. 2009. & Dutt. E. J. Anatomy and histophysiological changes in pituitary of Calotes versicolor during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Gen. R. M. histology of the hypothalamo. K. 81. K. Rec. J. 1965. L. J. P. I. Current Science. Localization of prolactin in the Dutt.. Dodd. 1958. N. Advances in comparative University of Rajasthan. A. pituitary gland of the ferret. Anat. M. 1968.469-541. pp.. the West African rainbow lizard. K. 20:665-6. A differential stain for the an. (Ed. 1971. Gonadotrophic and thyrotrophic cells of the adenohypophysis of the vole (Microtus agrestis). P. R. In: Barrington. Gunma Symposia on Endocrinology. ' gland of the ground pituitary pars distalis cells in some Indian lizard. 1:107. 9(2):489-504. to the pars intermedia. MALASHETTY. comp. 131:727. A. Indian J. Biol. 1960. P. 69:243-52. Zool. Madhyastha.. 1967. J. M. Licht. Forbes. Jaipur. 16:452.Thesis. Comp. & Naik. J. J. Academic press. 35. H. Comparative morphology and Jorgensen. pp. D. J. Mohanty. 1971. pp. Cleveland. 1233 .. M.. Gen. lizard Anolis carolinensis.neurohypophysial system. Ph. Comp. Reprod. 6:57-77. Clin. & Zarrow. X. & Kerr. 1970. M. a new stain for elastic tissues. 1950. 9:5-27. 48:44-5. & Govindan. & Dodd. Clarke. 27(4):1223-1234. Licht.).. Physiological colour 1978. Biol. Endocrinol. 16:1137-40. (Eds. D. Agama agama (L).. J. & Pearson. C. Sympos. A. E. Symposium on comparative endocrinology of Varanasi. Acta. & Willstedt... Licht. Path. Comp. N. N. Cambridge University 1932. Jacob. 1969a. R. The relationship between reptilian pars distalis. A. K. O. N. comparative account. C. Endocrinol. 1963. 1969.. 64. India. Follet. squirrel (Citellus tridecemlineatus). Prolactin cells of the Am. press. C. B. Gen. P. 25:495-503. A cytomorphological study of the pituitary glands trol of pituitary function in sub mammalian vertebrates. K. Comp. New York. J. Effects of adenohypophysectomy on testicular function in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. & Pearson. changes in reptiles... New York. & Ball. 1984. Holmes. J. Zool. C. 1969. C. Academic Press. 13:439-54. Exp. The pituitary gland: a terior lobe of the hypophysis. W. K. B. H. L. Hypothalamic con. Comp. B. London. R. & Goldman. Eyeson. T. pituitary of Anolis carolinensis with special reference tal veins.. P. K. The comparative anatomy of the hypophysis. 1969. Am. 13:367- pars distalis of the lizard. Int. 1969b. R. physiology and biochemistry. & Nicoll. Cambridge. Jorgensen. 1979. & Forsyth.304-6.. B. D.. Gen. gonadotrophin and thyrotropin in the pars distalis of the Am. Green. B.. o reptiles of Rajasthan. Meurling. Hoffman. & PATIL. Aldehyde fuchsin.. & Rosenberg. Seasonal changes in the Holmes. N. 1963. 17:743- of Medical Sciences 76:147-193. Seasonal changes in the Mohanty. 1951. J. Anat. Endocr. Licht. Perspective in Endocrinology. R. S. 1970. & Wolfe. Central nervous control of adenohypophyseal function. 14(2):357-67. R. Kynsha Journal Calotes versicolor (Daudin). P. J. Presence and distribution of Gomori. with special reference to its blood supply and innervation. Comparative anatomy of the vascular supply adenohypophysial cells of the male Indian garden lizard.. K. V. G. Indian J. & Sharp. Effect of reserpine on the Hasegawa. Morphol. in the hypothalamo hypophysial system. S. Endocrinol. 51:211-8. Gen. J. D. M. Hadley. Vascular connections in the Hasegawa. 51:409-13. 1964. & Naik. L. 88:225-311. S. Cell types in the distal lobe of the pituitary of Biol. Endocrinol. L. Rec. Gen. Anat. A. Effects of mammalian gonado- trophins (FSH and LH) on the testes of the lizard. spiny mouse Mus platythrix Bennett. In: Lowenstein. SONAR. D.. 1969. A. Zool. 1974.113-223. Endocrinol. 12:526- hypothalamic neurosecretion and hypophysis of brown 35. Endocrinol. Exp. Ultrastructure of the thyrotrophic cell in the Anolis carolinensis. Soc. A. P.). Histophysiology of the basophilic cells of the pituitary. Comparative anatomy of the hypophysio por. M.

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