Supplementary materials

Integrated production of biodiesel in a soybean
biorefinery: Modeling, simulation and economical
assessment

José F.O. Granjoa,∗, Belmiro P.M. Duarteb,a , Nuno M.C. Oliveiraa
a CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Sílvio Lima
Polo II, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
b Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, ISEC, Polytechnic Institute of

Coimbra, Portugal.

A. Auxiliary calculations for soybeans chemical composition estima-
tion

Table S1 presents the original data chemical composition for the various
soybeans parts. The cellulose fraction is estimated from the difference of ADF
(Acid Detergent Fiber) and lignin. The ADF is approximately equivalent to the
sum of true cellulose and lignin contents. Hemicellulose is calculated from the
difference between NDF value (Neutral Detergent Fiber) and ADF and NDF is
roughly equivalent to hemicellulose, true cellulose and lignin. The fat content
is considered to be equivalent to the crude fat extracted by diethyl ether or
petroleum ether. The mass fractions were normalized.

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 239 798 793. Fax: +351 239 798 703.
Email addresses: josegranjo@eq.uc.pt (José F.O. Granjo), bduarte@isec.pt (Belmiro
P.M. Duarte), nuno@eq.uc.pt (Nuno M.C. Oliveira)

Preprint submitted to Energy April 18, 2017

Table S1
Original data from [1].

Whole seedsa Meal (dehulled)b Hullsb Strawc Hayc
Main analysis Unit Average value

Dry matter % as fed 88.8 88.1 89.1 89.1 91.5
Crude protein % DM 39.6 53.5 13.2 6.9 15.9
Crude fibre % DM 6.3 4.9 38.8 44.2 33.8
NDF % DM 13.5 11.0 64.1 79.7 47.0
ADF % DM 8.0 5.9 45.8 59.9 34.9
Lignin % DM 1.2 0.5 2.4 16.4 7.0
Ether extract % DM 21.3 1.8 2.2 3.5 5.4
Ash % DM 5.8 7.2 5.3 7.9 7.6
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 6.4 0 5.5 0 0
d
Total sugars % DM 8.7 10.6 1.6 0 0

a b c
Last updated: 12/02/2014; 24/10/2014; 18/12/2014. Values may change due to
updates of the Feedipedia — Animal feed resources-information system databases.
d
Total sugars value considered to be equivalent to the fraction of soluble carbohydrates.

The soybean composition in A100–A300 is more conveniently characterized
in terms of its main constituents (e.g., meal, oil, hulls) rather than in terms of
its chemical components. To perform this conversion without mass imbalances
in the simulations, the mass fractions reported in [2] (Table S2) were conciliated
with those in Table S1 by performing a mass balance to the envelope containing
A100 and the extraction unit. The hulls mass fraction is fixed (8.8 %DM) and
it is assumed that the oil fraction of soybeans is exclusively fat and there are no
meal loss in the dehulling and solvent extraction. Additionally, the oil content
in meal was considered to be the maximum average mass fraction of oil in
defatted flakes (1 %DM as referred elsewhere [3, 4]); and the “dirty mass”, which
includes all the extraneous material entirely removed in cleaning operations, was
considered to be part of the ash fraction of soybean seeds.

S2

Table S2
Original and conciliated composition of soybean seeds main constituents. Data from [2]

Constituents wt % %DM Conc. %DM Conc. wt %

Soymeal 57.4 68.3 68.8 57.8

Soy oil 18.4 21.9 21.5 18.0

Hulls 7.4 8.8 8.8 7.4

Dirty mass 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8
Moisture 16 16

Table S3 shows the conciliated composition of soy seeds, meal, oil and hulls.
The mass ratios in a moisture-free basis between straw and seeds; and hay and
seeds were calculated from [5]. The average yield of straw per bushel of soybean
seeds is 105, which is equivalent to approximately 176 kg of straw per 100 kg
of soybean seeds. The relative yield of hay-to-soybean seeds was calculated
by considering the average value of 2 t/acre of hay and about 22 bushels/acre
of soybean seeds produced [5]. This results in a value of 339 kg of hay per
100 kg of soybean seeds. These values are merely indicative, since yields per
acre of soybean seeds, straw and hay vary significantly depending on cultivation
techniques, geographic conditions and so forth.

S3

Table S3
Mass fraction of chemical components of soybean main constituents. Calculated from data
in [1].

Composition (%DM) Whole seed Hulls Meal (dehulled)a Oil Straw Hay
Crude protein 41.6 14.4 58.6 0 7.04 20.9
Cellulose 7.14 47.2 4.32 0 44.4 36.8
Hemicellulose 5.77 19.9 5.84 0 20.2 15.9
Lignin 1.26 2.61 1.50 0 16.7 9.22
Fat 22.4 2.39 1.00 100 3.57 7.12
Starch 6.72 5.99 8.99 0 0 0
Ash 6.09 5.77 6.75 0 8.06 10.0
Total sugars 9.13 1.74 13.0 0 0 0
c d
Mass ratio (%DM) 100 8.81 68.8 21.5 176 339d

a
Calculated from mass balance.
c
Conciliated mass ratios from [2]. The calculated average mass ratio of "dirty mass"
d
in soybean whole seeds is 0.94 %DM, included in the ash fraction. Average relative
yields of straw-to-seed and hay-to-seed from different varieties of soybeans [5].

Table S4 presents the composition of soybean with the distribution of car-
bohydrates and soy oil minor components (ash and carbohydrates excluded).

S4

6 FFA 0.94 %DM.0 Whole seed Hulls Meal Oil Straw Hay Mass ratio (%DM)a 100 8.4 Phosphatidylethanolamines 26.9 Phosphatidylinositols 18.4 Phytosterols 0.4 Galacturonic acid 12.5 176 339 a "Dirty mass" average mass ratio: 0.0 β-tocopherol 1.9) Triglycerides 97.Table S4 Segregated chemical composition of soybeans.9 Water 16.8 Cellulose + Hemicelluloses (6.1 β-sitosterol 53.3 Lignin 1.4 Glucose 3.5 Galacturonic acid 30.0 Mannose 2.2 Starch 5.2 Galactose 37.9 Phospholipids 2.8 21.3 Xylose 8.7 Tocopherols 0.5 Ash 5. S5 .7 γ-tocopherol 63.3 Glucose 37.9 Fat 18.0 Arabinose 14.0 Galactose 26.6 Campesterol 28.5 Arabinose 20.5 Phosphatidylcholines 55.6 α-tocopherol 10.1 Stigmasterol 18.0 + 4.8 68.1 δ-tocopherol 25.3 Total sugars 7. Chemical component Mass fraction (%) Chemical component Mass fraction (%) Protein 34.2 Xylose 5.

B. water [927] [1114] [306] [689] [1.0) (A100-A600) NaCl (4.5) Filtration materials (1.7) Process Lecithin (5.4) H3PO4 (4.1) Steam Natural gasElectricity Cooling water Refrig.0) Hexane (0. S2. S6 . while Ta- bles S5–S11 contain the complete simulation results for each processing area. Wastewater (53) Foreign matter (7.0) Filtrate cake (2.8) SODD (1. Global mass and energy balances. Detailed Process Simulation Results Fig.9) Vents (360) Legend: (kg/t soybeans) [MJ/t soybeans] Soybeans (1000) Air (204) Soy meal (750) Live steam (119) Biodiesel (173) Methanol (33) NaOH (14) Global Glycerol 92% (19) 30% NaOCH3 (16) HCl (12) Water (4.3) Citric acid (0.2] Fig. S2 summarizes the material and energy flows of A100–A600.

0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. Stream 100 101 102 103 104 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 Temperature (◦C) 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 25. Table S5 Complete stream table results of A100 for the base case conditions.0079 1.0000 0.3 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 101 15 15 101 101 101 101 431 101 101 15 −1 Mole flow (kmol h ) 3907 8.6216 0.7 104132 6547 97585 97585 90157 7428 2311 227.0 65.9 −1 Mass flow (kg h ) 104957 825.0000 0.0000 0.5825 0.8 123.0000 0.0796 0.0 65.1938 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6689 0.1613 1.3 67.0000 0.0000 0.0982 1.0000 0.0000 0.0 65.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0746 0.0000 Air 0.1050 0.0000 0.0000 Soy meal 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6216 0.1816 0.0000 Soy hulls 0.0 65.0740 0.0000 0.2086 0.766 3898 363.6847 0.1050 0.1600 0.0 25.0000 Trash 0.0000 0.0920 0.2135 0.0474 0.0 74.0 74.0095 0.0796 0.1938 0.4 3535 3535 3219 315.5779 0.0148 0.839 3103 3103 486.1802 0.9744 Soy oil 0.2135 0.0000 0.0080 0.1130 0.0000 0.0098 0.0256 .0000 0.0000 0.0 88073 88073 8857 Vapor fraction 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 S7 Mass fraction H2O 0.5 7.0000 0.9018 0.0920 0.0 65.0000 0.0 63.0000 0.6847 0.9299 0.0098 0.0000 0.

