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New York NY 10001-2605
www.thirteen.org P R O D U C T I O N S

THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN is a co-production of David Grubin Productions, Inc., and Thirteen/WNET New York in association with Docstar.

Major funding for THE SECRET LIFE Corporate funding is provided by Pfizer Inc Funding is also provided by Park Foundation, PBS, the
OF THE BRAIN is provided by the and The Medtronic Foundation on behalf Corporation for Public Broadcasting, The Dana Foundation,
National Science Foundation. of Medtronic, Inc. and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives.



To the Teacher
This Teen Guide accompanies THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN, the five-part public television series co-produced
by David Grubin Productions, Inc., and Thirteen/WNET New York. We recommend that educators use the guide in
after-school science workshops or in science classes as a supplement to high school curricula.

The guide provides a general overview of the series and explores in detail key aspects of the brain’s development from
infancy to old age. How does a child learn language? When do our reasoning abilities develop? What is the relationship
between reason and emotion? Along with delving into these and other questions, the educational materials introduce
teens to neuroscience professionals — neurosurgeons, MRI technicians and brain research scientists.

Like the television series, the guide stresses the brain’s plasticity over its lifelong development. Your students will learn
that the human brain is both resilient and vulnerable, particularly in the teenage years. We hope that the guide’s sober
discussion of the brain’s vulnerability can help students better understand and cope with problems in their lives.

How to Use This Guide
You may use these materials in conjunction with in-class Utilization Strategies for Video
screenings of THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. First,
Media is most effective when used interactively, rather
view the programs and look over the guide. When you
than passively, in class or group discussion. Consider
have determined what your session’s brain topic will be,
using some of the following strategies when planning
select one or two video segments and their corresponding lessons or discussions based on THE SECRET LIFE OF
educational cards. The teacher’s pages are for your use. THE BRAIN:
The student cards should be photocopied and distributed.
You may give students a copy of the comic book pages as 1. Preview video(s) to determine suitability for your
a way of introducing the series. objectives and your group members.

You can pick and choose from the cards in this guide 2. Select Segments that are directly relevant to your
to create your lesson. You will find the Table of Contents topic and appropriate for your group — you need
on page 3. For example, if you want to teach about not use an entire video or presentation at one time:
infant development, you might combine the four cards A few well-chosen minutes may be more effective in
for Program One with the comic book pages and illuminating your topic.
“What’s Going On in My Little Brother or Sister’s 3. Provide a Focus for Interaction — something
Brain?” If you want to teach how substance abuse specific to do or to look or listen for in relation to
alters the brain, you can use segments of Program the chosen segment or presentation. This assures
Three along with “Addictive Drugs and the Brain.” that the group will focus together on the information
most relevant to your topic.
In addition to photocopying the student cards for
distribution, you might want to photocopy the glossary 4. Don’t be afraid to Pause for discussion, or to
and the brain illustration on the back of the folder. Rewind and Replay to underscore or clarify a
particular point. This allows video to play a more
interactive role in discussion.
5. Consider Eliminating Sound or Picture. Allowing
The Secret Life of the Brain, by Richard
Restak, M.D., has been published by The your group members to provide their own narration
Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press to of what they see, or to predict what the content
accompany the public television series. accompanying narration might be, is especially
THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN useful in working with younger groups or groups
Web site (www.pbs.org/brain) offers additional whose primary language is not English.
information and many exciting features.


This guide was produced by Thirteen/WNET New York. www.pbs.org/brain


Educational Resources Center For THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN series
Vice President & Director, Education: Sarah Frank
Executive Producer: David Grubin
Publisher: Robert A. Miller Producers: David Grubin, Ed Gray, Tom Jennings,
Editor: David Reisman, Ed.D. Michael Penland, Amanda Pollak
Associate Editor: Jesse Dillon Co-Producers: Sarah Colt, Annie Wong
Design: Trina Sultan Associate Producer: Jenny Carchman
Writers: Donna Boundy, Jordan Brown, Faith Brynie,
For Thirteen
Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D., Mark Evanier, William Guido,
Executive in Charge: William R. Grant
Ph.D, Sue Young Wilson
Executive Producer: Beth Hoppe
Illustrators: Rick Veitch, Ron Barrett
Letterer: Todd Klein THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN is a co-production
Copy Editor: Lynn Ellan Anderson of David Grubin Productions, Inc., and Thirteen/WNET
Photo Research: Jennifer Toro, Jesse Dillon New York in association with Docstar.
Research: Cameron Cole Major funding for THE SECRET LIFE OF THE
Core Consultants: Jenny Atkinson, Director, Project BRAIN is provided by the National Science
Learn, Boys and Girls Clubs of America Foundation. Corporate funding is provided by Pfizer
Stephen L. Foote, Ph.D., Director, Division of Inc and The Medtronic Foundation on behalf of
Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science, National Medtronic, Inc. Funding is also provided by Park
Institute of Mental Health Foundation, PBS, the Corporation for Public
Michael Templeton, Consultation in Science Learning Broadcasting, The Dana Foundation, and The Dana
Dorothy Suecoff, Teacher, Stuyvesant High School, New Alliance for Brain Initiatives.
York, NY Copyright © 2002 by Educational Broadcasting Corporation
All Rights Reserved
Advisors: Eugene DeLorme, Indians Into
Medicine;Catherine Didion, Association for Women in Unless otherwise noted, photos in this guide are stills from THE
Science; Bernice Grafstein, Ph.D., Society for
Neuroscience; Monique Miller, National Council of La Comic book text permission, page 27: Poem by Emily Dickinson
Raza; J. Anthony Movshon, Ph.D., New York University; used by special arrangement with the publishers and the Trustees
of Amherst College from THE POEMS OF EMILY DICKINSON,
Anna Perez-Pelaez, Association of Science-Technology Ralph W. Franklin, ed., Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of
Centers; Richard Restak, M.D.;Tom Smart, Boys and Girls Harvard University Press, Copyright © 1998 by the President and
Clubs of America; Maria Sosa, American Association for Fellows of Harvard College. Copyright © 1951, 1955, 1979 by the
the Advancement of Science; Molly Weinburgh, Association President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.
2 for the Education of Teachers in Science


PAGE www.pbs.org/brain

Animation Sequences, Program Schedule, Ordering Information 4

Activity: Can Toys Make Babies Smarter? by Jordan Brown
Fact Sheet: Brain Myths by Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D.

Activity: Memory, Practice and Learning by Sue Young Wilson
Fact Sheet: Attention-Deficit Disorder by Sue Young Wilson

Activity: Schizophrenia: A Personal History by Faith Brynie
Fact Sheet: Addictive Drugs and the Brain by Donna Boundy

4 Activity: Just Relax! by Sue Young Wilson
Fact Sheet: Emotion and the Brain by Sue Young Wilson

5 Activity: Give Your Brain a Workout by Jordan Brown
Fact Sheet: Memories in the Making by Faith Brynie

Hypotheses in Science by Sue Young Wilson 25
Glossary 26

COMIC BOOK PAGES by Mark Evanier and Rick Veitch 27-31
The When, Who and What of Brain Research by Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. 32
Books, Web Sites and Organizations 33-34
Brain(y) Photography by Faith Brynie 35-36
What’s Going On in My Little Brother’s or Sister’s Brain?
by Sue Young Wilson 37
What’s Going On in the Teenage Brain? by Sue Young Wilson 38
Exercise and Sports: For Brains Only by Faith Brynie 39
Keep Your Brain Healthy by William Guido, Ph.D. 40
Mental Illness and Brain Disorders by Sue Young Wilson 41
Your Brain: Sleeping and Dreaming by Faith Brynie 42
Nancy Andreasen; Susan McConnell
Benjamin S. Carson, M.D.; Erick Green by William Guido, Ph.D. 43-44

See the Program Highlights on the first Teacher’s Page in each program section. health.PBS. Broca’s region 46:43 neurons and nourishment 48:12 angular gyrus region underactive. 34:42 emotion and the prefrontal cortex Video Ordering Information 39:30 neurons. Language arts teachers may be interested in using Program Five segments that feature poet Stanley Kunitz. synapses. psychology and even language arts classes. amygdala Program 5 The Aging Brain: Through Many Lives 9:38 region of emotional awareness in the brain February 12. Video segments and animation sequences from Programs One through Five may be used to discuss topics including science and technology.org/brain THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN may be used in science. or you have the right 25:30 post-traumatic stress and the amygdala. thalamus — brain during reading: 35:20-36:04 visual systems (areas) — occipital regions. ventricles. psychosis and dopamine slightly from area to area. extra-striate cortex (visual 45:54 neurons and tau. stress hormones to tape the programs and play them for instructional 26:59 stress hormones. . ANIMATION SEQUENCES (Times are in minutes and seconds) The Baby’s Brain: Wider Than the Sky The Aging Brain: Through Many Lives 2:16 the baby’s brain 2:50 the brain in old age 7:05 brain cells forging links 3:00-3:50 9:11 the neural tube/formation of the brain neurons 10:52 glial fibers 6:50 neurons and stroke 13:12 dividing stem cells 8:47 neurons and stroke 13:59 migrating neurons 13:16 stroke and brain recovery 15:12 networking neurons 18:43 neurons and memory 28:45 ferret’s brain. synapses 40:09 neurons.PLAY.800. higher regions Programs are scheduled to be broadcast on the dates of the brain indicated below. visual cortext/auditory cortex 20:02 hippocampus and synapses The Child’s Brain: Syllable From Sound 20:16 neurons. Broadcast times. Alzheimer’s disease cortex). frontal cortex shrinks 13:21 normal adolescent brain: prefrontal cortex pruning THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN 24:18-24:45 PROGRAM SCHEDULING schizophrenia: hallucinations. 2002 The Adult Brain: To Think by Feeling Program 4 The Adult Brain: To Think by Feeling 2:57 the adult brain February 5. calcium and NMDA receptor 3:05 the child’s brain 30:14 neurons and aging brain 17:11 language in the left cerebral hemisphere 31:40 stem cell 43:41 attentional systems: frontal regions — prefrontal cortex. auditory cortex. Wernicke’s region 48:55-49:22 Alzheimer’s brain and protein fragments. beta amyloid The Teenage Brain: A World of Their Own 2:30 the teen brain 9:02 frontal cortex 12:15 schizophrenia. 2002 pathway. Wernicke’s region. neurons and stem cells in mice angular gyrus. 31:50 stem cell anterior singulate gyrus. may vary 25:25 schizophrenia: hallucinations. Also check the animation list below to see which sequences you would like to use.pbs. 2002 22:52-24:35 Videotaping Rights the amygdala and the limbic system. loss of receptors on dopamine’s Program 3 The Teenage Brain: A World of Their Own target January 29. synapses. reward January 22. amygdala and hippocampus purposes for one year after the original broadcast. amygdala and the frontal cortex You may assign programs to your students for viewing 25:27 frontal cortex and the amygdala when they are first broadcast.WHEN AND WHERE TO USE THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN www. Please check your local listings. 2002 addiction’s high: neural net. 2002 8:51 emotional brain. dopamine 34:42 addiction’s high: synapse and dopamine Program 2 The Child’s Brain: Syllable From Sound 36:18-37:00 January 22. serotonin THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN is available from 4 41:00 depressed brain and serotonin PBS Video by calling 1. brain health and more. however. 25:39 synapse and neurotransmitters 26:50 schizophrenia: hallucinations PROGRAM BROADCAST DATES 27:00 effect of antipsychotic medications Program 1 The Baby’s Brain: Wider Than the Sky 33:08 addiction’s high: brain with coursing chemicals. the nervous system.

