TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers

Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b)

Figure 8 The Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b)

This heat exchanger is compact and efficient. This makes it good for applications with limited space.
Invented in 1923 by Richard Seligman, it is layers of metal plates separated by gaskets (or spacers). The
plates and gaskets have holes, so the hot and cold water circuits pass alternately through the plates. The
circuits are completely separate but heat transfers between them through the metal plates. Figure 9
shows how it works when connected for parallel and counter flow.

Hot in Hot out Hot in Hot out
Cold in Cold out Cold out Cold in

Cold Water Cold Water

Hot Water Hot Water

Cold Water Cold Water

Hot Water Hot Water

Cold Water Cold Water

Parallel Flow Counter Flow

Figure 9 How the Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) Works

The size and amount of plates determines the performance of this heat exchanger. More plates give
more heat transfer area, but increased flow resistance. The plates of commercial plate heat exchangers
have ‘chevron’ shapes pressed into their surface, to increase their surface area and disturb the flow for
better heat transfer. TecQuipment’s plates have small flow disturbers to do a similar job (see Figure 10).

A diagram on the heat exchanger bedplate shows students how to connect the heat exchanger.

TecQuipment Ltd 7 User Guide

TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers

Commercial plates
with ‘chevron’
style indentations

TQ’s plates with
flow disturbers

Figure 10 Chevrons and Flow Disturbers

User Guide 8 TecQuipment Ltd

especially oil refineries and chemical plants. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Figure 11 The Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) This is the most common heat exchanger used in many industries. It is compact and can work at high pressures. Heat transfers between them. A diagram on the heat exchanger bedplate shows students how to connect the heat exchanger. One water circuit passes through the bundle and the other passes through the shell. The bundle has baffles to help create a turbulent (mixed) flow in the shell. Cold in Cold out Baffles Parallel Flow Hot in Hot out Shell Tubes (bundle) Cold out Cold in Counter Flow Hot in Hot out Figure 12 How the The Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Works TecQuipment Ltd 9 User Guide . It is a large tube (shell) that surrounds several smaller tubes (a bundle).

You must connect the interface to its own supply . Inner Tube: Stainless steel. *If you use water above this temperature.4 kg (TD360b) 4 Stainless Steel Plates. each 0.13 A 2-pole circuit breaker protection For outlet to optional VDAS Interface: 1 x T3.15 A 20 mm Note: Some units do not have the outlet for the optional VDAS interface. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Technical Details Service Module Item Details Nett Dimensions 1350 mm long x 500 mm front to back x 500 mm high Nett Weight 40 kg Electrical Supply 220 VAC to 240 VAC Phase to Neutral or Phase to Phase 50 Hz to 60 Hz at 13 A Electrical Circuit Main switch . 12 mm outside diameter and 10 mm inside diameter. you cannot successfully do all the experiments and your results will be very different to those in this guide. 30 mm outside diameter and 20 mm inside diameter.min-1.5 kg (TD360a) Outer Tube (shell): Clear acrylic. consider using a water chiller to supply the cold water for this equipment. and waste needed Minimum Temperature 5°C.02 m2 TecQuipment Ltd 13 User Guide . Internal Fuses Water Level Lamps and control circuits (F2): 1 x T1 A 20 mm Water Pump (F1): 1 x T2 A 20 mm Cold water supply Clean cold water supply at 5 L. Mean Heat Transfer Area: 0. Note: If your mains water supply is warm. maximum temperature 20°C*. between 1 bar and 3 bar.refer to the VDAS User Guide for details. Standard drinking water waste. Optional Heat Exchangers Heat Exchanger Details Concentric Tube Nett Dimensions: Heat Exchanger 500 mm wide x 260 mm front to back x 160 mm high and 3.02 m2 Plate Heat Nett Dimensions: Exchanger 500 mm wide x 260 mm front to back x 100 mm high and 2.005 m2 Mean Heat Transfer Area: 0.