1943 0. Table S6 Complete stream table results of A200 for the base case conditions.0000 0.0000 0.0120 0.0000 114 ppm H2O 0.0000 0.0098 0.6 21184 11082 8271 72014 92737 1876 7464 26072 Vapor fraction 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 Mass fraction Hexane 0.0000 0.0 212.0100 334 ppm 652 ppm 0.5 412.1 103.0000 0.0 40.6503 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 25.7935 0.0000 0.0014 Soy meal 0.1286 Soy oil 0.0474 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Soy hulls 0.9 727.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7 615.9997 0.0000 0.1965 0.0000 0.9841 0.0 40.0000 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 81 ppm 1.0000 0.7532 0.0000 0.0384 0.0000 0. Stream 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 Temperature (◦C) 63.0000 0.0 Pressure (kPa) 101 63 63 40 431 40 1101 101 101 101 101 −1 Mole flow (kmol h ) 3453 274.0000 0.0000 0.1196 1.0000 0.7711 Soy hulls 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.71 315.9 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 88073 84824 124.0000 129 ppm 0.1385 0.2 98.2135 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 414.0000 Soy meal 0.0000 0.0000 1.7389 0.0 212.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0148 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8 3355 104.0000 78 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 25.6 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 431 431 1101 101 101 101 1101 1101 73 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 3103 985.0000 0.8491 0.0 169.0 71.0000 0.0000 0.6847 0.0000 0.1034 Soy oil 0.0000 0.0876 1.0000 69 ppm .0000 S8 Air 0.8 412.0000 0.0000 0.0 49.8678 0.0121 0.0000 1.0 40.0113 0.303 731.2611 0.0384 0.8966 H2O 0.0000 0.0000 0.7532 0.0000 0.0 103.0 212.0 49.4 3094 96.2529 0.0000 0.0000 0.0159 0.9299 0.0000 Stream 212 213 214 215 216 217 219 220 221 222 223 Temperature (◦C) 117.6 40.0 65.0000 0.0000 0.9320 1.1 3179 811.0093 0.0124 0.9900 0.0000 0.0 212.0000 0.0987 Air 0.0000 0.0080 0.0000 0.0920 187 ppm 0.0000 0.0674 0.0000 0.0120 0.99 638.0 49.0000 0.0000 1.2 4.3 420.0000 0.0000 0.5 3507 −1 Mass flow (kg h ) 76004 4977 71027 22591 21060 69496 1742 7428 9170 9170 78666 Vapor fraction 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 Mass fraction Hexane 969 ppm 0.1965 0.3 49.

0000 0.9585 0.1 42.0159 0.0000 0.50 1186 984.1 40.0000 0.8 50.0000 0.0000 0.0233 0.0 825.0000 0.0330 Soy oil 0.0000 0.0 50.0000 0. Stream 300 301 302 303 304 305 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 ◦ Temperature ( C) 71.8 723.99 100.0 43.9960 0.2 753.4 20.0270 0.4 119.0000 0.0 35.0000 Mineral oil 0.3 109.6450 0.0000 0.04 3.0000 0.0000 0. Table S7 Complete stream table results of A300 for the base case conditions.9841 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6408 0.449 4.0034 0.0000 0.0084 0.3451 1.0000 0.0 49.0000 0.0083 0.0000 0.441 4.9669 H2O 0.5 136.0000 0.6410 0.722 715.0000 0.0000 0.0 165.9557 39 ppm 0.0000 0.8 34.0000 0.3591 0.9 1221 88383 84740 3643 180.0000 0.0000 0.2 113.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7 26.716 48.389 11.0000 Air 0.2 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 701 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 7.7389 1.0000 0.58 47.3 256.6451 0.5 78.0000 0.02 48.9995 0.9 49.9995 0.3 Pressure (kPa) 73 101 40 40 40 40 1101 63 75 101 72 72 101 101 101 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 420.0000 0.2 753.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8 502.563 3.8 119.0000 0.0 92.0000 0.1 419.8966 0.0000 0.1 753.2 202.7 29.0454 0.9123 0.9802 83 ppm 0.0000 0.6549 0.9767 0.0000 Air 0.3281 48 ppm 78 ppm 81 ppm 9 ppm 157 ppm 0.3280 111 ppm 78 ppm S9 Mineral oil 0.0000 0.0000 0.9995 0.0000 .0000 0.2821 38 ppm 38 ppm 38 ppm 0.0 104.0000 0.1 1220 18878 8271 7141 27203 60159 380.0000 1.563 4.0414 187 ppm 1.0000 0.6 40.0000 0.0000 H2O 0.1 40.0184 6 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.2611 0.2 825.0000 Soy oil 0.0000 0.1034 0.6 55.0876 38 ppm 0.0000 0.563 10.22 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 379.0270 0.8 184.0000 0.9 638.0 Vapor fraction 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.2 184.0000 0.7 49.1 41.0876 0.3590 541 ppm 0.0000 Stream 318 319 320 321 322 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 ◦ Temperature ( C) 40.0872 0.4 7.0 0 0 1 Mass fraction Hexane 0.9 119.0 12.0000 0.2 2.0000 0.9123 0.0000 0.9916 0.9362 0.0000 0.0000 83 ppm 269 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0198 87 ppm 432 ppm 87 ppm 0.6 49.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000 0.8 127.563 3.2 49.0 11.0000 0.9997 21 ppm 0.389 3.7177 432 ppm 432 ppm 432 ppm 1.3 753.10 98.9128 0.0000 0.0000 0.7 1135 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 26072 72014 43305 28709 9458 19251 847.0442 0.50 25.2 59779 86982 Vapor fraction 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Mass fraction Hexane 0.0000 0.9995 0.9894 0.

0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0034 0.8 1050 18335 484.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 α-Tocopherol 209 ppm 0.0000 0.0 85.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5 339.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Soy oil 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Trysil 0.0000 0.88 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 18878 415.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 23 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.9453 0.0049 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Na3PO4 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Bleaching earth 0.1910 0.0000 0.0000 0.9091 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.344 22.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 5 ppm 24 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3 15.4643 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.81 26.0000 PI 0.0000 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 γ-Tocopherol 0.0051 0.0000 0.33 400.0901 232 ppm 0.0000 Citric acid 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9862 0.0000 0.0000 H3PO4 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 535 ppm 0.5172 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 Pressure (kPa) 75 101 150 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 1101 150 101 40 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 25.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0 70.0000 0.0000 0.9838 0.0000 0.0000 249 ppm 0.0000 314 ppm 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000 0.0020 0.0051 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0. Stream 401 402 403 404 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 ◦ Temperature ( C) 113.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.4 85.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 80.0000 0.0000 S10 Campesterol 852 ppm 0.63 37.0630 162 ppm 0.51 21.0 80.0000 0.3 Vapor Fraction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Mass fraction Hexane 541 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0909 0.20 22.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0110 0.0000 41 ppm 213 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0050 0.86 3.0000 0.0000 0.54 0.0000 0.76 109.34 46.0000 0.0000 108 ppm 557 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Celite 0.0000 1.0000 98 ppm 507 ppm 0.0000 0.5000 1.0000 0.9998 FFA 0.0037 0.3448 0.0000 0.0000 0.943 0.0036 0.0000 0.0000 0.7 30.0 184.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.86 27.46 11.0000 0.0000 PC 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 δ-Tocopherol 498 ppm 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.722 0.0000 0.0000 0.1895 488 ppm 0.0 411.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0052 0.0000 0.251 0.0000 0.0 25.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 Sitosterol 0.0 80.0000 0.0000 0.0000 985 ppm 0.0000 NaOH 0.0000 0.0034 0.0000 Stigmasterol 547 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 168 ppm 867 ppm 0.77 22.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0138 0.0000 0.9661 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 205 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 487 ppm 0.0000 0.0229 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.10 56.0000 0.0108 0.0000 .628 1.0 85.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016 0.0000 107 ppm 551 ppm 228 ppm H2O 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 529 ppm 0.1379 0.822 18.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000 PE 0.0000 0.0013 0. Table S8 Complete stream table results of A400 for the base case conditions.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 833 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 β-tocopherol 24 ppm 0.3 19293 92.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.

