# By

R.Jeyanthi

 Pushover is a static-nonlinear analysis method where a structure is
 Lateral load may represent the range of base shear induced by
 Output generates a static-pushover curve which plots a strength-
based parameter against deflection.
 For example, performance may relate the strength level achieved in
certain members against displacement at the top of the structure
 Results provide information about ductile capacity of the
structural system and indicate the mechanism, load level and
deflection at which failure occurs

 Purpose How will a structure perform when subjected to given level of earthquake  Types of performance check: ◦ Linear static analysis ◦ Linear dynamic analysis ◦ Non Linear static analysis (Push over analysis) ◦ Non Linear dynamic analysis .

 Further.  The widespread damage especially to RC buildings during earthquakes exposed the construction practices being adopted around the world and generated a great demand for seismic evaluation and retrofitting of existing building stocks. The existing building can become seismically deficient since seismic design code requirements are constantly upgraded and advancement in engineering knowledge. . Indian buildings built over past two decades are seismically deficient because of lack of awareness regarding seismic behavior of structures.

 Better understand building behavior .Realistic prediction of element demands  Less conservative acceptance criteria can be used  Simple to perform .Identify weak elements .

Goal is to predict peak response of building and components for a given earthquake .

 Construct Pushover curve  Select earthquake level(s) to check  Select performance level(s) to check  Select acceptance criteria for each performance level  Verify acceptance ◦ Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40) ◦ Displacement Coefficient Method (FEMA 273) .

deformation properties  Define Loads ◦ Gravity ◦ Lateral load pattern  Select Control Displacements or Drifts  Perform Pushover Analysis . Define Structural Model ◦ Elements (components) ◦ Strength .

 Modeling the structure  Perform a series of linear analysis  Develop push over curve  Determine effective dynamic properties  Determine demand lateral displacement  Check adequacy of elements .

◦ Critical elements ◦ Probable yield failure modes ◦ Importance of torsional behavior and need for 3D modeling . Understand the structure before attempting a non linear analysis  Identify the following things.

33f’c . For best estimates design or specified strengths should be used in determining material capacities  use of artificially low nominal strengths will result in under estimates of strength demands on some elements  Expected Steel yield .1.25Fy  Expected concrete compressive strength 1.

 Select a loading pattern for the structure ◦ Loading pattern should produce a deflected shape in the structure similar to that it would undergo in earthquake response  Loading Pattern Alternatives ◦ Inverse triangular ◦ Rectangular ◦ First mode ◦ Modal dynamic ◦ Modal dynamic variant ◦ Multi-mode  FEMA 356 requires use of at least: ◦ Inverse triangular or first mode ◦ Rectangular  FEMA 440 found that there is not substantial difference in the accuracy produced by the various load patterns .

perform elastic modal analysis to determine fundamental period of structure. Develop Pushover Curve  Determine Effective Dynamic Properties ◦ Initially. T ◦ Determine initial stiffness. ke at 60% of yield force from pushover curve . ki from pushover curve as V1/Δ1 ◦ Determine effective stiffness.

detailed in FEMA-273 ATC 40 and FEMA 273 (FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY are the documents containing ◦ Modeling procedures ◦ Acceptance criterias ◦ Analysis procedure for pushover analysis .detailed in ATC-40 ◦ Displacement Coefficient Method . Determine Demand Lateral Displacement ◦ Capacity Spectrum Method .

Construct Capacity Spectrum Determine Demand Spectrum Determine Performance Point Verify Acceptance .

Ke o Estimate post yield stiffness. Ks o Estimate effective fundamental period. Estimate Target Displacement o Estimate effective elastic stiffness. Te o Calculate target roof displacement as   C0 C1 C2 C3 S a Te2 /( 4 2 ) C0 Relates spectral to roof displacement C1 Modifier for inelastic displacement C2 Modifier for hysteresis loop shape C3 Modifier for second order effects .

which leads to the identification of ◦ weak links ◦ Failure modes of the structure  ATC 40 and FEMA 273 are the documents containing ◦ Modeling procedures ◦ Acceptance criterias ◦ Analysis procedure for pushover analysis . Magnitude of the structural loading is incrementally increased.

Life Safety and Collapse Prevention respectively. C.)  The values assigned to each of these points vary depending on the type of member as well as many other parameters defined in the ATC- 40 and FEMA-273 documents. B. . D. LS and CP stand for Immediate Occupancy. (IO. LS and CP are used to define the acceptance criteria for the hinge.  Five points labeled A. and E are used to define the force deflection behavior of the hinge  Three points labeled IO. These documents define force deformation criteria for hinges used in pushover analysis.

but user-defined properties are recommended for final analyses. These built in properties can be useful for preliminary analyses. This example uses default properties . Create the basic computer model (without the pushover data)  Define properties and acceptance criteria for the pushover hinges  The program includes several built-in default hinge properties that are based on average values from ATC-40 for concrete members and average values from FEMA-273 for steel members.

ie. ie. dynamic analysis. or they can be displacement controlled. Locate the pushover hinges on the model by selecting one or more frame members  Define the pushover load cases o Gravity load case and lateral load case . Then run the static nonlinear pushover analysis . o Pushover load cases can be force controlled.  Run the basic static analysis and. pushed to a specified displacement. if desired. pushed to a certain defined force level.

the number of hinges in each state as defined in Figure 1 can be viewed  Display the capacity spectrum curve. The performance point for a given set of values is defined by the intersection of the capacity curve (green) and the single demand spectrum curve (yellow). Display the pushover curve.  Review the pushover displaced shape and sequence of hinge formation on a step-by-step basis .