Although her lungs and heart can function. The baby’s brain strengthens appropriate. Through experiments. the researchers Discussion Questions reduce external stimulation (light and sounds). Holly’s For more on topics covered in Program One of THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. what are some challenges it might face? • Both genetics and environment play important roles in the development of a baby’s brain. GR IV ITY T RO A M P 1 IM ACT 1-2 E THE BABY’S BRAIN: WIDER THAN THE SKY LA S C S S P E RI O D Broadcast Date: January 22. a scientist restructures the brains of newborn ferrets. intellectual.org/brain At a Glance Theme: As a human grows from a fetus to a toddler. The vision in her left eye is normal. scientists have found that some genetic traits of neurons can be modified by changing the baby’s 2 How are brain cells different than other types of body cells in terms of development and reproduction? environment. she weighs just three pounds and is only 14 inches long.pbs. what do you think she means by accomodate this “rewiring. scientists help the babies in these case studies develop normally. useful connections and prunes inappropriate. scientists find that the ferrets’ brains had been reorganized to 4 What does poet Emily Dickinson mean when she says.org/wnet/brain/episode1/faq consequences for the way her brain cell connections Infant Vision develop.pbs. In the hospital. Program Highlights • Scientists used to believe that the newborn’s brain was just a smaller version of the adult brain. 1 If a baby is born three months early. was born with a faulty lens in her right eye — a cataract — that clouds her vision. Today we know that the baby’s brain is a dynamic structure. emotional and social development. So. By recording images from the brains of the rewired ferrets. By applying the latest brain research.org/wnet/brain/illusions for most of her waking hours for at least five years or 3D Brain Anatomy 5 until her visual development stabilizes. that it was completely “wired” at birth.pbs. it makes many new connections each day as it develops.” “The brain is just the weight of God… ”? • Holly MacMillan. Then. a five-week old baby. Billions of brain cells still need to make links with billions of other brain cells. She will wear a patch over her good eye www. “The brain is wider than the sky”? In the last line of this poem. so that the baby’s brain has a better chance of normal development. her brain still needs time to develop properly. Even one or two months of poor Infant Cataracts: visual experiences in one eye can have permanent www.org/wnet/brain/3d . • To examine the relationship between genetic and 3 What are some ways in which the world influences the developing brain? environmental factors on brain development. • Elizabeth Traphagen was born three months before she was due.pbs. log on to Frequently Asked Questions doctor is concerned.pbs. 2002 TEACHER’S PAGE 1 www. www. how does its brain develop? Program One uses two case studies to explore this question and examine the ways in which brain cells are influenced by genetic and environmental factors.org/wnet/brain/episode1/infantvision immediately. she begins a special program to Mind Illusions [interactive visual illusions] restore her vision. less helpful connections. At birth. These connections have a dramatic impact on the baby’s physical. the cataract in her right eye is removed www.

6 .asp Review some of the milestones of human brain devel- Developmental Toys www. students can visit a local toy store and look at the packaging of relevant toys.cfm?storeid Divide students into pairs or small groups and have =1&CFID=786706&CFTOKEN=78577787 3 them read about three different educational toys intended for 0-12 month olds.pbs.html 2 opment from birth to 12 months.) • A0-12 Web site list of educational toys aimed at parents of month old children.org/brain Objectives • To understand some of the key stages of brain development in babies • To apply neuroscience research to the evaluation and creation of educational products What you’ll need (Note: This activity can be done with or without the use of the Internet. as well as talk with the salespeople about the intended educational benefits of these products.toyportfolio. have another group research the benefits •Toy catalogs (if the Internet is not available) of baby/adult play that doesn’t depend on toys.com — Toys for Ages 0-12 months TO THREE Brainwonders www.com/development.com/0to3. As students review these toys.com/contents. Oppenheim Toy Portfolio — Infants www.com/Infants/Index.com/mp/Age012.org/brainwonders/index. If possible. they can create a three-minute news story about the latest children’s toys.accessqualitytoys. They can either use Live and Learn the Web sites mentioned above or review catalogs www. TY IVI T ACT IM 1-2 E Can Toys Make Babies Smarter? ACTIVITY LA S C S S P E RI O D TEACHER’S PAGE 2 www. they can write a 250-word newspaper story about the top three new toys for babies. Alternately.zerotothree. depending on computer availability.html?style=default www.liveandlearn.html from these companies that you can order beforehand.kbkids.msnbc.thebumblebeebush. Alternately. You can find a chart with this information at the following Web site: ZERO KB Kids.html Access Quality Toy www. Procedure • Computer with the following Web sites bookmarked: “The Best Toys for Tots” (from Today Show special) Distribute the student page and explain that in this www.asp 1 activity students will work in pairs to evaluate and compare three educational toys intended for children.com/news/602167. EXTENSION ACTIVITY Once students have completed their research. they complete the information on the chart on the student page.

pbs. GR RO A M P 1 THE BABY’S BRAIN: WIDER THAN THE SKY STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 1 www. In this activity. millions of dollars worth of educational toys are sold in the U. one finds a universe of meaning. giving your opinion about their strengths and weaknesses.S. The companies that make these toys claim that they are specially designed to stimulate babies’ brains and can even make newborns and infants smarter. convoluted folds. you will examine three educational toys intended for children age 0-12 months and will write a critical review. toy 1 toy 2 toy 3 age of children it’s intended for intended educational benefits (listed on packaging) strengths weaknesses ways you would improve it questions you would ask the inventor of this toy What might be some of the benefits of baby/adult play that doesn’t involve toys? “A baby’s brain: Less than one pound… and within its milky.org/brain Can Toys Make Babies Smarter? Each year." Rick Veitch 7 .

Although our bodies are at rest when we sleep. do occur new. Although whales. . men have larger brains than women. such as strengthening of the connections between neurons. especially language. These folds allow the large surface area of the cerebral cortex to fit into the limited volume of the skull. pressure. Myth Fact People with larger brains There is no correlation between brain size and intelligence. Chudler. and brains are at rest. Poke it.D. Damage to far less than 90 per- cent of the brain can cause devastating changes in the ability to talk. show that the entire brain is active. heat or cold. it doesn't have 8 the ability to detect anything itself. Myth Fact Humans have right-brain Personality is not a right. personality and other complex or left-brain personalities. eyes and other sense organs. Also.. recordings of brain activity show that the brain goes through different stages when we sleep. pull it. new wrinkles in the brain are not formed. the brain won't feel a thing. on average. The amount of brain activity depends on what the brain is doing. we get a new when new things are learned. prod it. However.or left-brained function. they are not necessarily more with smaller brains. hurt. Ph. Myth Fact We use only ten percent We use all of our brain. Myth Fact Touching the brain will The brain is not sensitive to touch.org/brain FACT SHEET Ron Barrett Brain Myths by Eric H. move. Although the brain receives and interprets information from the senses. is accompanied by brainwave patterns and levels of cellular electrical activity that are similar to those seen when a person is awake. dolphins and are smarter than people elephants have brains that are larger than those of humans. higher functions depend on both the right and left sides of the brain. called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. GR RO A M P 1 THE BABY’S BRAIN: WIDER THAN THE SKY STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 2 www. Rather. Myth Fact When we sleep our bodies The brain is active 24 hours a day. The “wrinkles” that “wrinkle” in our brain. but all of the brain is used at one time or another. Although one side of the brain may be “dominant” for some behaviors. such as functional magnetic resonance of our brain. One stage. Myth Fact When we learn something Although brain changes.. imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). men are not smarter than women. Certainly all 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) of the brain are not firing impulses at the same time. the brain has no specialized receptors to detect light. both sides of the brain play a role in most tasks. think and remember.pbs. intelligent than humans. although not at the same time. are seen on the outside of the brain are formed by folds in the cerebral cortex. Unlike the skin. Brain imaging methods. REM sleep is also the stage when most dreams occur.

By the end of the first year. log on to dyslexic: they have trouble learning to read even though Frequently Asked Questions they are intelligent and can reason normally. with effort and special Video Segment: techniques.org/wnet/brain/episode2/faq brain used in reading. Millions of children in the U. experience shapes the brain. • Year-old babies listen to and understand speech with both the right and left hemispheres of the brain. they tackle the complex skill of reading. • In their first year of life. babies lose the ability to hear distinctions that do not occur in their native language. First they learn to speak and understand speech and then. researchers have found. But by 11 months old. it appears that dyslexic children can re-train Motherese 9 their brains — and read. when they are slightly older.org/brain At a Glance Theme: Program Two of THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN explores how experience shapes the remarkably plastic brains of children as they encounter language. but by 20 Discussion Questions months the language functions have begun to shift to the left hemisphere in most children.S.pbs.pbs. Did practicing help? Did there eventually come a time hemisphere can take over for the missing left. Many things can go wrong in learning such For more on topics covered in Program Two of a complex skill. Although the brain is most plastic (adaptable) before this occurs. paring away those connections that are not reinforced by interaction with the world. But. that young child? drives this hemisphere specialization. a baby’s brain lays down astonishing numbers of new neural connections. why would it take so much more work than when you learned to speak your native language as a very that showed it is experience with a language. slowly and with lots of practice. 2 What difficulties do 8-year-old Katie Warrick and 14-year-old Michael Rehbein face after their brain surgeries? How do they deal with them? • Children who have had the left hemispheres of their brains surgically removed (to stop severe seizures) can re-learn. 2002 TEACHER’S PAGE 1 www. not age. Rasmussen's Syndrome of dyslexia appears to be a difference in parts of the www. But then. you think was going on in your brain at that time and during the attempts leading up to it? • Reading is one of the most complicated activities the brain learns to perform. but it is when you suddenly felt like you “got it”? What do not as efficient in its work. www. if necessary it can adapt even after it has matured. involving at least 17 different brain areas. are THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. how to speak. the baby has twice as many neural connections as an adult.org/wnet/brain/episode2/babytalk . GR ITY T RO A IV M P 2 IM ACT 1-2 E THE CHILD’S BRAIN: SYLLABLE FROM SOUND LA S C S S P E RI O D Broadcast Date: January 22. One cause Epilepsy.pbs. One researcher per- formed an ingenious experiment with bilingual babies 1 If you tried to learn a foreign language now. Program Highlights • In the first months of life. babies are “citizens of the world” — they can distinguish between sounds in other languages that are indistiguish- able to an adult who doesn’t speak that language. like riding a bicycle or playing a particular sport. The right 3 Think back to when you learned a new skill.

edu/chudler/neurok. 1999.cfm © Joe Sinnott 10 1 Adapted from the “Neuroscience for Kids” Web site (http://faculty. tell students that.washington. practicing something over and over will usually improve one’s performance at it. ITY T IV IM ACT 1-2 E LA S C S S P E RI O D Memory. (Think of the dyslexic kids in the program who gradually improve their ability to read by practicing over and over with the sounds that make up words. Web Sites Neuroscience for Kids faculty. Practice and Learning ACTIVITY TEACHER’S PAGE 2 www. New York: Dutton.dana.washington. as they saw in the program.edu/chudler/neurok.) Distribute the student page and explain that this activity demonstrates how repeating something causes learning.1 Resources for Students Book Golinkoff.org/kids/lab. Roberta Michnick.org/brain Objectives • To conduct an experiment in how practice and repetition results in improved performance • To investigate how practice is related to learning What you’ll need • Small object (like a ball or book) • A stopwatch or clock with a second hand • Pencil and paper to record times • A blindfold Procedure After viewing the program. and Kathy Hirsh- Pasek. How Babies Talk.html) .pbs. as experience literally reshapes the brain.html Dana Kids Online www.