0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9986 0.0000 0.0000 FFA 0.0000 0.65 21.0000 0.0000 Trysil 0.9790 0.0424 205 ppm 205 ppm 205 ppm γ-Tocopherol 463 ppm 0.0000 147 ppm 147 ppm 0.0018 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Celite 0.0000 0.0328 640 ppm 640 ppm 640 ppm α-Tocopherol 77 ppm 208 ppm 207 ppm 0.0000 0.1075 519 ppm 519 ppm 519 ppm Citric acid 0.07 21.0000 0.9895 0.0622 0.0016 0.0 82.86 0. Stream 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 427 429 430 431 432 433 Temperature (◦C) 85.0000 0.3012 0.0000 0.0000 0.0020 0.6 184.0000 0.9895 0.0000 0.892 18209 18209 340.0033 0.0000 0.0299 0.0227 0.275 0.18 23.0 100.0000 0.0000 0.0000 NaOH 0.9477 13 ppm 13 ppm 0.0000 505 ppm 510 ppm 49 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 24 ppm 24 ppm 2 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.3516 477 ppm 474 ppm 0.0142 0.0000 0.0 99.63 20.0000 0.9967 0.1801 0.0049 32 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 302 ppm 300 ppm 2 ppm 307 ppm 0.0000 H3PO4 0.0228 0.9892 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0067 0.0000 820 ppm 0.6904 88 ppm 88 ppm 88 ppm Soy oil 0.0000 0.0061 0.0000 0.0000 510 ppm 510 ppm 2 ppm 0.0013 0.0178 86 ppm 86 ppm 86 ppm β-tocopherol 9 ppm 24 ppm 24 ppm 0.2 0.9566 0.0000 H2O 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 70 ppm 70 ppm 0.0051 0.2 131.0000 212 ppm 214 ppm 20 ppm 0.0000 0.0020 10 ppm 10 ppm 10 ppm δ-Tocopherol 183 ppm 496 ppm 493 ppm 0.0000 801 ppm 0.0 100.314 21.0000 0.0000 0.0050 0.0000 214 ppm 214 ppm 0.1 108.0000 0.0012 Stigmasterol 201 ppm 545 ppm 541 ppm 0.0030 0.4 186.0000 Na3PO4 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 49 ppm 49 ppm 0.3544 0.0020 0.9622 0.892 45.0 1 0 0 0 0 Mass fraction Hexane 3 ppm 539 ppm 536 ppm 0.0000 49 ppm 49 ppm 49 ppm Bleaching earth 0.0515 2 ppm 2 ppm 92 ppm 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 0.63 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 566.0720 0.0013 6 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.1 145.38 2.0000 0.0012 0.0000 0.0 100.0000 0.0226 18 ppm 18 ppm 2 ppm 0.0000 0.1 223.0000 0.0000 0.0000 231 ppm 70 ppm 0.0000 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 124 ppm 1 ppm 0.0016 156 ppm 0.0 18747 18856 431.0000 148 ppm 148 ppm 148 ppm PE 0.0034 0.0000 0.0000 0.35 47.0051 0.7 5.63 20.0000 0.0016 0.0000 485 ppm 147 ppm 0.52 23.0000 0.0 82.0000 0.0000 0.0020 0.0000 863 ppm 872 ppm 83 ppm 0.0000 872 ppm 872 ppm 0.0012 0.2 101 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 0.0270 0.435 20.0000 0.0051 488 ppm 774 ppm 0.0000 0.1672 227 ppm 226 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 554 ppm 560 ppm 54 ppm 0.2 0.0000 560 ppm 560 ppm 0.2 14 14 0.0000 0.0000 161 ppm 49 ppm 0.0050 0.6 99.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 100.0000 0.1 108.0000 0.5 18425 18215 209.0000 0.0000 0.0000 24 ppm 24 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.5 18077 18077 18077 Vapor Fraction 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0.0016 0.0012 0.0099 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 .0000 0.0000 71 ppm 71 ppm 71 ppm PI 0.0034 0.0000 PC 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6 Pressure (kPa) 40 150 150 5 5 108 108 0.0000 0.9967 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 0.0031 0.2701 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.07 18.0946 0.0000 0.0000 0.1170 159 ppm 158 ppm 0.0000 0. Table S9 (continuation) Complete stream table results of A400 for the base case conditions.9773 316 ppm 319 ppm 31 ppm 0.9967 Sitosterol 583 ppm 0.0361 301 ppm 301 ppm 301 ppm S11 Campesterol 312 ppm 848 ppm 843 ppm 0.

0 75.0514 547 ppm 95 ppm 0.5000 83 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9 636. Stream 501 504 505 506 507 508 509 Temperature (◦C) 25.0000 CH3OH 1.0000 0.0000 0.0 100.8 55.7 95.9990 NaOCH3 0.0039 0.0 S12 Vapor Fraction 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 Mass fraction H2O 0.9999 979 ppm NaOH 0.0000 0.87 −1 Mass flow (kg h ) 2724 1397 21334 19617 3114 18610 1007.02 73.0000 0.5000 0.9999 0.0000 0.1 Pressure (kPa) 101 304 304 101 101 101 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 85.2977 0.2 70.7 85.5 65.6979 0.0000 .9486 0.0 158.0000 0.70 665.0000 0. Table S10 Complete stream table results of A500 for the base case conditions.69 580.0000 0.

0000 NaOH 0.0 101.0000 0.0000 180 ppm 20 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0011 21 ppm 0.0000 Glycerol 0.0018 0.0000 0.0547 0.0000 0.0000 301 ppm 238 ppm 279 ppm 3 ppm 747 ppm 0.7 100.0000 299 ppm 0.0000 α−tocopherol 0.0000 841 ppm 0.0000 7 ppm 0.68 144.0000 S13 Stigmasterol 0.0000 0.0000 10 ppm 8 ppm 0.0226 0.0000 22 ppm 0.0033 0.0026 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 2495 Vapor Fraction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Mass fraction H2O 547 ppm 0.56 215.0012 939 ppm 0.0000 0.4820 0.6979 1.0000 99 ppm 0.6503 0.0000 0.0000 0.3497 938 ppm 0.0071 0.0000 0.0015 746 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0565 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 88 ppm 70 ppm 79 ppm 13 ppm 7 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 400 101 400 400 400 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 36.0000 0.0000 0. Stream 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 614 615 Temperature (◦C) 95.5 102.0000 0.0000 0.2977 0.0000 0.3574 0.0000 16 ppm 121 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0011 0.0000 6 ppm 0.0 60.0541 0.0000 0.6517 0.0000 0.3347 0.0301 0.0012 0.0011 534 ppm 0.5103 0.42 4.0016 0.0000 Sitosterol 0.6 60.0000 148 ppm 117 ppm 45 ppm 535 ppm 348 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 193 ppm 0.6 4771 18077 22848 19460 3388 6932 1135 8067 5246 2867 372.0000 459 ppm 224 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 642 ppm 2 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 52 ppm 26 ppm 0.0198 0.0000 0.0012 0.9147 0.0000 227 ppm 0.0065 0.2316 44 ppm 0.0 53.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.2510 0.0252 0.0000 640 ppm 507 ppm 592 ppm 15 ppm 0.0000 280 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0100 0.7 138.0000 0.0025 15 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 Soy oil 0.0 60.0353 0.0000 0.0917 0.7130 0.0926 0.1106 0.0028 0.0000 0.0000 0.0030 .0000 CH3OH 0.0000 49 ppm 39 ppm 15 ppm 178 ppm 116 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 60.0 20.0031 0.0000 163 ppm 0.0 145.0534 0.0000 γ−tocopherol 0.0034 0.0029 0.0194 644 ppm 0.26 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 1336 758.5 25.0000 Campesterol 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000 NaOCH3 0.0000 86 ppm 68 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0014 5 ppm 0.0000 71 ppm 56 ppm 21 ppm 254 ppm 165 ppm 0.0000 0.0062 0.0000 PE 0.0000 858 ppm 0.0000 0.0039 0.0000 0.0000 0.7114 NaCl 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 519 ppm 411 ppm 0.3491 0.1524 0.0000 0.8 60.56 277.0011 0.0689 0.0000 0.0000 PC 0.0042 0.8318 0.0789 0.0295 0.1828 HCl 0.0000 0.76 23.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0038 0.0000 β−tocopherol 0.4889 0.0174 0. Table S11 Complete stream table results of A600 for the base case conditions (continued on next page).4115 0.0000 142 ppm 0.1001 FFAs 0.0743 0.2813 0.0 60.0000 0.1134 0.0000 0.0000 0.0834 0.0000 0.0000 459 ppm 0.0 60.2695 0.0000 0.0000 0.7 226.3693 0.1 64.0000 δ−tocopherol 0.0000 0.7 25.0000 543 ppm 0.0000 0.0139 0.2 55.0000 0.164 49.0000 0.0000 0.0000 205 ppm 162 ppm 0.0000 0.1591 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 FAME 0.0000 0.9967 0.0014 0.0000 400 ppm 0.63 164.0000 62 ppm 478 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 PI 0.

