4 Journal of Medical Engineering

Differentiating (5) with respect to ? again, the equation Neglecting the Hessian matrix [24] in (15)
reduces to
?
?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? (?? ) (?? − ?) − ?(?)? (??)
? = [? ] [? ] − [? ] [?? − ?] . (7) Δ? = ??? = . (17)
?? ?
(?? ) (?? ) + ??? ?
By Gauss-Newton method, the conductivity update vec-
tor [Δ?] is given by Replacing ?? by ? and ?? ? by ? (identity matrix) (21)
?? ?? Δ? reduces to
Δ? = − = . (8)
??? [?? ]? [?? ] − [??? ]? Δ? ?? (?? − ?) − ???
Δ? = , (18)
Thus, the conductivity update vector is given by ?? ? + ??

? −1 where the matrix ? = ?? is the Jacobin as stated earlier.
Δ? = [[?? ] [?? ] − [?]? Δ?] ?? Δ?, (9)
Thus, the conductivity update vector ([Δ?]) is found as
where the higher-order term ? = [??? ] is known as the −1
Δ? = (?? ? + ??) (?? (?? − ?) − ???) . (19)
Hessian matrix [24]. In (9) by neglecting ?, the update
conductivity vector reduces to
Sometimes, the last term (???) is neglected [22], and the
? ?
−1 conductivity update vector [Δ?] is calculated as
Δ? = [[? ] [?? ]] ?? [∇?] . (10)
−1
In general, using NRIT method, the conductivity update Δ? = (?? ? + ??) ?? (?? − ?) . (20)
vector expressed as in (10) can be represented for kth iteration
(where ? is a positive integer) as In general, the EIT image reconstruction algorithm pro-
vides a solution of the conductivity distribution of the DUT
? −1 ?
Δ?? = [[?? ] [?? ]] [?? ] [Δ?? ] , (11) for the kth iteration as
−1
where [Δ?? ] and [?? ] are the voltage mismatch matrix and ??+1 = ?? + ((?? ? + ??) (?? (?? − ?) − ???)) . (21)
?
Jacobian matrix, respectively.
?
The [?? ] matrix in (11) is always ill conditioned [19–24], The EIT algorithm starts with the solution of FP obtained
and hence small measurement errors will make the solution from the EIT governing equation, and the [?? ] is calculated
of (11) changes greatly. In order to make the system well for a known current injection matrix [?] and an initial guess
posed, the regularization method [19–26] is incorporated (known or assumed) conductivity matrix [?0 ]. The voltage
into the reconstruction algorithm by redefining the object mismatch matrix [Δ?] is estimated, and then it is used to
function [19–26] with regularization parameters as calculate the conductivity update matrix [Δ?] using GN-
MMA and is added to the initial conductivity matrix ([?? ]) to
1? ?2 1 update it to a new conductivity matrix [?1 = ?? + Δ?] using
?? = ????? − ???? + ?‖??‖2 , (12)
2 2 NRIT. New update matrix [?1 ] is used in forward solver to
where ?? is the constrained least-square error of the regu- obtain a new calculated boundary data matrix [??1 ] which
larized reconstructions, ? is the regularization operator, and provides a new voltage mismatch matrix [Δ?1 ]. Therefore,
? (the positive scalar) is called the regularization coefficient the NRIT algorithms iteratively calculate the [Δ?] using GN-
[19–26] MMA to find out an optimized [?] matrix for which the [Δ?]
reaches its minimum value. Thus, the EIT reconstruction
1 ? 1
?? = (?? − ?) (?? − ?) + ?(??)? (??) . (13) algorithm is found to work in the following sequences:
2 2
(1) forward solver calculates the boundary potential
Differentiating the inject function in (12) with respect
matrix [?? ] for a known current injection matrix [?]
to the elemental conductivity: the following relations are
and an initial guess (known) conductivity matrix [?0 ],
obtained
? (2) measured voltage data matrix [?? ] is compared with
??? = −(?? ) (?? − ?) + ?(?)? (??) , (14) [?? ] to estimate the [Δ?] as [Δ? = ?? − ?? ],
? ? (3) Jacobian (?) is computed,
???? = (?? ) (?? ) − (??? ) (?? − ?) + ??? ?. (15)
(4) conductivity update vector [Δ?] is calculated by
Now, using Gauss-Newton- (GN-) method-based min- Gauss-Newton-based minimization algorithm,
imization process, the conductivity update vector [Δ?] is (5) [?? ] matrix is updated to a new conductivity matrix
obtained as [?1 = ?? + Δ?] by adding [Δ?] to [?] using Newton-
? Raphson iteration technique (NRIT),
??? (?? ) (?? − ?) − ?(?)? (??)
Δ? = ?? = ? ?
. (16) (6) new update matrix [?1 ] is used in forward solver to
?? (?? ) (?? ) − (??? ) (?? − ?) + ??? ? calculate the new voltage mismatch matrix [Δ?1 ],