Did your "I used to subject take less time to find the object? You may want to think the brain was repeat the test several more times and plot the amount of the most important time it took to find the object for the different times you organ in the body until ran the test. Practice and Learning ick one member of the class to be the P subject. Put a blindfold on your subject. (Don't let your subject get too far away from the object. and don't let him or her bump into anything dangerous. Do you see a decrease in the amount of time I realized." tested the same subject the next day? What do you think – Emo Philips is going on in the subject’s brain during these trials? Illustrations: Ron Barrett 11 . GR RO A M P 2 THE CHILD’S BRAIN: SYLLABLE FROM SOUND STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 1 www. but let him or her find the object without too much help.” start a stopwatch and record how long it takes your subject to find the object. but don't tell your subject where it is.” When you do say “Go. Get a small object like a ball. Tell your subject that he or she must find the object on the floor when you say “Go. Say “Go” and start your stopwatch again. look who’s to find the object in later tests? What would happen if you telling me that.) Repeat your experiment with the same subject.org/brain Memory. Bring your subject back to the exact same spot where you started and place the object in the same spot as it was the first time.pbs. Place the object on the floor about ten feet away from your subject. book or even a crumpled piece of paper.

or ADHD. creative. can into adulthood. Other ways to treat outgoing. a kid with ADD might problem with the prefrontal cortex. intuitive and kids with ADD who are not treated). it involves using technology to . but ADD who are appropriately treated with stimulants are having ADD doesn’t mean one is stupid — in fact. as it is help people gain control over involuntary mental processes.” Impulsiveness whether ADD is over-diagnosed or under-diagnosed. Also give them scope to move around and be themselves. media. continue to have it are concerned because Ritalin. if not all. reading more than a para- person finds boring). and they estimates vary widely. girls goal-setting and impulse inhibition. A kid with ADD might have trou- pay consistent attention. be abused if you take a lot more than the amount prescribed (though research has shown that kids with ADD can make things like schoolwork very challenging. Attention-Deficit Disorder or ADD generally has three types of symptoms: inattentive- ness. many much less likely to abuse drugs when they get older than people with ADD are very bright.) There is also disagreement — some of it quite loud — about the best way to treat ADD. and sit still. Inattentiveness means problem in the brain that makes it difficult for a person to trouble paying attention. Kids with ADD tend to daydream a lot. called EEG biofeedback. which is a stimulant. Hyperactivity means but most experts agree that its immediate cause is a physical restlessness and fidgetiness. like the well-known Ritalin. organization. sales and other fields that excite them and 12 and some experimental methods like neurofeedback. is what it sounds like: a tendency to do or say things impulsively without thinking them through. There are effective It used to be thought that kids outgrew ADD. But or her.org/brain Ron Barrett FACT SHEET ATTENTION-DEFICIT DISORDER by Sue Young Wilson ou’ve probably heard of ADD. Y sometimes called — it’s gotten a lot of press lately. with ADD tend to have this symptom less than the boys and may instead be quiet and dreamy. planning. Teens with ADD often go on to excel at work in ADD include learning new organizational and coping skills the arts. or absorbing what a teacher is telling him percent of children are thought to have ADD. (As mentioned before.pbs. Between five and ten graph at a time. impulsiveness and hyperactivity (this last is more com- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a physical mon in boys with ADD than girls). but re- medications. and some of your friends (or you) may even have been diagnosed with it. GR RO A M P 2 THE CHILD’S BRAIN: SYLLABLE FROM SOUND STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 2 www. but some people searchers now think many. which is the part of jiggle his pencil or tap his foot constantly or have great the brain that controls attention. difficulty sitting through class. keep to a task (especially one the ble focusing on a school lesson. A kid with ADD There is likewise a lot of debate about what causes ADD might often blurt something out in class and interrupt the — theories range from genes to childhood head trauma — teacher without even meaning to. and there is disagreement about might get a reputation as a “space cadet.

both for the mental illness schizophrenia and for drug addiction. the prefrontal cortex. Experiments by Anna Rose Childress at the University of 4 If addictive drugs change their brains. it’s as addictive as cocaine. 2 As you watched the program.pbs. when society’s investment in a human being has reached its Discussion Questions peak. just as the brain begins teeming with hormones. • The brain carries a permanent imprint of drug addiction. “The brain is a work in progress. Do you see any evidence that your brain is changing? pathways. Hyman says. Berman of the Caron Foundation. because it strikes during young adult life.” says 3 What did you learn about drug addiction from this program that challenged your previous ideas or taught you something new? Marc Schuckit of the VA San Diego Healthcare System. Steven E.org/wnet/brain/episode3/cultures . Development of the brain’s centers for reasoning and judgement make adolescence a time of great risk.pbs.” says James C. which strikes most often during adolescence. They hijack the reward recent months. and adolescence is the last great time of enormous brain change and brain develop- ment.” Think about your experiences and feelings in • Addiction is a chronic disease. teenagers also face special risks — from addictive drugs and alcohol that can hijack the brain. is still a work in progress. to the chaos of schizophrenia. Addictive drugs cause changes in the brain. scientists can offer an explanation of what parents already know — adolescence is a time of roiling emotions and poor judgement.org/brain At a Glance Theme: New research has shown that during puberty.pbs. “Alcohol has a huge impact on brain waves. For the first time. Hyman says. 2002 TEACHER’S PAGE 1 www. “Schizophrenia is a disease that affects the highest human functions… our ability to think at high conceptual levels. These drugs mimic the brain’s natural neurotransmitters. are teenage addicts still responsible for their addictions? What are some ways teenagers can resist taking these Pennsylvania show how old associations stimulate drugs if their brains have been altered? renewed cravings. and adolescence is the last great time of enormous brain change and brain development. Hyman says.” says Nancy Andreasen of the University of Iowa. For more on topics covered in Program Three of THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. the center of reasoning and impulse control. As the brain matures. GR ITY T RO A IV M P 3 IM ACT 1-3 E THE TEENAGE BRAIN: A WORLD OF THEIR OWN LA S C S S P E RI O D Broadcast Date: January 29. For some people.” says Steven E. perhaps explaining why so many addicts relapse. how did Courtney Hale Cook’s experiences with schizophrenia challenge your previous ideas or teach you something new? • Those who feel alcohol’s effects the least are most likely to become addicted. Program Highlights • “The brain is a work in progress.org/wnet/brain/episode3/sleep Essay: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Schizophrenia 13 www. Hyman of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). 1 In this program. • Schizophrenia is the cruelest disease imaginable. so that all the things that normally produce feelings of pleasure “go into hibernation. log on to Essay: Sleep and Learning www.

Make a bulletin board showing your research and write an accompanying “Viewer’s Guide” detailing the pros and cons of drug treat- ments.nih. Explain that in this activity. Resources for Students Drug addiction also frequently begins in adolescence or Web Sites early adulthood. clip pictures from magazines (or draw your own) and create a poster-board collage that com- municates the same idea as the quote. 14 .gov students will read a fictional diary entry by a teenager National Mental Health Association who has some of the early symptoms of schizophrenia. •Select a single statement about schizophrenia from Program Three. the center of reasoning and impulse control. In your library and on the Internet. Include information on current research and possible new drug developments in the future. the prefrontal cor- tex. National Institute of Mental Health Distribute the student page. ITY T IV IM ACT 1-3 E LA S C S S P E RI O D Schizophrenia: A Personal History ACTIVITY TEACHER’S PAGE 2 www.pbs.nmha. male and female. Find out how the drugs were developed and tested. is still a work in progress.org Tell them that they will use the reading as a starting point for learning more about this common brain disease. Sabrina.nimh. Note their possible side effects and find out what alternatives doctors can prescribe.org/brain Objectives • To learn about some of the symptoms of schizophrenia • To research the diagnosis of and treatments for schizophrenia What you’ll need • Library or Web site resources • Writing materials Procedure Tell students that during adolescence. EXTENSION ACTIVITIES •Drug treatments improve life for many people with schizophrenia. a family member or an expert. www. Schizophrenia — which affects one in every hundred people. worldwide — most often appears during the teens or early twenties. research the history of some of the drugs used to treat the disorder. Use the quote as the title for your collage and display it — along with similar artworks created by other members of your class — in an exhibit that will help viewers understand schizophrenia better. You may choose a quote from Courtney. www. Next.

org/brain SCHIZOPHRENIA: A PERSONAL HISTORY A girl we will call Lisa is worried about herself and her life. My friends say it isn’t schizophrenia? true. You mouth. I’ve been denying the trouble. For months.nmha. what’s wrong with me? your class as you learn more about schizophrenia. Although her diary is fictional. Dear your diary entries with others in Diary. plotting to get me suspended nia? What drugs are used to treat or maybe even hurt me. doctor or counselor. Some of Lisa’s complaints are normal. the problems it describes are real. learn more about schizo- phrenia — its symptoms. but what are they? I don’t know anymore. may use these resources to answer the following questions: Does schizophrenia run in families? I had this idea at school that some of the Does stress bring on schizophre- kids were after me. What should Lisa do? She should talk openly and honestly with someone she trusts — a parent. To get started. I can’t eat. GR RO A M P 3 THE TEENAGE BRAIN: A WORLD OF THEIR OWN STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 1 www. I look in the mirror and I don’t blink. But for a few people — about one in every 100 worldwide — they lead to a diagnosis of schizophrenia. But Lisa shouldn’t dismiss such changes in her body and mind as unimportant. Something is wrong with me. I sleep for 12. Sometimes. and a loss of appetite is not unusual when we’re ill or troubled. Health (www. Everything tastes funny and I’ve lost a lot Make fictional entries for five or of weight. how? Discuss Maybe I cry at all the wrong times too. I just stare out the window does she receive? Does her situa- at nothing. But that’s not true.pbs.nih. maybe 14 hours straight What happens when she seeks and I feel like I don’t care about anything. The words come out of my Association (www. teacher. tion improve? If so. Is Lisa developing schizophrenia? Maybe. you making excuses. Dear Diary. but I brother help her? What treatment can’t concentrate. and treatment. and everything seems to worry me.gov) or of Mom says I’m talking silliness and Dad just the National Mental Health shakes his head. My help? How do her parents and brother says read a book or watch TV. diagnosis now. That conversation might be her 15 first step toward getting the help she needs. Other diagnosed with schizophrenia and comes to grip with her disorder. times. I laugh at all the wrong times. . I can’t her thoughts and feelings as she is sleep. saying it’s just my imagination might check out the Web sites of or that it will go away. I have to face it 1 In your library and on the Internet. but I still think it is. Everyone has trouble getting to sleep sometimes. Describe face leering back at me. but only a qualified physician can make a reliable diagnosis.org). I just see this staring. expressionless 2 more days representing the next year or two of Lisa’s life. Everyone experiences some of these thoughts and feelings. the National Institute of Mental People look at me funny sometimes when I talk.nimh.

the person’s ability to enjoy all normal mood-altering drugs alter the way neurons receive. connects with receptors. It is then quickly “neutralized” by an enzyme. cravings that come from the drug override all other This pathway of neurons regulates our basic survival pleasures. Without receptors to go function. dopamine. They do this by alter.” characteristics travels across the synapse and stimulates receptors on of a young person’s life that can make him more likely to go the target neuron. and is cientists have performed extensive research into S neither neutralized nor reabsorbed. the result of observable changes in brain receptors on the target neurons. The pathway. It’s as if the brain thinks it needs the drug to survive.pbs. and hopelessness lead the person to crave another blast of ing the level of certain neurotransmitters in the synapse. The problem is. the dopamine can’t stimulate the neurons and so the Alcohol and inhalants are actually the most brain-damag. This addictive process in his or her brain. produc- found that the repeated use of any mood-altering ing a pleasurable feeling (a “high”). repeated use will cause those brings us pleasure (like scoring a soccer goal or eating a irreversible changes in the brain that we call addiction. things that used to The part of the brain most affected by drugs is the reward give him pleasure stop making him feel so good. lack of and any extra dopamine that did not connect with a involvement from parents and friends who use. GR RO A M P 3 THE TEENAGE BRAIN: A WORLD OF THEIR OWN STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 2 www. Resulting feelings of depression process and transmit information. as they literally destroy neurons. pleasures is also reduced. . when these What we call addiction is not just a word to describe “a blasts of dopamine start occurring from drug use. factors include a family history of substance abuse.” Addiction is actually a chronic. Eventually. water and reproduction. stimulating it by drug use can result in what amounts to Who’s at risk? Some people — once they try a drug — like biochemical “reprogramming” of our survival priorities.org/brain FACT SHEET Addictive Drugs and the Brain by Donna Boundy surges into the synapses. relaps- brain responds by reducing the number of dopamine ing disease. drug high is reduced. the lot of drug use. But all receptor sites. Once a person is caught in this cycle. a neurotransmitter called dopamine Researchers have identified “risk factors. Repeatedly else. As a result. Some risk satisfaction. the space between neurons. Because our bodies always seek balance. the amount how addictive substances affect the brain. resulting in a feeling of well-being and from simply experimenting to abusing drugs. They’ve of dopamine in the synapse is artificially boosted. is that anyone who uses an addictive drug over a long 16 A mood-altering drug stimulates neurons to release a flood enough period of time and in sufficient doses will trigger the of dopamine. drug produces fundamental changes in a brain’s chemistry. and the person begins to seek that above all drives — for food. and the pattern is set. by cutting back on ing drugs of all. hot fudge sundae). But the fact receptor is carried back into the neuron that released it. the way it makes them feel so much that they want to do it Here’s how it happens: When we do something that again and again. much more than the normal amount. to. an area involved in the processing of emotions.