710 29.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 138.0000 0.0042 0.0000 30 ppm 28 ppm 28 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.60 142.0000 0.8766 0.0000 0.17 2.0000 0.4 89.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8686 0.0000 0.2 123.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2 57.0000 3 ppm Campesterol 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.657 83.0024 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 50.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 65.0057 0.0000 0.0029 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 219 ppm NaCl 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.62 2145 471.0000 0.9987 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 NaOCH3 0.1 60. Table S12 (continued from previous page) Complete stream table results of A600 for the base case conditions (continued on next page).0 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 101 101 70 70 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 50.0013 0.0030 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 δ−tocopherol 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 PE 0.0000 0.0 25.0000 0.0032 0.0000 1.0 100.0000 0.0000 0.0000 FAME 0.9204 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.0017 0.0000 0.0000 0.9968 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.12 6.0000 0.0000 0.2093 0.6 −1 Mass flow (kg h ) 2596 20.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 0.1 40.0000 0.0 57.0000 Glycerol 0.0000 656 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.91 1.0000 .0000 11 ppm 10 ppm 10 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 60.0000 0.5652 0.0000 0.9 101.0000 0.0000 NaOH 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0089 0.0000 0.1757 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0796 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.088 35.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9968 1.0137 0.0000 0.0172 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.507 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 10 ppm α−tocopherol 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 89 ppm 230 ppm 230 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9968 0.0000 0.0000 0.08 1871 Vapor Fraction 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mass fraction H2O 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 0.0000 0.0000 0.2 2676 2570 2691 909.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2 2024 270.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1 121.0000 β−tocopherol 0.0191 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7179 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016 PC 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0012 Soy oil 0.0000 0.0000 CH3OH 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 27 ppm S14 Stigmasterol 0.9970 FFAs 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 167 ppm 0.0000 0.1234 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. Stream 616 617 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 630 631 ◦ Temperature ( C) 60.0000 0.1 97.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 γ−tocopherol 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.37 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3 149.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1314 0.0000 0.945 103.0000 0.0346 0.0 70.0000 0.0000 0.88 16.0000 Sitosterol 0.0000 0.0000 PI 0.0000 3 ppm 3 ppm 3 ppm 0.0 25.0752 0.0000 0.0000 0.0406 0.0000 HCl 0.0000 10 ppm 0.9968 0.0000 0.0000 0.1010 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 0.

0000 0.0000 0.2977 0.1 18212 3294 17961 250.0 61.0000 120 ppm 0.0000 δ−tocopherol 0.0000 0.0000 204 ppm 0.0 60.0000 NaOH 0.6979 0.0000 0.02 47.0000 0.0000 Campesterol 0.0000 49 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 636 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 HCl 0.0000 0.3461 0.0121 0.8433 0.0000 0.5 60.0000 0.8 144.9852 0.0000 0.0081 0.0000 0. Table S13 (continued from previous page) Complete stream table results of A600 for the base case conditions.35 18187 1723 Vapor Fraction 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Mass fraction H2O 547 ppm 21 ppm 21 ppm 0.0438 0.0000 111 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 FAME 0.0000 0.0165 0.0000 PE 0.0000 0.0707 0.6 63.0000 0.0000 0.20 11.0000 299 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 71 ppm 0.0000 0.0032 0.6476 0.0000 70 ppm 0.0121 0.0000 0.0039 NaOCH3 0.5 Pressure (kPa) 101 101 400 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 12 12 101 Mole flow (kmol h−1 ) 1.0000 0.0000 45 ppm 45 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7475 0.0000 32 ppm 0.0000 0.8 91.0015 299 ppm 0.0122 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 60 ppm 0.2509 22 ppm 547 ppm FFAs 0.0000 γ−tocopherol 0.0000 299 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 13 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 86 ppm 0.0 25.0012 0.0000 15 ppm 15 ppm 0.0000 NaCl 0.0000 0.0099 0.91 150.6 5.690 62.0000 0.0020 0.0012 0.0000 79 ppm 79 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 15 ppm 181 ppm 15 ppm 0.0099 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016 0.71 1.0000 0.0000 87 ppm 0.0000 Sitosterol 0.0000 0.0814 0.6 101.0000 PI 0.0000 148 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.9891 0.0923 0.0206 0.0715 0.0000 168 ppm 147 ppm 0.0039 12 ppm 12 ppm 0.0 61.1 61.0012 0.66 19516 19516 119.0000 0.0011 0.5264 619 ppm 0.0000 0.7 61.0000 Glycerol 0.0000 56 ppm 49 ppm 0.0057 0.0000 515 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 10 ppm 0.0000 86 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 21 ppm 21 ppm 0.0000 S15 Stigmasterol 0.5487 646 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 10 ppm 0.3724 72 ppm 0.0000 0.823 73.0000 0.0092 0.0000 0.0099 0.0000 0.0000 591 ppm 591 ppm 0.0124 0.0000 5 ppm 60 ppm 5 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 0.8295 0.3524 3 ppm 327 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 85 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 203 ppm 0.0000 87 ppm 0.0100 0.9755 0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0031 634 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 .0000 0.0000 0.2977 CH3OH 0.0000 α−tocopherol 0.0000 0.0000 516 ppm 0.0000 279 ppm 279 ppm 0.0034 0.0616 0.0000 0. Stream 632 633 634 635 637 638 639 640 641 642 644 645 646 Temperature (◦C) 95.0665 256 ppm 96 ppm 257 ppm 0.9129 0.0000 0.0000 211 ppm 319 ppm 0.0000 0.0000 80 ppm 70 ppm 0.0000 Soy oil 0.0153 0.9 61.10 138.0000 β−tocopherol 0.40 Mass flow (kg h−1 ) 55.0000 85 ppm 0.6979 PC 0.0000 15 ppm 0.9828 0.0000 634 ppm 0.9 60.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3 95.532 101.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.4 3544 18232 45.0000 0.0000 0.9 60.0020 0.0000 7 ppm 86 ppm 7 ppm 0.0000 112 ppm 0.0000 0.

90 40.82 127. Electricitya Natural gasa LP steama Equipment MJ/tb MJ/tb MJ/tb CLEANER 14.06 HTOASTER 0.32 COOLER 9. S16 .3 a Calculated from Sheehan et al.9 1114 173.07 173.33 DRY-101 55.26 Total 147.00 48. Table S15 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A200.80 1114 TEMPERIN 0.30 78. [2].97 HGRINDER 19.99 DRY-201 2.50 CONDITIO 4.44 Total 84.3 FLAKING 50.96 DTS-201 14.00 CRACKER 14.3 40.C. Electricitya LP steam MP steam Equipment MJ/tb MJ/tb MJ/tb EXTRATOR 12. Detailed utilities consumption per processing area Table S14 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A100.90 DEHULLER 8. [2].99 a Calculated from Sheehan et al.14 GRINDING 26.

687 COND-305 21.225 a Calculated from Sheehan et al.901 D-301 0. [2].13 COND-306 0.12 COND-302 30.672 H-304 0. Electricitya LP steam Cooling water Chilling water Equipment (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) E-301 0.540 43.0 COND-304 4.540 E-302 0. S17 .86 H-303 0.7 1.09 H-301 23.368 78.324 H-305 0.28 COND-303 200.90 256.830 H-306 11.288 Total 1.Table S16 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A300.

31 0 D-502 0 143.8 S18 .09 32.21 244.59 Total 24. Electricity LP steam Cooling water Equipment (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) H-501 0 26.625 H-403 0.068 24.467 DRY-401 10.Table S17 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A400.30 15.90 a Calculated from Santos [6].74 H-408 16.404 0 D-501 0 73. Table S18 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A500.13 16.4 161.21 0 0 Total 24.13 0 H-502 0 1.43 H-402 0.3 161.109 H-404 5. Electricitya LP steam HP steam Cooling water Equipment (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) H-401 14.09 H-405 15.8 C-501 24.30 COND-D401 1.

410 18.281 H-605 4. S19 . Equipment Electricitya LP steam MP steam Cooling water (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) (MJ/tb) H-601 0.292 D-601 77.86 H-610 4.18 102. [2].5 a Calculated from Sheehan et al.10 95.0 182.47 H-604 2.92 H-608 3.809 COND-601 0.486 H-607 10.78 D-603 3.03 43.025 D-604 21.03 H-609 39.578 H-602 28.79 D-602 16.25 H-603 10.19 Total 18.Table S19 Utilities consumption for each unit operation in A600.796 H-606 5.672 COND-602 2.

D. Process flow diagram of soybeans preparation area (A100) as simulated in Aspen Plus® . S3. Aspen Plus process flowsheet diagrams 108 HULLS(OUT) 103 113 VENT2ATM(OUT) CLEANER TEMPERIN SOYBEANS(IN) 102 104 SEP DRY-101 109 105 CONDITIO 106 107 111 112 FLAKES(OUT) MIXER SEP SEP HEATER CRACKER DEHULLER FLAKING 101 TRASH(OUT) AIR100(IN) 110 Fig. S20 .