For NOTE increased accuracy.02 m2 *The coil and other engineering tolerances affect the batch volume of the inner vessel of the TD360d. 60 mm outside diameter and 50 mm inside diameter Tube bundle: 6 Stainless steel tubes. 101 mm outside diameter and 99 mm inside diameter (1 mm wall) Coil: Stainless steel.7 kg (TD360c) Outer Tube (shell): Clear Acrylic. 125 mm outside diameter and 113 mm inside diameter Inner (jacketed) vessel: Stainless steel. you may use an accurate volume measuring container to find the actual volume of water held in the inner vessel of this heat exchanger. each 6 mm outside diameter and 4 mm inside diameter. Three baffles Mean Heat Transfer Area: 0. User Guide 14 TecQuipment Ltd . see To Drain the Jacketed Vessel with Coil and Stirrer (TD360d) on page 75). 6 mm outside diameter and 4 mm inside diameter Batch Volume: *Approximately 0. Noise Levels The noise levels recorded at this apparatus are less than 70 dB (A).TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Heat Exchanger Details Shell and Tube Nett Dimensions: Heat Exchanger 500 mm wide x 260 mm front to back x 150 mm high and 2. The value stated is accurate for the tests in this guide.02 m2 Jacketed Vessel Nett Dimensions: with Coil and 500 mm wide x 260 mm front to back x 310 mm high and 6 kg Stirrer (TD360d) Outer vessel: Grey UPVC.5 L (set by overflow) Mean Heat Transfer Area of coil/jacket: Approximately 0. To empty the inner vessel.

you must find the average temperature for the hot and cold circuits in your heat exchanger. NOTE The Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) has thermocouples at its mid-point to measure this value for you. To find the average temperature of the cold circuit: T C1 + T C2 T C = ---------------------- .TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Average Temperatures in Heat Exchangers Cold in Cold out TC1 TC2 Average cold temperature TC Hot in Hot out TH1 TH2 Average hot temperature TH Figure 20 Average Temperatures in Heat Exchangers For most heat transfer equations. (1) 2 To find the average temperature of the hot circuit: T H1 + T H2 T H = ----------------------. This is the calculated value of the temperature at a mid-point between the inlet and outlet of the circuit (see Figure 20). (2) 2 User Guide 20 TecQuipment Ltd . and calculations of specific heat capacity and density of water.

kg-1. so equation 5 assumes constant pressure over a known range of temperature.036T -----------------------------.5 J.0002874  ------------------ – 0. Q- c P = -----. Alternatively. It is a product of the mass of a material (m) and its specific heat capacity (c).= 0.011160 × 10 (6) c p (at 15°C)  100  From tests.26 . (4) ΔT Pressure and temperature affects specific heat capacity. c = ΔQ -------. C = m×c (3) Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (cp) Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of exactly 1 kg of material by 1 degree (Celsius). the specific heat capacity of water at 15°C is 4185.K-1 NOTE You must use the mean (or average) temperature of your flow circuit in this equation. TecQuipment Ltd 21 User Guide . Equation 6 (based on data from tests) will give you an accurate answer (where your temperature T is in Celsius): c p (at T°C) T + 100 5. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Useful Equations Heat Capacity (C) This is a measure of the heat needed to increase the temperature of a given mass of material by 1 degree (Kelvin or Celsius).996185 + 0. + 0. It is the ‘isobaric’ (equal pressure) specific heat capacity. It is a ratio of the change in heat energy and the change in temperature. (5) ΔT You may use Figure 21 to find the specific heat capacity for your mean water temperature.

839 + 16.21 .18 4. Equation 7 shows you how to accurately calculate it (where T is your water temperature in degrees centigrade).195 4.241 × 10 – 6 T 3 + 105.205 -1 Specific Heat Capacity (kJ. This affects all your calculations. its density changes slightly.215 4. Alternatively.175 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Water Temperature (Celsius) Figure 21 Specific Heat Capacity of Water at Constant Pressure Density (ρ) As water temperature changes.19 4.2 4.185 4.  999.K-1) 4. for a unit mass and a constant pressure.kg 4. Its maximum density is at approximately 4 degrees celsius and decreases as its temperature increases or decreases from this value.030 × 10 – 12 T 5   ρ = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- –3 ( 1 + 16.887 × 10 T ) (7) NOTE You must use the average temperature of your flow circuit in this equation.846 × 10 – 9 T 4 – 281. You can use Figure 22 to find water density for your water temperature.952 T – 7.TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Specific Heat Capacity of Water at Constant Pressure 4.990 × 10 – 3 T 2 – 46. User Guide 22 TecQuipment Ltd .