a disorder of the moods. Our brains are not logical computers but “feeling machines that think. 1 Why does not being able to feel his emotions make it so hard for Marvin Bateman to make daily decisions? Johnny Cortez was in a serious car crash. For more on topics covered in Program Four of as well as certain kinds of talk therapy. This is a condition in which a 2 How is fear a useful emotion? How can it be a harm- ful one? Can you give examples from your own life? traumatic event triggers a vicious cycle in the brain that makes it overreact to small stressors with a full-blown panic reaction. and how our lives are governed by emotion and the interaction of emotion with our thought processes. Today. Though his body has healed. can help heal THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. log on to depression and restore sufferers’ ability to enjoy life and Essay: Why We Laugh 17 live up to their potentials. he now suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).org/brain At a Glance Theme: “The Adult Brain: To Think by Feeling. Researchers are 3 Why do you think Lauren Slater is “suspicious” of her medication.org/wnet/brain/episode4/laughter . What is there to know?” How can we think by feel- ing? In what way is Roethke making the same point • In depression. This is seen in some people who have had the “feeling” areas of their brains damaged. Marvin Bateman. 4 Poet Theodore Roethke writes: “We think by feeling. had a stroke 23 years ago that has destroyed his ability to be aware of his emotions. even though it has helped her so much? Do you think her worries are valid. and can no longer make everyday decisions.Traumatic childhood experiences like abuse or abandonment can prime the brain for the illness and stress or loss can bring it on.” according to cognitive scientist Antonio Damasio.” Program Four of THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. Depression runs in families and genetics can predispose a person to it. prolonged feelings of sadness. worthlessness and hopelessness can destroy a person’s ability to function. as by a stroke.” to guide him. • Scientists have discovered it is not possible to reason properly without a properly functioning emotional system. Depression is likely as Damasio? caused by a combination of genetic vulnerability and life experience.pbs. Discussion Questions • Emotions can run out of control. www. Program Highlights • Our feelings and our thinking interact constantly. or not? experimenting with preventing PTSD by injecting trauma victims with a drug that can help prevent the flood of fear chemicals right after the trauma happens. 56. he cannot make everyday decisions because he has no emotional memories. 2002 TEACHER’S PAGE 1 www. GR IV ITY T RO A M P IM ACT 1-3 4 E THE ADULT BRAIN: TO THINK BY FEELING LA S C S S P E RI O D Broadcast Date: February 5. reveals how the thinking and the feeling areas of the brain interact constantly. Anti-depressants.pbs. effectively making the sufferers relive the original trauma over and over. “gut feelings. purposelessly reinforcing themselves in the brain and resulting in chronic problems like post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

picture yourself slicing it Web Sites open with a knife and seeing the juice squirt. ask students to try this: Think of holding a lemon in your hand.washington. ITY T IV IM ACT 1-3 E LA S C S S P E RI O D JUST RELAX! ACTIVITY TEACHER’S PAGE 2 www. Scientific American: Feature Article: The Neurobiology of Depression Did your mouth start to water as you did this www. Inc. The Neuroscience for Kids tart smell rises into the air.edu/chudler/neurok. Feel the Greenfield. The Human Mind Explained.html your eyelids flutter! Now. while the other is responsible for taking the first person’s pulse both before and after the exercise. It’s so sour that your mouth puckers and kidshealth. Susan A.html mouth and suck on it. Divide the class into pairs. yellow it is. Bring it closer to your nose and smell the sharp aroma. waxy texture of its skin and see how bright New York: Henry Holt and Co. Explain how to take a pulse (see the Student Activity Master). 1996. Now. What you’ll need • Stopwatch or clock with a second hand • Pencil and paper to record times Procedure ntroduce the student activity for this program by I telling students that they will be able to experience for themselves how thinking.. The juice runs over your TeensHealth – Mind Matters tongue. Bring a slice to your faculty. pebbly.org/brain Objectives • To conduct two experiments showing how the mind can cause physiological changes in the body • To learn a relaxation technique and a visualization technique Photodisc. and explain that one person in each pair will do a relaxation exercise.pbs.sciam. And all just by 18 thinking! . open your eyes. feeling.org/teen/mind_matters/index. Guide the other members of the pairs through the relaxation exercise by reading to them as they close their eyes and imagine the scenarios. and have the pulse-takers take their partners’ pulses and write them down. and the body interact and affect each other.html exercise? Maybe your eyes even watered a little or the inside of your nose tingled.com/1998/0698issue/0698nemeroff. EXTENSION ACTIVITY Resources for Students For another example of how thoughts can affect the Book body. Have the pulse-takers take the relaxers’ pulses again and report to the class if they have slowed (evidence of relaxation).

Open your eyes.org/brain Illustrations: Ron Barrett JUST RELAX! ne of the themes of “The Adult Brain: To natural beauty. Working in pairs. 19 When you feel relaxed. a mountain O Think By Feeling” is that there is a constant interplay between the feeling areas of the brain. Be as comfortable as possible. Feel the sun on your face and closed saw how hearing a verbal retelling of a traumatic eyes. We and sit down. sweat flowed. with your feet flat on the floor.pbs. surroundings. imagine a peaceful scene of . You know that you are totally safe and though he were actually reliving the traumatic secure here. imagine yourself in that place. stretch and smile. Gradually become aware of your real-life one of great relaxation. then multiply the num- ber by two to calculate the person’s pulse rate per minute. the desert or a forest meadow with a water- fall. Write it down. Let the image become more vivid and focused. It could be a beach. use a stopwatch or the clock to count how many pulse beats you feel for 30 seconds. Relax into the feeling and enjoy it fully. the thinking areas of the brain. Pick a nice spot Each of these can and does affect the others. After you feel satisfied and happy. Is it slower (an indication down the wrist from just under the ball of the of relaxation)? thumb. and the body. Now. (It’s prob. and the breeze ruffling your hair and caressing car crash caused Johny Cortez’s body to react as your skin. Have your partner (the pulse-taker) take your pulse ably easiest to take a pulse on the artery that runs again. crash: His pulse rate soared. try this experiment: Do you feel more relaxed now? Less stressed? One person should take the other’s pulse. When you’ve found your partner’s pulse. Focus again on your can change your physical and emotional state to breathing. think about com- You can do the reverse yourself: By thinking.) The person whose pulse was just taken should then do the following exercise: Make yourself comfortable in a chair. GR RO A M P 4 THE ADULT BRAIN: TO THINK BY FEELING STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 1 www. Breathe deeply and evenly. scene. you ing back to the room you are in.

though the original event were happening again. but MRI scans show that in now suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder depressed people the prefrontal cortex (the part (PTSD). rather than his or her thinking and com- mon sense. When we make a decision — Should I take a dip or not in that water where I met the jellyfish last time? — we rely heavily on what cognitive scientists call “emotional memory. the thinking and the feeling areas of the brain interact constantly. Today. how her life was crippled by decades of depression. Their levels of act to later small scares with a full-blown panic reaction. Researchers are experimenting with preventing PTSD by Today. hard facts. and cold. Adult Brain: To Think by Feeling. What is going wrong in the brain of a depressed person is complicated. certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the dumping fear chemicals into the person’s system as brain) are also abnormal. and scientists have For example. many people with depression have been but experience also plays a role: Traumatic childhood successfully treated with this and other new medications 20 experiences like abuse or bereavement can prime the and are leading productive. as they do with illness. It’s supposed to be better to make decisions based on logic. thinking triggers a vicious cycle in the brain that makes it overre. GR RO A M P 4 THE ADULT BRAIN: TO THINK BY FEELING STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 2 www. In “The with a drug that can help prevent the flood of fear chem. If you say someone’s “emotional.” usually you mean he or she is too much under the control of his or her feelings. . depression can be treated with antidepressant treating trauma victims right after the trauma happens medications that restore the brain’s balance. reason. rather. Inc. es like depression and anxiety disorders. and planning) is less active than normal. But researchers are learning that our emotions are key in our ability to make decisions and function on a daily basis. severe and inappropriate bad feelings can treating her in 1988 with a new drug almost miracu- destroy a person’s ability to function.pbs. Johny Cortez was in a serious car crash and not precisely pinpointed it. how she attempted suicide. researchers are discovering new ways to prevent and/or treat such conditions. Emotions are a vital part of the way our brains work. brain for the illness. Our brains and bodies use these “gut feelings” to make many of our daily decisions. Scientists think lously restored her ability to enjoy life and live up to her that genetics can predispose a person to depression. decisions. satisfying lives. There’s no strict separation in the brain between “thinking” and “feeling”. Fortunately. but they can also run out of control. and how her doctor’s last try at In depression. potential. Photodisc.” or the memories stored in our brains of the feelings that resulted from our previous choices and their outcomes.” Lauren Slater tells icals from “scarring” the brain and causing PTSD.org/brain FACT SHEET Emotion and the Brain by Sue Young Wilson E motions have sometimes gotten a bit of a bad rap. PTSD is a condition in which a traumatic event of the brain that controls impulses.

• Dr.org/wnet/brain/episode5/alzheimers What do these lines of poetry have to do with the Video: Poet Stanley Kunitz Reads theme of the entire series? Why might a poet be espe- 21 www. log on to abides. www. from which I struggle Alzheimers: Searching for a Cure not to stray. thousands of neurons are slowly Discussion Questions dying. Deep inside her brain. Dr. who has Parkinson’s disease. Do you think you would have the emo- tional strength to endure such a procedure if you were in his position? Why or why not? researchers discovered that the aging brain actually experiences very little nerve cell loss. John Morris studies Alzheimer’s disease. some of them my own. 3 The physical therapy that Kent Miller uses to combat • Scientists once thought that the brain of a stroke victim caused permanent damage to the neural network and that millions of neurons died. The brain is a dynamic structure that can rejuvenate connections that In his poem.This method makes the neurons that control Miller’s left side resume their old jobs. 2002 TEACHER’S PAGE 1 www.pbs. he can no longer sign his name. Desperate. he is unable to use his left arm or hand. tions such as Alzheimer’s? Dr. doesn’t know the date. Dr. As we grow older. He doesn’t even recognize his daughter anymore. and I am not who I was. The aging brain is also far more resilient than was previously believed. GR IV ITY T RO A M P IM ACT 1-3 5 E THE AGING BRAIN: THROUGH MANY LIVES LA S C S S P E RI O D Broadcast Date: February 12. in a region that coordinates movement. Morris is trying to find the cause of Alzheimer’s so that he can treat those who are afflicted. One of his patients is Sally Carlson. “The Layers. Today.org/wnet/brain/episode5/kunitz cially sensitive to a new scientific idea? . One of his patients. Even after months of rehabilitation. For more on topics covered in Program Five of though some principle of being THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN. Miller tries an experimental treatment developed by neuroscientist Edward Taub. This therapy requires Miller to not use his good hand at all. 4 I have walked through many lives. Carlson is no longer able to do simple tasks such as folding clothes.org/brain At a Glance Theme: The longstanding belief that we lose vast numbers of brain cells as we age turns out to be wrong. the day or 2 Imagine the world in 2025.” Stanley Kunitz writes: have become weak due to lack of use. No matter how old a person is. and may even provide the brain with advantages that form the basis for wis- dom. the paralysis of his left side requires many hours of tedious work. many mental functions remain intact. During the 1990s.pbs. Macklis hopes that one day he can restore her abilities by tapping the potential of stem cells. in order to force his bad hand to do the work. his or her brain is still capable of change. Program Highlights • Sixty-three-year-old Kent Miller has a stroke that para- lyzes his left side. 1 What are some differences between short-term and long-term memory? Give some examples from your own experience that illustrate the differences. Alvin Johnson. • At Harvard Medical School.pbs. What kinds of medical treatments do you think there might be to help people suffering from neurological condi- the time. used to run an insurance company until he developed Alzheimer’s. Jeffrey Macklis works with patients who have neurological disorders.