. 206 VENTS(OUT) FLAKES(IN) 201 EXTRATOR HEXANE(IN) 202 207 MISCELLA(OUT) SEP 211 DTVAPOR(OUT) 208 DTS-201 AIR200(IN) 204 209 213(OUT) MPSTE200(IN) 205 210 215(OUT) 212 S21 214 217 218 MEAL(OUT) MIXER GRINDING DRY-201 COOLER 216 222 219 221 HULLS(IN) 220 MIXER HEATER HGRINDER HTOASTER Fig. S4. PFD of solvent extraction and soy meal preparation (A200) as simulated in Aspen Plus® .

S5. 325 AIROUT(OUT) LPSTE300(IN) 333 329 318 332 COND-304 COND-306 H-304 HEXRECY(OUT) 321 331 STRIPPER ABSORBER H-306 314 317 F-303 323 H-303 311 313 F-302 327 COND-302 P-304 F-304 326 H-305 319 328 P-302 315 VENTS(IN) 310 F-301 H-302 DEC-301 330 316 320 312 COND303 324 COND-305 S22 P-301 308 322 WASTE300(OUT) 302 306 D-301 MISCELLA(IN) 301 303 305 E-301 H-301 P-303 Q-301 E-302 S-301 COND-301 309 SOYOIL(OUT) SEP 300 MPSTE300(IN) 307 Fig. Process flow diagram of miscella distillation (A300). .

. Process flow diagram of soy oil refining (A400) as simulated in Aspen Plus® . S6. 416 416(OUT) DRY-401 417 LECITHIN(OUT) 420 420(OUT) 414 401 424 424(OUT) H-401 P-401 429 429(OUT) H3PO4(IN) 402 R-401 TK-401 428 430 DEODEST(OUT) H-402 BLEACH 403 F-401 H-408 D-401 415 418 419 432 427 NAOH400(IN) 404 S23 H-405 H-403 R-402 CENT-401 422 425 426 405 421 H-406 H-407 431 H-404 CITRIC(IN) 406 408 WATER400(IN) 407 CELITE(IN) 409 P-402 FILTRATE TRYSIL(IN) 410 412 433 RESOYOIL(OUT) EARTH(IN) 411 423 FILTCAKE(OUT) MPSTE400(IN) 413 Fig.

S7. S24 . Process flow diagram of sodium methoxide manufacture (A500) as simulated in Aspen Plus® . 508 MEOH500(IN) 501 502 H-501 510 D-502 506 C-501 509 WASTE500(OUT) 505 503 504 D-501 NAOH500(IN) H-502 P-502 507 NAOCH3(OUT) Fig.

. Process flow diagram of biodiesel production (A600) as simulated in Aspen Plus® . WATER600(IN) 630 629 628 W ASTE600(OUT) H-604 NAOCH3(IN) 646 NAOCHPR(OUT) 644 631 HCL600A(IN) 635 637 639 642 D-604 H-607 601 CENT-603 632 P-608 BDIESEL(OUT) LEXT-601 645 H-609 640 P-609 R-601 633 636 H-606 603 634 638 MEOHA600(IN) 602 TK-601 623 H-601 R-602 606 P-601 DEC-601 P-607 605 627 RESOYOIL(IN) 604 H-602 641 P-602 CENT-602 621 625 607 P-605 COND-602 608 S25 TK-602 P-603 611 D-602 614 624 610 HCL600B(IN) 609 H-603 626 D-601 CENT-604 612 613 615 616 COND-601 618 619 H-605 D-603 CENT-601 H-608 NAOH600(IN) 617 P-604 GLYCEROL(OUT) TK-603 622 H-610 P-606 620 NACL(OUT) Fig. S8.

19 $28. 254 ◦C) 17.06/(kW h) Cooling tower water 0.43 $0. together with the prices of products are presented in Table S20. 184 C) 14.440 V) 16.70 $29. by-products and utilities unitary costs. Solid or liquid. In Tables S21–S26 are tabulated the bare module costs of each equipment unit. Nonhazardous.80 $0. S26 . 160 ◦C)b 13.354 $14.97 /1000 kg Electricity (110 . Raw materials [7] Cost ($ t−1 ) By-products [7] Price ($ t−1 ) Soybeans 380 Meal 527 Hexane 1500 Sodium methoxide (30 wt %) 890 Celite 797 Glycerol 92 % 1200 Earth bleaching 618 Filtration cake 167 ® Trysil 2287 SODD 3650 Citric acid (50 wt %) 425 Sodium chloride 10 Phosphoric acid (37 wt %) 366 Lecithin 1000 Methanol 342 Sodium hydroxide (50 wt %) 378 Hydrochloric acid 261 Degummed soy oil 650 Utility [8] Cost ($ GJ−1 ) Cost ($/common unit) Low pressure stream (5 barg.E. Economic analysis The nominal costs of raw materials and of utilities. Table S20 Raw materials. the total and grassroots total costs for each processing area.28 $27.185 /1000 kg b Waste disposal $36 /t a b With credit for power.80 /1000 m3 Refrigeration (5 ◦C) 4.31 /1000 kg High pressure stream (41 barg.70 /1000 kg ◦ a Medium pressure stream (10 barg.

i /($K) 771 CTM /($K) 2800 CGR /($K) 3186 Table S22 Equipment units and capital costs in A200. CP0 CBM Equipment ($K) ($K) Extractor 1075 1075 DTS-201 1218 1218 DRY-201 Cooler Grinding 111 111 Hulls toaster 52 52 Hulls grinder 23 23 P i CBM.Table S21 Equipment units and capital costs in A100.i /($K) 2480 CTM /($K) 8997 CGR /($K) 10240 S27 . CP0 CBM Equipment ($K) ($K) Cleaner 140 140 DRY-101 13 13 Cracker 174 174 Dehuller 29 29 Conditioner 55 55 Flaking 361 361 P i CBM.

1 4 14 P i CBM.71 4 14 H-303 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 11.64 1.9 27 89 COND-302 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 66.66 0.52 15 59 F-302 Vertical Carbon Steel 5.6 4 14 P-302 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 2.74 0.i /($K) 3097 CTM /($K) 3654 CGR /($K) 5204 a Materials of construction.71 0.66 0.83 21 87 F-303 Vertical Carbon Steel 3.1 32 104 COND-303 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 706.Table S23 Equipment units and capital costs in A300.57 1.9 28 92 H-304 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 3.0 43 143 COND-306 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 8.2 27 87 COND-305 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 142.27 4 15 F-301 Vertical Carbon Steel 4.72 meters of Ceramic Carbon Steel 5.66 7 27 ABSORBER 2.91 7 29 F-304 Vertical Carbon Steel 3.59 4 12 H-306 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 14.1 meters of 304 Stainless Carbon Steel 6. S28 .1 4 15 P-303 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 2.6 141 410 H-301 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 34.31 4 15 DEC-301 Horizontal Carbon Steel 6.0 143 470 COND-304 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 21.97 5 15 H-305 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 1.69 meters of 304 Stainless Carbon Steel 5.2 27 90 H-302 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 2.91 7 29 P-301 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 0.10 1.3 4 16 P-304 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 0. Power Length Diameter Area CP0 CBM Equipment Type MOCa (kW) (m) (m) (m2 ) ($K) ($K) E-301 Long Tube Evaporator Carbon Steel 137 403 1169 E-302 Short Tube Evaporator Carbon Steel 22.98 22 67 STRIPPER 1.55 5 17 D-301 1.11 0.

83 86 344 R-402 Jacketed Agitated 6.91 7 22 TK-401 Vertical Carbon Steel 9.55 2.30 31 103 H-407 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 69.10 1. Power Length Diameter Area CP0 CBM Equipment Type MOCa (kW) (m) (m) (m2 ) ($K) ($K) H-401 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 41.66 1.52 67 266 DRUM-D401 Horizontal Carbon Steel 2.88 3 11 H-403 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 0.29 meters of 304 Stainless Carbon Steel 10.86 1.52 11 34 DRY-401 Vertical Carbon Steel 3.55 2.07 8 38 F-401 Vertical Carbon Steel 6.90 32 106 H-408 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 27.00 27 96 COND-D401 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 1.13 72 295 P i CBM.40 3.65 4 12 BLEACH Vertical Carbon Steel 6.13 30 135 FILTRATE 67 67 P-401 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 4.61 65 102 D-401 6.Table S24 Equipment units and capital costs in A400.60 27 90 H-406 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 64.i /($K) 2014 CTM /($K) 2539 CGR /($K) 3523 a Materials of construction.13 30 135 CENT-401 Carbon Steel 0.15 3 11 H-404 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 9.4 4 18 P-402 Centrifugal Carbon Steel 6.70 28 93 H-402 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 0.7 5 20 R-401 Jacketed Agitated 6.42 5 18 H-405 Floating Head Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 33. S29 .74 0.31 0.