that does not lose or absorb heat from its surroundings.99 0. the temperature change and the specific heat capacity of the fluid (at mean temperature). So the heat transfer rate is: Q· = Q· e = Q· a = m H × c pH × ΔT H = m C × c pC × ΔT C (9) Rearranged for volumetric flow gives: Q· = Q· e = Q· a = V H × ρ H × c pH × ΔT H = V C × ρ C × c pC × ΔT C (10) TecQuipment Ltd 23 User Guide .98 0. the cool fluid absorbs all the heat from the hot fluid.L -1) 0.985 0.005 1 Water Density (kg. heat transfers or ‘flows’ from the hot water circuit to the cold water circuit. Q· = m × c p × ΔT (8) In an ideal heat exchanger. Energy Balance and Efficiencies In heat exchangers.975 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Water temperature (°C) Figure 22 Water Density Heat Transfer.995 0. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Water Density 1. The heat transfer rate is a function of the fluid mass flow rate.

there is no heat transfer across the ‘system boundary’ in an ideal heat exchanger. Hot in Hot out Ideal Heat Exchanger Cold out Cold in System Boundary Heat loss to surroundings Hot in Hot out Real Heat Exchanger Cold in Cold out Heat in from surroundings Figure 24 Ideal and Real Heat Exchangers The energy balance coefficient (CEB) shows the relationship between the energy absorbed and emitted. But. in reality the hot and cold fluids are usually at different temperatures to the surroundings. so some heat transfers across the system boundary. For example. you must assume it is a ‘system’ with the hot and cold water flows as its input and outputs (see Figure 23). the heat from a warm room would transfer to the cold fluid.TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Cold in Cold out Hot in Hot out System Boundary Figure 23 System Boundary To better understand the heat transfer in a heat exchanger. where: Q· a C EB = ----- - Q· e User Guide 24 TecQuipment Ltd . outputs and losses in diagram form as relative quantities. Figure 24 shows the input. As mentioned earlier.

the energy balance coefficient can give answers of greater than 1 if the heat exchanger absorbs energy from its surroundings. The temperature efficiency of the hot circuit of the Heat Exchanger is the ratio of the temperature change in the hot circuit. So. because. because of the possible heat flow into or out of the system.× 100 (11) T H1 – T C1 The temperature efficiency of the cold circuit of the Heat Exchanger is the ratio of the temperature change in the cold circuit. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers But. it is only for guidance. divided by the difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures of the hot and cold circuits: T C2 – T C1 η C = ---------------------- . (14) T – T ln  ----------------------- H2 C2 T H1 – T C1 Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the wall and boundary layers. A good heat exchanger will give a high coefficient. as shown. therefore this value is important to engineers. (13) 2 Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) This is a measure of the heat driving force that creates the heat transfer. (15) A × LMTD TecQuipment Ltd 25 User Guide . It is a measure of how well the heat exchanger works. ( T H2 – T C2 ) – ( T H1 – T C1 ) LMTD = ------------------------------------------------------------- . Q· e U = -------------------------- . in reality: Q· e = Q· a ± Losses or gains from surroundings The mean temperature efficiency and heat transfer coefficient give more useful results for comparison between heat exchangers.× 100 (12) T H1 – T C1 The mean temperature efficiency of the two circuits is the average efficiency of them both: ηH + ηC η = ------------------ . It is a logarithmic average of the temperature difference between the hot and cold circuits at each end of the heat exchanger. divided by the difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures of the hot and cold circuits: T H1 – T H2 η H = ---------------------- .