ITY T IV IM ACT 1-3 E LA S C GIVE YOUR BRAIN A WORKOUT S S P E RI O D ACTIVITY TEACHER’S PAGE 2 www. .com/2000/HEALTH/11/22/sleep.demon.cnn.com/memory/ The Memory Exhibition www.exploratorium.org/saf/1102/features/name_game. • A list of memory tips (culled from some of and every time you exer- the Web sites on the right) cise it.edu/memory/index. then learn some mnemonic devices that can enhance short-term memory. Alzheimer’s Association To collect and compare the results. they will try to Stem Cells: A Primer apply these mnemonic techniques on a different list of www.org/ mit their scores on a coded sheet of paper so names Free Tips to Improve Memory and personalities don’t enter into comparisons.org/brain Objective • To explore some mnemonic devices that can enhance short-term memory What you’ll need • Stack of index cards (ten for each student) “Poetry is an • Paper and pencils exercise of the spirit. www.exploratorium. you increase your vitality.memory.nih.studyhall.pbs.uk/mindtool/memory.org/saf/1102/segments/1102-2.htm Name Game www.gov/news/stemcell/primer.edu/memory/dont_forget/play- ing_games.pbs. the spirit within one. Later. Finally.edu/memory/dont_forget/play- ing_games_2.pbs.htm words.html Study Shows Sleep Improves Memory www.ap/ The Memory Page www.premiumhealth.html Memory Marathon www.html collect and compare the second round results. www.alz.exploratorium.co.” Procedure — Stanley Kunitz Distribute the student page.htm 22 Photodisc. Mind Tools — Memory Techniques and Mnemonics www.com/MEM/memory.html Ways to Remember www. and explain that in this activity students will try to recall a list of unrelated WEB SITES words. have students sub.html Playing Games With Memory www. Inc.

GR RO A M P 5 THE AGING BRAIN: THROUGH MANY LIVES STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 1 www. N FACT FU BONUS NEURONS Try this again but this time. After the first part of the experiment. Each 1 card should have words only (no pictures).) Then. The order that the objects are written in doesn’t matter. It will show you how tricky it can be to remember unrelated objects. Have a discussion about which objects were easier to remember 5 and why. Everyone in the class — including the teacher — is given three minutes to try 3 to write down the ten objects that were read aloud by the volunteer. The volunteer reads aloud the ten words and everyone looks at their own paper 4 to see how many of the words they correctly remembered. everyone else in the class concentrates and tries to remember the objects. As the volunteer does this.org/brain GIVE YOUR BRAIN A WORKOUT Here’s an experiment you can try with others in your class.pbs. have this volunteer read out the top ten cards in the stack. Your teacher will explain some memory tricks that will help you recall a ran- 6 dom list of words. (NOTE: If 2 you have fewer than ten people in your class. Then repeat Steps 1-4 and see if you are able to remember more words than you did the first time. so that you have a large stack. especially older 23 adults. using the following guidelines. you’ll learn some memory tricks that will help you next time around. CARD 1: an animal CARD 2: an object that begins with the same letter as your first name CARD 3: an object from the room you are now in CARD 4: a fruit or vegetable CARD 5: an object used in a sports game Have a volunteer shuffle all the cards together into a large stack. as an extra challenge. Do you find that the ability to recall the list of objects is affected by age? . HUNDRED AND TWENTY GOING FURTHER YEARS! Try this experiment with groups of people of different ages. have everyone fill out two sets of cards. The volunteer should put the Illustrations: Ron Barrett ten cards in a small stack so they can be read aloud later. DIRECTIONS Everyone fills out five blank index cards. see if you can recall the CAN LIVE A objects in order from smallest to biggest.

The event is forever linked to the emotion present when the memory was stored. Later. These regions lie deep inside the brain. The link between an emotion and an event is different for each of us. are essential for forming memories. two structures.com. you’ll remember those that caught your attention and forget the rest. The left side of the amyg- dala. Short-term memories. architecture and functioning. ing and recalling memories. Chances are. those that last for a few minutes or until you no •Test your ability to remember a series longer need them. apple.pbs. DNA. depend on chemicals that disappear almost as quickly of random numbers or words. clock. GR RO A M P 5 THE AGING BRAIN: THROUGH MANY LIVES STUDENT ACTIVITY MASTER 2 www. Although much of this process remains to be discovered. and a part of your brain called the amygdala gets the credit… or the blame. test subjects to tell you what memories Experiences send impulses traveling along neurons (nerve cells). research has shown. and Substances called neurotransmitters released from the end of one neuron what emotions they recall when pre- move across the gap and stimulate an impulse in another neuron. peppermint. For another. Where and How Are Memories Made? Although storing and retrieving memories uses many parts of the brain. Saturate cotton balls with strong odors such as What is Memory? vanilla. Have a as they are manufactured. murder. The genes cause Why is eight the magic number? No 24 brain neurons to make proteins that permanently alter the cell’s one knows. For example. . Remembering a telephone number long partner present the words to you — enough to call it belongs in this category.org/brain FACT SHEET Memories in the Making by Faith Brynie Take a list of ordinary words—paper. lives the association was made. you will do well until theory holds that experience-generated chemicals activate genes. either orally or in writing — then see how many you can remember after a Long-lasting memories require a more complicated series of chemical measured period of time. You may be sur- time that pathway is used. That region processes emotions and screens All Rights Reserved information coming from the sensory systems. responses. attaches emotional significance to words such as murder and makes them more memorable. the neurons become chemically more sensitive. the smell evokes the terror •Smells are powerful triggers for form- associated with a rampaging forest fire. book — then throw some emotionally-laden ones—blood. or lavender. segments of the master control molecule of cells. the amygdala and the hippocampus. Each sented with the smell. If you are like changes. sex. Impulses the scents bring to mind. That’s the way memory works. but chemically. called the limbic system. your brain will capture the high-impact words. prised at the range and diversity of They can stimulate each other more easily in the future. war. Ask In a word. in a region The New Yorker Collection 1935 James Thurber from Cartoonbank. when in their jump the gap between nerve cells—not electrically. asked to recall more than eight items. the odor of a woodfire may remind one person of ACTIVITIES cozy evenings by the campfire. chemistry. one most people.

don’t account for. still learning a great deal. 25 . scientists rely heavily on experiments with evidence as possible that back up the hypothesis. and experiments should be done it may come to be regarded as a theory (a widely and confirmed by a number of researchers working accepted explanation or model that both explains independently of each other. if they have strong feelings 4 Test the predictions with experiments to see if the hypothesis holds up. In neuroscience.”) The scientific method for coming up with and testing hypotheses is a powerful tool. It’s usually described as consisting of four stages: what’s going on.”) their data.pbs. have biases they be measured). but a long way from proven.) That’s why. if experiments support a hypothesis. scientists rely researchers. but sometimes it’s not 3 Use the hypothesis to make predictions about other phenomena or other observations (that can so easy for scientists to apply it properly. existing observations and successfully predicts new ones). Scientists are human. so it was probably the socks. ideally. more a hypothesis is independently confirmed by different especially the study of the human brain. In physics or chemistry. (“My gym socks need washing.) 2 Come up with a tentative explanation — known as a hypothesis. before it is accepted. The numerical results to test hypotheses. (Example: “My gym locker 1 Observe smells bad. (For instance. If the experiments do not bear out The field of neuroscience is one in which scientists are the hypothesis. interpret them and test their interpretations.”) somewhat more on observation. (There are obvious ethical problems with performing intrusive experiments on living human brains. and draw incorrect conclusions from my locker will smell better. HYPOTHESES IN SCIENCE by Sue Young Wilson www. the more likely it is that it is true. and they can make errors.”) that doesn’t fit. they can be tempted to overlook or discard evidence er now smells fine. (“I washed the socks and my lock- about what the outcomes of their experiments should be. for Scientists also try to find as many different kinds of instance. Different sciences use slightly different versions of the scientific method. Some hypotheses are promising and intriguing. (“If I remove and wash the socks.org/brain You’ve probably heard of the scientific method. by which scientists observe things. it must be rejected or modified. there should be many different lines of evidence to support a hypothesis In science.

and balance difficulties. hemispherectomy— surgery to divide the brain’s two hemispheres. . schizophrenia — a mental disorder that may include delusions and hallucinations. it allows us to make decisions. The disease was first recognized and described by Dr. worthless and hopeless for a long period post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) — a psychiatric disorder in which the sufferer. prefrontal cortex — the region of the brain located directly behind the forehead. natural disasters or serious accidents.pbs. emotional or cultural cause hemisphere — one half of the cerebrum.org/brain The Baby’s Brain: Wider Than the Sky cataract — the clouding of the lens of the eye genes — the sections of DNA that carry inherited traits glia — cells that surround and provide a supportive framework for nerve cells migration — in fetal brain development. relives the experience through nightmares and flashbacks The Aging Brain: Through Many Lives stroke — an injury to the brain. following the experience or witnessing of traumatic events such as military combat. Nerves form a network of pathways that carry information quickly throughout the body stem cells — very young. the nucleus accumbens might play a role in situations of reward and punishment. biochemistry. skin cells or brain cells The Child’s Brain: Syllable From Sound developmental psychologist—a social scientist who studies how human behaviors and the mind develop and change over a lifetime dyslexia — a reading disorder often characterized by a significant difference between intellectual ability and reading performance without an apparent physical. physiology. judgments and future plans. a process in which neurons travel to the sections of the brain where they belong nervous system — the network of nerve cells that enables an animal to adjust to changes in its environment neurons — the billions of special cells that make up the nervous system. including the control of complex motor activity and the cognitive aspects of motor control. non-specialized cells that can transform into any kinds of cells. they send a neural signal that causes brain activity along specific circuits. The Adult Brain: To Think by Feeling depression — an emotional (mood) disorder in which a person feels sad. The left and right cerebral hemispheres are connected and communicate through the corpus callosum. degenerative disorder of the brain that eventually results in memory loss. The disease is named for the English physician James Parkinson. Alois Alzheimer in 1907. GLOSSARY www. rigid muscles. Alzheimer’s disease — a slowly progressive. sometimes performed in order to prevent seizures neuroscientist — a scientist who studies the anatomy. to be molded by experience throughout life The Teenage Brain: A World of Their Own dopamine — a chemical released by certain nerve cells in the brain that acts as a neurotransmitter neurotransmitter — a chemical that stimulates receptors on adjacent nerve cells. morality and self-control. in which a blood vessel breaks or becomes blocked. sometimes resulting in paralysis Parkinson’s disease — a disorder of the brain that reduces muscle control. Symptoms include trembling hands. Most cases affect people from 50 to 70 years old. producing in them a cascade of reactions nucleus accumbens — a part of the brain that may play a role in the regulation of movement. slow movement. such as liver cells. and sometimes death. alterations to the senses. It plays a role in such highly abstract functions as personal responsibility. When neurotransmitters cross this gap. or molecular biology of nerves and nervous tissue plasticity— the brain’s ability to develop adaptively. and an altered sense of self synapse — the gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another. Part of the frontal lobe. abnormal 26 brain function. In addition. who described it in 1817.