829 164 544 D-502 43 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays Stainless Steel 29.Table S25 Equipment units and capital costs in A500.3 meters of 304 Stainless Stainless Steel 19.87 2.067 8 49 P i CBM. Sheet.i /($K) 5486 CTM /($K) 6468 CGR /($K) 7994 a Materials of construction.438 315 1370 DRUM-D502 Stainless Steel 3.51 1.Totally enclosed 873 153 230 REB-D501 Fixed. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 993. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 457.0 69 318 COND-D502 Fixed. Sheet. Power Length Diameter Area CP0 CBM Equipment Type MOCa (kW) (m) (m) (m2 ) ($K) ($K) C-501 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 873 366 2100 DRIV-501 Electric .048 1. S30 .0 111 515 H-501 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 51.0 42 193 REB-D502 Fixed.5 4 13 P-501 Centrifugal Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 0.1 29 136 H-502 Double Pipe Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 2. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 166. Sheet.17 4 18 D-501 15.

1 4 18 P i CBM.52 110 487 D-603 3 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays Stainless Steel 5.61 22 34 CENT-604 Solid Bowl 0.0 4 18 P-604 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 0.33 37 47 REB-D601 Fixed. Power Length Diameter Area CP0 CBM Equipment Type MOCa (kW) (m) (m) (m2 ) ($K) ($K) CENT-601 Solid Bowl 0.76 6 45 TK-603 Vertical Stainless Steel 2. Sheet.08 1.3 4 18 P-609 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 1.3 7 37 P-603 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 0.61 4 34 R-601 Jacketed Agitated 6. Sheet.44 116 466 R-602 Jacketed Agitated 6. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 192 44 208 REB-D602 Fixed.90 0.27 1.33 37 47 CENT-602 Solid Bowl 0.46 8 51 D-604 5 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays Stainless Steel 6.07 9 72 TK-602 Vertical Stainless Steel 3.49 0.88 3.83 66 359 D-602 32 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays Stainless Steel 23.i /($K) 4861 CTM /($K) 5735 CGR /($K) 7471 a Materials of construction.91 6 37 DEC-601 Horizontal Stainless Steel 6. Sheet.16 1.18 33 42 CENT-603 Centrifugal 0.82 1.71 0.0 4 18 P-606 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 0.31 47 193 DRUM-D602 Horizontal Stainless Steel 2.37 14 99 TK-601 Vertical Stainless Steel 4.51 0.97 1. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 49 28 128 REB-D603 Fixed.Table S26 Equipment units and capital costs in A600.1 4 18 P-608 Centrifugal Stainless Steel -0.76 14 98 LEXT-601 Washing column Stainless Steel 10.1 4 18 P-607 Centrifugal Stainless Steel -1. or U-Tube Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 16 23 107 REB-D604 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 55 30 140 COND-601 Double Pipe Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 4 5 21 COND-602 Double Pipe Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 7 5 23 COND-D602 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 466 98 454 H-601 Double Pipe Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 7 5 23 H-602 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 79 34 155 H-603 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 24 27 123 H-604 Double Pipe Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 3 4 20 H-605 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 13 28 128 H-606 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 42 28 131 H-607 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 23 27 123 H-608 Double Pipe Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 8 5 24 H-609 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 193 52 239 H-610 Floating Head Stainless Steel / Carbon Steel 20 27 123 D-601 12 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays Stainless Steel 10.13 100 401 P-601 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 1.6 4 18 P-602 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 19.13 0. S31 .26 3.0 4 18 P-605 Centrifugal Stainless Steel 0.

Total annual cost index versus heat exchanger minimum ∆T.230 0.5 ◦C. Heat integration Fig. S10 represents the reference base design of the heat exchangers network in A100–A600. while the re- designed process flow diagrams of A300 and A400 are shown in Fig. S9 shows the variation of the total cost with ∆Tmin . Finally. S9.220 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 ΔTmin (ºC) Fig.2 of the Manuscript). G. Process Integration Table S27 presents the manufacturing costs and revenues for the areas A100– A600 in the integrated design (Section 6.225 0. respectively. Fig. 0. F. Fig. S12 and Fig. S13. S11 represents the suggested design for the integrated heat exchanger network in A100–A600.235 Total cost index (cost/time) 0. where it can be observed that the optimal ∆Tmin is approximately 6. S32 .

507 91.625 40.604_To_A600.0 C 119.612_To_A600.1 GJ/h A600.303 49.4 C 35.9 C LP Steam Fig.5 GJ/h A400.419B 95. Reference base design of the heat exchangers network in A100–A600.0 C A600.9 C 158.5 GJ/h 0.9 C 34.5 GJ/h A600.502 59.9 C 183.7 GJ/h 0.DTS-201 115.1 C 123.1 C 99.304A_To_A300.TK-602_heat 40.645A 60.DTS-201_TO_A200.0 C 43.0 C To Condenser@A500.1 C 99.7 C 1.7 GJ/h 184.2 GJ/h A400.4 C 0.8 C 34.0 GJ/h A600.1 C 158.8 C 0.8 C 59.3 C 36.321 253.5 GJ/h 1.3 C A300.2 GJ/h 3.0 GJ/h 1.301_To_A300.9 GJ/h H3@A200.6 C158.308_To_A300.622A 90.402_To_A400.0 C 60.0 C 49.4 GJ/h A300.4 C 145.2 GJ/h 0.6 GJ/h 1.3 C 34.405_To_A400.0 C 67.642_To_A600.4 GJ/h 8.612 138.0 C 99.D-602_TO_A600.8 C 183.404A 70.5 C 63.3 C 36.311_To_A300.5 C 50.321A_To_A300.3 GJ/h 0.0 C 0.5 C 65.2 GJ/h 0.0 C A600.0 C 0.D-502_TO_A500.1 C 158.7 C 183.330_To_A300.2 GJ/h A300.0 C 29.2 GJ/h 21.D-502_TO_A500.0 C 9.6 GJ/h A300.7 GJ/h A400.1 GJ/h 0.9 GJ/h 36.D-603_TO_A600.318_To_A300.D-501_TO_A500.326_To_A300.8 C 158.1 C 60.300A 60.0 C 0.DTS-201 115.6 C 116.8 C 158.0 C 158.1 GJ/h 0.DTS-201 101.8 C 144.5 GJ/h 3.0 C 65.6 GJ/h 185.603 64.3 C To Condenser@A600.0 GJ/h Refrigerant 1 -20.504 70.627A 40.626 100.8 C A600.8 C 158.610A_To_A600.645_To_A600.5 C 101.404_To_A400.1 C 158.TK-601_heat 59.3 C 114.9 C 1.0 C 40.0 C 223.0 C 104.619_To_A600.0 GJ/h 77.0 C A600.643 85.1 C A300.1 C 184.D-604_TO_A600.3 C 145.6 C 115.332 40.622 119.610 55.0 C 25.509 100.8 C 32.9 C A300.0 C 0.0 C 0.7 C 61.9 C 75.8 C 34.631 70.300_To_A300.7 C A300.318A 1.9 C 32.0 C 45.8 C 34.433 57.604B 40.0 C 57.6 C 35.401_To_A400.8 C A300.627_To_A600.0 C 97.0 C 138.0 C 1.0 C 35.0 GJ/h 10.425_To_A400.5 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600. S10.8 C 0.D-602_TO_A600.1 GJ/h7.2 GJ/h 4.0 C 30.6 C A600.8 C A600.328A 100.1 C A600.212 116.0 C 82.0 C 5.3 C 138.0 C 30.304C 60.303A 49.419_To_A400.0 C 2.1 C 183.6 C 2.3 C 92.7 C 35.R-602_heat 59.0 C A400.1 GJ/h 0.0 C 18.8 C A600.0 C 12.9 C 0.5 C 115.5 C 2.E-302_heat 118.0 C 123.8 C 158.508 64.2 C 0.308B 70.1 C 143.7 GJ/h 0.0 C 0.3 C To Reboiler@A600.0 C 3.0 GJ/h 0.0 C A300.329_To_A300.0 C 25.5 C 60.5 C 68.4 C A600.621_To… 40. 0.4 C A300.431_To_A400.1 GJ/h 2.3 GJ/h To Reboiler@A500.429 1.8 C 34.1 C 116.5 GJ/h A600.5 GJ/h 0.3 C 108.3 GJ/h 71.613 40.3 C 252.0 C Refrigerant 2 224.0 C A600.428 144.2 GJ/h A500.0 C 92.401B 0.622_To_A600.3 C 184.0 GJ/h To Reboiler@A500.D-601_TO_A600.3 C 0.4 GJ/h A400.5 C 60.1 C 1.501_To_A500.3 C 36.8 C158.9 C 32.644A 60.645 104.2 C 158.DTS-201 114.9 GJ/h S33 H4@A200.9 C MP Steam 157.0 C -19.1 C To Condenser@A400.7 C Cooling Water 15.0 C 113.0 C 91.3 C 0.8 C 0.0 C 138.0 C 158.5 GJ/h 21.0 C A600.0 C 49.6 C 52.0 C 158.4 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600.644_To_A600.0 C 0.9 C 183.6 C A400.3 C 36.8 C 35.TK-603_heat 15.5 GJ/h A500.8 C 31.1 C A300.631A_To_A600.311A 20.8 C 158.1 C 4.0 C 70.329A 85.1 C A300.619A 117.0 C 39.7 C 183.D-401_TO_A400.9 GJ/h To Reboiler@A200.6 C 225.1 GJ/h A400.8 C 183.9 GJ/h H2@A200. .NAOH500_To_A500.0 C 25.2 GJ/h H1@A200.402A 65.2 C A600.1 C HP Steam 158.9 C 32.405A 75.303_To_A300.6 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600.603B_To_A600.0 C 158.