Thermal Equilibrium for Accurate Results Your results will be more accurate if you wait for the temperatures to stabilize before you take results. TD360b and TD360c): 3. while the other controls the experiment. Never use any electrical WARNING switches when you have wet hands. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Experiments Safety Always clean up any water spills immediately. TecQuipment’s results are based on a standard room temperature of approximately 20°C and a cold water supply temperature of between 10°C and 15°C. At Least Two People This equipment is simple to use. TecQuipment recommend that you have at least one person to help you do experiments. Use the thumbscrews to hold it in position. TecQuipment Ltd 27 User Guide . but you must record several readings while you do experiments. Put the heat exchanger onto the front of the Service Module. One person can record the results. as shown on the diagram on the bedplate of each heat exchanger. This is when the heat exchanger system reaches ‘thermal equilibrium’ and can take several minutes. 2. To Fit a Heat Exchanger 1. Useful Notes Local Temperatures Local ambient temperature and the cold water inlet temperature have a large affect on your results. Make sure that you do your experiments in a place that has a constant ambient temperature and a constant temperature cold water supply. Connect the hot and cold circuits to the heat exchanger for parallel or counter flow. Switch off the pump and heater switches. For the Tubular and Flat Plate Heat Exchangers (TD360a.

The software will create a table for you automatically when you start taking readings. For the first test. use the hand operated flow control valves to set the hot and cold flow rates as shown for Test 1 in Table 3. Record the hot and cold circuit temperatures. 5.The Effect of Varying Flow Rate This experiment is not for the Jacketed Vessel with Coil and Stirrer NOTE (TD360d).Parallel Flow 1. 6. in the top left of the layout. Heat Exchanger Connection Service Module Connections TH1 Hot In TH1 and Hot Supply TH2 Hot Out TH2 and Hot Return TH3 (only on the TD360a) TH3 TC1 Cold In (swap with TC2 for counter flow) TC1 and Cold Supply TC2 Cold Out (swap with TC1 for counter flow) TC2 and Cold Return TC3 (only on the TD360a) TC3 Table 2 Heat Exchanger Connections 2. Repeat the procedure for flow rates as shown in the table for tests 2. select the correct heat exchanger. Your cold water supply will probably change slightly as you do the experiment. Aim To show how different cold flow rates affect the performance of the heat exchanger in both parallel flow and counter flow connection (hot flow rate and heater temperature are fixed). Connect and set up your heat exchanger as shown in To Fit a Heat Exchanger on page 27. If you have VDAS. Procedure 1 . so NOTE you may need to adjust the flow control valves slightly to keep the flow rate constant. similar to Table 3. 4. Use an accurate thermometer to check the local ambient air temperature for reference. Allow at least five minutes for the heat exchanger temperatures to stabilize. Connect for parallel flow and a heater tank temperature of 60°C. 3. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Experiment 1 . TecQuipment Ltd 31 User Guide . Create a blank results table. 3 and 4.

5 * If you have the TD360a. use the TH3 and TC3 readings as the average temperatures.User Guide TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Heat Exchanger: Table 3 Blank Results Table Connection (Parallel or counter flow): Ambient Temperature: Heater Tank Temperature: Test 32 (L/min) (L/min) Hot Flow Cold Flow U Average TC* Average TH* LMTD TH1 TH2 ΔT H TH3* TC1 TC2 ΔT C TC3* ηH ηC ρH ρC cpH cpC Q· e Q· a CEB η 1 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 1 4 3 0. TecQuipment Ltd .