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Ph. 1974 — Michael Phelps. Prize for work on the functions of the brain hemi- spheres. University of Washington. Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel share the Nobel Prize for their discoveries 1878 — Claude Bernard describes the nerve-muscle concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Langley introduces the concept of to electrical stimulation. 1972 — Godfrey N. 1889 — Santiago Ramon y Cajal argues that nerve For a history of the brain timeline. — The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus is 1895 — Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen invents the X-ray. Cortesy of the New York Academy of Medicine Library/Below: Leonardo da Vinci drawing www. stating that the nervous system is composed stimulated.C. Seattle.org/brain THE WHEN.D.edu/chudler/hist. written by an unknown Egyptian physician. of individual elements.pbs. 1921 — Otto Loewi publishes work on “Vagusstoff. 1875 — Richard Caton is the first to record electrical activity from the brain.org/wnet/brain/history! .” 1839 — Theodor Schwann proposes the cell suggesting that neurons release chemicals when theory.” stating that perceptions of differ.” 1791 — Luigi Galvani shows that frog nerves respond 1907 — John N.washington. Hounsfield develops the X-ray 1861 — Paul Broca discusses how specific functions computed tomography. ent senses are carried by specific nerves.pbs. www. 1826 — Johannes Muller publishes the theory of “spe. Dale isolates the neurotransmitter 1838 — Robert Remak suggests that a nerve fiber called acetylcholine. human sensory cortex electrically. Department of Anesthesiology. Edward Hoffman and Michel 1873 — Camillo Golgi publishes work using the silver Ter-Pogossian develop the positron emission tomogra- nitrate method to stain brain tissue. 1914 — Henry H. WA (modified from "Milestones in Neuroscience Research" at: http://faculty. “synapse. Chudler.This papyrus 1897 — Charles Scott Sherrington coins the term contains the first written record about the brain.html) ca. are related to specific areas of the cerebral cortex. 1873 — Carl Wernicke publishes work on aphasia 1981 — Roger Wolcott Sperry is awarded the Nobel (language disorder caused by brain damage). His change in behavior 1929 — Hans Berger demonstrates the first human following the injury leads to theories about the role electroencephalogram (EEG). A NEUROSCIENCE TIMELINE Top: Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. blocking action of curare. 1909 — Harvey Cushing is the first to stimulate the cific nerve energies. receptor molecules. 1700 B. 2000 — Arvid Carlsson. brain pierced by an iron rod. log on to 32 cells are independent elements. phy (PET) scanner. and a nerve cell are joined. 1924 — Charles Scott Sherrington discovers the 1848 — Railroad worker Phineas Gage has his stretch reflex. of the frontal lobes in cognition and emotion. WHO AND WHAT OF BRAIN RESEARCH Eric H.

Andrew N. Carter. 1999. 1997. and Wilkie Wilson. Mental Health Bellack.D. RESOURCES BOOKS www. The National Institutes of Health. ed. New York: Guilford. M. 1998. Freeman & Co. New York: Vintage Books. New York: Ballantine. Driven to Distraction. 1998. New York: Ballantine Readers Circle. 2001. Pipher. Roberta. What Makes You Tick? The Brain in Plain English. 1995. New York: Wiley & Sons. Philadelphia: Running Press. I Can't Get Over It: A Handbook for Trauma Survivors. Sapolsky. Sexual. Edward M. PROGRAM ONE: THE BABY’S BRAIN: WIDER THAN THE SKY Gopnik. Go Ask Alice Book of Answers: A Guide to Good Physical. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional Book Group. New York: W. by Richard Restak. New York: W. and Patricia K. 1998. 2000. Meltzoff. Healey. Access the online edition at www. Susan A. Ratey.” . Novitt-Moreno. 1996. The Science Times Book of the Brain. Cobain. Brookfield. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing. Wade. Kuhl.org/brain The Secret Life of the Brain. 1995. and Emotional Health. and the Changing Brain.D. Faith Hickman. Conlan. Marti. 1995. Endangered Minds: Why Children Don’t Think and What We Can Do About It. and Coping. Nicholas.W. States of Mind: New Discoveries About How Our Brains Make Us Who We Are. 1990. and John J. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1996. PROGRAM TWO: THE CHILD’S BRAIN: SYLLABLE FROM SOUND Grandin. M. The Human Mind Explained. The Dying of Enoch Wallace: Life. Robert.education. Greenfield. 1998. Mapping the Mind. Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress. 33 To request a free copy. Norton & Company. Buzzed: The Straight Facts About the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports from My Life With Autism. New York: Dana Press. Dan J. Mary Bray. Cynthia.. Thomas B. 2000. Heuer. 1996. Jane M.org The Brain: Understanding Neurobiology Through the Study of Addiction. Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia: A Step-by-Step Guide. ed. Calif. New York: HarperPerennial Library. Mueser. New York: The Lyons Press. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls. EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES The Dana Sourcebook of Brain Science: Resources for Secondary and Post-Secondary Teachers and Students. Bev. Addiction Columbia University’s Health Education Program. Alan S. 2000. 1995. Kim T. New York: Ballantine Readers Circle. New York: Henry Holt. GENERAL INFORMATION Barbor. The Scientist in the Crib. New York: Henry Holt. Hallowell.: Ziff-Davis Press. Marcus. Czerner. Kuhn. 1999. Scott Swatzwelder. New York:Touchstone/Simon & Schuster. Teen Addiction. Brynie. The Dana Press.dana.. Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys. 2000.H. How Your Brain Works..D.pbs. 1998. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked Itself But Couldn’t Answer Until Now. The Human Brain. and Michael Thompson. Death. Temple and Oliver Sacks.: Millbrook Press.gov/supplements and click on “High School. Conn. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications. 2001. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens. Aphrodite. M. visit science. has been published by The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press to accompany the public television series. PROGRAM THREE: THE TEENAGE BRAIN: A WORLD OF THEIR OWN Kindlon. 1998.nih. Rita and Christopher Frith. New York: Simon & Schuster. Emeryville.. Susan Gingerich. Anne D. Ira B. PROGRAM FIVE: THE AGING BRAIN: THROUGH MANY LIVES Black. Julie Agresta. Alison. 2002. PROGRAM FOUR: THE ADULT BRAIN: TO THINK BY FEELING Matsakis. Stress-Related Diseases.

and support for those involved in.8940 Email: awis@awis.223. students from elementary through professional school levels.astc.326.com/depression/teens..aaas.html AETS is an organization to promote leadership in.783..nih.awis. ND 58202-9037 Tel: 701.nih.W.com Tel: 404. mathematics.dana.gov/publicat/depressionmenu. Box 9037 www.html Grand Forks. has developed its own bilingual math and ORGANIZATIONS science curriculum.4040 www.washington.3037 www.edu/depts/inmed/home.pbs.htm The Association is dedicated to achieving gender equity and full partici- National Institute of Mental Health.prairiepublic.nida.nimh.5700 www. ONLINE RESOURCES & ORGANIZATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN College of Education www. www.O.com/index.gov/publicat/teenbrain.5 million www. of Early Childhood Education Dana Foundation Georgia State University www.nclr.org The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives is a nonprofit organization of Focus Adolescent Services more than 200 leading neuroscientists.freevibe. Suite 500 Washington.W.org Atlanta. engineering and technology.depression. Suite 650 www.sfn.edu/ Neuroscience for Kids faculty. Suite 900 New York. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 1200 New York Avenue.6688 Email: info@sfn.com www. World Fellowship for Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders www.org Association for Women in Science (AWIS) National Office National Institute of Mental Health: Depression 1200 New York Avenue.org/features/healthworks/depression/teen. N.2584 Email: mweinburgh@gsu. DC 20036 AAAS’s mission includes improving the effectiveness of science in Tel.7200 Email: info@astc.org www.6670 www.casacolumbia. N.org/brain Dept.W." 2001.aets.org Washington.org www.bgca. Society for Neuroscience (SFN) Washington.org furthering the public understanding of science. National Foundation for Depressive Illness www.org the promotion of human welfare.org Tel: 202.org www.und. N. the largest constituency-based national Hispanic organization..nih.dana.W.shtml University of North Dakota School of Medicine Marijuana Facts for Teens P.edu www.psychologyinfo. EARLY CHILDHOOD Zero to Three Association of Science-Technology Centers.com/Alcohol.487.med. .edu/chudler/neurok. GA 30303 Tel: 404.world-schizophrenia.org/ National Council of La Raza (NCLR) ADD/ADHD 1111 19th Street. .org Boys & Girls Clubs of America comprises a national network of 2.776.gov/MarijBroch/Marijteens. www.html Freevibe Indians Into Medicine (INMED) www. GA 30309 Schizophrenia.777. DC 20005 National Institute of Mental Health: Schizophrenia Tel: 202. Progress.gov/publicat/schizoph. Suite 1000 National Attention Deficit Disorder Association Washington. advancing education in science and The Society for Neuroscience is the world's largest organization of increasing the public’s understanding and appreciation of the promise scientists and physicians dedicated to analyzing the nervous system and 34 of scientific methods in human progress.focusas. Inc.htm 1230 West Peachtree Street NW Atlanta.800 Symptoms of Teen Depression neighborhood-based facilities annually serving more than 3.biausa.cfm Washington.nodak. its role in everything we do. primarily from disadvantaged circumstances.org National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association ASTC is an organization of science centers and museums dedicated to www.nimh. (ASTC) http://www.schizophrenia.htm BRAIN HEALTH INMED is a comprehensive program offering educational support for Brain Injury Association.651.nimh. DC 20005-3516 MENTAL HEALTH Tel: 202. including nine Nobel laureates.ndmda. Inc. www. 202. NY 10151 Center on Addiction and Drug Abuse Tel: 212. N.org The Dana Alliance For Brain Initiatives ADDICTION 745 Fifth Avenue.326.org www. N. DC 20005-3920 11 Dupont Circle.org 1025 Vermont Avenue.462.add.cfm Boys & Girls Clubs of America Psychology Information Online: Depression in Teenagers National Headquarters www.org The National Council of La Raza (NCLR). Suite 500 Tel: 202. the professional development of teachers of science.org www.1756 www.htm young people.zerotothree. DC 20036 www.unr.nih.W. "Teenage Brain: A Work in pation for women in science.

different regions of your A brain go to work. As the isotope travels through the brain. CT greatly increased doctors’ ability to locate. gamma rays are released. It was developed in the 1970s. which are food energy).org/brain BRAIN(Y) PHOTOGRAPHY by Faith Brynie s you read these words. The greater use of sugar (for fuel) and oxygen (for releasing positrons collide with electrons in the body. tope is injected into the person whose brain will be It works because more blood flows to active areas of the scanned. and the brain’s auditory region just behind the ear will spring into action. diagnose and treat brain tumors. The PET scanner detects of an element that differs in the number of neutrons it the gamma rays. What is PET? Photodisc. (An isotope is an atom other.) colored pictures of “where the action is” in the brain. Imaging techniques such as PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) let doctors and scientists take pictures inside the skull — and more! In real time.pbs. Listen to someone reading aloud. It allows Here’s how it works. you will probably use an area in the left side of the brain near the temple. newer technologies such as PET and MRI. PET stands for positron emission tomography. A solution containing an oxygen iso- doctors and researchers to watch the living brain at work. Inc. How do we know? There was a time when the bony barrier of the skull prohibited photography inside the living brain. You “see” the words not with your eyes. It also allowed researchers to see the structure of the normal brain inside the living body. A brain area farther forward interprets the meaning of the words. . CT is helping scientists restore diseased brains and understand healthy ones. they can watch the living brain at work! How Did Brain Imaging Begin? The first technique developed for looking inside the brain was CT (for computed tomography). but today that’s changed. and the computer turns the signals into 35 contains. it emits brain than to “resting” regions. BRAIN BRIEFS www. Along with other. but with the brain’s visual center at the back of your head. Should you decide to read aloud. Both sugar and oxygen can be tracked and negatively charged. epilepsy and many other disorders. CT uses ordinary X-rays. but computers combine pictures taken from many different angles into a single picture — one that’s far sharper and more detailed than ordinary X-ray images. When the opposites destroy each mapped using radioactive isotopes. More blood flow means positively charged particles called positrons.

