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**Differentiating (5) with respect to ? again, the equation Neglecting the Hessian matrix [24] in (15)
**

reduces to

?

?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? (?? ) (?? − ?) − ?(?)? (??)

? = [? ] [? ] − [? ] [?? − ?] . (7) Δ? = ??? = . (17)

?? ?

(?? ) (?? ) + ??? ?

By Gauss-Newton method, the conductivity update vec-

tor [Δ?] is given by Replacing ?? by ? and ?? ? by ? (identity matrix) (21)

?? ?? Δ? reduces to

Δ? = − = . (8)

??? [?? ]? [?? ] − [??? ]? Δ? ?? (?? − ?) − ???

Δ? = , (18)

Thus, the conductivity update vector is given by ?? ? + ??

**? −1 where the matrix ? = ?? is the Jacobin as stated earlier.
**

Δ? = [[?? ] [?? ] − [?]? Δ?] ?? Δ?, (9)

Thus, the conductivity update vector ([Δ?]) is found as

where the higher-order term ? = [??? ] is known as the −1

Δ? = (?? ? + ??) (?? (?? − ?) − ???) . (19)

Hessian matrix [24]. In (9) by neglecting ?, the update

conductivity vector reduces to

Sometimes, the last term (???) is neglected [22], and the

? ?

−1 conductivity update vector [Δ?] is calculated as

Δ? = [[? ] [?? ]] ?? [∇?] . (10)

−1

In general, using NRIT method, the conductivity update Δ? = (?? ? + ??) ?? (?? − ?) . (20)

vector expressed as in (10) can be represented for kth iteration

(where ? is a positive integer) as In general, the EIT image reconstruction algorithm pro-

vides a solution of the conductivity distribution of the DUT

? −1 ?

Δ?? = [[?? ] [?? ]] [?? ] [Δ?? ] , (11) for the kth iteration as

−1

where [Δ?? ] and [?? ] are the voltage mismatch matrix and ??+1 = ?? + ((?? ? + ??) (?? (?? − ?) − ???)) . (21)

?

Jacobian matrix, respectively.

?

The [?? ] matrix in (11) is always ill conditioned [19–24], The EIT algorithm starts with the solution of FP obtained

and hence small measurement errors will make the solution from the EIT governing equation, and the [?? ] is calculated

of (11) changes greatly. In order to make the system well for a known current injection matrix [?] and an initial guess

posed, the regularization method [19–26] is incorporated (known or assumed) conductivity matrix [?0 ]. The voltage

into the reconstruction algorithm by redefining the object mismatch matrix [Δ?] is estimated, and then it is used to

function [19–26] with regularization parameters as calculate the conductivity update matrix [Δ?] using GN-

MMA and is added to the initial conductivity matrix ([?? ]) to

1? ?2 1 update it to a new conductivity matrix [?1 = ?? + Δ?] using

?? = ????? − ???? + ?‖??‖2 , (12)

2 2 NRIT. New update matrix [?1 ] is used in forward solver to

where ?? is the constrained least-square error of the regu- obtain a new calculated boundary data matrix [??1 ] which

larized reconstructions, ? is the regularization operator, and provides a new voltage mismatch matrix [Δ?1 ]. Therefore,

? (the positive scalar) is called the regularization coefficient the NRIT algorithms iteratively calculate the [Δ?] using GN-

[19–26] MMA to find out an optimized [?] matrix for which the [Δ?]

reaches its minimum value. Thus, the EIT reconstruction

1 ? 1

?? = (?? − ?) (?? − ?) + ?(??)? (??) . (13) algorithm is found to work in the following sequences:

2 2

(1) forward solver calculates the boundary potential

Differentiating the inject function in (12) with respect

matrix [?? ] for a known current injection matrix [?]

to the elemental conductivity: the following relations are

and an initial guess (known) conductivity matrix [?0 ],

obtained

? (2) measured voltage data matrix [?? ] is compared with

??? = −(?? ) (?? − ?) + ?(?)? (??) , (14) [?? ] to estimate the [Δ?] as [Δ? = ?? − ?? ],

? ? (3) Jacobian (?) is computed,

???? = (?? ) (?? ) − (??? ) (?? − ?) + ??? ?. (15)

(4) conductivity update vector [Δ?] is calculated by

Now, using Gauss-Newton- (GN-) method-based min- Gauss-Newton-based minimization algorithm,

imization process, the conductivity update vector [Δ?] is (5) [?? ] matrix is updated to a new conductivity matrix

obtained as [?1 = ?? + Δ?] by adding [Δ?] to [?] using Newton-

? Raphson iteration technique (NRIT),

??? (?? ) (?? − ?) − ?(?)? (??)

Δ? = ?? = ? ?

. (16) (6) new update matrix [?1 ] is used in forward solver to

?? (?? ) (?? ) − (??? ) (?? − ?) + ??? ? calculate the new voltage mismatch matrix [Δ?1 ],

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