use the mid- points TH3 and TC3 as the average temperatures. TecQuipment Ltd 33 User Guide . Convert your flow rates from L. similar to Figure 30. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Procedure 2 . From your results. comment on how the flow rate affects the heat exchanger performance. If you have more than one heat exchanger. heat absorbed. TC1 and TC2) to create simple temperature charts for each flow.s-1. Use the charts or the equations in the theory section to calculate the water density for the hot and cold water circuits (ρH and ρC) at each flow rate and the specific heat capacity for each circuit at each flow rate. Find the LMTD and use this to calculate the heat transfer coefficient (U) for each flow. mean temperature efficiencies and energy balance coefficient of the parallel-flow and counter-flow systems for all flow rates. Create charts of energy balance coefficient (vertical axis) against cold flow rate (horizontal axis). Note that the results for parallel flow and counter flow will be different.min-1 to m3. TH2. Calculate the heat emitted. Results Analysis Use the input and output temperatures (TH1. NOTE If you use the Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a).Counter Flow Reconnect the your heat exchanger for counter flow and repeat procedure 1. Parallel Flow Counter Flow Flow direction TH1 TH3 TH1 TH3 TH2 TH2 Only if you have Only if you have Temperature Temperature the TD360a the TD360a TC3 TC3 TC1 TC1 TC2 TC2 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 30 Simple Temperature Charts Find the change in temperature (ΔT) for each circuit and the average temperature for each circuit. compare the heat transfer coefficients of your heat exchangers for any given flow rate.

Cold = 0.5 L.m in-1 Concentric Tube Counter Flow Hot = 3 L.The Effect of Varying Flow Rate Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) Concentric Tube Parallel Flow Concentric Tube Counter Flow Hot and Cold = 3 L. TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Results Note: These results are sample results only.m in-1.5 L.m in-1 80 80 HOT Temperature COLD 60 Temperature 60 HOT 40 40 COLD 20 20 0 0 1 3 2 1 3 2 Position Position Figure 33 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) Concentric Tube Parallel Flow Hot = 3 L. Cold = 0. actual results may be slightly different.m in-1 Hot and Cold Flow = 3 L.m in-1 80 80 HOT COLD 60 Temperature Temperature 60 HOT 40 40 COLD 20 20 0 0 1 3 2 1 3 2 Position Position Figure 34 Typical Results For Experiment 1 . Experiment 1 .Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) TecQuipment Ltd 49 User Guide .m in-1.

Parallel Flow 1.4 Energy Balance Coefficient 10 Mean Temperature Efficiency 0.TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Parallel Flow Counter Flow Cold = Cold = Cold = Cold = 3 L.Counter Flow 1.6 15 Energy Balance Coefficient 0.6 15 0.8 20 Coefficient Efficiency 0.Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360a Concentric Tube .m-2K-1 702 W.Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) User Guide 50 TecQuipment Ltd .5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.5 L.min-1 3 L.m-2K-1 1336 W.4 10 Mean Temperature Efficiency 0.2 30 1 25 Mean Temperature Energy Balance 0.8 20 Efficiency 0.m in-1) Figure 36 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .2 5 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.min-1 0.2 5 0 0 0.Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360a) Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360a Concentric Tube .m-2K-1 718 W.2 30 Energy Balance Coefficient 1 25 Mean Temperature 0.m-2K-1 Coefficient Table 11 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .5 L.m in-1) Figure 35 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .min-1 Mean Temperature 14% 26% 14% 26% Efficiency Heat Transfer 1391 W.min-1 0.

Cold = 0.m in-1.min-1 Mean Temperature 7% 15% 7% 15% Efficiency Heat Transfer 672 W.m in-1.m in-1 80 Temperature 80 Temperature 60 60 HOT HOT 40 40 COLD COLD 20 20 0 0 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 38 Typical Results For Experiment 1 . TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) Plate Parallel Flow Plate Counter Flow Hot and Cold Flow = 3 L.m in-1 80 80 Temperature Temperature 60 60 HOT 40 HOT 40 COLD COLD 20 20 0 0 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 37 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .m-2K-1 349 W.5 L.Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) Parallel Flow Counter Flow Cold = Cold = Cold = Cold = 3 L.Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) TecQuipment Ltd 51 User Guide .5 L.m in-1 Hot and Cold Flow = 3 L.m-2K-1 Coefficient Table 12 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .min-1 0.5 L.5 L.Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) Plate Counter Flow Plate Parallel Flow Hot = 3 L.m in-1 Hot = 3 L.m-2K-1 640 W.min-1 0. Cold = 0.m-2K-1 373 W.min-1 3 L.