tional MRI (fMRI) can show what’s going on inside the living brain. but func.org/wnet/brain/scanning! . the increased oxygen in an active area changes the To demonstrate how a magnetic field can radio signal. an application called facilities in your community. medical centers and research brain images too.The magnet aligns the spinning atoms in a single direction — like dancers pirouetting in unison. Inc. Place a magnet beneath the paper and move it about. Computers convert the signals into pictures that show the depth and density of living tissue. the “slices” from MRI scans into “flat-map” projections that show “what’s in the grooves” of the brain’s folded For more on scanning the brain. It works on the same principle as PET: more blood flows to an area of the brain that is active. It works because a hydrogen atom’s single-proton nucleus has a property called spin. log on to 36 surface. An MRI scanner looks like a hollow tube. brain from various angles and to compare called MEG (for magnetoencephalography) measures normal brains with injured or diseased ones. As they return to their proper posi- tions. www. With practice. which is like a magnetic field. With Activities MRI. a sheet of paper. Interview CARET (for computerized anatomical reconstruction health care providers and scientists to find and editing toolkit) allows scientists to reconfigure out what purposes the technologies serve. they emit a weak radio signal. SPECT (for single photon emission Lots of them are available. Another technology.pbs. to Take Pictures Inside the Brain? tilting any direction.pbs.” the atoms bounce out of line with the magnetic field for an instant. For instance. Ordinary MRI pictures show only structures.org/brain What is MRI? MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. Find out what imaging procedures are used New computer applications are changing and improving at hospitals. BRAIN BRIEFS BRAIN(Y) PHOTOGRAPHY www. At your library or on the Internet. but it’s much less expensive. and still more ways are likely to be developed in the treasure hunting for PET and MRI images. you Are PET and MRI the Only Ways can make the filings line up in neat rows. but detects a added every year. changes in magnetic fields caused by the brain’s tiny electrical output. but it’s actually a powerful magnet. Some on the Web invite different type of energy. sprinkle some iron filings on processing input messages. pinpointing which neurons are receiving and align particles. go No. and more are computer tomography) is similar to PET. future. Its images aren’t as good as site visitors to view different “slices” of the PET’s. For example. When a tiny pulse from a radio transmitter interrupts the “dance. Photodisc.

That’s about twice as many as you have. its brain can as fluently as a native. vision.000 trillion neural connections. Experience then pares away the connections to hood. when a baby is three months old. 12 to early 20s. so that the more active connections can grow stronger. or synapses. or synapses. and nections. BRAIN BRIEFS www. . By the time you were age ten. the fetus sprouts hundreds of billions of brain cells (neurons). but a baby is still born with more than 100 billion brain 12 to early 20s: The brain is still developing. All the respond to hundreds of spoken sounds. but not as much so. though. For who starts learning one then will rarely learn to speak it instance. The brain is not changing as rapidly as in child- cells. actually! An eight-month-old baby has about 1. as the continues to organize and reinforce neural connections. the way younger kids can.) Researchers believe the human brain goes through five major phases: before birth. organizing. and it does. but at a slower rate than in babies.” in charge of to learn new languages after about age 12 — someone things like movement. life. the brain will become more efficient by recognizing spoken sounds in the language it regularly Adult: The brain’s basic structure is set. and filtering out subtle differences between other you can continue to learn and remember new things for 37 sounds. fetus’s brain is molded by hormones and other forces. Before birth (fetus): During the first months in the The New Yorker Collection 2000 Mick Stevens from Cartoonbank. about the same number as it will have for the rest used to think it was in final form by the teen years but of its life.com. a whole lot. from birth to three years old. but in the next more reason to learn foreign languages early! few months. and in adulthood. charge of planning. have recently discovered that significant changes are still going on in areas like the prefrontal cortex (in 0 to 3 years: This is when those trillions of brain con. get much harder form the brain's basic physical “maps. What that does mean is that your little brother’s or sister’s brain is more plastic than yours — its basic structure is changing and developing all the time in response to stimuli it is getting from the outside world. but of course hears. your brain had pared its connections down to about 500 trillion synapses.org/brain What’s Going On in My Little Brother’s or Sister’s Brain? by Sue Young Wilson Well.pbs. hearing and language. (Your brain is plastic. All Rights Reserved womb. Half of these will die off before birth. Scientists cells. are formed between the brain more). at the amazing rate of 500. But don’t worry.000 neurons 4 to 12 years (childhood to puberty): New learning per minute. impulse inhibition. that doesn’t mean your little brother or sister is smarter than you — it’s a normal part of the brain’s development process for it to shed neural connec- tions that it hasn’t regularly used. between ages four and 12. too. for instance.

ranking priorities. the part that’s in charge of setting goals. now is a great opportunity to develop these skills for life. The fact that a teenager’s brain is still developing means that it may be particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol and drugs. just in the past few years. Myelinization. as the growth of these sheaths is called. One brain area that undergoes major change in the teen years is the prefrontal cortex. Researchers have done experiments on adolescent rats and found that alcohol This well-known optical illusion shows both a young lady and an older and nicotine caused brain damage in the “teenaged” rodents woman. called myelin. With all this change going on in a brain area responsible for higher decision-making.org/brain What’s Going On in the Teenage Brain? by Sue Young Wilson Ever feel like your brain hurts? Well. If you want to learn a sport or a language or how to play guitar. your brain is completing its “hard wiring.pbs. smoke or take drugs. that help them function. may not be complete until the early 20s. the brain’s cells aren’t completely covered yet by the fatty sheaths.” It “decides” what connections to wire in and what to eliminate based largely on what you spend a lot of time learning and doing. (It follows that it’s kind of dumb For more optical illusions. In your teen years. including nicotine. adding many more connections. organizing and inhibiting impulses. Then. as a teenager. Scientists have also recently found evidence that in adolescence. You might want to save that for your Seeing Exhibits at 38 retirement and go learn how to do something cool.The good news is that this pruning actually makes the connections more efficient. BRAIN BRIEFS www. But. Hill. Another good reason closely.exploratorium. Scientists used to think the brain. no wonder teens can get a little scattered. the prefrontal cortex goes through a growth spurt. have a rare opportunity to mold your brain to be good at things just by doing them a lot.com/exhibits/f_exhibits. these tangles of connections start to get pruned away to leave the prefrontal cortex in its final form.html . it was originally published in Puck in 1915 as My Wife and My Mother-in-law. Starting around nine or ten. E. though it grows explosively in early childhood. nose. with the help of new tech- nologies like magnetic resonance imaging. maybe it’s got growing pains. you’ll see that the young lady’s chin can be the older woman’s not to drink. helping teens get it together as they finish growing up. Created by cartoonist W. they’ve discovered that the teenage brain is still very much a work in progress.) www. That means that you. was pretty much in final form by puberty. a couple of years later. Which do you see first? A key to the illusion is that if you look in ways that they didn’t in adult rats. log on to to waste this “brain-wiring window” lounging in front of the Exploratorium Web site television for hours. making plans.

Ask 39 exercise increases the number of neurons and connections about the “brainy” benefits of regular exercise. and Activities being active strengthen connections between neurons and Working with a partner and a stopwatch. learns and coordinates movements. . One kind is obvious — using the brain’s reasoning and problem- solving capacities.) and quizzes — all help build and maintain a healthy Time a number of trials. first with your dominant brain. (The hippocampus makes and stores Shakespeare and calculus aside. Lying at the base of the brain. enhances the immune response brain. It sends impulses to muscles. affects the health of the Exercise combats stress. Your hand can catch a ball because information on a ball’s position. mental games the kind of fold and the adequacy of the result. initiating volun. movement and posture. Reading. What’s this called? Fainting! The cerebellum can also take over some movements that were once voluntary. Perhaps as a result. the cerebellum. this region coordinates balance.org/brain Exercise and Sports: For “Brains” Only by Faith Brynie Want to get smarter? Get moving! formed in the brain. writing. Does Exercise Affect the Brain? The New Yorker Collection 1997 Danny Shanahan from Cartoonbank. The brain controls. the first job of a brain is memories. All Rights Reserved A healthy brain needs two kinds of exercise daily. Learning. thinking. then with your less-used hand. especially in an area called the hipppocampus. Exercise promotes blood flow and Interview a professional athlete. hand. Compare Less obvious — but equally important — are the benefits times between trials. against infection and improves mood.com. Have you noticed that new skills — seeming difficult at first — become effortless with practice? The brain shifts neural activity from the motor cortex to the cerebellum as skills become automatic. teacher. in turn. physical education oxygen delivery to brain tissue. damaged brain.pbs. direction and speed is relayed from the brain’s visual center. but when this part of the brain is impeded — as it might be when too little oxygen reaches the brain — the body’s posture-maintaining ability is lost. physician or health club trainer. a region of the brain’s thin to rehabilitate stroke patients — can help repair a outer layer. social interactions. Two areas of the brain play major roles in physical activity. BRAIN HEALTH www. practice stimulate new ones. creative activities folding paper with one hand. Communication between the senses and the motor cortex coordinates motion. Movement. too.) to run a body. Do you improve with practice? of physical activity. Automatic movements reside in a second area. Exercisers perform How Does the Brain Control Movement? better on learning and memory tasks than couch potatoes.You don’t have to think about maintaining balance. This area automatically keeps the body upright and the muscles working together. Certain patterns of physical activity — such as those used The first is the motor cortex. They keep their mental sharpness well into old age. remembering. (Agree on rules for such as art. tary movements. hobbies.

a little more than two percent of the memory impairment • trouble finding the right population.3 million Headaches • dizziness • loss of consciousness • Americans. Stay away from guns the skull. Stay away from drugs lead to bruising. your brain cannot. he brain is the most valuable organ of your body. Closed head concentration injuries are more common and are caused by rapid movements of the head which cause the brain to bounce Ten things to do to keep a healthy brain! back and forth against the skull. Wear proper safety equipment when playing Have you ever been around someone who was drunk sports. tearing and swelling of the brain. While it is protected by a thick bony skull and isolated from the body’s bloodstream by a blood-brain barrier. Always wear a helmet behavior change as a result? when biking. an estimated 5. There are two types of brain injury. Ph. Motor vehicle accidents account function.pbs.D. It acts as the command center for all your actions. or a brief 10. These injuries can 3. Such hits may not be hard enough to crack 7. New studies also show that college in the heat athletes who experienced a concussion perform worse on memory tasks for up to seven days after the injury! Simple measures can be taken to prevent the risk of head Discussion Questions injury. skating or skateboarding. 4. there are 300. a simple fall from a bicycle or skateboard can lead to permanent and serious brain damage. A blow lakes or ponds to the head during a sporting event may be a lot worse 6. Eat right the skull. Wear a seat belt when in a car result from car accidents. but they cause the brain to bounce around inside 8. falls or injuries sustained 2. lightheadedness. T While other organs can be repaired or sometimes replaced. live with a disability resulting from brain word • increased irritability • mood swings • injury. It also controls many bodily functions that we rarely think about such as heart rate.000 head injuries or suffered from a concussion? How did their sustained during sporting events. BRAIN HEALTH www. Although our brain is vital for survival. Wear a helmet biking or skating during recreational/sporting activities. (Think of what happens to the yolk of an egg 9. Look before diving into pools and unknown concussion to prolonged unconsciousness or coma. dizziness. .) Common side effects of a concussion and cleaners include headaches. Closed head injuries 1.org/brain Keep Your Brain Healthy by William Guido. it is extremely vulnerable. Every year. Look both ways before crossing the street than you think. Stay away from harmful chemicals. Head injury is the leading cause of death in bicycle crashes. what will you do differently? 40 for 37 percent of all brain injuries. Don’t drink and drive Brain injuries can vary in their severity from a mild 5. thoughts and experiences. Drink plenty of fluids when working or playing loss of consciousness. Open head trouble sleeping • impulsiveness • difficulty in injuries occur when the skull is penetrated. Traumatic Head Injury Signs of Head Injury Each year in the United States. Always wear a Knowing how common mishaps can affect brain seat belt when driving. pesticides that is shaken. blood pressure and breathing.

