Surds

Like indices, surds have rules.

a c  b c  (a  b) c
a  b  ab
a a These numbers
 are
b b important, 1,
4, 9, 16, 25,
a b  c d  ac bd 36,49, 64,
81,.
 
2
a a

Examples
Simplify
a) 3 2 5 2  18
f) 
2

b) 4 3 5 7 2 3 
g) 3(2 2  5) 

c) 5 7 

h) (2 2  5)(2 2  5) 
d) 4 3 5 5 

e) ( 4)2  i) ( 7  3 3)(2 2  5) 
Rationalising the denominator
Rationalising the denominator is simply making the denominator
a rational number (ie removing the surd).
To rationalise the denominator we use two simple rules that
you have seen before.
( x )2  x

a b a b
 
b b b

Example – Rationalise the denominator

a)
1 4 2 3 3 1
b) c)
3 7 2 2