18FCIL 7020 48.3 Glycerol 19428 134 Filtrate cake 280 1.0 Product Annual revenue ($K) Revenue ($/t of Biodiesel) Meal 331867 2281 NaOCH3 12267 84.23CRM 421087 2894 1.93 LP steam∗ 41 0.28 Trysil® 1036 7.26 H3PO4 1216 8.12 Citric acid 39 0.3 Soy lecithin 4528 31 Biodiesela 116053 797.1 Celite 96 0.23CUT 29397 202 1.3 2. Live steam.23CWT 1796 12.3 0. S34 .Table S27 Manufacturing costs and revenues for A100–A600 integrated.4 HCl 2619 18.15 Hexane 1008 6.36 Methanol 9526 65.3 COMd 473462 3254 Rvn 488302 3356 ATCF (no depreciation) 8607 DPBP (years) 4.5 NaOH 4566 31.66 Earth bleaching 187 1.4 NaCl 38 0.28 ∗ MP steam 2779 19. Raw materials Annual cost ($K) Cost ($/t of Biodiesel) Soybeans 319069 2193 Air 167 1.7 1.5 ROROI (%) 16 a ∗ Break-even price.76COL 14162 97.92 SODD 3841 26.

1 C 118.0 C A300.415_To_A400.5 GJ/h A400.4 GJ/h 1.603 15.9 GJ/h H2@A200.2 GJ/h 0.4 C 0.4 GJ/h 0.304 0.0 C A300.6 C 68.0 C -19.DTS-201_TO_A200.0 GJ/h 0.404A 25.5 C A600.3 GJ/h 71.0 C 138.6 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600.6 C 35.415B 60.5 GJ/h A600.645 138.0 C 75.1 C 49.0 C A500.0 C 12.0 C 65.8 C A600.7 GJ/h 85.621_To_… 1.603B_To_A600. Design of the heat exchangers network in A100–A600 integrated.610 101.2 C 0.7 C 78.0 C 123.311_To_A300.3 GJ/h 1.0 C 55.7 C 25.1 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600.4 C 223.2 GJ/h 25.8 C A300.9 GJ/h H3@A200.8 C 138.0 C 158.5 GJ/h A400.2 C 40.507A 61.301_To_A300.9 C 0. .0 C A400.300_To_A300.0 C 104.1 C 123.4 GJ/h A300.D-502B_To_A500.6 C 34.0 C A600.2 GJ/h 96.5 GJ/h 100.1 C 85.408 100.5 C 119.1 C 99.329_To_A300.3 C 77.0 C A600.1 GJ/h H1@A200.6 C 0.0 C A300.4 C 60.308B 0.1 C S35 4.4 GJ/h A400.6 C 145.405A 25.0 C A600.7 C 15.6 C 32.0 C A600.643 70.4 C 92.0 C To Reboiler@A500.0 C 45.5 C 60.0 C A300.3 C 8.9 GJ/h To Reboiler@A200.4 GJ/h To Reboiler@A600.9 C 183.BDIESEL 60.509_To_A500.1 C 116.405_To_A400.1 C 40.7 C 95.1 C 32.6 C 158.645_To_A600.DTS-201 115.0 C A600.5 C 35.0 C 70.304A_To_A300.0 C A400.6 C 9.5 C 60.321 253.4 C A300.5 GJ/h 0.308_To_A300.303A 49.613 0.5 C 68.644_To_A600.9 C 183.3 C 114.1 GJ/h 1.509 43.0 C A500.0 C Refrigerant 2 224.9 C 49.1 C A300.4 C 0.0 C 5.0 C 70.8 C 104.TK-603_heat 60.0 C A500.9 C A400.0 C 65.6 C 52.0 C 53.3 C 108.612_To_A600.304D_To_A300.5 C 60.0 C A300.3 C 35.2 GJ/h 1.TK-601_heat 59.8 C 54.431_To_A600.8 C 35.2 GJ/h 0.311A 20.0 C A500.303 43. S11.0 C A400.7 C To Reboiler@A500.303_To_A300.2 C 107.1 C 1.0 C 49.D-603_TO_A600.6 GJ/h 2.428 145.TK-602_heat 40.0 C A400.1 GJ/h 0.D-604_To_A600.5 GJ/h 110.1 C 143.5 C 100.6 C 184.1 C To Condenser@A400.8 C 34.0 C Refrigerant 1 -20.NAOH500_To_A500.1 GJ/h 0.1 C 1.3 GJ/h 35.5 C 40.8 C 183.1 C A300.408A_To_A400.D-401_TO_A400.6 C 1.9 GJ/h H4@A200.404_To_A400.3 C 184.6 C 225.326_To_A300.2 GJ/h 137.622 119.4 GJ/h 3.507 40.1 C 158.7 GJ/h 1.0 C To_Condenser@A500.R-602_heat 59.0 C 0.8 C 50.0 C A600.6 C 116.7 GJ/h 0.3 GJ/h 0.2 GJ/h 95.0 C 91.8 C 115.6 GJ/h 0.318_To_A300.4 C 35.0 C 32.0 C 91.504 30.0 C 40.300A 64.642_To_A600.0 C 99.0 C A600.D-501_TO_A500.0 C 83.304C 40.212 116.604B 1.4 C 79.7 C 34.8 C A300.DTS-201 115.9 C 71.D-601_TO_A600.318A 184.429 1.8 C A600.321A_To_A300.508A 59.9 C A300.9 C LP Steam Fig.6 C A600.2 GJ/h 119.5 C A600.610A_To_A600.502 62.WASTE 0.0 C 64.5 C 17.402A 65.2 C 92.332 0.5 GJ/h 0.401B 0.7 GJ/h 2.1 C 158.401_To_A400.3 C 144.619_To_A600.7 GJ/h 185.0 GJ/h 0.1 GJ/h 0.402_To_A400.5 C 115.4 C A400.622_To_A600.0 GJ/h Cooling Water 7.330_To_A300.1 GJ/h 84.3 C 252.4 C 35.9 C MP Steam 157.1 C 158.0 C 30.425_To_A400.6 C 34.2 C 67.8 C 183.328A 100.0 C 29.1 C 183.7 C 183.D-502_TO_A500.507A_To_A500.1 C 50.8 GJ/h 0.619A 117.0 GJ/h 77.8 C 113. 3.7 C 85.6 C 34.419B 95.0 C 79.612 138.644A 0.329A 85.622A 90.DTS-201 101.6 GJ/h 19.5 C 60.DTS-201 114.4 C 35.1 GJ/h 0.0 C 34.0 C 82.1 GJ/h 0.8 C 62.419_To_A400.9 C A300.1 C HP Steam 183.E-302_heat 57.3 C 0.501_To_A500.0 C 32.

Biodiesel Air 333 LP Steam 325 321 Hexane to 329 A200 332 COND-304 318 COND-306 H-304 331 314 F-303 ABSORBER Biodiesel from A600 313 F-302 COND-302 327 H-303 311 P-302 F-301 315 319 STRIPPER 310 326 COND-303 F-304 H-302 330 Vents from A200 316 320 S36 312 COND-305 DEC-301 P-301 302 COND-301 304 324 H-305A 301 MISCELLA 303 322 308 To A400 300 305 E-301 DT vapor from H-301 E-302 Wastewater A200 D-301 P-303 H-301A 307 MP Steam 309 Soy oil Fig. Process flow diagram of A300 redesigned. . S12.

Process flow diagram of A400 redesigned. . 416 DRY-401 417 Lecithin 414 420 424 F-401 429 R-401 403 TK-401 BLEACH 432 406 425 430 Citric acid H-402 H-403 419 427 SSOD R-402 H-401 H-408 H-409 H-410 H-405 415 422 Water from A300 H-404 CENT-401 408 431 402 S37 D-401 H3PO4 FILTRATE P-402 404 NaOH 401 433 Soy oil P-401 Refined 409 soy oil Celite 410 412 423 Trysil Filtration 411 cake Bleaching earth 413 MP Steam Fig. S13.

