Ultrasonic Distance Measurement

Eliana Lopez Kevin Yepez
Mechatronic Engineering Mechatronic Engineering
Northern Technical University Northern Technical University
Ibarra, Ecuador Ibarra, Ecuador
Email: elianalopez.eals@gmail.com Email: paulye203@hotmail.com

Abstract—Ultrasonic sensors are widely used in the distance The action field pulse that is emitted from an ultrasound
measurement. In practice, there is a major problem for transducer has a conical shape. The echo is received in
the measurement resolution, the ability to distinguish different response to sound reflection it indicates the presence of the
targets. The ultrasonic distance measurement is an effective, non-
invasive method that can be used in a variety of environments nearest object is within the sound cone and does not specify
that can be prone to changes where is difficult to locate an any time the angular location thereof. Although the maximum
object. Ultrasonic sensors cover a wide range of application likelihood is that the object detected is on the central axis
situations, for example industrial automation, medical and of the acoustic cone, the probability that the echo has been
automotive applications. In this paper various implementations produced by an object present in the periphery of the central
and configurations based on ultrasonic sensors for measurement,
detection and positioning systems of different objects, as well axis is not negligible and must be taken into account and
as the resolution and the evolution of these sensors are presented. suitably treated.

February 26, 2016
II. ULTRASONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT FOR
I. I NTRODUCTION AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
The sound is caused by vibrations of a sound body, that Ultrasonic distance measurements are influenced mainly
propagate through a medium which may be liquid, gaseous by the surface of an object and less affected by the material
or solid. Ultrasounds are above all sound, except they have a of the object. Ultrasonic systems can not provide information
higher frequency than the highest audible by the human ear, about the object, as they can only identify the presence of a
which begins about 10 Hz and has an upper limit of about 20 reflective surface.
Khz [1].
Compared to ultrasonic sensors, capacitive sensing
technology offers the advantage of a volumetric measuring
principle can also be used to detect short and this technique
allows the detection and classification of objects. In
combination with ultrasonic sensors, this can be exploited to
design an improved system for measuring distance, providing
the possibility of classifying the object.

For applications for aid parking and pedestrian safety, the
Fig. 1. Sound range Electronic Control Unit requires accurate information about
the type and position of an object approaching. Based on this
The ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz is the best that information, the Electronic Control Unit can trigger a series
spread in the air, commonly used in ultrasonic sensors. The of security measures in case of accident.
operation of these sensors is based on the emission and
reflection of acoustic waves between a transmitter and a a system sensor fusion based on ultrasonic and capacitive
receiver object, evaluating the time it takes to move the sound. sensors which comprises basically a central computer to
analyze the measurement data and control sensor devices is
The speed of the ultrasonic sensors is limited by the presented. Capacitive unit based on Analog Devices AD7143
maximum frequency of pulse repetition, which can range IC one is connected to a microcontroller board and electrodes.
between 1 and 25 Hz, are generally available in the form of Ultrasonic sensors are controlled by an electronic control
sensors direct reflection, where transmitter and receiver are unit, which establishes the connection to the host computer.
in the same body, furthermore others have barriers having the
ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in separate bodies. Experimental research shows the benefits of this approach.
detection gapless of an approaching object is allowed up to

must remain a number of them within the sonic wave in and out of a solid object. and this can generate an field. optical. 2. Being two-dimensional location univocal three measures of distance noncollinear reference issuers are re- quired. IV. 3. An initial signal has a small echo reflection. based on sensory likelihood estimator. bounces against the opposite face of the piece. This is the The ultrasonic locator system developed for mobile wave that is ultimately recorded by the receiver. From this method is defined as the thickness of a material is the product between the speed of propagation of the ultrasonic wave in the material and half the time it is transmitted. positioning techniques currently being used and developed guidance for people with disabilities. Accuracy. Control and processing of such data must be processes for regression and Kalman filter with maximum carried by some sort of system of control. the most widely used methods in robotics are received signal by a voltage converter phase shift. taking into account receiver on board the robot. of the position and orientation are only on the plane. The position is sensitive to noise than the traditional measure the flight time calculated from distance measurement (trisection) or guidance by detecting the zero crossing. ULTRASONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT FOR in the case of the gyroscopes and two integrations in the METALLIC MATERIALS case of accelerometers. An improvement in the estimation reliability of your data condition of the entire navigation of distance for shorter distances achieved by using Gaussian system. y of the vehicle and orientation. Circumferences are places geometric points equal Localization is the process of determining the position distance di from Mobile to the beacons. This method is used to measure the time it takes an ultra. an exterior bottom surface. a percentage of the reflected wave. using gyroscopes and accelerometers for determining the velocity and acceleration respectively. (triangulation) on a set of reference marks arranged on the environment. Compasses for determining absolute For the measurement of metal materials. but that field is distorted by metal lines and power ultrasonic pulse into the material as to receive back once transmission which impairs their use in interior structures. The position is obtained through integration III. for a univocal location 3D (three dimensional) non-coplanar to four measures fixed points are required. Fig. y are determined by the intersection of the three circles defined by the distances and coordinates of the fixed points. as when encountering sensing field. Fig. These location of the 2-D mobile. out successfully in a car bumper demonstrating the ease of use in automotive applications. The coordinates x. These marks can be active or passive. Moreover. A new strategy is proposed to measure the gap between the emitted and Currently. Inertial systems for locating. much less the absolute location by geometric methods. The extended Kalman filter algorithm developed with data together with the own mobile kinematic variables. Whereas the knowledge needs the speed of sound propagation within the analyzed material. ultrasonic or other. The thickness robots has a configuration formed by pingers located at of the piece is determined by measuring the time the wave took known positions on the environment and an omnidirectional to get to and from an extreme to the other. the location can be reduced to two dimensions. Trisection 2-D.2 m. Pulse echo method. investigations were carried information and actuators comply with the proposed missions. are a classification allows to distinguish between different kinds the gateway to all guidance system. speed and of objects approaching. ULTRASONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT FOR POSITIONING APPLICATIONS The problem of mobility of persons with disabilities is similar and have common problems in mobile robotics. non-invasively they guidelines and are based on different physical phenomena have been developed equipment to differentiate thicknesses related to magnetism to measure the Earth’s magnetic by using an ultrasonic transducer. that is to say to know the coordinates x. . A portion of this reflected wave is called ”echo”. Through trisection the coordinates of both receptors are determined. and their intersection provides the and orientation of a mobile in the environment.

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