Health”). We still know relatively little about what causes Depression this devastating disease. restlessness or being slowed down. feeling tired geratedly “up” or “high” state) to depression. Some peo- all the time. lucinations and delusions and trouble feeling emotions and you can check in the Yellow Pages (try under “Mental relating to others. symptoms include: a “hyper” mood. misused in casual conversation.org). do anything or is “king of the world”). changes in appetite or weight. Researchers estimate that about 17 percent ing a brain chemical called dopamine. More than one out of five ering who they are. Treatments for mental illness include medication prevention hotline. and most people who anyone. from mania (an exag- much. from depression or another mental illness. the brain and is often treated with a drug called lithium. a suicide. One suicide-prevention hotline with locations in 41 ness often strikes an individual for the first time during the many cities is the Samaritans (www. lives. loss or irritability. (Note: “Schizophrenic” does not mean Americans will suffer from some kind of mental illness in someone has a “split personality. but some researchers suspect that a viral (also called manic depression) are less common. greatly increased What Do You Do If a Friend Says He or She Is energy. Don’t promise your friend you won’t tell Most mental illnesses are treatable.” as the term is sometimes their lifetime. talking too much and too Thinking of Suicide? fast. but some. Most communities have mental- sense of reality becomes distorted. Encourage him or her to get help. Often. It is definitely in their lifetimes. worthless and hopeless for a long period. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder not contagious.org/brain Mental Illness & Brain Disorders by Sue Young Wilson The brain is an amazing. a community mental-health center. decreased need to sleep. complicated organ. 3. and make sure your friend does get help. see a doctor or a counselor who can point you towards help.) In schizophrenia. 2. You might Schizophrenia start by asking the school nurse or the adult leader of a Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder in which a person’s teen group you belong to. Places to start: the school nurse. Tragically. BRAIN HEALTH www. beneficial. just as the person is discov- times things go wrong with it. a and talk therapy. teen years or young adulthood. As with other mental illnesses. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which a Other symptoms include trouble sleeping or sleeping too person suffers severe mood swings. excessive self-esteem (thinking that one can early childhood trauma. death or suicide. health and suicide-prevention hotlines and crisis centers. phrenia. scien- One of the most frequent of the serious mental disorders tists currently believe that the brain isn’t properly process- is depression. There’s Help for Mental Illness tell someone else (an adult). but most The symptoms of depression are listed above. 1. . and risky behavior. Manic think it is some combination of biological factors. Be accepting and caring. If he or she won’t. prima. Dealing with a If you think you or someone you know may be suffering suicidal friend is troubling and emotional. this personality-distorting ill. agitation or rily genetics and environmental factors like stress. It’s not true that people who talk about suicide are treated return to fully productive and meaningful don’t do it. trouble con. of Americans will suffer an episode of major depression Schizophrenia often has a genetic basis.samaritans. ple with bipolar disorder have “mixed episodes” that centrating or making decisions. He or she often has hal. Consider talking to someone like a counselor about your own feelings and experiences.pbs. a combination of both is most youth group leader you trust. Depression is an emotional (mood) disorder in which a Bipolar Disorder person feels sad. and repeated thoughts of combine symptoms of mania and depression. each infection in childhood may play a role in causing schizo- afflicting about one percent of the population. Listen and let the person tell you how he or she is Bipolar disorder clearly seems to have a physical basis in feeling. scientists still aren’t sure exactly what causes depression.

What stage known as REM. True. True. Some of the answers may be eye-openers. T F 5.org/brain Don’t doze off before checking your answers: 1. some dreaming can occur a fetus may be dreaming. The eye through. True. if your brain is anything like a rat’s. the brain keeps the heart beating in a slow. On the average. T F 6. Their brain hemispheres (sides) take turns less sophisticated centers can get their messages sinking into the slow brain waves of sleep. Every animal sleeps. Memories are stored during sleep. Scientists at Harvard watched sleeping brains 9. Half the brain sleeps at a time. And the fetus may dream as well. even the common housefly. T F 10. T F 8. False. experienced more drowsiness during the day as well. T F 2. 5. make sense of the random firings of nerve cells in other brain regions. Although most dreams occur during the sleep sleep begins around week 17 of development. Hormones produced during the waking hours stop the cells from firing. T F 9. True or False (trick question). T F 3. Dreaming occurs only during REM (for rapid eye movement) sleep. False. regular rhythm. What else is your brain doing during sleep? Wake up and take this true-false quiz. and experi. The older sleepers slept past increased activity in the language centers. Dreams have hidden meanings. Some say dreams are but don’t sleep. Researchers at Stanford measured the using an imaging technique called fMRI (for func- spontaneous sleep and waking (no alarm clocks!) tional magnetic resonance imaging). ages 10 to 18. True. Teens need less sleep than children do. T F 7. False. while the Scientists at Indiana State University studied napping brain’s thinking and reasoning areas go “offline. the cortex. The time between heartbeats varies more 10. 8. controlled by the sleeping hemisphere closes. A fetus sleeps before birth. T F 1. www. False for humans. forever a mystery. T F 4. The answer depends consistently perform better than those who study. “sleep-like state” may be a more accurate descrip- 42 ments show that those who sleep after they study tion of the housefly’s daily dozes. however. Sleep promotes healing and regrowth of the brain’s outer layer. During sleep. nothing more than the “thinking brain’s” attempt to 7. They are messages from the subconscious mind. Studying all night keeps memories fresh for an exam the next day. activated the sound-processing regions of the brain. but true for many kinds of birds.pbs. says researcher Marcos Frank of the during sleep than during wakefulness.” the mallards. Pure tones of young people. 4. The brain can detect and understand sounds while sleeping. They regions and prefrontal cortex. . younger children slept 9 hours and 20 minutes while speaking the sleepers’ names produced and awoke naturally. San Francisco—although 6. The other stays open. will remain during non-REM sleep. on which expert you ask. Ron Barrett BRAIN HEALTH Your Brain: Sleeping and Dreaming By Faith Brynie What’s awake when you’re sleeping? Your VLPO! At least that’s what some Swiss scientists think. 2. as REM 3. University of California. False. Other experts say that. They found that two-thirds of the nerve cells in the brain area called the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) fire during sleep. memory the 9 hour-20 minute mark without waking.

” Walk into Dr. At age 32. She says. neurosurgeon Benjamin Carson reveals his philosophy about life. because surgical Courtesy: Susan McConnell transplants of newborn cells may restore brain regions ravaged by Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. As I studied biology in college. Susan McConnell’s lab and you will find her gazing through a microscope. Dr. “I did not like school very much. She transplants newborn cells. Professor of Biological Sciences Stanford University “The brain of a baby is a work-in-progress. Despite his rigorous schedule.D. PROFILES by William Guido. Think Big. She has found that the final destinations of these soon-to-be-neurons are determined by neighboring neurons. Carson is a world-class neurosurgeon. where he struggled with a poor self-image and a bad temper.D.org/brain Susan McConnell. and then somehow instructs each individual nerve cell to form very specific connections with one another. His hard work and religious faith helped propel him to the top of his class and resulted in a full scholarship at Yale University. He grew up in a tough Detroit neighborhood. one that helped him to escape hardship and unleash his true potential. To me that’s a miracle. Carson’s childhood was difficult.” Thanks largely to the guidance of his mother and her belief that a good education was the ticket out of poverty. thus enabling even newborn animals to exhibit complex behaviors. Others laughed at me and made jokes about me.” McConnell’s research into animal brain development shapes our present thinking about how the human brain develops. McConnell is an engaging speaker who travels the world describing how developing neurons make their journey to distant cortical regions. M. he still makes time to give motivational talks to the youth of America. sends them to the right position. He is best known for separating the Binder Siamese twins. I wanted to be a field behavioral biologist just like her. I grew more interested in the brain as the basis of behavior and how neural circuits are created during develop- ment. He performs hundreds of surgeries a year on children who are suffering from life-threatening neurological conditions.pbs. Carson overcame his self-doubt and academic problems. who were connected at the head. is tracking the winding paths of migrating cells. Carson says.” Benjamin S. “What we would really love to understand is how the brain generates millions of neurons. Ph. where he trained to become a neurosurgeon. Carson became the youngest surgeon in the nation to hold the distinguished title of Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery. a developmental neurobiologist and research professor at Stanford University. I always felt that I was the dumbest kid in my class. Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery Johns Hopkins Children’s Center “Think big!” In his best-selling book. into developing brains. not yet recognizable as neurons. McConnell’s career path was influenced greatly by past experiences. Ph. For the longest time. Carson. He con- Keith Weller tinued his studies at the University of Michigan School of Medicine. McConnell. Her work provides new hope for people suffering from degenerative brain diseases. www. “I used to watch documentaries on TV about Jane Goodall and her studies of chimpanzees. Carson’s message rings loud and clear — THINK BIG! 43 .D. Dr.

Using highly sophisticated scanners that take three-dimension- al pictures of the brain. It has also allowed clinicians to pinpoint affected regions of the brain and shape successful treatments. Ph. Erick grew up and still lives in one of the toughest neighborhoods in New Orleans. Andreasen’s neuroimaging research has contributed significantly to our understanding of the cause and treatment of schizophrenia. programs computers to analyze the brain’s electrical activity.D. “To be numbered among these outstanding individuals is indeed gratifying and humbling. Congress and the President recognized her outstanding achievements and awarded her the prestigious National Medal of Science. He was a football player at St. PROFILES www.org/brain Nancy Andreasen. an all-boys school known for producing successful athletes that now play in the NBA and NFL. The Broken Brain and Brave New Brain. but without him. the important research he helps 44 with would come to a grinding halt. he takes preparatory classes for medical school to realize his lifelong dream of becoming a doctor. Andreasen believes that neuroscientists will soon “peer into brain cells and see the poisons that cause schizophrenia.D. Erick Green Research Associate Louisiana Health Sciences Center “It’s a great feeling to know you are helping to unfold the mysteries of science. After work. orders lab supplies and supervises students. Her pioneering work has shown that abnormal neural connections cause common schizophrenic symptoms like hallucinations and dis- organized language. Well-regarded for her clear explanations of complex neuroscience topics. He graduated in the top ten of his class and enrolled at Southern University. A neuropsychiatrist at the University of Iowa College of Medicine. Last year.” In the research laboratory at LSU Health Sciences Center where he works. But Erick’s star power was in academics. Since its inception in 1959. Erick’s supervisor can count on him for just about anything — even for making late night runs to the lab to check on ongoing experiments. Erick Green is a jack- of-all-trades. Professor of Psychiatry The University of Iowa College of Medicine “Above all. 20/20 and Dateline to discuss break- throughs in brain research. As a full-time college student. and he landed a job as a research associate soon Courtesy: Erick Green after graduation. M. He uses a variety of chemical techniques to visualize brain structures. she serves as editor-in-chief for the American Journal of Psychiatry and was a member of the national task force that set treatment standards for psychiatric disorders.pbs.” Nancy Andreasen is a brain science celebrity. over 350 scientists and engineers have received the medal. Erick rarely gets public recognition for his work. she has written two best-selling books on mental illness.” Courtesy: Nancy Andreasen In addition to chairing the psychiatry department. . Hard work and perseverance paid off for Erick. Augustine High School. Dr. she can peer inside the schizophrenic brain. my greatest motivation is helping patients.” says Andreasen.. Erick held down several part-time jobs to pay for his tuition and often studied by the flickering light of a movie projector that he ran at a local cinema. she frequently appears on the Today Show.