8 Mean Temperature 10 Efficiency 0.4 16 1.Counter Flow 1.2 14 12 Mean Temperature 1 Energy Balance Coefficient Efficiency 10 0.2 Mean Temperature Efficiency 2 0 0 0.m in-1) Figure 39 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .4 4 Mean Temperature Efficiency 0.8 8 0.TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360b Plate .2 16 14 1 Energy Balance Coefficient 12 0.6 Energy Balance Coefficient 6 0.5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.m in-1) Figure 40 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .4 Energy Balance Coefficient 4 0.5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.Parallel Flow 1.6 8 6 0.Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) User Guide 52 TecQuipment Ltd .Plate Heat Exchanger (TD360b) Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360b Plate .2 2 0 0 0.

m in-1.5 L.min-1 0.5 L.min-1 0.min-1 Mean Temperature 15% 26% 15% 26% Efficiency Heat Transfer 1422 W.m in -1 Hot = 3 L.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Parallel Flow Counter Flow Cold = Cold = Cold = Cold = 3 L.m in-1 Hot and Cold = 3 L.m-2K-1 715 W.5 L.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Shell and Tube Counter Flow Shell and Tube Parallel Flow Hot = 3 L.m in-1 80 80 Temperature Temperature 60 60 HOT HOT 40 40 COLD COLD 20 20 0 0 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 42 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .m-2K-1 698 W.m-2K-1 Coefficient Table 13 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .m in-1 80 80 Temperature Temperature 60 60 40 HOT 40 HOT COLD COLD 20 20 0 0 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 41 Typical Results For Experiment 1 . TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Shell and Tube Parallel Flow Shell and Tube Counter Flow Hot and Cold Flow = 3 L.5 L. Cold = 0.m in-1.min-1 3 L. Cold = 0.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) TecQuipment Ltd 53 User Guide .m-2K-1 1407 W.

5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.Counter Flow 1.2 Efficiency 5 0 0 0.m in-1) Figure 44 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .4 10 Mean Temperature 0.2 Mean Temperature Efficiency 5 0 0 0.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360c Shell and Tube .TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers Energy Balance and Efficiency against Flow Rate TD360c Shell and Tube .Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (TD360c) User Guide 54 TecQuipment Ltd .5 1 2 3 Cold Flow Rate (L.2 30 1 25 Mean Temperature Energy Balance 0.4 Energy Balance Coefficient 10 0.8 20 Coefficient Efficiency 0.6 15 0.2 30 1 25 Mean Temperature Energy Balance 0.8 20 Coefficient Efficiency 0.6 15 Energy Balance Coefficient 0.Parallel Flow 1.m in-1) Figure 43 Typical Results For Experiment 1 .

So. See Figure 45. In parallel flow. which changes with fluid velocity (flow rate). TecQuipment Ltd 55 User Guide . In these simple exchangers. This because the heat transfer coefficient partly depends on material properties (which remain the same) and the thermal boundary layer. • The plate heat exchanger is comparably less effective than tubular types. hot out is always higher than cold out. the mean temperature efficiency for parallel flow is effectively limited to 50% (excluding external heat transfer). The benefit of counter flow over parallel flow is that counter flow allows the hot out (TH2) to be lower than the cold in (TC1). TD360 Bench-top Heat Exchangers A Comparison of all Experiment 1 Results • Mean temperature efficiency is higher at lower flow rates because the cold fluid is in the heat exchanger for longer. there is not sufficient heat transfer to see this happen. and has more time to absorb heat. But it is more compact and rugged than the other designs. The benefit of the shell and tube is its compactness for the same heat exchange area. This is as expected as they are similar. but theoretically it can exceed 100% for the counter flow. • Flow rate affects heat transfer coefficient but flow direction does not. • These results show no noticeable difference between parallel and counter flow as the mean temperature of hot and cold is similar in both cases. Parallel Flow Counter Flow Flow direction TH1 TH1 TH2 TC1 Temperature Temperature TC2 TH2 TC1 TC2 1 2 1 2 Position Position Figure 45 The Difference Between Parallel and Counter Flow • Results for shell and tube are very similar to concentric tube.