01840 0.99320 1.51 0.41740 0.24 -4.94820 0.98 p 0.62 2.57190 0.53 -48.00000 CUT NPV -3.00000 p is the cumulative probability.99900 0.98 p 0.26120 0.06940 0.69880 0.07390 0.49780 0.88440 0.51 p 0.19 3.05260 0.26 2.08 0.36 -36.38 -1.67770 0.41980 0.03230 0.57 -0.21 1.31180 0.36 -3.39110 0.34 35.28 1.38 26.85 20.07 0.59 -4.18250 0.90770 0.34 p 0.60 -0.05 2.44 2.42 17.01 0.81140 0.70 p 0.55 8.77670 0.67 2.89260 0.61 -0.20 53.00000 0.00000 t NPV -1.70840 0.22 25.50 p 0. Monte Carlo simulation numerical results Table S28 Numerical results of Monte Carlo simulations for A600.00000 CRM NPV -59.22 38.89120 0.46 0.43 -34.92 1.00320 0.97690 1.48 0.99900 1.98720 1.43 0.00000 0.69 0.55 1.00000 0.18230 0.70 0.47 29.90600 0.82 3.06930 0.00000 FCIworking NPV -0.98 -34.58 0.00640 0.26610 0. S38 .81610 0.47 -9.53 -9.84510 0.22 -0.90 1.46 -4.09930 0.60 0.27 p 0.23 0.12 -0.00000 CUT NPV -10.97 -30.78 -0.23 0.18130 0.99 -34.31 -2.62 17.27 -0. Bins 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 All NPV -76.01 0.23630 0.28 -19.60130 0.00000 0.00000 0.95 -0.78 -39.95610 0.38 -25.06430 0.69330 0.92 -0.98130 1.64 -1.75 2.12 -1.15530 0.26970 0.59 -0.49880 0.15 p 0.00000 0.56190 0.21 p 0.18140 0.68340 0.01460 0.74 p 0.89820 0.98640 1.93380 0.56860 0.00000 Product NPV -45.74 -0.01 0.08500 0.02660 0.00000 0.61490 0.13 p 0.64 -0.07380 0.52 -1.97490 1.18 -8.67760 0.58 0.01 2.98270 1.44 0.31 -0.36780 0.44 8.42 0.08180 0.84 -0.67400 0.91270 0.60 2.66 19.69 -1.00000 AIR NPV -1.47 -0.97 p 0.98680 1.31940 0.00000 0.02210 0.39 -63.00 0.15380 0.02280 0.50 39.49 48.09 1.88 1.00000 0.26900 0.97860 1.87 0.67220 0.34250 0.49750 0.82260 0.70 -0.51 39.81060 0.78 0.31 62.21240 0.H.49 -2.60460 0. Bins 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 All NPV -78.02260 0.32200 0.61310 0.50020 0.98270 1.16 -2.95860 0.19970 0. Table S29 Numerical results of Monte Carlo simulations for A500–A600.86 -0.97580 1.43 -18.91 2.89 9.28 1.17 -0.81 1.01910 0.81660 0.91590 0.01690 0.18210 0.42 43.99750 0.08210 0.11710 0.34 -0.63 3.36 -1.19 1.31 44.44 p 0.30 0.14 4.19330 0.96990 1.19 -0.79750 0.02060 0.84 1.50610 0.06230 0.13 0.00000 FCIL NPV -2.44480 0.39 3.97590 0.92480 0.83 -49.69 -48.97720 1.19 0.17310 0.97 6.81 24.00000 0.59 29.69 -0.79 -6.24 -0.61 -20.82 34.01 0.79900 0.83 1.16 -0.00000 AIR NPV -1.08130 0.02120 0.90 1.16280 0.32500 0.91700 0.98970 0.26 0.76030 0.72 19.02240 0.32 0.97 p 0.85 1.00000 t NPV -1.40 -27.95 -3.04180 0.08 -62.02 p 0.12 0.76 -8.78440 0.00000 FCIL NPV -5.18 0.00000 0.78 -17.08300 0.97760 1.44 -0.00000 0.27 9.83860 0.00000 0.40300 0.92270 0.06330 0.51 -0.49350 0.98050 0.77200 0.02 8.80640 0.56550 0.88420 0.32170 0.03 -29.71880 0.55660 0.61 -6.60 p 0.94240 0.62 -1.94980 0.23020 0.90 68.20 -0.00000 FCIworking NPV -0.00000 Product NPV -42.55560 0.03 9.89980 0.00000 0.93 -0.41340 0.05 -20.12 -10.67 34.25 -48.29 6.06930 0.39110 0.00000 CRM NPV -58.97480 1.00000 0.54 -2.29770 0.29 -19.00000 p is the cumulative probability.00000 0.90 -39.15250 0.59 10.

98730 1.6 34.00000 Product NPV -141.6 84.4 -2.0 0.01920 0.8 1.4 -8.31970 0.91900 0.2 28.95080 0.90380 0.70010 0.6 -153.6 2.4 213.60580 0.8 p 0.2 0.8 0.9 113.25460 0.1 -61.1 141.28820 0.60250 0.A600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Project life (year) Fig.34490 0.81770 0.2 -5.2 8.95600 0.16730 0.00000 0.0 0.7 3.6 p 0.10 .8 -6.91150 0.82680 0.2 -4.6 8.6 -4. 0 .0 -103.00000 FCIworking NPV -1.0 2.7 123.2 -3.3 0.00000 0.7 2.7 -58.1 -34.9 -92.50 A600 .3 -13.2 -3.89870 0.2 p 0.2 93.00000 CRM NPV -184.9 p 0.1 42.88980 0.16010 0.18050 0.4 -149.8 -0.00000 0.5 31.07980 0.1 168.0 -8.23730 0.42150 0.68150 0.49610 0.3 -0.00000 0.65610 0.4 56.01800 0.9 -0.98670 1.8 p 0.4 17.00000 0.00000 0. Table S30 Numerical results of Monte Carlo simulations for A100–A600 integrated.43480 0.49840 0.4 -2.78120 0.27240 0.1 123.8 -194.31980 0.67820 0.5 -56.4 77.76670 0.6 9.06300 0.01900 0.00000 CUT NPV -43.5 -1.70030 0.6 3.81860 0.98570 1.3 -2.60 A500 .4 1.56780 0.5 3.00000 0. Bins 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 All NPV -239.4 6.58220 0.39850 0.00000 t NPV -4.97960 1.7 1.19910 0.41320 0.01960 0.17930 0.00000 0.49470 0.91750 0.97250 1.3 -1.A600 A100 .07260 0.30 .0 -112. S14.1 6.4 62.3 7.6 2.4 8.77880 0.7 p 0.7 -84.0 32.20 Project value ($M) .3 -28.08700 0.00000 p is the cumulative probability.4 0.4 4. S39 .00000 AIR NPV -6.97570 1.01830 0.96010 0.15490 0.3 p 0.0 25.7 -0.2 4. Discounted after-tax cash flows of A600.8 0.9 5.00000 FCIL NPV -13. A500–A600 and A100–A600 integrated during project-life period.0 -17.07710 0.04370 0.07840 0.5 -26.80610 0.77860 0.49890 0.97490 1.27160 0.8 -122.08530 0.90150 0.07210 0.97800 1.8 p 0.02050 0.2 -11.40 .2 -30.

08 −78.00 M $23.5 M $39. S40 .Table S31 Expected variation range of key economic parameters.80 Maximum value 62.77 < − 28.63 75 % <14.47 < − 87.39 −239.8 M $12.68 Minimum value −76.80 Integral indicators Value R0 NPVmin CPV(δ)dδ 14 16 48 R NPVmax 0 CPV(δ)dδ 54 60 185 R NPVmax NPVmin CPV(δ)dδ 68 75 234 a Integrated.94 <48. A600 A500–A600 A100–A600a Quartiles NPV/($ M) 25 % < − 24.81 < − 4.09 50 % < − 6. and respective base values for the processes A600.15 M $6.91 < − 12.31 <13.60 213.13 68.47 M $15.9 M a Integrated.6 M t −20 % 20 % 42 % AIR −10 % 20 % 10 % CRM −10 % 15 % $109 M $110 M $342 M CUT −50 % 50 % $2. Table S32 NPV distribution for A600.0 M Products price −10 % 10 % $147 M $157 M $488 M FCIworking −50 % 10 % $11. A500–A600 and A100–A600 integrated. A500–A600 and A100–A600. Base value Economic parameters Lower Limit Upper Limit A600 A500–A600 A100–A600a FCIL −20 % 30 % $7.8 M $38.

1 56.8 23. A600 A500–A600 A100–A600a CRM /COMd (%) 93.9 CUT /COMd (%) 1.7 863 31.3 54.84 1.8 Biodiesel price ($/t) Chance of profitability (%) 798 8.7 79.21 0.85 4.18FCIL /COMd (%) 0.7 43.86 6.48 10.8 49.4 42.5 89. A500–A600 and A100–A600 (integrated). At BBEP.3 a b Integrated.Table S33 Costs structure and profitability chances of biodiesel production from A600. S41 .94 1.48 Rvn biodieselb/Rvn (%) 86.5 875 41.5 88.

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